1 We are all servants here! Mimar Sinan architect of the Ottoman Empire Péter Rabb PhD architect, senior lecturer BUTE Department of History of Architecture and of Monuments keywords: Mimar Sinan, Ottoman Empire, Ottoman art, Ottoman architecture, Istanbul, Edirne, Bursa, Iznik The statement quoted in the title was made by Pasha Rüstem sometime in the mid 1550 s but essentially similar statements could be borrowed from almost all Ottoman overlords. 1 The affairs of the Ottoman Empire were managed by men in slavish subjection, most of whom had once followed Christian faith but were forced to become Muslims from the second half of the 15 th century. Beside pashas, viziers and grand viziers, who had positions on different levels of the government and military leadership, there were fellow sufferers in other areas of the life of the empire. In fact, even the most famous of them served his monarch in one of the latter 'side areas', however, in such a way that both his name and his oeuvre survived up to this day: Mimar (ie. architect) Sinan, chief architect of the Ottoman Empire. Mimar Sinan was born around , in Ağırnas near Kayseri. 2 His origin is uncertain. The Armenian origin can be considered the most probable (most accepted) but Albanian, Serbian, Anatolian Greek, Jewish and even Austrian parentage of his family or at least her mother has also been suggested. 3 It is assumed that Christian Armenian among others prisoners were taken to the newly annexed territory of Karaman after 1487, when at the expense of centuries of hard fights Sultan Bayezid II finally managed to force this small state, which had been enclosed in the body of the Empire independently till that time, under his rule. 4 Generally, resettlements were associated with forced marriages. It can be assumed that Sinan's parents established a family like that; so the question of his origin is just further complicated. 5 In 1512, Sinan came to Istanbul through the practice of child tax (devşirme) imposed on the 1 Pasha Rüstem ( ) confessed this to his Grand Vizier brother's, Pasha Sinan's doctor, who left this behind in his memoir. Villalón, 1984 p Pasha(Pargali) Ibrahim ( ) Grand Vizier shared similar statements with Hieronymus Łaski who negotiated with the Porta on behalf of John Zápolya in Kőszeghy, 1996 pp. 114, Sinan's date of birth is uncertain, beside the year of 1489, the year of 1490, 1494 or even 1499 has already incurred as birth date. 1489: Saoud, 2007 pp. 2-3; 1489/90: Akgündüz, 2011 p. 195; 1490: Encyclopaedia Britannica online: Mimar Sinan 1499: Günay, 2006 p The issue of Sinan's origin is summarized by: Akgündüz, 2011 p. 196; Goodwin, 1992 p. 197; Saoud, 2007 p It shows the status and the weight of role of Karaman region well that after losing the Battle of Nicopolis, the area became major eastern partner of Europe, particularly Hungary in the fight against the Turks. Sigismund of Luxembourg, John Hunyadi and King Matthias sent several legations here in order to start a two-front war against the Ottomans. Tardy, 1983 pp The settlement layout is attributed to the younger Çandarlı Ibrahim Pasha Grand Vizier ( 1499) by some sources: Goodwin, 1992 p Also later a significant Christian population lived in the area of Karaman. Tardy, 1977 p. 302; Villalón, 1984 p Georgius of Hungary reported on the practice of settlements and forced marriages as an eye wittness: Fügedi, 1976 pp ; and Bertalan Gyurgyevics: Fügedi, 1976 p. 158.
2 non-muslim population of the empire. 6 The majority of young people gathered was placed in military service, thus augmenting the number of Janissaries (jeni çeri = new corps) or they were put on physical work or were assigned to assist different masters. At the same time, young people with outstanding abilities (acemi oğlan = alien boy) could hope for bright carrier by learning in the schools of the seraglio because the empire solved the personal recruits for government and military leaderships positions being solely dependent on the will of the Sultan in this way since the end of the 14th century. 7 Sinan was years old at that time. Thanks to his age, talent and good practice gained by working with his stonemason and carpenter father, Sinan got into the school operating in the palace of Pasha Pargali Ibrahim ( ) Grand Vizier ( ), 8 where he studied carpentry. Presumably, he took up Islam and was given the name, Sinan at that time. 9 His first works - boats and bridges - show that initially he worked in the army as an engineer. 10 He participated in several campaigns: in the Siege of Belgrade (1521) and Rhodes (1522) as well as in the conquest of Southern Mesopotamia (1535), Corfu and Moldavia ( ). As a member of the yard cavalry or as a Janissary aga according to other opinions he was there at the Battle of Mohács (1526) and the Siege of Vienna (1529) and later at the Siege of Esztergom (1543) too. 11 As a military engineer, he served in the Balkans for many years. These years spent in the army brought change in his career: his war-related buildings attracted the attention of Suleiman and his environment. The Drava Bridge in Osijek (1526), the ferry built on the water of Lake Van belonging to the operations area of the Persian campaign (1535), the success of a Danube Bridge (1537), and a bridge over River Prut (1538), as well as the support of Pasha Lüfti Grand Vizier ( ) helped him to get the chief architect authority of the Empire in His architectural career, which can be considered breathtaking both in terms of the number and the quality of the completed buildings, started at this time, at nearly fifty years of his age. The architect career of Sinan started under extremely favorable conditions since the Ottoman Empire was at the peak of its strength and power just at that time. The small area located near Söğüt in the north-west area of the Anatolian peninsula, in the corner of Rumi Seljuk Sultanate, had been occupied by 400 warriors (gazi) in the second half of the 13 th century and became a world-empire over two centuries. In 1326, they occupied Brussa (today Bursa), the former Byzantine resort at the crossroads of important trade routes and made it the first capital; and by the occupation of Gallipoli in 1354 they gained European properties as well. After the conquest of Thrace, in 1362 Adrianople (today: Edirne) became the new capital; and by the 6 Hegyi, 1986 p. 54. The practice of child tax developed at the end of the 14th century, during the reign of Sultan Murad I ( ), probably due to influences coming from Persia. Initially, it affected the local population, but later it was levied on non-muslim population (Muslims could not be enslaved): by chosing every fifth of boys between years of age in every 4-5 years. Lewis, 1981 p Under the reign of Sultan Bayezid II ( ), the newly settled area of Ağirnas was exempt from the child tax. However, this privilege ceased with the new sultan, Selim I coming to the throne. Saoud, 2007 p Among the 39 grand viziers governing in the period between only one was of Turkish origin, and we know it for sure that 15 of them got to the service of the Empire through child tax. On child tax see: Tardy, 1977 pp ; Fügedi, 1976 pp and p. 156; Goodwin, 1992 p. 198; Hegyi, pp. 49, 54-56; Lewis 1981 pp ; Villalón, 1984 pp Also Ibrahim Pasha, who had Greek origins, got to the service of the Empire through child tax. 9 According to some assumptions his original name was Joseph (Yusuf?). Goodwin, 1992 p On the studies written by Sinan: Saoud, 2007 p Goodwin, 1992 p. 199; Kuban, 2007 p. 256; Saoud, 2007 p. 5. On janissary aga status: Molnár, 1972 p Fehérvári, 1987 p. 239; Goodwin, 1992p. 200.
