1 Translation strategies Chesterman, Ch. 4. Strategies are forms of explicitly textual manipulation. They are directly observable from the translation product itself, in comparison with the source text. EXCLUDED translatorial actions - looking something up, accessing a database, checking a reference, reaching for the phone, going for a walk... goal-oriented problem-centered potentially-conscious intersubjective
2 classification comprehension strategies the analysis of the source text and the whole nature of the translation commission production strategies the results of various comprehension strategies how the translator manipulates the linguistic material in order to produce an appropriate target text syntactic semantic pragmatic
3 syntactic strategies syntactic strategies primarily manipulate form: 1. literal translation 2. loan, calque 3. transposition 4. unit shift 5. phrase structure change 6. clause structure change 7. sentence structure change 8. cohesion change 9. level shift 10. scheme change
4 1 - literal translation maximally close to the SL form, but nevertheless grammatical this strategy has the status of a default value one only needs to deviate from literal translation if for some reason or other it does not work
5 2 - loan, calque the borrowing of individual items and the borrowing of syntagma übermensch (GER) - superman (EN) the man in the street (EN) - l'homme dans la rue (FRE) translation of the names of international organizations The European Union - Avrupa Birliği "double presentation" proposed by Pym (1992) perestroika (or restructuring)
6 3 - transposition any change of word-class, e.g. from noun to verb, adjective to adverb. [word classes] This is the mechanical process whereby parts of speech "play musical chairs" (Fawcett's analogy) when they are translated. Grammatical structures are not often identical in different languages. "She likes swimming" translates as "Le gusta nadar" (not "nadando") - or in German, "Sie schwimmt gern", because gerunds and infinitives work in different ways in English and Spanish, and German is German (bringing in an adverb to complicate matters).
7 gönderen: from: Ali hızlı koşar. Ali hızlı koşucudur.
8 4 - unit shift morpheme, word, phrase, clause, sentence, paragraph A unit shift occurs when a ST unit is translated as a different unit in the TT: this happens very frequently, of course, and subclassifications can be set up for unit shifts of different types.
9 Dünyanın birçok kentini görmüş, farklı kültürlerle tanışmış ve artık kolay kolay heyecan duyup, şaşırmayacak kıvama ulaşan birine bu hazzı yeniden neresi yaşatabilir? Bu soruya cevap tek kelimeden ibaret: Mardin. How to rekindle the pleasure of discovery in a jaded traveler who has seen the cities of the world and made the acquaintance of different cultures? In a word: Mardin.
10 Compared with other vegetables, mushrooms are very primitive in structure. Since they do not perform photosynthesis, they attach themselves to the roots of trees, giving minerals to the tree while obtaining the sugar they need from its roots. Mantar, yapı itibari ile diğer sebzelere göre çok ilkeldir. Fotosentez işlevini yapamadığı için ağaç köklerine yapışır ve şeker ihtiyacını köklerinden temin ederken ağaçlara da mineral verir.
11 5 - phrase structure change This strategy (or rather group of strategies) comprises a number of changes at the level of the phrase, including number, definiteness and modification in the noun phrase, and person, tense and mood in the verb phrase. The unit itself may remain unchanged, i.e. an ST phrase may still correspond to a TT phrase, but its internal structure changes.
12 Imagine their surprise when one month later they found their favourite band playing a secret show in Las Vegas during their planned trip there. Bir ay sonra gittikleri Las Vegas ta çok sevdikleri bu grubun gizli bir gösteride çaldığını öğrendiklerinde yaşadıkları şaşkınlığı hayal edebiliyor musunuz?
13 6 - clause structure change the change affects the organization of the constituent phrases [i.e. subject, object, complement, adverbial] of the clause. Examples include changes from active to passive, finite to non-finite, transitive to intransitive in the verb phrase or rearrangement of the clause constituents.
14 Arkadaşlarıyla sahilde o güzel bir haftalık tatil geçmiş, Engin şafakla birlikte öğretmenlik yaptığı o küçük kasabaya doğru yol almıştı. After spending a nice week-long vacation at the beach with his friends, Engin set out at dawn for the little town where he works as a teacher.
15 7 - sentence structure change changes in the structure of the sentence unit a change in the relationship between main clauses and subordinate clauses
16 In the endless quest for athletic advantage, a handful of major league baseball teams are engaged in an elaborate, largely clandestine race to master an advanced imaging technology that some baseball officials think could influence the way athletes of all ages train, perform and recover from injuries. Atletizmde sürekli üstünlük arayışında olan birkaç birinci lig beyzbol takımı ileri düzeyde bir görüntüleme teknolojisini öğrenmek için çok ayrıntılı ve gizli bir yarışın içine girdiler. Bazı beyzbol yetkilileri söz konusu teknolojinin tüm yaş grubundan atletlerin antreman yapmasını, performansını ve sakatlıkları atlatmasını etkileyebileceğini düşünüyor.
17 8 - cohesion change Textual cohesion refers to how the parts of a text 'stick together' to form a fluent comprehensible whole. The cohesion change strategy affects intra-textual cohesion, which mainly takes the form of reference through pronouns, ellipsis (leaving out direct reference to something that can be understood from the previous text), substitution or repetition.
18 "Wise men talk because they have something to say; fools, because they have to say something." Bilge kişiler söyleyecek bir şeyi olduğu için konuşurlar; aptallar ise bir şey söylemiş olmak için konuşurlar.
19 9 - level shift phonological, morphological, syntactic and lexical levels Different types of languages use these levels in very different ways to express meaning. An example of level shift can be seen in how questions are often translated. Since English heavily relies on intonation as a signal of the speaker intentions, the written example below implies that the English sentence would have a strong rising intonation to make what otherwise looks like a statement into a question. The translation shifts the level, and produces the question through the standard syntactic device of inverted word order.
20 You like pop music? Pop müziği seviyor musun? Vous avez fini? Are you done? Уходите, пожалуйста! Please go away!
21 10 - scheme change rhetorical schemata such as parallelism, alliteration, and in poetry, metrical rhythm and rhyming parallelism - similar arrangement of a pair or series of words, phrases or sentences (e.g. writing I like swimming, skiing and skating instead of writing I like swimming, to ski and skating) alliteration - several words in a row begin with the same letter ST scheme X >>>> TT scheme X ST scheme X >>>> TT scheme Y ST scheme Ø >>>> TT scheme X