PHASE-OUT OF METHYL BROMIDE FOR SOIL FUMIGATION IN PROTECTED HORTICULTURE AND CUT-FLOWER PRODUCTION IN TURKEY

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1 PHASE-OUT OF METHYL BROMIDE FOR SOIL FUMIGATION IN PROTECTED HORTICULTURE AND CUT-FLOWER PRODUCTION IN TURKEY REPUBLIC OF TURKEY Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs Batı Akdeniz Agricultural Research Institute (BATEM) and United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) UNIDO Project No.: MP/TUR/01/214 and MP/TUR/03/108 FINAL REPORT, September 2005

2 ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS... 3 INTRODUCTION AND REQUEST FOR DISBURSEMENT OF THE LAST TRANCHE:.. 4 PRESENTATION... 6 PROGRESS REPORT ABSTRACT... 5 st th PROJECT IMPLEMENTATION (October September ) DATA COLLECTION MEETINGS AND TRAINING TRAINING TRAINING/VISITS ABROAD MEDIA ACTIVITIES PUBLICATIONS CONCLUSION LIST OF TABLES LIST OF FIGURES: APPENDIX:

3 ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS MeBr Methyl Bromide 1.3D 1,3 Dichloropropen Pic IPM ODP ODS MoA MoE CGRI BATEM MBTOC MLF UNIDO APD GDoPC Chloropicrin Integrated Pest Management. Ozone Depleting Potential Ozone Depleting Substance Ministry of Agriculture Ministry of Environment Citrus and Greenhouse Research Institute Batı Akdeniz Agricultural Research Institute Methyl Bromide Technical Option Committee Multilateral Fund for the Implementation of the Montreal Protocol United Nations Industrial Development Organization Agricultural Provincial Directorate General Directorate Office of Protection and Control 3

4 INTRODUCTION AND REQUEST FOR DISBURSEMENT OF THE LAST TRANCHE: The Executive Committee of the MLF, at its 35 th Meeting (2001), approved US $ 3,408,844 as the total fund that will be available to Turkey to achieve a complete phase-out of methyl bromide used for protected tomato, cucumber and carnation crops. The original disbursement plan was as follows: 1) In 2001, project approval: US $ 1,000,000; 2) In 2002, US $ 1,000,000; 3) In 2003, US $ 700,000; 4) In 2004, US $ 708,844; Due to the delay in the project implementation, following the initial disbursement of US $ 1,000,000 in 2001, the next tranche was only disbursed in 2003, at the 41 st ExCom. Meeting, and no further tranches were disbursed. Now, thanks to a renewed determination to put the project into operation, and a changed, and now supportive, attitude to methyl bromide users, in the last 9 months, UNIDO and BATEM have been able to implement a programme for the total value of US $ 950,000. The work plan, agreed in November 2004, and the detailed description of the activities implemented are in the present report. Currently, September 2005, UNIDO has entirely disbursed the first tranche of US $ 1,000,000 and US $ 750,000 are still available from the second tranche of US $ 1,000,000. To enable UNIDO and BATEM to go ahead with the implementation of the very demanding 2006 work plan, which will lead the Government of Turkey to comply with the complete phase-out of methyl bromide used for protected tomato, cucumber and carnation crops by 31 st December 2006, we are requesting the disbursement of the third and forth tranche of the approved project, for the total amount of US $ 1,408,844. See 6 and 7 for the work plan 2006 and the provisional budget Oct 2005/Dec