3 end of the century the total area of the Balkan Peninsula (hereinafter referred to as Rumelia) was dominated by the Ottomans to the line of the Danube and Drava. In 1453, they occupied Constantinople living under Ottoman pressure for decades with possession of which they considered themselves the formal successors of the Byzantine Empire, and after some decades they completed their Anatolian hegemony too by conquering the Karaman region. Syria, the land of Egypt and the west coast of the Arabian Peninsula with the holy cities, Mecca and Medina were annexed to the Empire during the short reign of Selim I ( ). His successor, Suleiman completed the Ottoman Empire with his North African, Persian and Hungarian conquests. The dilapidated or non-existent infrastructure of the territories conquered by the large empire, the complete absence of buildings necessary for everyday Muslim life provided plenty of architectural works. But Istanbul itself also presented a lot of opportunities, because much of the historic city core especially the surrounding of the former imperial palace was in ruins since the destruction of the Fourth Crusade in Thanks to the large number of tasks and to Sinan's talent, position and relations deriving from it several works of his were implemented empire-wide from Esztergom to Jerusalem, Baghdad or Bosnia. Among them except for his engineering works mosques are the outstanding designs both in their number and quality. By the start of Sinan's career, the typical spatial form of Ottoman mosques had already developed. 13 Contrary to the columnar mosques of the first Islamic empires (such as the Ummayads) or to the Persian Islamic mosques with eyvan, Ottoman architecture under Byzantine influence preferred the domed mosques. The first remained Ottoman domed mosques were either covered with one single dome and had square or rectangular layout14, or they were multiple domed buildings with a floor plan called inverted 'T' by art historians. 15 Among these, the most significant ones can be found in Bursa 16, therefore this type is often called Bursa mosque. Originally here the place of prayer was the same square-shaped space covered with a single dome in front of the mihrab, the other domed spaces in front of or next to it played originally a different role in public life (administration, court, etc.). The first mosque having actually more than one domes is also located in Bursa (Ulu Cami, around 1396?), and was built by Bayezid I true to his oath taken in Nicopolis. The construction of the space covered with twenty domes today only a copy of which is visible could clearly be the result of the influence of Byzantine architecture, 17 similarly to the old grand mosque of Edirne with nine domes (Eski Cami, around 1402), which was built by Suleiman, one of Bayezid I's sons. 18 The crucial change appeared in Üç Serefeli mosque built by Murad II (Edirne, ). This was the first example of building an arcaded forecourt topped with a row of domes (avlu), four 13 Mosque (Grand Mosque, Friday Mosque) is a Muslim place of prayer proper to perform Friday worships too. One of its important components is the pulpit (minbar, minber), from where the Friday sermon (khutba) was held. The Hungarian name for it is derived from the Turkish word Cami. 14 Haci Özbek Mosque (Iznik, 1333), Alaeddin Mosque (Bursa, 1334), Green Mosque (Yesil Cami, Iznik, ). Fehérvári, 1987 p. 233; Goodwin, 1992 pp ; Yerasimos, 2000 p Jakub Celebi Mosque (Iznik, 1380) and Nilüfer Hatun Mosque (iznik, 1388). According to the assumptions, the space form of mosques with inverted 'T' floor plan shows similarities with the early Ottoman Dervish monasteries called závije. Fehérvári, 1987 p. 234; Gerő, 1980 p. 41; Goodwin, 1992 pp ; Kuban, 2007 p Orhán Mosque (Bursa, ), Bayezid I Mosque (Yeşil Cami, Bursa, ) The great Seljuk mosque in Divriği (Ulu Cami, 1296) could be constructed in the same spirit. Here the space of prayer is roofed by domes and arches with a design rising towards the center space, as well as in Bursa. Kőszeghy, 1996 p. 235.
4 minarets, and an enormous center dome of 24 m diameters above the closed chapel, leaning on a specially designed hexagonal-shaped support. 19 From that time, this dominant center dome has certainly become the main motif of the representative mosques by the pattern of Hagia Sophia. The Islamic world especially the Umayyad Caliphate respected the power and wealth of Byzantium, and Constantinople was regarded as the premier center of arts and culture. This affection was especially true for the Ottomans. Their state was formed in the immediate vicinity and under the spell of Byzantium, and when it reached its full extent incorporating almost the entire territory of the Justinianos Empire, they were entitled to feel themselves be the heirs of Byzantium. Byzantine architecture had influence on the development of Ottoman architecture from the beginning. It can be particularly true in the case of Hagia Sophia (and its dome) which building had special reverence due to its size, architectural design and symbolic power. 20 The rapturous enthusiasm of Mehmed II, which he expressed when going around the mosque, is a testimony of this: If you long for Paradise, oh, Sufi, you find Heaven in Hagia Sophia. [ ] What a dome, that vies in rank with the nine spheres of heaven! In this work a perfect master displayed the whole of the architectural science. With the semi domes leaning to each other, with the acute and obtuse angles, with the gorgeous vaults reminding us of the brow of fetching maidens, and with the perpendicular ornaments the master created such a great internal space that could accommodate fifty thousand people. [ ] [He] expressed the desire to visit Ayasofya, the heavenly miracle. This Ayasofya, unrivaled throughout the world, had, like the Empire fallen into ruin and decay and there was no architect who could place a stone upon in. A splendid dome had survived a dome created by the efforts of a learned and experienced master supported by arches and columns and embellished with the finest ornament. The visitors were amazed at the miracle of the building and its work of art. Int he ornately decorated central dome there is a picture of Adam which remains visible from whichever point one looks at it. Tursun Beg ( 1499) historian of Mehmed II, secretary of the divan 21 In many cases, mosques stood not alone, but in the middle of a building complex. This development can be explained by a specific Ottoman practice originated from Islamic tradition. The key to the survival of the empire was to ensure the monocracy of the monarch. Among others, preventing the development of individual property and power concentration was also a tool to achieve this aim. 22 The fifth of the conquered territories and captured goods according to Muslim tradition already were the entitled to the Sultan. On the remaining fields, similarly to the Byzantine institution of military lands, the monarch meted land donations (tímár, ziámet) in return for military service, however, these donations could be withdrawn at any time, 19 Fehérvári, 1987, p. 236; Kuban, 2007 pp ; Yerasimos, 2000 p Later also Sinan used this hexagonal shape in several places: Pasha Rüstem mosque, Pasha Sokullu Mehmed mosque. 20 This was the royal mosque of the all-time Sultan; when he stayed in Istanbul he was listening to the Friday worship there. Tardy, 1977 p Inalcık, 1993 p. 421; The text is published by: Kuban, 2007 pp ; Lewis, 1981 pp Monocracy was ensured by the child-tax based military and administrative structure operated by subjects solely dependent on the sultan, by the 'filtering' of the emperor's environment with the introduction of the practice of fratricides associated with taking the power, as well as by chosing the Sultan's concubines (mother of the potential future monarch) from Christian slaves. These tools were completed with the system mentioned above in order to prevent the development of increasing wealth.
