1 1-HALLEY S COMET disappear orbiter craft region observed spread over recorded nucleus comet dust pioneer trail space probe A (1) is an object that travels around the sun leaving a bright (2) behind. For more than two thousand years, the return of HaI1eys Comet has been (3) and (4) on Earth every 76 years. Its 1986 visit, however, was the first time that humans took a close look at its (5). One spacecraft went within a few hundred kilometers of the nucleus. Two Soviet (6), Vega 1 and Vega 2, came within 10,000 km of the nucleus on March 6th and March 9th; and the European Space Agency s Giotto (7) passed within 600 km of Halley s Comet on March 14th. (8) Venus (9) found that the cloud of gases and (10) which make up the tail (11) a (12) about 20,000,000 km across, 15 times larger than the Sun. Scientists also discovered that the comet was losing about ten meters of material from its surface every orbit, suggesting a lifetime of about only 1,000 orbits in about 100,000 years it will (13). KELİME ANLAM EŞ ANLAM comet Kuyruklu yıldız craft beceri, hüner, sanat, zanaat; gemi; hile; uçak adroitness, cunning, dexterity, expertise, know-how, skill disappear gözden kaybolmak, yok olmak, kaybolmak, clear, evanesce, evanish, evaporate, fade ortadan kaybolmak; unutulup gitmek dust toz, toz toprak, çiçek tozu, pudra; kemik powdering, sprinkling kalıntıları; para, mangır nucleus atom çekirdeği, çekirdek, nüve, öz, sinir bud, embryo, germ, spark hücreleri yığını observe dikkatle bakmak, görmek, gözetlemek, comply, conform, follow, keep, mind gözlemek, izlemek, incelemek, riayet etmek, uymak, yerine getirmek, kutlamak, fark etmek, söylemek, demek, görüşünü bildirmek Orbit İsim : göz çukuru, göz, yörünge, faaliyet sahası, etki alanı Fiil : yörüngede dönmek, yörüngeye sokmak, yörüngesine almak, yörünge izlemek, rota izlemek ambit, compass, extension, extent, purview, radius, reach, scope, sweep pioneer İsim : öncü, önder, kılavuz, önayak olan kimse Fiil : çığır açmak, öncü olmak, önayak olmak, öncülük etmek earliest, initial, maiden, original, primary, prime record kayda geçirmek, kaydetmek, çekmek, indicate, mark, read, register, say yazmak, not etmek region bölge, iklim, nahiye, yöre, alan, çevre belt, territory, tract, zone space probe uzaydan bilgi gönderen uydu spread over istila etmek trail iz, yol, patika, kuyruk (elbise vb.)
2 2-HIGH-RISE storey connection actually comparing destroy structures lonely lifts necessary suffer plans minds illnesses In October 1981, newspapers in the USA and the UK reported (1) for a 169-(2) building in Chicago. If this is built, it will be almost twice as tall as the 384-meter Empire State Building in New York. Since the early days of civilized man, buildings have been getting higher all the time. Today, all large cities have tall buildings, either for use as offices or as flats. These are called high-rise-buildings. The tallest of all in fact, are not used for offices or for living, but are special (3) for radio and television. For instance, Warsaw Radio Mast in Poland, which is 646 meters tall, is the tallest of such structures. The tallest office building is the Sears Tower in Chicago. This has 110 storey, and reaches a 10 height of 443 meters. 16,700 people work inside the building, and there are more than one hundred (4) for their use. But why do we have high buildings? Is there any real advantage? The most common reason given is that in many cities there is a lack of space. The island of Manhattan, New York City, is a good example of this. Here, office space is very expensive. There is no more land. Buildings have to go up. The same reason is given for high office buildings in Tokyo, London and other large cities of the world. But what about people? Is it really (5) to build high buildings for people to live in? Today, there are many who believe high buildings (6) damage people s (7) and feelings. These people believe high-rise buildings: - have no advantages, except for their owners and for banks - are not cheap to build - do not help create open space - (8) the landscape - cause crime - are not good for children - are expensive to look after High-rise buildings lower the quality of life. The following reports show this. Report from England, 1967: The higher people live off the ground, the more likely they are to suffer from mental (9). Women, because they spend most time at home, (10) most. Report from Denmark, 1969: children from high buildings are frightened of playing outside on their own. They play outside at a later age than children from low buildings. Report from the USA: In (11) two buildings, one high-rise and the other low, crime is much more likely in the high-rise than in the low building. The reason for all this may be simple. High-rise living takes people away from life on the street. They become (12). They meet other people less often. The building becomes a world of its own. At a height of four storey there is still some (13) with the street. Above that, the connection is lost. But we continue to build high-rise buildings for people to live in. In Chicago, there is an apartment building 197 meters tall. It rises seventy storey above the street, and that is sixty-six storey above the four-storey limit.