5 1. PROGRESS REPORT ABSTRACT In Turkey, methyl bromide will be phased out, in all sectors, by the end of To achieve this goal, the Government of Turkey established a methyl bromide reduction calendar. An investment project, implemented through UNIDO, called Phase-Out of Methyl Bromide for Soil Fumigation in Protected Horticulture and Cut-flower Production in Turkey was approved in 2001, but has been enforced only starting from the beginning of 2003 and finally received considerable strength in the and of 2004 and so in The aim of this project is to phase out ODP tonnes (at the beginning projected, 2002) of methyl bromide used in protected horticulture and cut-flower production, introducing suitable alternative methods and minimizing economic losses due to the ban on methyl bromide. Turkey strictly complies with the methyl bromide phase-out programme established for the Phase II of this project and will achieve further reductions as indicated in the 2005 schedule. Turkey will fulfil all the obligations until project completion. In 2004, the General Directory of Protection and Control (GDoPC) permitted ODP tonnes (279 tonnes) of methyl bromide to be imported (from January 1 st to December 31 st ). Most of the methyl bromide was used, in decreasing order, in Antalya ( kg), Izmir ( kg), and Mersin ( kg) provinces and on carnation ( kg), tomato ( kg), cucumber (7.204 kg), pepper (4.296), and eggplant (4.000 kg) production. In 2005, GDoPC issued a methyl bromide import permit of 78 ODP tonnes. We are unable to present complete data for the use of methyl bromide in 2005 in provinces, on crops since GDoPC releases the figures at the end of year. Nevertheless, thanks to our monitoring system, we can say that the phase out target is likely to be fully achieved. Materials for methyl bromide chemical alternatives were delivered and applied to 192 cut-flower greenhouses in The materials, plastics, chemicals, cow manure, graftedseedlings, were delivered to other provinces in the project, as alternatives, where 510 horticulture growers applied them in All of the planned purchases of materials for trainings, alternative applications, etc. have been purchased and are currently in use. Materials for alternative applications have been delivered, except for steam machines and soil less culture systems in the cut-flower sector, to end users, the installation and training service will be provided by the suppliers by the end of September Alternative applications have been completed with the guidance of project personnel on both cut flower and horticulture sectors. Based international consultants advise, 22 model farms (2 cut-flower and 20 horticulture) have been established in 2005 at where adaptive plots of methyl bromide alternatives, grafted seedlings in particular, have been set up and are being monitored. In addition to model farms, AGRIS programme will monitor a total of 500 growers (192 cutflower, 308 horticulture). The media activities (TV, radio, newspaper) planned for 2005 have been completed. A 30 second informative commercial was broadcasted on local television during the soil preparation season, June and July. The detailed action plan for 2005, prepared in November 2004 by the National Project Team (BATEM) in collaboration with UNIDO s project manager and international consultants, has been fully realized, except for some delays in steam application and soil less cultures in the cut-flower sector. 5

6 2. PRESENTATION Methyl bromide (MeBr) is a widely used fumigant for soil, commodity and quarantine purposes. Even though MeBr is very effective for controlling nematodes, soil-borne pathogens, insects and weeds, it will be globally phased out by the year In 1987, more than 160 countries, including Turkey, signed an international treaty, also known as the Montreal Protocol, to globally phase out the use of substances that contribute to the depletion of the ozone layer. As for this agreement, Turkey was to phase out MeBr by However, considering the gravity of the adverse effects of the ozone layer depleting substances on human beings and the environment, Turkey decided to ban the use of MeBr by 2008 instead of After the agreement was signed, Turkey carried out two demonstration projects to determine effective and economic MeBr alternative technologies for soil disinfestations. Citrus and Greenhouse Research Institute (CGRI), now BATEM, with UNIDO`s support, implemented (between 1998 and 2000) a project named Alternatives to the Use of Methyl Bromide as Soil Fumigants in Protected Horticulture and Ornamental Crops, MP/TUR/98/06, Disbursed Funds: $304,792 in the western Mediterranean region. The second project entitled Introduction of Methyl Bromide Alternatives for Strawberry, Pepper and Eggplant Production in Turkey, TUR/FUM/29/INV/56, Disbursed Funds: $366,440 was conducted (between 1999 and 2002) on strawberries, in the Aydın province, and on peppers and eggplants, in the eastern Mediterranean region, with the support of The World Bank. In addition, MeBr phase-out on post-harvest dry fig was carried out in Izmir, in collaboration with TARIS between 2001 and In the course of the two demonstration projects, a number of MeBr alternatives technologies: solarization, solarization and low doses of chemicals, solarization and biofumigation, soil less culture, steam pasteurization and agronomical practices, to name a few, were tested. At the end of the demonstration projects, some MeBr alternatives were found to be economically and technically feasible in Turkey s environment. Alternative pest management methods, used at commercial level in modern and traditional farms, were tested and documented in detail. During the demonstration projects, Turkish growers were introduced to alternatives such as solarization in combination with IPM, 1,3-D, Basamid, soil less culture, steam and biofumigation. Due to the results achieved with the demonstration projects, the Turkish Government applied for the complete phase-out of MeBr in the agricultural sector, except for quarantine and laboratory use. In this context, a new MeBr phase-out project was initiated in It is entitled Phase-Out of Methyl Bromide for Soil Fumigation in Protected Horticulture and Cut-flower Production in Turkey (MP/TUR/01/214 and MP/TUR/03/108), total funds: $3,408,844, Implementing agency UNIDO. Based on the new selected alternatives, and the strengths of the existing ones, Turkey proposed a phase-out schedule of MeBr used in the agricultural sector, including horticulture and cut flower subsectors (Table 1). According to this schedule, the annual MeBr import will be reduced by 20% on average annually until the end of a) Compliance with Phase Out Schedule: The objective of this project is to eliminate the use of ODP tonnes of methyl bromide used, in 2002, in horticulture and cut flower sectors. So far, all obligations indicated in the MeBr phase-out schedule have been met and Turkey will continue to do so until the end of the project, without causing any significant interruption in production. Table 1 summarizes 6