5 and could not be inherited. 23 This way the private properties, which were acquired and enlarged during the crusades, could not develop to a large estate able to defy with the monarch. 24 Only 'asset-salvage' option offered: the establishment of a pious foundation (vaqf, vakf, vakuf). For Muslims the duty of alms-giving (zakát) as the Third Pillar of Islam was of a high importance. 25 The management of pious foundations helping travelers, pilgrims and needy landlesses, which were established for this purpose, remained by the founder, and in fact it was possible to be inherited. 26 Thus, with this solution it was possible to preserve the right of provision over substantial private properties in a way that the whole community could benefit from it. 27 These kinds of building complexes (külliye) were established across the Ottoman empire, in which the mosque (mescit) was surrounded by several other buildings: the founder's tomb (türbe), Koranic school (dârülkurrâ), elementary (mekteb) and post-secondary school (medrese), bath (hamam), public soup kitchen (imaret), pilgrim accommodation (tabhane), lodging house (kervansaray), possibly Dervish monastery (tekke) or hospital (dârüşşifa), not mentioning those lodging houses, bazaars, covered markets (bedesten), row of stores (arasta) and baths located somewhere else, which provided the revenue for the operation of the foundation according to the founder's provisions. 28 A pious foundation could be launched by individuals too but the largest and most magnificent ones were the foundations established by the Sultan. 29 The prolific fifty years of Sinan spent as an architect are known for us thanks to his friend and colleague Mustafa Sâi Çelebi who left behind the memoirs of old Sinan in three manuscripts. 30 This memoir credits Sinan with 343 buildings. 31 His main clients came from the top level of the government and from the environment of the Sultan reigning at the time Sinan served also for three of them: Suleiman II, Selim and Murad III. Suleiman himself and his family is represented on this list with 47 buildings among them 5 külliyes but this number increases to 71 if we also count the building activity of the Sultan's son-in-law Rüstem Pasha Grand Vizier and his brother Sinan Pasha. But certainly the most active builder was Grand Vizier Pasha Sokullu Mehmed, the son-in-law of Selim II, who commissioned Sinan with the design of 30 buildings on his own. 32 During the planning of the mosques, Sinan tested and applied almost every possible space forms. He designed mosques topped with plain slab as well as single domed ones or with series of domes, spaces with hexagonal or octagonal center dome as well as mosque with the spatial arrangement of Hagia Sophia. 33 Among his works the most important ones were the sultan- 23 Bertalan Gyurgyevics already reported on this in his work published in Published by: Fügedi, 1976 p Hegyi 1986 pp-5-8. and pp Simon, 2009 pp About the vaqfs: Jany Rogers, 1987 p Hattstein, 2005 p. 21; Bertalan Gyurgyevics reported on this as an eye-wittness: Fügedi, 1976 p Gladiss, 2005 p Reported on the constructions of the pashas' and sultans' foundation: Villalón, 1984 p The manuscripts (anonymous text, Architectural masterpieces and The Book of architecture) are preserved today in the Topkapı Museum. The English edition: Book of Buildings. (Memoirs of Sinan the Architect) Istanbul, Kocbank, Nowadays, the researches put the number of buildings well over The summary table of Sinan's constructions can be found in the appendix. 33 Many of Sinan's mosques are covered with plain slab, for example: Pasha Gazi Iskender Mosque (Istanbul, ); single-domed: Haseki Hürrem Mosque (Istanbul, ); row of domes: Piyale Pasha Mosque (Istanbul, ); central dome above a hexagonal layout: Sokullu Mehmed Pasha Mosque (Istanbul, 1571-
6 külliyes in particular their central objects, the mosques. He also tied his career to these buildings: he considered the completion of Prince's Mosque (Şehzade Camii, Istanbul, ) as the end of his apprentice, then came the mastery years with the Suleiman Mosque (Süleyman Camii, Istanbul, ) on the zenith, followed by the period of an experienced but aging master, the masterpiece of which time was Selimiye II Mosque (Selimiye Camii, Edirne, ). Even Sinan's sultan mosques in Istanbul could not evade themselves from the magnificent and inspirational impact of the dome of Hagia Sophia. However, this does not mean that they have been slavish copies of Hagia Sophia. 34 Though Sinan himself designed mosque that copied the spatial arrangement of Hagia Sophia, 35 it could not be adapted widespread, mainly due to the difference in the use of the two buildings types (church vs. Mosque). While Hagia Sophia is a longitudinal space-complex of central roofing structures arranged along the axis defined by the entrance gate and the apse, in case of mosques, where the transverse qibla wall dominates opposite the entrance, even a square floor plan can be considered a compromise solution. 36 Italian Renaissance architecture, especially the development of central church spaces, had much more influence on the spatial arrangement of sultan-mosques. Ottoman emperors most of all Mehmed II, Bayezid II and Suleiman paid curious attention to Europe, particularly to Italy. The trade relationships with Genoese and Venetian merchants, established at the time of the Byzantine Empire, were completed with cultural aspects at this time. In addition to delegations and merchants, series of poets and artists appeared in the court of the sultan, giving a proof of the vibrant intellectual life lived there. Mehmed hired Venetian painter in his court, 37 and Bayezid was waiting for a bridge construction engineer also from this country. 38 So it was not amazing at all that the Sublime Porte was well-informed about the application of central spaces gaining ground, especially about the design works of St. Peter's Cathedral in Rome. Its influence can be traced on several buildings of Sinan. The Prince's Mosque (Şehzade Camii, Istanbul, ) was built by Suleiman in memory of Mehmed, his son born by Hürrem, the second wife with notorious agility, who was raised to be a crown prince and who died in Also Ibrahim Peçevi, born in Pécs, has reported on the prince's funeral and the foundation of the külliye: The funeral service was held in the Bayezid mosque in presence of Suleiman. Previously, the Sultan's favorite son had planted a saplings on top of the ancient ruins. The Sultan ordered to bury him at this place, and to build a türbe over his tomb and a large 1572); central dome above an octogonal layout: Rüstem Pasha Mosque (Istanbul, ); Hagia Sophia type: Kiliç Ali Pasha Mosque (Istanbul, ) 34 Among the former sultans, presumably Mehmed II was the first who treated the building of Hagia Sophia (at least its dome) as a standard which he was longing to transcend. Rumours say that the architect, who was unable to perform this task Atik (ie. Old) Sinan, paid with his life for the failure. 