1 T.C. ANADOLU ÜN VERS TES YAYINI NO: 2421 AÇIKÖ RET M FAKÜLTES YAYINI NO: 1405 TURKISH SYNTAX, SEMANTICS, PRAGMATICS AND DISCOURSE (TÜRKÇE TÜMCE B LG S, ANLAMB L M, ED MB L M VE SÖYLEM ÇÖZÜMLEMES ) Yazarlar Doç.Dr. Ümit Deniz TURAN (Ünite 1, 2, 3, 4, 5) Prof.Dr. Gül DURMUfiO LU KÖSE (Ünite 6, 7) Editör Prof.Dr. Zülal BALPINAR ANADOLU ÜN VERS TES
2 Bu kitab n bas m, yay m ve sat fl haklar Anadolu Üniversitesine aittir. Uzaktan Ö retim tekni ine uygun olarak haz rlanan bu kitab n bütün haklar sakl d r. lgili kurulufltan izin almadan kitab n tümü ya da bölümleri mekanik, elektronik, fotokopi, manyetik kay t veya baflka flekillerde ço alt lamaz, bas lamaz ve da t lamaz. Copyright 2011 by Anadolu University All rights reserved No part of this book may be reproduced or stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means mechanical, electronic, photocopy, magnetic, tape or otherwise, without permission in writing from the University. UZAKTAN Ö RET M TASARIM B R M Genel Koordinatör Prof.Dr. Levend K l ç Genel Koordinatör Yard mc s Doç.Dr. Müjgan Bozkaya Ö retim Tasar mc s Prof.Dr. Erhan Ero lu Program Yöneticisi Prof.Dr. Handan Yavuz Grafik Tasar m Yönetmenleri Prof. Tevfik Fikret Uçar Ö r.gör. Cemalettin Y ld z Ö r.gör. Nilgün Salur Ölçme De erlendirme Sorumlusu Ö r.gör. Ayflegül Tokbudak Ö r.gör. Mutlu Dönmez Kitap Koordinasyon Birimi Doç.Dr. Feyyaz Bodur Uzm. Nermin Özgür Kapak Düzeni Prof. Tevfik Fikret Uçar Dizgi Aç kö retim Fakültesi Dizgi Ekibi Turkish Syntax, Semantics, Pragmatics and Discourse (Türkçe Tümce Bilgisi, Anlambilim, Edimbilim ve Söylem Çözümlemesi) ISBN Bask Bu kitap ANADOLU ÜN VERS TES Web-Ofset Tesislerinde adet bas lm flt r. ESK fieh R, Ocak 2013
3 çindekiler iii çindekiler Önsöz... vii Syntax... 1 INTRODUCTION... 3 SYNTAX... 3 GRAMMAR... 4 Descriptive and Prescriptive Grammar?... 4 Mental Grammar... 4 Competence and Performance... 6 Grammaticality vs. Acceptability... 7 Summary... 9 Self-test... Turkish Alive References Key to it is your turn The Internal Structure of Syntactic Categories: Constituents INTRODUCTION CONSTITUENTS Relationships Between the Members of a Constituent Tests for Constituency Substitution Test Deletion Test Moveability Summary Self-test Turkish Alive References Key to it is your turn Sentence Structure And Phrase Structure INTRODUCTION SENTENCES AND CLAUSES Immediate Constituents of Clauses: Subjects and Predicates Subjects Subject-verb Agreement in Sentences Predicates PHRASES AND PHRASE STRUCTURE RULES NOUN PHRASES (NPs) POSTPOSITIONAL PHRASES ADJECTIVE PHRASES ADVERB PHRASES AND ADVERBIALS The Realization of Adverbials UNIT 1 UNIT 2 UNIT 3
4 iv çindekiler VERB PHRASES Types of Verbs in Turkish Why Are Object Complements Inside The VP? What Else is in VPs? Copular Verbs Summary Self-test Turkish Alive References Key to it is your turn UNIT 4 Complex Sentences: Noun Clauses, Relative Clauses, Adverbial Clauses INTRODUCTION TYPES OF CLAUSES COORDINATION SUBORDINATION SUBORDINATE CLAUSES IN COMPLEX SENTENCES NOUN CLAUSES The Internal Structure of Noun Clauses Fact and Act Noun Clauses Independent Clauses That Function as Noun Clauses ki Diye RELATIVE CLAUSES (RCs) Forming Relative Clauses in Turkish NP Accessibility Hierarchy in RCs RC Morphemes and Their Meanings En DIk (y)ecek mifl Unproductive RC Morphemes Ir and -mez me Esl RCs as Independent Clauses TYPES OF RELATIVE CLAUSES Restrictive Relative Clauses (RRC) Non-restrictive Relative Clauses (NRC) Differences Between Restrictive and Non-restrictive Relative Clauses Headless Relative Clauses ADVERBIAL CLAUSES (Adv.C) Summary Self-test... 87
5 çindekiler v Turkish Alive References Key to it is your turn Semantics INTRODUCTION Denotation and Connotation Lexical Relations Hyponymy Synonymy Antonymy Homonymy Polysemy SENTENCE LEVEL SEMANTICS: BASIC CONCEPTS Entailment Presupposition Summary... 0 Self-test... 1 Turkish Alive... 2 References... 3 Key to It s your turn... 4 Pragmatics... 6 INTRODUCTION... 7 DEFINING PRAGMATICS... 8 THE FEATURES OF PRAGMATICS... 9 Context... 9 SPEECH ACTS Direct Speech Acts Performative Performative Verbs Identifying Performatives Felicity Conditions Indirect Speech Acts CONVERSATIONAL MAXIMS (GRICEAN MAXIMS) Quantity Quality Relation Manner Implicature DEIXIS Deictic Reference Person Deixis Place Deixis Time Deixis Presupposition POLITENESS PRINCIPLE AND FACE-SAVING Politeness as Face-Saving CONVERSATION ANALYSIS UNIT 5 UNIT 6