3 KELİME ANLAM EŞ ANLAM actually aslında, fiilen, gerçekte, doğrusu, sahi, gerçekten, sahiden de facto, genuinely, really, truly, veritably comparing kıyas connection bağlantı, aktarma, irtibat, bağ; alâka; ilişki, yakınlık, akrabalık, yakın, akraba; alışveriş; bağıntı, ilgi, ilgilenme; dost, uyuşturucu satıcısı affiliation, alliance, combination, conjointment, conjunction, hookup, partnership, tie-up, togetherness destroy tahrip etmek, yıkmak, imha etmek, mahvetmek, harap etmek; öldürmek; ümidini yıkmak; tüketmek annihilate, atomize, decapitate, decimate, demolish, destruct, discreate, dismantle, dissolve, dynamite, pull down, pulverize, quench, raze, rub out, ruin illnesses hastalık, rahatsızlık, illet affliction, diseasedness, disorder, lift kaldırmak, yukarı kaldırmak, yükseltmek, topraktan çıkarmak, çalmak, yürütmek, germek, kalkmak, havalanmak indisposition, infirmity, unhealth elevate, hoist, pick up, raise, rear, take up, uphold, uplift, upraise, uprear lonely yalnız, yapayalnız alone, lonesome, solitary mind akıl, us, zihin, bellek, hafıza, şuur, fikir, düşünce, istek brain, gray matter, head necessary gerekli, lazım, zorunlu, gereken plan planlamak, tasarlamak, plan yapmak, planını çizmek blueprint, design, game plan, project, scheme, strategy storey kat structures inşaat construction suffer acı çekmek, çekmek, zarar görmek, katlanmak, cezasını çekmek, acısını çekmek, kıvranmak, zayiat vermek, izin vermek, göz yummak abide, brook, endure, lump, stand, stomach, swallow, take, tolerate
4 3-ATOMS (1) range revolve matter evidence modify investigated obtain assigned inert concentrated interacting compound naturally Atoms are the smallest particles of (1) that have the properties of the chemical elements hydrogen, oxygen, iron, and so on. They are so small that it is impossible to see them even with a high-powered microscope. Everything on Earth is made up of atoms in different chemical combinations. Water, for instance, is a (2) of two elements, two atoms of hydrogen and one atom of oxygen. However, some elements, such as gold and diamonds exist uncombined. Ninety-two elements occur (3). I (4) from the lightest, hydrogen, to the heaviest, uranium. Each of the elements has been (5) a number 1 for hydrogen, 8 for oxygen, 29 for copper, 92 for uranium. They are usually arranged on a chart called the periodic table, which puts elements with the same chemical properties in the same column, Thus, all (6) gases, such as helium, appear in one column in the periodic table. The formulation of the atomic theory is one of the great achievements of science. has enabled us to understand the properties of the elements, the basic building blocks of all matter, so that we know which elements can combine with each other. The science of chemistry is based on our understanding of atoms and their behavior in (7) with one another. Another science called nuclear physics came into being to study the structure of the atom itself. As scientists (8) the atom, it became apparent that the atom was not a solid piece of matter, but was made up of even smaller particles. The first subatomic particle that scientists identified was the e1ectron a tiny piece of matter with a negative electric charge. The weight of an electron was very small indeed approximately one eighteen-hundredth of the weight of a hydrogen atom, the lightest of all the elements. Scientists came to believe that the electrons orbited the nucleus of the atom, in which almost all of the weight of the atom was (9). It is now known that electrons (10) around the nucleus at incredibly fast rates of speed. For many years scientists did many different kinds of experiments and they had the same idea about the structure of atoms. However, when they managed to (11) more (12), they had to (13) the atomic theory. There was not just one kind of particle in the nucleus of an atom; there were two. One of these has a positive electric charge and is called a proton. The other is neutral, that is, it has no electric charge. For this reason, it was called a neutron.
5 KELİME ANLAM EŞ ANLAM assign vermek, tahsis etmek, belirlemek; bağlamak, saptamak, atamak; göreve seçmek, devretmek abalienate, alien, alienate, cede, convey, deed, make over, remise, compound birleştirmek, artırmak, çözmek, halletmek, taksitle ödemek, örtbas etmek, takipten vazgeçmek, anlaşmak, uzlaşmak associate, bracket, coadunate, coagment, coalesce, connect, couple, link, unite concentrated yoğun, konsantre full-bodied, lusty, potent, robust evidence şahit, ifade, tanık, delil, kanıt, ispat, bulgu; tanıklık, şahitlik, açıklık, belirginlik; göze çarpma, belirti, iz index, indicia, mark, sign, significant, symptom, inert hareketsiz, durağan, dingin, etkinlik göstermeyen, asleep, idle, passive, quiet, sleepy atıl, uyuşuk, uyuz, tembel interact birbirini etkilemek, karşılıklı etkilemek coact, interplay, interreact investigate incelemek, araştırmak, soruşturmak delve (into), dig (into), go (into), inquire (into), look (into), probe, prospect, sift matter madde, cisim, husus, şey, konu, mesele, önem, öz, iltihap, cerahat, irin argument, head, motif, motive, point, subject matter, text, theme, topic modify değişiklik yapmak, değiştirmek, hafifletmek, alter, mutate, refashion, turn, vary nitelemek, tamlamak, değişmek naturally doğal olarak, elbette, doğuştan obtain range revolve sağlamak, elde etmek, edinmek, kazanmak, varlığını sürdürmek, süregelmek, var olmak, geçerli olmak, bulmak dizmek, sıralamak, sıralanmak, sıralı olmak, sıra halinde olmak, dolaşmak, gezmek, turlamak, sürtmek, uzanmak, boyunca gitmek, akıp gitmek, tarafına çevirmek, doğrultmak, nişan almak, erimi olmak, erişmek, katılmak, bölgede yaşamak dönmek, devir yapmak, devretmek, etrafında dönmek, döndürmek, düşünüp taşınmak acquire, annex, chalk up, gain, have, pick up, procure, secure, win haunt, home, locality, site chaw, deliberate, meditate, mull (over), muse, roll, ruminate, turn over
6 4-MUSIC OR NOISE? frequencies amplitude detect sequence eardrums consciously vibration (1) is movement and sound that comes from objects which vibrate. For example, guitar strings, when touched, vibrate and make a sound; and drum skins, when hit, vibrate and make a sound. Vibrations are described in terms of amplitude and frequency. In the case of a guitar, the (2), or loudness, is the distance the string moves; and in the case of a drum, the skin moves at a certain speed and vibrates a certain number of times each second. If the skin, or the string, vibrates 440 times per second, then we say it has a frequency of 440 Hertz (or 440 Hz for short). If it moves faster or slower, then it has a higher or lower frequency. The human ear cannot (3) all sounds. Sounds must have a certain amplitude, and a frequency between 40 Hz and 16,000 Hz. Vibrations above or below these will not be detected by the human ear even if they are extremely loud. Many animals have better hearing than us. Dogs, for example, can hear higher frequencies; and bats can hear sounds with incredibly high frequencies up to 48,000 Hz. The vibrating object first causes the molecules in the air around it to vibrate at the same frequency and amplitude. These molecules then cause other molecules to vibrate and