35 Kiliç Ali Pasha Mosque (Isztambul, 1580), though the scale is completely different: the total floor area of the mosque is equal to the center dome of Hagia Sophia. Kuban, 2007 p The early (columned) mosques where builders sought to maximize the length of the qibla wall were built almost always with a chapel of transverse, rectangular layout: Grand Mosque of Damascus, Kairouan, Córdoba; Ibn Túlún Mosque, Cairo. Early Ottoman architecture follows a similar solution: Grand Mosque, Bursa; Old Grand Mosque, Edirne; Üç Şerefeli Mosque, Edirne. 37 Gentile Bellini ( ) was the son-in-law of Andrea Mantegna, he was in the service of the sultan since 1479 as the delegate of the Venetian Senate. 38 According to Vasari, Leonardo da Vinci prepared the plans of the bridge over the Golden Horn Bay between to this request. His volunteer letter is preserved in the Topkapı Museum, and his drawing in the Institut de France.
7 mosque next to it. 39 Plan of the Prince Külliye evha017_istanbul_sehzade_camii_vaziyet_plani.html The building complex stands on the land between the above mentioned külliye of Bayezid II and Mehmed II, in the corner of the Old Palace, by the road leading to Edirne. The mosque and its forecourt is surrounded by a garden of irregular shape, encircled with walls. Here stands the tomb of the prince (türbe), and the other buildings of the külliye attached to the outer side of the fence: Madrasah (medrese), public soup kitchen (imaret) and pilgrim accommodation (tabhane), pilgrim lodging (kervansaray), Koranic school (dârülkurra). The overall shapes of the layout of the mosque and of the forecourt are two squares with the same dimensions. A central space makes the interior of the mosque, its nine-parted square floor plan is divided by the four pillars and the vaults leaning to them, supporting the center dome. The pendetive center dome of 19 m diameters is supported by quarter spheres along the legs of a Greek cross shape which can be drawn into the square layout, and the quarter spheres are completed with two small additional quarter-sphere domes. The position of the domes gives the feeling as if though in a smaller scale the row of domes of Hagia Sophia would have been built here both in longitudinal and in cross direction. Actually, it could not serve as a model for Sinan, one has to look for the inspiration in the Renaissance Italy. Namely, this scheme a space of square layout, covered with pendetive dome, expanded with apses that are roofed with quarter domes was built as an independent building first in Todi, by the design of Donato Bramante Fehér, 1990 p Santa Maria della Consolazione (Todi, 1508-). The relationship between the two buildings is suggested in: Kuban, 2007 p. 271.
8 The interior of Prince Mosque (taken by the author) Due to its size and the builder's person, the Suleiman Mosque can be considered the most prestigious building complex of Sinan. This extentious building complex was erected at place of the former Old Palace (Eski Saray), on top of the third hill of the town, and it presented the completeness of the components of külliyes beside the mosque and the tombs: elementary school (mekteb), Koranic school (dârülhadi), tradition narrating school (hadith) and dormitory, 5 post-secondary schools (medrese), medical university (dârüttıb), hospital (dârüssifa), bath (hamam), public soup kitchen (imaret) and guesthouse (tabhane). It describes well the dimensions of the building complex that Hans Dernschwarm estimated it the same size as the city of Bratislava at that time. 41 The construction lasted for seven years. 42 According to the description of Evlia Çelebi, after three years of earthworks, the implementation of the wall foundations took the same time. This was followed by one year of a break, in which the rumors thought to see the decline of the empire's power. However, the work was stopped for technical reasons actually: the builders had to wait for the consolidation of the foundations and for the production of the necessary building materials. 43 The demanded quantity of stone was gained from the ruins of Emperor Diocletian's palace in Nicomedia (today: Izmit), and was transported to Istanbul on the so called stone-ships (on special galleys without sails). 44 The mosque itself has considerable dimensions: four Prince's Mosques could fit in it. Its spatial 41 Dernschwarm stayed in Istanbul between , joining the delegate of Antal Verancsics. His memoirs are published in: Tardy, 1977 p In 1555, Dernschwarm saw the building half-ready and according to his estimation three years of work was to be done at that time. Tardy, 1977 p Quotes Evlia: Lewis, 1981 pp ; 44 Pasha Sinan, brother of Pasha Rüstem was responsible for the transportation. He reported on the transportation and site works as an eye-wittness: Villalón, 1984 p. 113 and p. 285.
9 arrangement follows much more that of Hagia Sophia than does the layout of Prince's Mosque. Though the interior has a square layout (58 m), here certainly due to the huge size Sinan did not applied the row of domes with a Greek cross layout, which can be seen at the Prince's Mosque, but created a directed central space similar to that of Hagia Sophia. At the same time, lacking the gallery floor above the aisles, the inner space became clearer and more consistent than its role model. This effect is reinforced by the light streaming through the windows and the light interior paint on the walls. Plan of Suleiman külliye (Süleymaniye) des/levha031_suleymaniye_vaziyet_plani_zemin_katlari.html Sinan handed over the building to Suleiman: Oh, my Sultan, I have built this mosque for you, which will stand upon the earth till the day of the last judgment. 45 From the time of its completion, Suleiman Külliye especially the mosque has meant a lot more than a building itself, it represented the strength and power of the empire. Proof of this can be that on signed feast-days the model of the building was carried around. This happened for example in 1582, on occasion of the circumcision ceremony of Prince Mehmed, son of Sultan Murad III, as reported by not only the eye-witnesses but also the miniature of Nakkas Oman Published by: Lewis, 1981 p Nakkas Osman: Surnâme-i Hümayun (Book of Feasts, 1582). The description is published by: Lewis, 1981 pp ; According to the illustration of the miniature, the some meter high model presented not only the mosque but also the forecourt and the tombs: Yerasimos, 2000 p. 312.