7 the projected reduction schedule that was ratified by the Turkish Grand Assembly and published in the official gazette (Appendix 1). Table 1: MeBr Phase-out Schedule in Agricultural Sectors in Turkey. Year Horticulture and Cut-flower Sub-Sectors Expected Reduction (ODP tonnes) Consumption (ODP tonnes) Consumption (ODS tonnes) Total Methyl Bromide Consumption* Including Horticulture and Cut- Flower Sub-Sectors Consumption (ODP tonnes) Consumption (ODS tonnes) *MeBr consumption for quarantine, pre-shipment and laboratory use is not included Turkey is determined to fulfil its obligations, established in the Montreal Protocol, and contribute its share of preventing ozone layer depletion by fully implementing the MeBr phase-out project and in a timely manner. b) Consumption and Import Data sources: The amount of MeBr used for pre-shipment and quarantine services were ,038 kg = 44,81 ODP tonnes in GDoPC issued a MeBr import permit of 279 tonnes = ODP tonnes in agreement with the phase-out schedule in The import permit, issued by GDoPC for MeBr in 2005, is 130,600 kg = 78 ODP tonnes. The amount of MeBr import permitted and the company to which the permit is issued is presented in Table 2. Consumption figures by provinces and crops that will be provided by GDoPC will be available at the end of

8 Table 2: Permit for Companies and Amount of MeBr Imported issued by GDoPC in COMPANIES AMOUNT OF MEBR IMPORTED (KG) Safa Tarım A.Ş 7,242 Hektaş Ticaret T.AŞ. 58,621 Metar Tarım 17,555 Takimsan 18,529 Cansa Kimya 28,652 TOTAL 130,600 kg = 78 ODP tonnes The amount of MeBr used for crops and in provinces for 2004 is summarized in Tables 3 and 4 (source: GDoPC). The highest MeBr use was in Antalya, followed by Izmir and Mersin all of which are covered in the project. Table 3. MeBr Use in Provinces in PROVINCE CONSUMPTION OF MEBR (KG) Ankara 21,76 İzmir ,45 Kırklareli 1,36 Kocaeli 47,60 Malatya 527,68 Bartın 6,80 Trapzon 654,84 Aydın 816,00 Manisa 879,24 Eskişehir 51,68 Mersin ,72 Sakarya 55,08 Antalya ,16 Balıkesir 500,48 Muğla ,00 TOTAL ,93Kg = 94,23 ODP tonnes *Data source: GDoPC of MoA 8