so it continues until molecules of air inside our ears vibrate. Finally our (4) vibrate and cause minute, i.e. very small, electrical signals to be sent to the brain. All sounds come from vibrations. But not all sounds are the same. Some are pleasant to hear, such as music. Others are unpleasant and these we call noise. What s the difference between the two? This is a difficult question to answer. But the sounds of musical instruments, which are usually good to hear, do have a special characteristic: musical instruments, such as the guitar and the drum, vibrate at more than one frequency. Thus, when a guitar string produces the note of A, the vibration of greatest amplitude has a frequency of 440 Hz. But there are vibrations of other (5) present, too. They have less amplitude, and so we do not (6) hear them. But they add to the sound and form a pattern of frequencies which is pleasant to hear. This is called harmonics. It is harmonics which help us to identify the musical instrument we hear. Of course, there are other characteristics of music, too. One of these is rhythm, the (7) of sounds. Rhythm is not exclusive to musical sound; but it is one of the factors which help make music pleasant to hear. KELİME ANLAM EŞ ANLAM amplitude genişlik, bolluk, çokluk; genlik bigness, greatness, largeness, magnitude, sizeableness consciously bile bile, bilinçli olarak, kasten detect ortaya çıkarmak, belirlemek, keşfetmek; farketmek; sezmek catch, descry, encounter, espy, hit (on or upon), meet (with), spot, turn up eardrum kulak zarı frequency sıklık, sık sık olma, frekans, titreşim sıklığı sequence dizi, seri, sıra, art arda sıralama, yinelenen melodi, silsile, bölüm, sekans, gidiş, mantıklılık alternation, chain, consecution, order, progression, row, sequel, series, train vibration titreşim, titreme, sarsılma, tereddüd, heyecan
7 5-THE AUSTRALIAN ABORIGINES stage survive remote inhabitants encouraging exploitation settlers traditional Aborigines are the first or original (1) of a country. The Australian Aborigines have lived in Australia for over 40,000 years. At one (2) in their history, there were possibly over a million Aborigines. However, when the first white (3) arrived in the 18th century and stole their land, many Aborigines died fighting to protect it. Today, only about 100,000 (4). Although some still live a (5) life in (6) desert areas of the Australian outback, many now live in poor conditions in cities and towns. They have suffered for two hundred years from white (7). However, the Australian government has recently given some land back to them including Uluru. This huge rock, in the centre of Australia, is of great importance to the Aborigines. Although winning back this land is (8), the Aboriginal people know there is a long way to go before they win back the rest of their land. KELİME ANLAM EŞ ANLAM inhabitant oturan kimse, oturan, sakin, yerli denizen, dweller, habitant, indweller, liver, occupant, resident stage iskele, sahne, zemin, ortam, etap, safha, boards, footlights, theater aşama, evre, kademe, katman, tabaka, derece, erim, menzil, mikroskop lâmı settler yeni yere yerleşen kimse, göçmen, son darbe, son söz, susturan cevap survive hayatta kalmak, sağ kalmak, kalmak, geriye kalmak, daha uzun yaşamak, yadigâr kalmak, dayanmak, göğüs germek outlast, outwear traditional geleneksel conventional, tralatitious remote uzak, çok eski, çok uzak, küçük, sapa, ücra, mesafeli, dolaylı, soğuk (davranış), endirekt exploitation kullanma, işletme, kötüye kullanma, istismar, sömürme far, faraway, far-flung, far-off, off-lying, outlying, removed encouraging cesaret verici, teşvik edici, ümit verici, yüreklendirici, özendirici likely, promiseful, promising, roseate, rosecolored, rosy
8 6-AQUIFERS either process returns constantly collects surface infiltration precipitation streams accumulates The water on the earth is recycled (1) in a (2) known as the hydrologic cycle. First, the water in the oceans evaporates. it changes into vapour and forms clouds in the sky. Water (3) in clouds and (4) to the (5) of the earth in some form of (6), which can be (7) rain, snow, or ice. When the water reaches the earth's surface, it runs off into (8), rivers, lakes, and at last, into the oceans, where the cycle begins again. The water on the surface of the earth s and in the atmosphere is known as the hydrosphere. Not all precipitation goes into rivers. Some of it seeps into the ground by a process called (9). This water (10) under the earth's surface and is groundwater. not only but also consequently agriculture provides earth precipitation useless available depend on Groundwater is important for two reasons. First, 95 per cent of the earth's water is in the oceans. it is salty and (10) for plants, animals, or humans. Fresh water, which people can use for drinking or for (11), is either on the earth's surface in lakes and rivers or underground. Surface water is.05 per cent of the earth's water while underground water is 4 per cent of the earth's water. (12), groundwater (13) 95 per cent of the (14) fresh water on the (15). Second, groundwater is important (16) because of the size of the supply, (17) because of its dependability. it is always available since it does not (18) seasonal (19). Therefore burying polluted substance harmful however purify poisonous Today, there seems to be a problem with groundwater. Until recently, groundwater was clean. it was not necessary to (20) it before people drank it. (21), for many years, people have been (22) garbage and (23) wastes underground. These poisons have (24) the groundwater in many places. (25), it is unsafe for human use unless the dirty and (26) (27) are removed first. accumulate allow Aquifers are geologic formations that (28) groundwater to (29) and move through them. Although they are often called underground rivers, these formations are not like surface rivers. The water accumulates in one area underground. The amount of water an aquifer contains is enough to be easily pumped out for use. returned soon supply run out predict drilled People have been using groundwater for many years. With an increasing population, the need for water has also increased. Some cities depend only on groundwater for their water (30). They are using underground water very quickly. in some places the water supply may (31) be used up, and there will be no water for a large population. One example of this is Tucson, Arizona, which is locate in the Sonora desert in southwestern United States, it is on a very large aquifer which supplies water for the area at the present. The aquifer provides water for an increasing population in the city and for agriculture throughout southern Arizona. At the present time, the city is using 225,000 acre feet of water per year, 75,000 acre feet are being (32) to the aquifer through the natural processes of the hydrologic cycle. Therefore, people are using about three times more water than nature is supplying. The water table, which is the level of the water in the aquifer, is dropping lower every year. Some wells have already gone dry and have either been closed or (33) deeper. Scientists (34) that the supply of water in the aquifer will (35) in twenty to eighty years.