6 vi çindekiler Summary Self Test Turkish Alive References Key to Self Test UNIT 7 Discourse Analysis INTRODUCTION Defining Discourse Analysis (DA) Examples Of Discourse / Text Pragmatics vs. Discourse Analysis Properties Of Discourse / Text Cohesion Coherence Other Aspects Of Discourse Summary Of Discourse Properties Types Of Discourse Written and Spoken Discourse Spoken Discourse Analysis Turn-Taking Discourse Markers Summary Self-test Turkish Alive References Key to It s your turn Key to self-test Glossary
7 çindekiler vii Önsöz Sevgili ö renciler, Güz Döneminde Türkçe Ses ve Biçim Bilgisi dersinizi tamamlad n z. Türkçe nin ses ve biçim yap s hakk nda bilgi edindiniz. Bu dersimiz de ise, Türkçe nin sözcük dizini hakk nda bilgi edinecek ve dilin farkl kullan mlarda, ba lamlarda ve söylemde nas l farkl laflt n göreceksiniz. Bu ders neden burada diye sorarsan z, size yine ayn yan t verece iz. Bir yabanc dili ö renmenin, hele iyi bir yabanc dil ö renmenin ve ö retmenin yolu çok iyi bir anadil bilgisi ve becerisinden geçer. Nas l m? Size flöyle aç klamaya çal flal m. nsano lu nun sahip oldu u en önemli özelli i dil becerisidir. nsan dil kul-lanarak do adaki pek çok canl ya üstünlük kurabilmifltir. Dili iyi kullanmak onu daha etkin k lar. Dili iyi kullanmak ise dil konusunda iyi bilgi sahibi olmay ve dil bilincini gelifltirmeyi gerektirir. nsano lu'nun dil bilincini gelifltirebilece i ve canland raca- ilk alan ise kendi dilidir. Bir baflka deyiflle, anadili. Neredeyse do du umuz günden itibaren duydu umuz, fark na bile varmadan edinip, kulland m z anadilimizi konuflabilmek için, ne oldu unu, nas l ifllendi ini bilmeye gerek bile duymay z. Bir flairin dedi i gibi o bize ana sütü gibi helal verilmifl bir ödüldür. Ninnisiyle, masal ve küfürü ile her an elimizin alt ndaki bu k ymetli ödülün, arma an n nedense hiç k ymetini de bilmeyiz. Kötü kullanmam zdan öte, bir de hiç merak etmeyiz. Nas l bir dildir, ne özelli i vard r diye. Üstelik bir de fakir dil, Türkçe'de her fley anlat lamaz gibi bilir bilmez konufluruz. Yukar da sözünü etti imiz türden yaklafl mlar ve önyarg lar bizi yaln z kendi dilimiz konusunda de il genel anlamda dil olgusu konusunda da bilgisiz ve bilinçsiz k l yor. Bu durumda da bir yabanc dil ö renirken ikinci dilin yap s na, sözcük da arc na sanki hiç bir fley bilmezmifl gibi yaklafl yoruz. Türkçe'de kurulmayacak cümleleri ngilizce'de kurmaya kalk yoruz. Kendi dilimizi iyi gelifltiremedi imiz için de ikinci dilde anlatma zorlu u çekiyoruz. Sözümüzün en bafl nda dedi imiz gibi iyi bir ikinci dil kullanman n yolu iyi bir anadil bilgisi ve bilincinden geçer. Kitab m zda Türkçe Söz Dizinine ait dört ünite var. Bu ünitelerde dilimizin tümce yap s n inceleyeceksiniz. Anlambilim, Edimbilim ve Söylem Çözümlemesine ait di er üç bölüm ise size dilimizin farkl özelliklerini gösterecek. Dil kullan m m z anlam, kullan m ve söylem boyutunda size tan tmaya çal flacak. Her üniteyi sizlerin kolayca anlayabilece i, s k s k kendinizi kontrol edebilece iniz flekilde düzenledik. Yan tlar da kendinizi s nad ktan sonra kontrol edebilirsiniz. Sizleri bu kitab haz rlarken, yazd klar m z n anlafl labilirli i ve içeri in geçerlili ini s namak için ö rencilerimizden yard m istedik. Onlar özellikle Morphology ve Syntax bölümlerini dikkatle okuyarak bize yol gösterdiler. Ayflenur Dizkara, Ebru Eylem Geçgil ve Yusuf Y lmaz'a sizler ad na da burada teflekkür ediyoruz. Bu kitab n haz rlanmas s ras nda karikatürlerden birisini kullanmam za izin veren karikatür sanatç s say n Erdil Yaflaro lu na flükranlar m z sunuyoruz. Umar z bu dersin sonunda kendi dilimizle ilgili biraz daha bilgi ve bilinç sahibi olur, dil bilincinizi gelifltirir, her iki dil için de geçerli dil kullanma becerilerinizi art r rs n z. Hepinize baflar lar diliyorum. Editör Prof.Dr. Zülal BALPINAR