9 Table 4. MeBr Use by Crops in 2004 PLANT CONSUMPTION OF MEBR (KG) Pepper 4296,08 Wheat 1632,00 Tomato ,24 Hazelnut 565,76 Carnation ,44 Apricot 756,88 Raisin 2.987,18 Dry Fig 5.080,60 Cotton 178,16 Eggplant 4.000,00 Cucumber 7.204,96 Tobacco 51,68 Others ,87 TOTAL *Data source: GDoPC of MoA ,85 Kg =94,12 ODP tonnes As seen in Table 4, the highest MeBr use was in carnation production, followed by tomatoes, cucumbers, peppers, and eggplants. Appropriately, the MeBr phase-out project includes these plant species and sectors. The main reasons for higher MeBr use in the cutflower sector are that the season is not suitable for solarization and cut-flower growers can afford MeBr more than horticulture growers. For the ease of application and seasonindependent application of MeBr, in cut-flower sectors, some growers still prefer MeBr. However, smaller-scale growers have turned away from MeBr due to increased costs and employing alternative applications. In the horticulture sector where nematode and soil borne pathogens limit the production and time is insufficient for solarization due to double planting/year, MeBr is preferred. c) Technical and Economic Feasibility, and Environmental Sustainability of Selected Alternatives: Table 5 summarizes MeBr and its alternatives, their registration status, application method, cost per hectare (in 2005), target pests that they are work against, and applicability. From the chemical alternatives, only dazomet costs more than MeBr per hectare. Hence, farmers use dazomet only if they have an extreme outbreak of soil borne pathogens in their greenhouses. Solarization is widely used in the horticulture sector. Solarization alone or in combination with low dosage chemicals has been very effective in controlling soil borne pathogens and weeds. Due to seasonal suitability and low costs, it has been accepted and applied widely in horticulture production areas in southern Turkey (Table 5). However, there has not been a wide spread use in cut-flower production as the time (4 to 6 weeks) between two growing seasons is not long enough to assure an effective solarization. In cooler 9

10 production areas (e.g. Isparta), solarization is not an option since winter months are the cropfree time. Thus, solarization is only feasible for horticulture sectors in the region. Table 5. Applicability and Economic Feasibility of MeBr Alternatives in Sector Cut-Flower Horticulture Alternatives Methyl Bromide Registration Status Application Method Cost USD$/ha Registered Dripping Target Pest SBP, N, W Applicability Applicable Special Chloropicrin + Not SBP, Dripping Unknown equipment 1.3D Registered N. required Metam sodium Registered Dripping SBP, N Applicable 1.3D Registered Dripping N Applicable Dazomet Registered By hand SBP, (W), Applicable Steam application Soil less Culture (Tuff + peat subtract) Methyl Bromide - Steam machine (In Isparta Condition) (In Antalya Condition) Registered Dripping SBP, N, W SBP, N, W SBP, N, W Applicable Applicable Applicable Special Chloropicrin + Not Dripping Unknown SBP, N equipment 1.3D Registered required Metam sodium Registered Dripping SBP, N Applicable 1.3D Registered Dripping N Applicable Dazomet Registered By hand SBP, W Applicable Solarization SBP, N, W Applicable Soil less SBP, culture N, W Applicable Grafted seedling - - *2800 Tomato 6320 Pepper 3640 Egg-plant 5240 Melon 65 Watermelon Biofumigation *Soil Borne Path. (SBP), Nematode (N), Weed (W), * Added cost for grafted seedling SBP, N SBP, N,W Applicable Applicable Steam application is too costly for horticulture production due to high fuel prices and currently is not a viable alternative. However, natural gas is expected to be available in the region in the near future and is expected to lower the cost significantly, which may make it a viable alternative. However, for the cut-flower sector, steam application is necessary for 10