9 conserving generous available still contain Aquifers (36) a (37) supply of water. They are large, easily (38), and mostly clean. (39), people who depend only on aquifers for their water supply must use their water carefully. Their lives and their children's lives depend on (40) the water they have. KELİME ANLAM EŞ ANLAM accumulates toplamak, biriktirmek, yığmak, toplanmak; birikmek assemble, collect, gather, lay by, lay down, lay in agriculture tarım, ziraat, çiftçilik farming, husbandry allow izin vermek, bırakmak, kabul etmek, imkân have, leave, permit, suffer vermek; koyvermek, vermek, itiraf etmek; indirim yapmak; hesaba katmak, göz önüne almak, düşünmek, available müsait, var, mevcut, eldeki, hazır, işe yarar, accessible, convenient, handy kullanışlı, geçerli burying defnetme, gömme entomb, inhume, inter, lay away, plant, put away, sepulcher, sepulture collect bir araya getirmek, biriktirmek, toplamak, assemble, cluster, gather, round up toparlamak, toplanmak, birikmek; koleksiyon yapmak; derlemek; uğrayıp almak, almak; tahsil etmek consequently sonuç olarak, bu nedenle therefore, accordingly, ergo, hence, so, then, thereupon, thus conserve korumak, muhafaza etmek, konservesini preserve, keep up, maintain, support, sustain yapmak contain kapsamak, içermek, eşit olmak, içine almak, ihtiva etmek, frenlemek; tutmak, zaptetmek include, comprehend, embody, embrace, encompass, have, involve, subsume, take in depend on bağlı olmak rely (on or upon), bank (on or upon), build (on), calculate (on or upon), count (on), drill delmek, matkapla delmek, talim yaptırmak, bore, prick talim yapmak, delik açmak, kuyu açmak; çalıştırmak; tohum ekmek, makine ile tohum ekmek, sondaj yapmak, sonda ile yoklamak earth yeryüzü, toprak, kara, yer, in dirt, dry land, ground, land, soil, terra firma either generous ister, ne de; her iki; her bir; ikisinden biri, ya o ya bu, birinden biri, ister, her iki, her ikisi de cömert, eli açık, yüce gönüllü, bol, zengin, verimli, bereketli benevolent, big, chivalrous, considerate, greathearted, lofty, magnanimous harmful zararlı, kötü, muzır bad, damaging, deleterious, detrimental, evil, hurtful, ill, injurious, mischievous, nocent, nocuous, prejudicial, prejudicious however ama, ancak, halbuki, her ne şekilde, oysa; her nasılsa, her halükârda, nasıl olursa olsun, nasıl oldu da after all, howbeit, nevertheless, nonetheless, notwithstanding, per contra, still, still and all, though, withal, yet infiltration sızma, süzme, süzülme Not only but Sadece.. aynı zamanda also poisonous zehirli, fesat, kötü niyetli mephitic, poison, toxic, toxicant, venomous, virulent
10 pollute kirletmek, bozmak, çevreyi kirletmek, contaminate karalamak, namusunu kirletmek precipitation aşağı düşme, düşme, acelecilik, telaş, çökeltme, çökelme, yağış hastiness, hurriedness, precipitance, precipitancy, rush predict önceden haber vermek, kehanette bulunmak adumbrate, augur, forecast, portend, presage, prognosticate, prophesy, soothsay process yöntem, usul, işlem, süreç, gidiş, aşama, dava, procedure, proceeding çıkıntı provide sağlamak, karşılamak, temin etmek, ihtiyacını karşılamak, şart koşmak, koşul koymak, önlem deliver, dispense, feed, furnish, hand, hand over, supply, transfer, turn over almak, hazırlıklı olmak purify arıtmak, temizlemek, saf hale getirmek, clarify, clean, cleanse, depurate arındırmak, arınmak, arıtılmak return dönmek, geri dönmek, misilleme yapmak, tekrarlamak, geri gelmek, geri vermek, iade etmek, geri göndermek, getiri sağlamak, getirmek (faiz vb), resmen bildirmek, hüküm vermek, yansıtmak, geri vurmak, topu come in, rejoin, reply, respond, retort run out soon still karşılamak, döndürmek dışarı koşmak, akmak, sızmak, bitmek, tükenmek, sona ermek (süre), geçmek, çıkıntı yapmak, dışarı atmak, kovalamak, bitirmek çok geçmeden, yakında, pek yakında, birazdan, biraz sonra, çabuk, erken, erkenden, hemen, neredeyse, seve seve hâlâ, henüz, daha, daha da, yine, yine de, buna rağmen give out, cast out, deport, displace, exile, expatriate, expel, ostracize, oust, transport overearly, oversoon, premature, previous, untimely additionally, along, as well, besides, stream akıp gitmek, akmak, aralıksız sürmek, sürmek, flow, gush, roll, sluice, surge dalgalanmak, uçuşmak, akıtmak substance madde, özlülük, cisim, öz, esas, içerik, ana fikir, asıl mesele, servet, zenginlik, sağlamlık, being, entity, individual, material, matter, object, stuff supply karşılamak, sağlamak, gidermek, ihtiyacı karşılamak, tedarik etmek, temin etmek, yerini deliver, dispense, feed, find, hand, hand over, provide, transfer, turn over doldurmak surface yüzey, dış görünüş, kanat (uçak) face, superficies, exterior, outside; cover, covering Therefore bu nedenle, bundan dolayı, o yüzden, bu yüzden, bunun için, onun için accordingly, consequently, ergo, hence, so, then, thereupon, thus useless faydasız, yararsız, beyhude, boşuna, nafile, kullanışsız, işe yaramaz abortive, bootless, fruitless, ineffective, ineffectual, unavailable, unavailing, unproductive