10 The interior of Suleiman mosque (taken by the author) Miniature of the model of Suleiman mosque by Nakkas Osman (Yerasimos, o.) The third milestone in Sinan's life was the Külliye of Sultan Selim II. Suleiman' son with modest caliber posterity refers to him just with the name 'the Sot' (Mest) spent his time in the quieter Edirne instead of the vibrant capital, and he designated the location of his külliye also here. The construction took place between 1569 and 1576 (at that time Sinan was at the beginning of his eighties). The building complex, surrounded by walls, can be entered through a covered market (arasta) from direction of the town's old center (old Grand Mosque, covered bazaar). In addition to this and the mosque, the külliye contains an elementary school (mekteb) and two post-secondary schools (medrese). No tomb was placed here since the türbe of the sultan (also Sinan's work) was built in Istanbul, on the south side of Hagia Sophia.
11 The dimensions of the mosque are slightly smaller than that of Suleiman Mosque (45 x 36 m), and contrary to that mosque, this one was built with a traverse rectangular layout. However, the size of the dome surpassed all previous dimensions: its diameter is 31.5 m. Not only its size but also its position is remarkable. While in Hagia Sophia the center dome forms an integral unity with the attached quarter-spheres and vaults, in case of Selim Mosque this structure dominantly towers over the space. Sinan subordinated everything to this dome, as if the only sense of the building would manifest in this structure and in the space enclosed by the eight pillars supporting (lifting) the dome. He emphasized this aim by placing the gallery of the muezzins (mahfil) and the well under it (şadirvan) to the middle, on the axis of the dome, which is an unusual solution in Ottoman architecture. 47 Due to this central spatial arrangement and the dominance of the dome, researchers believe to find the influence of Italian Renaissance central spaces, especially that of St. Peter's cathedral in Suleiman Mosque. 48 Plan of the Selim II. mosque The interior of Selim II. mosque des/levha276.html Sinan was active in Hungary too, but as missing relevant resources, the number of his works in 47 Kuban, 2007 p Mahfil (singer gallery) is a special gallery built for the muezzins and for the Sultan. Kuban, 2007 p. 307.
12 the country cannot even be estimated. 49 The design of the Drava Bridge in Osijek can be associated to his name, as well as the reconstruction of the castle in Szeged. 50 Sinan also completed the conversion of St. Adalbert Basilica in Esztergom to a mosque in According to Evlia Çelebi evoking the memories of his father who was also involved in the construction works as a goldsmith, Suleiman watched the buildings on Castle Hill with admiration, especially a pink-domed church (this was probably Bakócz Chapel). And while the sultan led a battle around Fehérvár, Sinan was already carrying out the conversion work. 51 Also, he designed the Pasha Mustafa Mosque that once stood in Víziváros. Knowing his close relationship with the builder Sokullu family Sinan prepared the plans of 30 buildings just for Grand Vizier Sokullu Mehmed, the cousin of Mustafa, it is presumable that he designed some elements (a bath and a medrese) of the külliye in Víziváros too. But it is only suspected that Mustafa, having also the position of the Pasha of Buda, within his extentious constructing activity employed Sinan at other places too. 52 Mimar Sinan died in 1588, at the age of nearly hundred years, leaving an unprecedented body of work behind. In addition to his undoubted talent and adaptability, his success could be owed for the lucky interference of a variety of factors. His long life fifty years of which he spent as the chief architect coincided with the golden age of the empire. The conquered areas provided plenty of construction tasks, as well as the clients did, who were aspiring for architectural representation worthy of their rank among them the monarch and his wider environment. In addition, the empire not being without financial resources - was also able to realize these plans. The destruction of later centuries spared much of Sinan's oeuvre, in fact most of the buildings are still used for their original purpose. Also Sinan's own personality escaped the oblivion. First of all, not because his grave and his dictated biography survived though in Central Europe it would also constitute a special value, but because he became a symbol of the most glorious era of the Ottoman Empire by his works. The symbol of the Empire from a former deported Christian slave. References: 49 On the Ottoman architecture in Hungary including the works of Sinan see: Gerő, 1980; Molnár, 1976; further adaptation by Adrienn Papp and Balázs Sudár : 50 József Molnár attributes the assignment of Sinan as chief architect directly to the success of the bridge in Osijek. On both constructions: Molnár, 1972 pp ; Molnár p. 106.; Farbaky, 1998 p Evlia, 1985 p On the constructions of Pasha Mustafa: Gerő, 1980 pp
13 AGI: Akgüngüz-Öztürk, Blair-Bloom, Tardy, Architectural Guide to Istanbul. (ed.: Afife Batur) Istanbul, Chamber of Architects of Turkey Istanbul Metropolitan Branch, Ahmed Akgündüz Said Öztürk: Ottoman History, Misperceptions and Truths. Islamic University of Rotterdam, IUR Press, cover&hl=hu#v=onepage&q&f=false Sheila S. Blair Jonathan M. Bloom: The art and architecture of Islam Yale University Press Pelican History of Art, Dernschwarm János: Utazás Konstantinápolyba, [János Dernschwarm: Trip to Constantinople, ] In. Rabok, követek, kalmárok az Oszmán birodalomról. [In. Prisoners, delegates, merchants about the Ottoman Empire.] (ed.: Lajos Tardy) Budapest, Gondolat, pp Evlia, Evlia Cselebi török világutazó magyarországi utazása [Evlia Çelebi Turkish world traveler's trip to Hungary from 1660 to 1664.] (ed.: Pál Fodor) Budapest, Gondolat, Farbaky, Farbaky Péter: Török építészet Magyarországon. [Péter Farbaky: Turkish architecture in Hungary.] In. Wiebenson, Dora: The architecture of historic Hungary. MIT Press. p. 68. Fehér, Fehérvári, Fügedi, Gerő, Gladiss, Goodwin, 1992: Günay, 2006: Hattstein, Fehér Géza: Isztambul. [Géza Fehér: Istanbul] Budapest, Panoráma, Fehérvári Géza: Az iszlám művészet története. [Géza Fehérvári: The history of Islamic art.] Budapest, Képzőművészeti, Kimondhatatlan nyomorúság. Két emlékirat a századi oszmán fogságról. [Unspeakable misery. Two memoirs about the Ottoman captivity in the 15-16th century] (ed.: Erik Fügedi). Budapest, Európa, 1976 pp Gerő Győző: Az oszmán-török építészet Magyarországon. [Győző Gerő: The Ottoman-Turkish architecture in Hungary.] Művészettörténeti füzetek 12. Budapest, Akadémiai, Almut von Gladiss: Építészet [az Oszmán birodalomban]. [Architecture [in the Ottoman Empire] In. Iszlám művészet és építészet. [in. Islamic art and architecture.] Budapest, Vince, 2005 pp Godfrey Goodwin: A History of Ottoman Architecture. London, Thames and Hudson, Reha Günay: A Guide to the Works of Sinan the Architect in Istanbul. Istanbul, Yapı-Endüstri Merkezi Yayınları, Marcus Hattstein: Az iszlám világvallás és kulturális hatalom. In. Iszlám művészet és építészet. [Islam - world religion and cultural power. In. Islamic art and architecture.] Budapest, Vince, o.