8 1TURKISH SYNTAX, SEMANTICS, PRAGMATICS AND DISCOURSE (TÜRKÇE TÜMCE B LG S, ANLAMB L M, ED MB L M VE SÖYLEM ÇÖZÜMLEMES ) Aims In this unit we will try to seek answers to the following questions: What is syntax? What is grammar? What types of grammar do we know? What is the distinction between descriptive and prescriptive grammar? What does mental grammar mean? What is competence? What is performance? What is grammaticality? What is acceptability? Key Words syntax grammar descriptive grammar prescriptive grammar mental grammar creativity Language Acquisition Device Universal Grammar principles parameters competence performance grammaticality acceptability Contents Turkish Syntax, Semantics, Pragmatics and Discourse (Türkçe Tümce Bilgisi, Anlambilim, Edimbilim ve Söylem Çözümlemesi) Syntax INTRODUCTION SYNTAX GRAMMAR
9 Syntax INTRODUCTION Turkish speakers know that a sentence like Ali için geldim is grammatical. However, Ali geldim is not a good Turkish sentence. This is because there are rules that govern sentence structure. These rules are part of our native speaker knowledge. We acquire these rules during our very early ages when we hear our language in our household. Only human beings are capable of acquiring languages. People can make infinite number of sentences. All of these facts make syntactic analysis very interesting. Every language has a set of rules to form sentences. Syntax investigates sentence formation rules. Surprisingly, languages show similarities in their sentence formation rules, as well as differences. Linguists investigate similar and different sentence formation rules in languages to write Universal Grammar. Syntax is the study of the rules of sentence-level grammar and the structure inside the sentence. We shall discuss what grammar means in linguistics and how it differs from traditional grammar. We shall make a difference between descriptive and prescriptive grammar. We shall also be concerned with how native speakers can distinguish grammatical and ungrammatical sentences. We shall see that there are cases where a sentence can be understood and accepted but it is ungrammatical. The opposite is also true. For example, ak ll mavi elbisem flark söylüyor is completely grammatical. But do you think that a native speaker can accept it? If you want to know the answer and be informed on syntax, start reading the chapter. SYNTAX Syntax is the study of sentence structure as well the structure of phrases that make a sentence. The sentence is considered to be the longest structural unit of which full grammatical analysis is possible even though there are sub-fields of linguistics that investigate beyond the sentence level rules of language (pragmatics and discourse analysis). Thus, the domain of syntax is confined to the analysis of sentence and its smaller components, such as clauses and phrases. As we shall see later, sentences can consist of one or more clauses, clauses can consist of two or more phrases, phrases consist of one or more words, and finally words consist of one or more morphemes. Syntax investigates both how sentences are formed and interpreted by speakers and hearers.
10 4 Turkish Syntax, Semantics, Pragmatics and Discourse (Türkçe Tümce Bilgisi, Anlambilim, Edimbilim ve Söylem Çözümlemesi) GRAMMAR Descriptive and Prescriptive Grammar For non-linguists, grammar pertains to a set of rules that prescribes what should be said and how certain sounds, phrases or sentences should not be used. For example, don t use olan in a sentence as yar n gelecek olan arkadafl m zmir de oturuyor. Yalç n (1997:13) gives some prescriptive rules in his book as common mistakes made in Turkish. He says: Don t say banyo, dufl, kahvalt, içki ald m; but say içki içtim, banyo yapt m, dufl yapt m, kahvalt yapt m, etc. These and other such rules try to explicate some of the standard and non-standard varieties of the language as well as some rules made up by a language authority who thinks that the language should