11 7-EDUCATIONAL STANDARDS illiterate rates almost opinion once again naturally more and more in fact standstill actually thus steadily early After rising (1) for (2) a century, standards of education in the public schools of Europe and North America have come to a (3). (4), in the (5) of many parents and employers, they are (6) falling. (7) children are leaving school at an (8) age. (9), they have very little knowledge of reading and writing. (10), the number of (11) people is increasing, bringing about a social problem (12). With dropout (13) of twenty-seven per cent in high schools and fifty per cent in colleges, the American education system is clearly in trouble. in Europe, the number of children who leave school is going up too, though lower than that in the United States. demands lack of on the other hand overcrowding major various neglected according to There are (14) factors that cause the decrease in educational standards. Some people say that (15) and (16) discipline are (17) factors. Others say that much importance has been given to subjects like art and drama. However, more practical subjects have been (18). For many teachers, (19), the problem is not of falling standards but of rising expectations of parents and employers. (20) these teachers, the (21) of parents and employers are getting higher and this is causing the problem. tuition per cent secure attend despite such whether or not private steadily (22) standards in public schools are actually falling, many parents feel that the only way to (23) a good education for their children is to send them to private schools, which generally have smaller classes and stricter discipline. The popularity of (24) schools is growing (25), (26) the high (27). in the United States, for example, eleven per cent of all school children (28) (29) schools; in Europe, over sixteen (30) do so. KELİME ANLAM EŞ ANLAM according to göre as to actually aslında, fiilen, gerçekte, doğrusu, sahi, Really, de facto, genuinely, really, truly, gerçekten, sahiden veritably almost yaklaşık olarak, hemen hemen, neredeyse, about, all but, approximately az kalsın, az daha, adeta attend dikkatini vermek, kulak vermek, dinlemek, katılmak, devam etmek; hazır bulunmak; chaperon, companion, company, conduct, consort bakmak, hizmet etmek, eşlik etmek, beraberinde getirmek demands istemek, talep etmek; hak iddia etmek; sormak ask, call (for), crave, necessitate, require, take despite karşın, rağmen in spite of, notwithstanding, regardless of early erken, çabuk, erkenden, ilk olarak, evvel, original, pristine; ancient, antediluvian, önce, zamanından önce antiquated, primal, primeval; antecedent, preceding, prevenient, prior illiterate cahil, kara cahil, okumamış, okur yazar benighted, empty-headed, know-nothing, değil, bilgisiz, deneyimsiz, yanlışlarla dolu rude, uneducated, uninstructed, unlettered, in fact gerçekte, adeta, aslında, gerçekten, as a matter of fact, the fact is doğrusu, hatta lack of.sızlık, eksiklik, noksan, yokluk, yoksunluk absence, failure major binbaşı, majör, yetişkin, reşit kimse, branş, main, outstanding, predominant,
12 büyük, önemli, başlıca, majör preeminent, principal, star, stellar more and more gitgide, gittikçe about, all but, almost, approximately, as good as, just about, most, practically, wellnigh naturally doğal olarak, elbette, doğuştan neglected bakımsız, ihmal edilmiş disregarded, ignored, overlooked, slighted, unheeded on the other diğer taraftan hand once again bir daha, bir kez daha anyway, anywise, at all opinion düşünce, fikir, görüş, kanı, kanaat, belief, conviction, eye, feeling, mind, önemseme, inanç, takdir persuasion, sentiment, view overcrowding aşırı nüfus yoğunluğu per cent yüzde private özel, has, kişisel, şahsi, müstakil, kişiye personal, privy özel, gizli, mahrem, yalnız, halka kapalı rate değer biçmek, sınıflandırmak, fiyat proportion, ratio, scale belirlemek, saymak, addetmek, olarak görmek, layık olmak, hak etmek, sayılmak, azarlamak, fırça atmak secure güvenceye almak, sağlama almak, sağlama bulwark, cover, fend, guard, protect, bağlamak, sağlamlaştırmak, korumak, safeguard, screen, shield teminât vermek, sigortalamak, sağlamak, elde etmek, sıkıca kapatmak standstill askıya alınan, duraklayan, sekteye uğrayan stay, stillstand, stop such öyle, böyle, bu gibi, bu tür, o kadar, çok akin, alike, analogous, comparable, corresponding, equivalent, parallel, similar, suchlike accordingly, consequently, ergo, hence, so, then, thereupon thus böyle, böylece, bunun için, nitekim, bu nedenle, bu ölçüde tuition okul parası, ders ücreti, öğretim instruction, schooling, teaching, training, tutelage various çeşitli, türlü, birçok, çeşit çeşit many, several whether or not eğer, olup olmadığını helplessly, inescapably, inevitably, perforce, unavoidably
13 8-SCHOOL FOR CHANGE in return former demands capabilities such a good place opportunity discover concentration according to "it (1) your total (2), energy and (3). (4) it gives you the best friends you could ever wish for. More important than this, you get the (5) to (6) yourself." (7) Heidi Meyer, a (8) student of Atlantic College, that makes the college (9) for education. promote through founded residential peace Atlantic College is the world's first (10) sixth form college and this week it is 25 years old. The college was (11) at St. Donats Castle, in South Wales, by Kurt Hahn to (12) (13) and international understanding (14) education. across pioneered replacement considering Subject offered the early 1970 s Atlantic College students are from 70 countries. They study for the International Baccalaureate diploma. This course was (15) at the college during (16) and now, it is (17) more than 350 colleges (18) the