14 Hegyi, Inalcık, Jani, Kuban, Kőszeghy, Lewis, Molnár, Molnár, Necipoğlu, 2005: Saoud, Simon, Tardy, 1983: Hegyi Klára Zimányi Vera: Az oszmán birodalom Európában. [Klára Hegyi Vera Zimányi: The Ottoman Empire in Europe.] Budapest, Corvina, Halil Inalcık: Tursun Beg, the Historian of Mehmed the Conqueror s time. In. The Middle East and the Balkans under the Ottoman Empire. Bloomington, Indiana University, o. Jany János: Klasszikus iszlám jog. [János Jani: The classical Islamic law.] Budapest, Gondolat, Doğan Kuban: Ottoman Architecture. Woodbridge, Antique Collectors Club, Hieronymus Łaski tárgyalása a töröknél János király nevében. In. Két tárgyalás Isztambulban. [Hieronymus Łaski's negotiation with the Turks on behalf of King John Zápolya. Two meetings in Istanbul.] (ed. Péter Kőszeghy) Régi Magyar Könyvtár, Források 5. Budapest, Balassi, Bernard Lewis: Isztambul és az oszmán civilizáció. [Bernard Lewis: Istanbul and the civilization of the Ottoman Empire] Budapest, Gondolat, Molnár József: Sinan magyarországi munkáinak nyomában. [József Molnár: In the wake of Sinan's works in Hungary] In. Műemlékvédelem pp Molnár József: A török világ emlékei Magyarországon. [József Molnár: The memories of the Ottoman world in Hungary.] Budapest, Corvina, Gülru Necipoğlu: The Age of Sinan. Architectural culture in the Ottoman empire. London, Reaktion Books, Dr. Rabah Saoud: Sinan, a Great Ottoman Architect and Urban Designer. Machester, FSTC, Ottoman_Architect.pdf Simon Róbert: Iszlám kulturális lexikon. [Róbert Simon: Islamic cultural lexicon] Budapest, Corvina, Tardi Lajos: Régi magyar követjárások keleten. [Lajos Tardi: Former Hungarian delegations in the East] Kőrösi Csoma kiskönyvtár 11. (ed.: Lajos Ligeti). Budapest, Akadémiai, Yerasimos, Stéphane Yerasimos: Constantinople. Istanbul s Historical Heritage. Villalón, Cristóbal de Villalón: Törökországi utazás. [A Trip to Turkey] Budapest, Európa, 1984.
15 WORKS OF MIMAR SINAN  1. Buildings by types: 1.0. Trust for charity / Küllije: 1. Edirne Sultan Selim (II) great mosque, 2 madrasas, covered market 2. Istanbul Eski (Atik) Vâlide Sultan great mosque, madrasa, dervish lodge, public kitchen, caravanserai, quran school, guest house, primary school, bath 3. Istanbul Gazi Iskender Paşa public kitchen, school ruined (Kanlıca) 4. Istanbul Haseki Hürrem Sultan extant 5. Istanbul Kara Ahmed Paşa : earthquake / 1969: rebuilt 6. Istanbul Kiliç Alí Paşa (Beyoğlu) great mosque, madrasa, mausoleum, bath 7. Istanbul Mihrimah Sultan great mosque, madrasa, (Edirnekapı, Fâtih) mausoleum, bath, caravanserai, bazaar 8. Istanbul Mihrimah Sultan great mosque, mausoleums, madrasa, school, caravanserai, extant 9. Istanbul Piyale Paşa great mosque, mausoleum, extant 10. Istanbul Rüstem Paşa (Eminönü) great mosque, bath, 3 bazaars extant, in use 11. Istanbul Sinan Paşa (Beşiktaş) great mosque, madrasa extant, bath ruined 12. Istanbul Şehzade Mehmed great mosque, mausoleums, school, madrasa, guest house, caravanserai, public kitchen 13. Istanbul Sokullu Mehmed Paşa (Eyüp) 14. Istanbul Sokullu Mehmed Paşa (Kadırga) 15. Istanbul Sultan Süleyman (Süleymaniye) mausoleum, madrasa, quran school, extant great mosque, madrasa, dervish lodge great mosque, mauloseums, school, quran school, 5 madrasas, medical university, hospital, guest house, public kitchen, bath, bazaar, extant 16. Istanbul Zal Mahmut Paşa (Eyüp) - great mosque, mausoleums, 2 madrasas 1.1. Great Mosque / Cami: 1. Aksaray Ostodayn Sah Vâlidesi Aleppo (Halep) Hüsrev Paşa extant / today: Syria 3. Aleppo (Halep) Adliye Camisi / today: Syria 53 AGI, 2006; Fehér, 1982.; Fehér, 1990.; Kuban, 2007.; Saoud, 2007.;