be used in a particular way. This type of normative grammar that imposes correct language use is known as prescriptive grammar and its function is to tell people what is good vs. bad language use. Most of the time these rules do not reflect the way in which language is actually used by native speakers and they fail to account for the real rules of the language. In contrast to prescriptive grammars, descriptive grammars consist of accounts for the real life language use. Descriptive grammar does not impose patterns of the so-called correct language rules. Unlike prescriptive grammar, descriptive grammar is not judgmental, it does not group the language produced by native speakers as correct or incorrect. In other words, it does not dictate that language should be used in a particular way. Descriptive grammar aims to explain the language exactly as it is spoken or written by native speakers. A linguist is necessarily descriptive, but language teachers are prescriptive since they must teach the varieties of the language that are spoken by well-educated speakers. Read the following sentence (from Oya Adal s book (2003: 79)): 1 1 Sinirleri bir hayli bozulmufl, ziyadesiyle üzülmüfltü. Adal suggests It is your that turn! the sentence above is not a good sentence of Turkish. Instead, she 2 suggests that 2 the sentence should be used as in the following: Sinirleri bir hayli bozulmufl, kendisi ziyadesiyle üzülmüfltü. Adal says that the sentence above consists of two sentences. The subject of the first sentence 3 is the answer 3 to the question bozulan ne?, sinirleri. The subject of the second sentence is Kim üzülmüfltü? She says that since the one who feels sad is not sinirleri, we should use a subject It in is your the turn! second sentence. 4 Answer the 4 following questions about Adal s remark: I. Why do you think that Adal does not like the first sentence above? II. Is her It is approach your turn! descriptive or prescriptive? 5 III. Would 5 the syntactic analysis approach be different from Adal s suggestion? IV. What would a teacher of Turkish say about this sentence? Mental Grammar 6 As the American 6 linguist Noam Chomsky, as well as the German linguist Wilhelm von Humboldt noted, any language consists of infinite number of sentences that can be created It is your by turn! speakers of that language. The number of vocabulary in a 7 language 7is limited. We can find all words in a language in a dictionary; whereas, it is impossible to find a list of all possible sentences of a language. Language is
11 Unit 1 - Syntax 5 creative in this sense. This means that people can produce or understand sentences that they have never heard before. They can bring words together to form phrases or sentences that they have never heard before. They can bring words together to form phrases or sentences that are completely new. This creativity and the relative ease and rate of language acquisition have led linguists like Chomsky to believe that there is an independent biological device in the human mind that is specifically reserved for language faculty. Formerly, this device was coined as Language Acquisition Device (LAD) by Chomsky, later renamed as Universal Grammar (UG). Universal Grammar postulates that the language faculty in the human mind is biologically pre-programmed with the common properties and constraints of human languages. Human languages have a great deal in common, which enables us to translate ideas from one language to another. They also have differences. The Universal Grammar approach claims that human beings are inherently endowed with a universal set of principles and parameters which limit the possible structures in a particular language and which allows all languages to be similar in some respects. Principles are those abstractions that do not vary across languages. No principle can be violated in any human language. For example, all human languages are structure-dependent. This means that every human language is systematic at every level, including the levels of phrase and sentence structure. We do not