world. Six (19) are studied and some British experts are (20) it as a (21) for A- levels. intellectual specialists thus proposed essays broad foreign curriculum competent while Adults humanities as a result of "it is rather like the (22) national (23)," said Jeff Neuss, the college's head of chemistry. "Everyone has to study his or her native language, a modern (24) language, a (25) subject, a science and maths. (26) this (27) curriculum, all our students become (28) (29) (30) studying their own subjects. (31), we have scientists who can write (32), and art (33) who are numerate and (34) in science." rescue services officially community expects developed inshore responsible for undertake include Academic work is only one part of the college. it also wants to be part of the community. Therefore, it (35) students to (36) (37) (38) that (39) sea (40) and running its 50-acre farm. "We were the first coordinated beach and inshore rescue service in Britain and we (41) the Atlantic class of (42) lifeboats now used as Standard by the RNLI," said Neuss. 'We are (43) safety along a 15- mile stretch of coastline. Our lifeboats have saved 150 lives." mentally handicapped maintain Every summer, the students run courses for physically and (44) (45) young people. They visit London to teach English to Bangladeshi youngsters and run a Youth Training Scheme course for local teenagers. And the students (46) their own college buildings and classrooms. willingness diverse applicants experience taken to recommendation consideration without personal qualities Atlantic College offers an unusually (47) educational (48), but how are students selected? "Academic ability and school (49) are of course (50) as in all colleges. However, (51) (52) the (53) of tolerance and a (54) to mix with others can't possibly get into our college," said Neuss.
14 ensure funds discrimination refugees financial attend allocate grounds scholarships The fees are 6,400 a year, but (55) (56) there is no (57) on (58) (59). Some countries, such as Norway, (60) (61) to allow Ethiopian (62) to (63). realize irresistible immediately roots process a wide perspective The college gives its students (64) on world affairs, said Monica Moreno, a Brazilian: "(65) after you arrive, a learning (66) starts which makes you (67) your own (68) and carries an (69) force for change and understanding of others.
15 KELİME ANLAM EŞ ANLAM a wide geniş bir açıdan perspective according to göre as to across karşısında, içinden, ortasından, üstünden; athwart, cross, over öbür tarafında adults yetişkin, ergin kimse full-blown, full-fledged, full-grown, grown, grown-up, matured, ripe, ripened allocate ayırmak; bölüştürmek, paylaştırmak admeasure, allow, apportion, assign, give, lot applicant aday, istekli, başvuru sahibi candidate as a result of sonuç olarak attend dikkatini vermek, kulak vermek, dinlemek, care (for), mind, watch katılmak, devam etmek; hazır bulunmak; bakmak, hizmet etmek, eşlik etmek, beraberinde getirmek broad geniş, enli, genel, yaygın; aksanlı, terbiyesiz, advanced, broad-minded, progressive, göze çarpan, açık, belli, hoşgörülü, ana, radical, tolerant, wide esas capability kapasite, yetenek, kabiliyet; güç, iktidar ability community cemiyet, cemaat, topluluk, ortaklık, müşterek society tasarruf, benzerlik, ortak yön competent yeterli, yetenekli, ehil, yetkili; yasal au fait, capable, good, proper, qualified, wicked concentration toplama, toplanma, yoğunlaşma, application, consideration, debate, konsantrasyon deliberation, heed, study consideration düşünme, göz önüne alma, sebep, itibar, application, concentration, debate, önem, saygı, düşünce, karşılık, bedel, göz deliberation, heed, study önünde tutma considering göre, göz önünde tutulursa; rağmen, dikkate conceive, fancy, imagine, think; conclude, alınırsa, yine de curriculum müfredat; öğretim programı demands istemek, talep etmek; hak iddia etmek; ask, request, require sormak developed gelişmiş, bayındır amplify, elaborate, enlarge discover keşfetmek, ortaya çıkarmak, bulmak; debunk, show up, uncloak, undress, farketmek, anlamak unmask, unshroud discrimination ayırt etme, fark gözetme, ayrıcalık yapma, judgment, sense ayırma yetkisi diverse çeşitli, türlü türlü, farklı, değişik different, discrete, separate, several, various ensure sağlamak, sağlama almak; garantiye almak; certify, guarantee, warrant; arrange, sigorta etmek establish, provide, set out essays deneme, girişim attempt, endeavor, offer, seek, strive, struggle, undertake expects ummak, ümit etmek; beklemek; sanmak await, count (on or upon), hope, look experience tecrübe etmek, denemek; başından geçmek, behold, see, survey, view başına gelmek; maruz kalmak; karşılaşmak, uğramak; yaşamak, görmek, tatmak financial mali, finansal, parasal fiscal, monetary, pecuniary, pocket foreign yabancı, dış alien, extraneous former önceki, eski, geçen, sabık, geçmiş antecedent, anterior, foregoing, past, precedent, preceding, previous, prior