16 4. Ankara Cenâbî Ahmed Paşa extant 5. Babaeski Cedid Ali Paşa Bagdad Abdülkadir Geylani - ruined / today: Iraq (Bağdat) 7. Bagdad İtodaym-ı Azam (Ebu ruined / today: Iraq (Bağdat) Hanife) 8. Bagdad Murad Paşa ruined / today: Iraq (Bağdat) 9. Basra Todayktul Ayas Paşa ? ruined / today: Syria 10. Bolu Ferhad Paşa Bolu Mustafa Paşa Bolvadin Rüstem Paşa Buda Sokullu Mustafa Paşa - ruined 14. Büyükçekmece Sokullu Mehmed Paşa 1567 ruins 15. Çatalca Ferhad Paşa 1575 extant 16. Çorum Sultan Alâeddin Selçûkî - renovation 17. Datodayscus Sultan Süleyman extant (Şam) 18. Diyarbakır Behran Paşa extant 19. Diyarbakır Hadim Ali Paşa extant 20. Diyarbakır İskender Paşa 1551 extant 21. Diyarbakır Melek Ahmet Paşa extant 22. Edirne Taşlik Mahmut Paşa (1470) extant 23. Edirne Sultan Selim II extant 24. Edirne Defterdar Mustafa Paşa 1574 extant 25. Edirne Haseki Sultan 1550 extant 26. Edirne Sokullu Mehmed Paşa extant 27. Ereğli Semiz Ali Paşa rebuilt 28. Erzurum Lala Mustafa Paşa extant 29. Esztergom Sultan Süleyman / Szent 1543 ruined Adalbert 30. Gebze Çoban Mustafa Paşa - extant 31. Gözleve Tatar Han - - / today: Jevpatiroja, Ukraine (Kezlev) 32. Hatay Sokullu Mehmed Paşa extant 33. Havsa (Edirne) Sokullu Mehmet Paşa extant 34. Hersek Sofu Mehmed Paşa Isparta Firdevs Bey 1561 extant 36. Istanbul Ahî Çelebi 1539 extant, renovated 37. Istanbul Arakiyeci Ahmed Çelebi - ruined 38. Istanbul Bâli Paşa extant 39. Istanbul Çarvuşbaşi (Sütlüce) extant (Beyoğlu) 40. Istanbul Datodayt Ferhat Paşa - extant 41. Istanbul Defterdar Mahmud 1541 extant Çelebi 42. Istanbul Drağman Yunus Bey extant 43. Istanbul Düğmeci Paşa - - (Düğmeciler) 44. Istanbul Ebü l-fazl (Tophâne) : fire, 1993: rebuilt 45. Istanbul Eski (Atik) Vâlide Sultan extant 46. Istanbul Ferruh Kethüda : fire, renovated 47. Istanbul Gazi Ahmet Paşa 1558 extant (Topkapı) 48. Istanbul Gazi Iskender Paşa extant
17 (Kanlıca) 49. Istanbul Güzelce Kasim Paşa extant 50. Istanbul Haçi Evhad (Yedikule, : fire Fâtih) 51. Istanbul Hadım Ibrahim Paşa 1551 rebuilt (Silivrikapı) 52. Istanbul Hammâmî Hâtun (Sulu - ruins Manastır) 53. Istanbul Haseki Hürrem Sultan extant 54. Istanbul Hürrem Çavuş extant 55. Istanbul Hüsrev Çelebi (Ramazan 1585 extant Efendi) 56. Istanbul Kara Ahmed Paşa : earthquake / 1969: renovated 57. Istanbul Kazasker Abdurrahmân 1575 extant Çelebi 58. Istanbul Kazasker İvaz Efendi 1585 extant 59. Istanbul Iskender Paşa (Beyköz) extant 60. Istanbul Kiliç Alí Paşa (Beyoğlu) extant 61. Istanbul Mahmut Ağa (Kapiağasi) : fire / rebuilt Istanbul Mehmet Ağa extant 63. Istanbul Meşih Mehmed Paşa extant 64. Istanbul Mihrimah Sultan (Edirnekapı, Fâtih) , 1999: earthquake / rebuilt 65. Istanbul Mihrimah Sultan extant 66. Istanbul Molla Çelebi (Fındıklı) extant (Beyoğlu) 67. Istanbul Muhyiddin Çelebi (Tophâne) 68. Istanbul Nişanci Mehmet Paşa : rebuilt 69. Istanbul Nişancı Mustafa Paşa - extant (Eyüp) 70. Istanbul Odabaşı Behruz Ağa extant (Yenikapı) 71. Istanbul Piyale Paşa (Kasımpaşa) extant 72. Istanbul Ramazan Efendi : fire / 1819: renovated (Koçamustafapaşa) 73. Istanbul Rüstem Paşa (Eminönü) extant 74. Istanbul Şah Sultan (Eyüp) extant 75. Istanbul Şehzade (Mehmet) extant 76. Istanbul Şehzade Cihangir 1559 extant, rebuilt (Beyoğlu) 77. Istanbul Şemsi Ahmet Paşa 1580 extant 78. Istanbul Sinan Ağa Istanbul Sinan Paşa (Beşiktaş) : rebuilt 80. Istanbul Sokullu Mehmet Paşa extant (Azapkapi) 81. Istanbul Sokullu Mehmet Paşa (Kadirga) 82. Istanbul Sultan Bâyezîd Kızı - - (Yenibahçe) 83. Istanbul Sultan Süleyman extant (Süleymaniye) 84. Istanbul Süleyman Çelebi - -
18 (Üsküplü) 85. Istanbul Süleyman Subaşı (Eyüp) Istanbul Turşucuzade Hüseyin - rebuilt Çelebi 87. Istanbul Yunus Bey extant 88. Istanbul Zal Mahmut Paşa (Eyüp) 1577 extant 89. Izmit Abdülsselâm felújítás 90. Izmit Mehmed Bey - rebuilt 91. Izmit Petrev Paşa Iznik Ayasofya - adapted 93. Kanlica Gazi İskender Paşa Karapınar Sultan Selim 1563 extant 95. Kastamonu Abdurrahman Paşa 1582 extant 96. Kayseri Hacı Ahmed Paşa extant 97. Kayseri Osman Paşa Kerkük Sultan Süleyman - - / today: Iraq 99. Kezlev (Gözleve) Tatar Han 1552 rebuilt / today: Jevpatorija, Ukraine 100. Kütahya Lala Hüseyin Paşa 1566 extant 101. Kanlica Gazi İskender Paşa Kocaeli Petrev Paşa extant 103. Konya Lala Mustafa Paşa extant 104. Konya Sultan Selim (II.) extant 105. Lüleburgaz Sokullu Mehmet Paşa extant 106. Todaynisa Sultan Murad Todayrtodayra Semiz Alí Paşa Ereğlisi 108. Mostar Karagöz Mehmet Paşa extant (Bey) 109. Rodoscuk Rüstem Paşa Satodaynlı Rüstem Paşa Sapanca Rüstem Paşa Szófia (Sofya) Kara Camii / Bosnali Haci Mehmed Paşa 1528(?) rebuilt / today: Sveti Sedmochislenitsi Church (1908) 113. Tekirdağ Rüstem Paşa extant 114. Tekirdağ Semiz Ali Paşa rebuilt 115. Trikala (Tırhala) Rüstem Kethudâsı - - / today: Greece Mehmet Bey 116. Trikala (Tırhala) Vezir Osman Paşa (Kurşunlu) 117. Ulaşlı Memi Kethudâ Van Köse Hüsrev Paşa : fire / rebuilt (Hüsreviye) - extant / today: Evlahos Khoursoum mosque, Greece 1.2. Mosque / Mescid: 1. Istanbul Arpacıbaşı (Eyüp) - rebuilt? 2. Istanbul Çivizadekızı (Çavuş) - extant 3. Istanbul Davutağa (Eyüp) rebuilt 4. Istanbul Defterdar Mahmut Çelebi 1541 extant (Eyüp) 5. Istanbul Duhanizade Istanbul Hacı Hamza 1577? - 7. Istanbul Hadim Ibrahim Paşa 1560 k. 1894: earthquake, ruins (Esekapı) 8. Istanbul Hasan Çelebi (Beyoğlu) Istanbul Karagümrük Emir Ali - extant