11 cooler regions like the Isparta province where the crop-free season is mid-winter. In contrast, for warmer regions like Antalya, the crop-free season is springtime, but it is too short for solarization only. Steam machines are preferred for seedling production in the cut-flower sector in Antalya and in strawberry seedling production in Adana and Mersin provinces. Soil less culture can be a viable alternative for both the horticulture and cut flower sectors. However, Turkish growers still lack the expertise to establish and put into operation, the system that limits its use as an alternative. On farm establishments of educational soil less culture, adaptive plots for horticultures (tomato) have been established and one for cut-flower (carnation) is scheduled for the project in The established plots will serve to train growers on the technology and management of soil less culture by project technical staff. The use of grafted seedlings in the horticulture sector is expanding rapidly as a viable alternative to MeBr to control soil borne pathogens and has a high quality yield. Grafted watermelons, tomatoes, peppers, eggplants, and melons are new for most of the growers in the region. Thus, 100,000 grafted seedlings were delivered to 14 farmers and 14 model farms for the aforementioned crop species; 14 model farms were established to set up adaptive plots to show viability and applicability of grafted seedlings at farm level. For instance, grafted watermelons planted in Adana and Antalya showed very promising results for this crop ending in June The cost of using grafted tomato and watermelon is currently low enough to ensure a large-scale application and acceptance with the availability of welladapted rootstocks. The cost of grafted peppers, eggplants, and melons are limited in their use and acceptance. However, they are expected to increase with increased suppliers and improvements in grafting techniques in the future. Biofumigation is a soil disinfestation method whereby fresh manure, laid on the ground, is mixed with soil and covered with a plastic sheet. It is applied in the horticulture sector only when the season permits its use in conjunction with solarization. Transportation is expensive and difficult, especially for chicken manure. However, if purchased locally, the cost of manure decreases about 40%. It is applied once in two to three years, also helping to improve organic matter and physical property of the soil. Chemicals been used as alternatives to MeBr are dazomet, metam sodium, 1.3D, and Telodrip (Chloropicrin + 1.3D). Dazomet, metam sodium, and 1.3D are registered in Turkey. Metam sodium and 1.3D formulations applied via drippings are preferred due to ease of application. Metam sodium has a strong and unpleasant smell and is a negative risk on health and the environment. Dazomet requires special equipment for application. However, farmers apply it manually due to the small size of the greenhouses. Therefore, dazomet is used less than metam sodium and 1.3D. For cut-flowers, the only alternatives are chemicals, except in Isparta where soil temperatures in application time (mid-winter) is less than adequate (15 C), 1.3D + Chloropicrin must be tested. Among the chemicals, a potential alternative is Chloropicrin + 1.3D, it is not yet registered in Turkey; nevertheless we imported kg of chloropicrin for field-testing and evaluation in The supplier provided technicians and equipment to carried out the application on both cut-flower and horticulture greenhouses. The main distributor company is working to have it registered with the expected date of VIF plastic is commonly used around the world, but it is not produced or sold in Turkey yet. Research carried out in different countries showed that VIF use reduces the use of soil fumigants by half without affecting the intended results. Furthermore, it reduces environmental hazards of gaseous chemicals. In the current crop season (2005) 3,248 kg VIF plastic was imported from Israel to use in the project in Chloropicrin application. In addition, GDoPC was contacted to promote the use of VIF through subsidies. 11