16 founded kurulmuş, kuruluş tarihi constitute, create, establish, institute, organize, set up, funds para, para kaynağı, kapital, devlet tahvili, finance, subsidize tahvilat ground yer, sebep, toprak, kara, temel, dayanak, base, bedrock, footing, foundation, dip, zemin, neden, saha, topraklama groundwork, infrastructure, root, substratum, handicapped özürlü, sakat, yetersiz humanities beşeri bilimler, hümanite, yunan ve lâtin flesh, Homo sapiens, humankind, man, edebiyatı üzerine çalışma mortality immediately hemen, derhal, doğrudan doğruya, direkt at once, directly, forthwith, instanter, olarak instantly, now, right away, straightway in return karşılık olarak include içermek, kapsamak, içine almak, katmak, dahil etmek comprehend, contain, embody, embrace, encompass, have, involve, subsume, take in inshore kıyıya doğru, kıyı yakınında intellectual zihinsel, zeki, entellektüel, aydın brain, intelligence irresistible karşı konulamaz, dayanılmaz maintain sürdürmek, sağlamak, bakmak, geçindirmek, keep up, preserve, save, sustain korumak mentally zihinsel olarak, zekâ olarak, akli offer teklif etmek, sunmak, ikram etmek, vermek, extend, give, hold out, pose, present, arzetmek, bildirmek, açmak (savaş), ortaya proffer, tender çıkmak, adamak officially resmi olarak, resmen apparently, evidently, outwardly, professedly, seemingly opportunity fırsat, uygun durum, şans break, chance, look-in, occasion, opening, shot, show, squeak, time peace barış, sulh, huzur, rahat, sessizlik, sükunet personal Kişi özellikleri, kalitesi qualities pioneer çığır açmak, öncü olmak, önayak olmak, öncülük etmek earliest, initial, maiden, original, primary, prime process yöntem, usul, işlem, süreç, gidiş, aşama, procedure, proceeding dava, çıkıntı promote yükseltmek, terfi ettirmek, sınıf geçirmek, elevate, prefer, upgrade desteklemek [pol.], kurmak, önayak olmak, düzenlemek, organize etmek proposed önermek, teklif etmek, evlenme teklif etmek, sormak, getirmek (çözüm), ileri sürmek, offer, present, submit, tender içmek (sağlığa vb.), niyet etmek, tasarlamak realize farketmek, farkına varmak, anlamak, kavramak, idrak etmek, gerçekleştirmek, uygulamak, aklında bulundurmak, paraya çevirmek, kazanmak, kâr etmek conceive, envisage, envision, fancy, feature, image, imagine, vision, visualize recommendatio tavsiye, öğüt, öğütleme advise n refugee mülteci, muhacir, sığınan kimse displaced person, DP, émigré, evacuee, fugitive replacement yedek, değiştirme, yerine koyma, yerine geçen kimse, protez alternate, backup, fill-in, locum tenens, pinch hitter, stand-in, sub, succedaneum, surrogate rescue kurtarma, hayat kurtarma, imdat, yardım deliver, redeem, ransom, reclaim, save
17 residential yerleşim, oturmaya elverişli, meskun, ikâmetgâh responsible sorumlu, mesul, sorumluluk sahibi, güvenilir, accountable, amenable, answerable, liable emin, sağlam, sorumluluk gerektiren roots kaynak, memba derivation, fountain, fountainhead, inception, origin, provenance, provenance scholarships bilim, bilginlik, burs, öğrenim erudition, knowledge, learning, science services servis takımı, çay takımı, araç gereçler, aletler specialist uzman doktor, uzman, mütehassıs, cober (borsa) subject bağlı, tabi, bağımlı, maruz, karşı karşıya collateral, dependent, secondary, sub, olan, çeken, eğilimi olan tributary, under such a good Bunun gibi iyi bir yer place the early 1970 lerin başında 1970 s through bir uçtan bir uca, sayesinde, içinden, by way of, by dint of, by means of, by virtue arasından, baştan başa, yüzünden of, because of, due to, owing to thus böyle, böylece, bunun için, nitekim, bu nedenle, bu ölçüde accordingly, consequently, ergo, hence, so, then, thereupon undertake üstlenmek, yüklenmek, girişmek, söz try, take on, promise vermek, garanti etmek while iken, olduğu halde, irken, sırasında, karşın, although, howbeit, much as, when, whereas rağmen, oysa, halbuki willingness isteklilik, isteyerek yapma, içinden gelme, voluntary gönüllülük without medikçe, meksizin except
18 9-THE OLYMPIC GAMES may be athletes winning carry bronze satellites armchairs ceremony thousands When the next Olympic Games begin, (1) will (2) TV pictures of the opening (3) to millions of people (4) of miles away. From their (5) these people will be able to see their country's (6) competing in events and (7) (8) a (9), silver or even gold medal. spectacle consider commercialism wreath When we (10) the size, the (11) and the (12) of the modem Olympic Games, it is difficult to remember that they started in Olympia in Greece in 776 BC with only one race, a sprint, for which the prize for the winner was an olive (13). compete conceived vast appropriately The idea of an international Olympic Games was (14) by a Frenchman, Baron Pierre de Coubertin, and, (15), the first modern Olympic Games opened in Athens in Nowadays, major cities (16) to host the Olympic Games, not just for the honour the Games bring, but for the (17) amount of profit a host country can make. troops boycotted statements including nearly politically decided security The games have also become (18) important. They can now be seen by (19) every country in the world and are, therefore, an ideal platform for political (20). When Soviet (21) invaded Afghanistan in 1980, many countries in the West, (22) Britain and the United States, (23) the Moscow Games. in 1984 some countries (24) not to send teams to the Los Angeles Games because they felt there was not enough (25). nations continue circumstances In (26) like these, the Olympic ideal and spirit comes into question. And for athletes, there is less value in winning a gold medal if the best of the world's athletes are not competing. The question is - how much longer will the Games survive if (27) (28) to use them as a political platform?