obtain phrases or sentences merely by putting words in a random order. Rather, there are some underlying rules that govern sentence structure. So, all sentences in any language are formed and understood based on rules. No sentence can be formed without any systematic underlying rules. Furthermore, all human languages exhibit the property of recursion. This means that it is possible for one sentence to contain other clause(s). A clause is a grammatical unit that has a subject and a verb. For example, the simple sentence in (1) forms part of the complex sentence in (2), and the resulting sentence can form part of a still more complex sentence. Recursive embedding is shown in (5) up to a level of five embeddings. 1. Ali gitti. 2. Ahmet Ali nin gitti ini söyledi. 3. Can bana Ahmet in Ali nin gitti ini söyledi ini haber verdi. 4. Okulda karfl laflt m Can bana Ahmet in Ali nin gitti ini söyledi ini haber verdi. 5. Dün gitti im okulda karfl laflt m Can bana Ahmet in Ali nin gitti ini söyledi ini haber verdi. The property of recursion of clauses is also known as the Embedding Principle of human languages. There are also variations in human language, which are known as parameters. For example, while Turkish is a verb-final language, English has Subject-Verb- Object order. While all English tensed clauses must have an overt subject, we can drop subjects in Turkish sentences. These types of possibilities constitute parameters.
12 6 Turkish Syntax, Semantics, Pragmatics and Discourse (Türkçe Tümce Bilgisi, Anlambilim, Edimbilim ve Söylem Çözümlemesi) Since the human brain is not a blank slate, but it is biologically pre-programmed including these principles and parameters of Universal Grammar, most theories of syntax aim at investigating the mental grammar. More specifically, the aim of linguistic research is to seek answers to questions such as: a) What constitutes knowledge of language? b) How is knowledge of language acquired? c) How is this knowledge put into use? Even though native speakers speak and write their language perfectly well, the linguistic knowledge of native language is usually taken for granted. Everybody has some assumptions about language and the structure of language is assumed to be transparent for native speakers. However, this knowledge is implicit and subconscious. Thus, native speakers have subconscious mental representations of language which underlie language use. Linguistic theory aims to describe the mental representations of language which are stored in the human mind. The notion of Universal Grammar, therefore, is a term of grammar that investigates the cognitive system of language in the human mind. Human beings are special in terms of their capacity for language; no other species owns language faculty as such. Thus, It there is your turn! must be some specific property of human mind which can be 1 illuminated 1 through analysis of language. Answer the following questions. 2 I. Turkish 2 sentences have an order of Subject-Object-Verb, while English sentences are ordered as Subject-Verb-Object. What would Universal Grammar say about this type It of is your variation turn! across languages? 3 II. In 3Turkish we can use sentences with null subjects, as Gitti ini gördüm. What would Universal Grammar say about this? 4 Competence 4 and Performance As has been stated above, linguists investigate what native speakers actually do rather than what a rule-maker says what native speakers should do. Linguists try to understand how mental grammar works. In order to achieve their goal, they 5 5 investigate the actual data as it is spoken or written by native speakers, and they ask judgments of native speakers on some made-up sentences. Native speakers have unconscious knowledge of the rules of their native language in their minds. 6 This is known 6 as grammatical competence. Competence is the knowledge of a native speaker about the rules of his/her native language in an ideal community, under ideal It circumstances. is your turn! Competence includes the knowledge of both forming 7 phrases and 7 sentences as well as native speaker intuitions about the grammaticality or ungrammaticality of sentences. Native speaker intuitions are thus part of their competence. 