12 The National IPM Project on protected cultivation has now been active for over a decade. With this IPM project, chemicals have been reclassified for their durability (residue) on fresh fruits and horticultures and their effect, both positive and negative, on the environment and living organisms. A list of chemicals that are safer to use has been prepared and delivered with the IPM handbook. In 2006, IPM in chemical use will be applied. Better control of soil borne pathogens due to the MeBr phase-out project by record keeping of followed-up growers (AGRIS) will make it easier to apply IPM in the agricultural areas. d) Regulations and Other Government Activities to Support Sustainability of the Phase-Out: The Ozone Office, established under MoE, coordinates the phase-out of MeBr at a national level. In the agricultural sector, however, GDoPC of MoA coordinates issues on import permits in accordance with the MeBr phase-out schedule. It also enforces the regulations that only trained operators can apply to MeBr. As Turkey is aiming for full European Union Membership, agricultural practices and chemical uses are being calibrated in conjunction with EU rules and regulations. In addition to full control of MeBr use, Turkey has new, stricter regulations for chemicals that leave unacceptable residues on fresh fruits and horticultures and pollute environment. Illegal MeBr imports are heavily penalised and are being controlled by GDoPC, Foreign Trade Undersecretary, and Customs offices. Sales and imports of MeBr are defined by regulation 25427/2004 (official gazette April 8, 2004) (App. 1). Dealers have to be licensed and trained by the GDoPC. MeBr is sold only to licensed fumigation operators. APD follows closely MeBr trafficking and illegal trade is prosecuted. Turkey, opting for an affiliation with the EU, attempts to harmonize its own legislation with that of the EU. MARA released a new regulation in 2004 addressing the issue of trading with pesticides and their storage at wholesale and retail level, severely penalizing growers who exceed the threshold levels set for pesticide residue in food. The regulation encompasses MeBr and creates an environment of compliance with the application of farm chemicals in general. Currently, there is no regulation that enforces a buffer zone (a safe distance between application area and residential areas) for MeBr and its alternatives. Based on Dr. Reuben Ausher s recommendation, GDoPC will establish new regulations for buffer zones where the distances will be written on chemical labels for every registered chemical. 3. PROJECT IMPLEMENTATION (October 01 st September 30 th 2005) The project was successfully implemented during the period 2004/2005. The project has been carried out with 66 staff (Appendix 2) and covered the provinces of Antalya, Muğla, Mersin, İzmir, Adana and Isparta where large portions of protected horticulture and cutflower production areas are situated. The responsibility areas of project staff were divided into two groups: horticulture and cut-flower. Protected horticulture areas include Antalya, Adana, Mersin, Mugla and Izmir provinces that produce most of the fresh horticultures. MeBr is used in strawberry production in Aydin province, so MeBr alternative applications on strawberry production were carried out. Cut-flower areas (4,400 da) includes Antalya (4,000 da), Isparta (350 da) and Izmir (50 da) provinces that lead the cut-flower production in Turkey. Altınova-Merkez and Belek townships are leading regions within the Antalya province. Therefore, Antalya is subdivided into 2: Altinova and Belek for cut-flower production. 12

13 The detailed action plan for 2005 prepared in November 2004 by the National project Team, with the assistance of UNIDO s project manager and international consultants (Appendix 3) has been fully realized. Project development and works carried out by the staff are presented below covering the period of October 01, 2004 until September 30, DISTRUBITION OF EQUIPMENT AND CHEMICALS The list and amounts of plastic and chemicals in 2005 are presented in Appendix 4. Supplying these materials is expected to help reduce the use of MeBr by promoting alternatives through adaptive plots and training. MeBr alternative chemicals applied in 2005 in the horticulture sector are solarization, solarization + chemicals [dazomet, 1-3 Dichloropropen, metam sodium, Telodrip (35%. chloropicrin + 65% 1.3D)]. In the cut-flower sector, however, the chemicals metam sodium, dazomet, 1-3 Dichloropropen, Telodrip (35% a.i. chloropicrin + 65% 1.3D) were applied as MeBr alternatives. Plastic covers and all chemicals delivered to BATEM are listed in (Table 6). Table 6. Amount and Type of Material Delivered to BATEM for Use in the Project in Type Delivery type Count Total amount Dazomet Sack (20 kg) kg Polystyrene Roll 830 Film kg(1780 da) P. VIF Film Roll 60 Metam Sodium Barrel (254 kg) kg 1.3D Container (20 lt) kg Condor Container (20 lt) kg Chloropicrin Tank kg A. Criteria for choosing and distributing MeBr Alternatives in the Horticulture Sector. A selected grower had the following criteria: a. Possess leadership qualities; b. Be open to new ideas on methods and applications; and c. Have been or currently using MeBr. In addition, available project personnel and the total production area of given regions were also considered, with higher priority given to important production regions. The following priorities were considered in selecting the most suitable MeBr alternative in a region: a. Planting date; 13