19 KELİME ANLAM EŞ ANLAM appropriately uygun olarak fit armchairs koltuk athletes atlet, sporcu boycott boykot etmek bronze bronz, tunç, bronz sanat eseri carry taşımak, kaldırmak, nakletmek, götürmek, çekmek; bulundurmak, getirmek, sevketmek, sağlamak, elde etmek, başarı kazanmak, satışa sunmak, yayımlamak, geçirmek, taşıyıcılık yapmak, menzili olmak, çakmak ceremony dinsel tören, tören, merasim, seremoni, ayin, resmiyet, resmilik, nezaket kuralları, protokol, dini tören attend, bear, chaperon, companion, company, conduct, consort (with), convoy, escort, get, impress, influence, inspire, move, strike, sway, touch ceremonial, formality, liturgy, rite, ritual circumstances zenginlik, şartlar, varlık, koşullar episode, event, go, happening, incident, occasion, thing commercialism ticari anlayış, ticari tutum, ticari terim compete yarışmak, çekişmek, rekabet etmek, contend, contest, rival, vie mücâdele etmek conceived tasarlanmış consider göz önüne almak, hesaba katmak, addetmek, göz önünde bulundurmak, düşünmek, göz önünde tutmak, dikkate almak; saygı göstermek, saymak; görmek; fikrinde olmak contemplate, excogitate, mind, perpend, ponder, study, continue devam etmek, sürmek, sürdürmek, uzatmak; uzamak, kalmak, ertelemek abide, carry through, endure, last, perdure, persist decided kararlaştırılmış; kararlı, azimli; kesin; açık; assured, clear-cut, definite, pronounced tartışmasız, şüphesiz including kapsayan, dahil comprehend, contain, embody, embrace, encompass, have, involve, subsume, take in maybe belki, olabilir perhaps nations nearly milletler, uluslar neredeyse, az daha, takriben, hemen hemen, az kalsın, yakından about, all but, almost, approximately, as good as, just about, more or less, most, much, politically politik olarak, kurnazca, çıkarlar doğrultusunda, iyi düşünülmüş biçimde satellites uydu, peyk accompanying, ancillary, attendant, security spectacle statements depozito, güvenlik, emniyet, güvenlik önlemleri, selamet, rehin, ipotek, teminât, kefalet, güvence oyun [tiy.], piyes, garip davranış, görünüş, görüntü, manzara ifade, beyan, demeç, açıklama, söz, rapor, bilanço, bildirme, tarife binlerce attending, coincident, collateral, incident assurance, safeness, aegis, armament, armor, guard, protection, safeguard, shield, ward demonstration, display, show utterance, vent, voice thousands troops asker, birlikler, askeri kuvvetler armed forces, forces, military, servicemen vast geniş, çok, çok büyük, uçsuz bucaksız, dünya kadar colossal, enormous, giant, gigantic, immense, monumental, titanic, tremendous, whopping winning kazanan, birinci olan, hoş, sevimli, dostça, kazandıran wreath çelenk, halka, halka şeklinde duman chaplet, coronal, coronet, crown, garland
20 10-TRAVEL AND TOURISM constituted prepared government source accounted for household housing employment A report recently (1) for a large international travel service and banking company found out that travel and tourism (2) almost $ 2 trillion of the sales in 1987, making it the largest (3) of (4) in the world. Personal travel (5) about two thirds of this, leaving the rest for business and (6) travel. The biggest spenders on personal travel were the US, Japan, Germany, Britain and France; and in most of these developed countries it was the third largest item of (7) spending after housing and food. tour continent backpackers transformed revolutionized experiencing (8) operators say the industry is (9) "a second revolution". in the first, Europe (10) travel with the cheap package holiday within the (11), which (12) many Mediterranean economies. More recently, tourists have begun to travel further away. Until the mid-1980's, the market was limited to the rich on the one hand and the (13) on the other. intercontinental destinations expectations extended rising (14) incomes and (15) have changed all that. Travellers who are tired of the Mediterranean or those who can afford second holidays in the winter expect the package holiday concept to be (16) to (17) (18). By chartering 500-seat jumbo jets and booking hotels and apartments in Florida and the Caribbean, tour operators have made formerly luxury tourist spots available to a lowerincome market. immediately estimates employment industry indirectly poses Although this (19) risks which developing countries have not faced before, the benefits are more (20) apparent. The Caribbean Tourist Association (21) that the (22) now 25 provides jobs directly or indirectly for 330,000 people in the region. Others put the figure higher. Some estimates put Third World (23) in travel and tourism at more than 50 million.