19 Çelebi 10. Istanbul Kaysunizade (Beyoğlu) - rebuilt 11. Istanbul Kiremitçi Ahmet Çelebi rebuilt (Beyoğlu) 12. Istanbul MemiKethüdâ (Beyoğlu) Istanbul Mimarbaşı ( Mimar Sinan) : fire, 1938 and 1962: rebuilt 14. Istanbul Sokullu Mehmet Paşa - ruins (Büyükçekmeçe) 15. Istanbul Süleyman Subaşı (Eyüp) - rebuilt 16. Istanbul Üçbaş (Nurettin Hamza) rebuilt? 17. Istanbul Yahya Kethüdâ - rebuilt? 18. Mekka (Mekke) Mescid-i Haram Onarımı - - / today: Saudi Arabia 1.3. Public kitchen / Itodayret: 1. Datodayscus Sultan Süleyman - ruined (Şam) 2. Gebze Çoban Mustafa Paşa - extant 3. Hatay Sokullu Mehmet Paşa ruins 4. Istanbul Eski (Atik) Vâlide Sultan extant 5. Istanbul Haseki Hürrem Sultan extant 6. Istanbul Şehzade Mehmet extant 7. Istanbul Sultan Süleyman extant 8. Konya Sultan Selim (II) ruins 9. Kudüs Cami-i Şerif (Haseki) Kudüs Haseki Todaynisa Sultan Murat (Muradiye) Sakarya Sapanca Rüstem Paşa Kórház / Dârüşşifa: 1. Istanbul Haseki Hürrem Sultan extant 2. Istanbul Sultan Süleyman extant (Süleymaniye) 3. Istanbul Valide Sultan 1583 extant 1.5. Dervish lodge / Tekke (Zaviye): 1. Bagdad Abdülkadir Geylani - ruined / today: Iraq (Bağdat) Tekkesi 2. Bagdad İmam-ı Azam (Ebu Hanife) ruined / today: Iraq (Bağdat) Tekkesi 3. Istanbul Eski Valide Sultan Tekkesi Istanbul Piyale Paşa ruined 5. Istanbul Ramazan Efendi : fire / 1819: renovated (Koçamustafa paşa) 6. Istanbul Sokollu Mehmet Paşa extant Tekkesi 7. Lüleburgaz Sokullu Mehmet Paşa extant 1.6. Quran school / Dârülkurrâ: 1. Edirne Sultan Selim II extant 2. Istanbul Eski (Atik) Valide Sultan extant 3. Istanbul Hüsrev Kethüdâ - extant 4. Istanbul Sokullu Mehmet Paşa 1579 extant
20 (Eyüp) 5. Istanbul Sultan Süleyman extant 6. Istanbul Kâdızâde Efendi - extant 7. Küçük Karatodayn Müftü Sa di Çelebi School for traditions of islam / Dârülhadi: 1. Edirne Sultan Selim II extant 1.8. Pritodayry scool for orphans and poor children / Sibyan mektebi: 1. Istanbul Eski (Atik) Vâlide Sultan extant 2. Istanbul Haseki Hürrem Sultan extant 3. Istanbul Kara Ahmed Paşa : earthquake / 1969: rebuilt 4. Istanbul Mihrimah Sultan extant 5. Istanbul Piyale Paşa ruined 1.9. Elementary school / Mekteb: 1. Istanbul Eski (Atik) Vâlide Sultan extant 2. Istanbul Haseki Hürrem Sultan extant 3. Istanbul Şehzade Mehmet extant 4. Istanbul Sultan Süleyman (Süleymaniye) extant Todaydrasa (School for islamic theology and law) / Medrese: 1. Aleppo (Halep) Hüsrev Paşa (Hüsreviye) rebuilt? 2. Datodayscus Sultan Süleyman - extant (Şam) (Süleymaniye) 3. Diyarbakır Hadım Ali Paşa extant 4. Gebze Çoban Mustafa Paşa ? - 5. Istanbul Cafer Ağa (Sultanahmet) 1559 ruins 6. Istanbul Eski Vâlide Sultan abandoned 7. Istanbul Cedid Ali (Karagümrük) : helyreállítva / today: clinic 8. Istanbul Hadim Ibrahim Paşa 1560 k. 1894: earthquake, ruins (Esekapı) 55. Istanbul Haseki Hürrem Sultan extant Istanbul Kapıağası Cafer Ağa extant (Soğukkuyu) 59. Istanbul Kara Ahmed Paşa : earthquake / 1969: rebuilt 10. Istanbul Mahmud Ağa (Ahırkapı) : fire / rebuilt 11. Istanbul Kiliç Alí Paşa (Beyoğlu) extant 12. Istanbul Mihrimah Sultan (Fâtih, 1569 extant Edirnekapı) 13. Istanbul Mihrimah Sultan extant 14. Istanbul Nişanci Mehmet Bey ruins 15. Istanbul Rüstem Paşa extant 16. Istanbul Şehzade Mehmet extant 17. Istanbul Semiz Ali Paşa extant 18. Istanbul Şemsi Ahmet Paşa 1580 extant
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a lot of lots of a great deal of plenty of çok, bir çok many much çok, bir çok a little little az, biraz a few few az, birkaç 1. A lot of; lots of; plenty of a lot of ( en yaygın olanıdır ), lots of, plenty
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