14 b. Presence and type of soil borne pathogens; c. Soil texture; d. Ease of application; and e. Size of farms; Growers, who own plastic greenhouses, plant twice a year avoiding winter heating. Planting dates are August and the end of February. A short solarization (4 to 6 weeks) requires the use of an alternative chemical in addition to short solarization. Growers who own glass greenhouses use single planting (October to June season) and have a long enough solarization window of 8 to 10 weeks. These growers use solarization alone, provided that the soil does not have heavy soil borne pathogen and weed problems. To enhance soil organic matter and reduce nematode pressure, biofumigation is recommended to growers. Solarization + grafted seedling use has been increasing in recent years. A total of 100,000 grafted seedlings have been planted in the frame of the project in In areas that are heavily infested with soil borne pathogens, solarization and dazomet is promoted. If nematodes are the primary problem and the soil is light, then solarization and 1-3D is applied. If a greenhouse is heavily infested with soil borne pathogens and nematodes, solarization and metam sodium is the alternative choice. Telodrip is not registered in Turkey but it has been applied in the frame of the project. For modern greenhouses with necessary experience, soil less culture is promoted as the alternative application. Metam sodium barrels, weighing 254 kg, make transportation difficult. Each barrel was given to one grower for a 2-da application that helped to solve the problem of weight. Injection formulation of 1-3D caused application difficulties. That is why the use of this chemical was planned for light soiled nematode infested regions; Alanya, Antalya, Güzeloba, Antalya-Merkez. In larger greenhouses owned by companies, more than one alternative was applied to better compare their results. Similarly, soil less culture was established for tomato production and steam application has been planned for cut-flower greenhouses. B. Criteria in Choosing and Distributing of MeBr Alternatives in the Cut-Flower Sector. In order to select the best growers for the task, they were visited and interviewed. The younger, open-minded, leader growers were chosen for alternative applications. Grower description forms (Appendix 5) and grower visit forms (Appendix 6) of selected growers who were visited were completed by responsible project staff. The problems were determined in greenhouse visits. Metam sodium in greenhouses having soil borne pathogen problems, Dichloropropen in nematode infested areas and dazomet for weed and soil borne pathogen were applied. The temperature of the soil at the time of applications was between C, which was advantageous. Soil was kept covered at least 20 days after application. Metam sodium application via drip irrigation made it easier for growers to apply. 1-3D was applied with its special equipment but not all growers were able to get use the injection equipment that limited the 1-3D application. Many growers did not like dazomet since it was in granule form. Soil preparation for cut-flower production is in April, May, and June, depending on the elevation. The materials metam sodium, 1-3D, dazomet and plastic covers for alternative 14

15 applications were delivered to growers who were then trained by project teams on application and subsequently applied DISTRUBITION OF MeBr ALTERNATIVE MATERIALS Cut-Flower Sector A total of 192 cut-flower growers were registered where 183 of which were given material support for MeBr alternative applications. Soil preparation time for cut-flowers is from April to May in Antalya and Izmir. Solarization was not applied in cut-flower greenhouses because total crop-free time is one month and temperatures are not high enough for the task lt metam sodium, one of MeBr chemical alternatives, were applied on 309-da area, in 153 farms in kg Basamid were applied in 11 farms with heavy soil borne pathogen infestation areas in 20,5 da. In three farms with nematode problems, in addition to soil borne pathogens, Basamid (160 kg)+ MS (763 lt) were applied at 11 da area. In four other farms, MS (1271 lt) + Telone (120 lt) were applied. Seven growers having nematode problems applied 200 lt Telone. Basamid (240 kg), MS (508 kg), and Telodrip (94 lt Condor + 76 Lt Chloropicrin) were applied in two 10.6 da areas in cut-flower production greenhouses belonging to mediumsized companies to see the effect of different applications in the same environment. Only two growers applied Telodrip (140 lt Condor lt Chloropicrin) in 7 da area. In addition to chemical alternatives to MeBr, plastic covers and VIF plastic sheets were also given to 183 cut-flower growers. Nine cut-flower production companies were not given any chemical alternatives but were registered and steam applications that were planned for 2005 but could not be realized due to delay of steam machines are planned for the 2006 season in Isparta. The list of material distribution of farmers is presented in Appendix Horticulture Sector The MeBr alternatives, amount of materials, total area of alternative applications, and number of growers who applied the alternatives are summarized in Table 7. In the horticulture sector, 510 growers applied various MeBr alternatives in Solarization alone, solarization in combination with metam sodium, Telone, Basamid, biofumigation, and Telodrip were leading alternatives finding largest application in area and by growers (Table 7). The list of the growers given materials, amount of materials, application dates, and crop planting dates is presented in Appendix

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