8 This notion 8 is in contrast with performance, which includes the production of a speaker s native language. Very often performance is an imperfect reflection of competence. It is your For turn! example, people can have slips of the tongue in every day 9 speech, they 9 may have false starts; they may not complete their sentences because they may be tired or bored. All these are called performance errors. Thus, native speaker mistakes cannot be attributed to lack of knowledge of linguistic rules but to other performance factors we gave above, such fatigue, boredom, etc
13 Unit 1 - Syntax 7 Syntax is primarily concerned with the native speaker s competence, i.e. what one needs to know in order to be a fluent speaker of that language in 1 terms of 1 sentence structure. As a result, syntax investigates what native speakers implicitly know about sentence grammar of their language. So, in a way It is it your can turn! be considered as a study on a part of cognition. 2 2 Answer the following questions. I. What is the difference between competence and performance? 3 3 II. Is syntactic analysis mainly concerned with competence or performance? Why? Grammaticality vs. Acceptability 4 4 We have stated above that descriptive grammar does not make judgments about the correct use of language. This should not be confused with grammaticality judgments of native speakers. Grammaticality is a descriptive term, while correctness is a prescriptive term. Native speakers of Turkish can 5recognize 5 ungrammatical and grammatical sentences, such as: 6. *Geldi gördüm Ali ben Ben Ali nin geldi ini gördüm. The sentence in (6) is an ungrammatical, or a syntactically ill-formed, sentence; 7 7 while, (7) is grammatical. A grammatical, or well-formed, sentence means a sentence which can possibly be produced spontaneously by a native speaker in the appropriate context. It is a convention to mark an ungrammatical sentence with an asterisk (*) in the linguistics literature. As far as the structure of 8sentences 8 is concerned, we have to account for grammaticality as well as ungrammaticality in order to explain how ungrammatical sentences are It is differentiated your turn! from grammatical sentences. Native speakers can recognize ungrammatical 9 and 9 grammatical sentences of their language. Since, as we stated above, linguistic research, including syntax, aims at investigating this mental knowledge of grammar of a native speaker, both grammaticality and ungrammaticality should be explained. Grammatical analysis must provide a set of well-formedness conditions and should distinguish them from ill-formed sentences. A very important notion of syntactic endeavor is descriptive adequacy. Linguists achieve descriptive adequacy when they can accurately describe a syntactic rule and when their rule does not overgenerate, namely when the rule does not generate ungrammatical sentences. Thus, explicit rules posited by syntax must be able to reflect It is the your native turn! speaker s mental model about producing those grammatical sentences. It should 12 be able to 12 tell that certain sentences are grammatical, while others are not, it should explain some sentences are ambiguous (they have more than one meaning,), etc. There are cases where sentences can be grammatical but strange, as 13 we shall 13 see below. Consider the following sentences: 8. Ben bal m n yemini yemedi ini gördüm. 9. Ben kardeflimin geldi ini gördüm.. Ben bal m n geldi ini gördüm. The sentences in (8) and (9) are completely grammatical and acceptable. However, most Turkish speakers would think that a sentence like () is somewhat
14 8 Turkish Syntax, Semantics, Pragmatics and Discourse (Türkçe Tümce Bilgisi, Anlambilim, Edimbilim ve Söylem Çözümlemesi) weird. There does not seem to be a problem with the structure of the sentence, because () is exactly like (9), except for the fact that one word is different in (), i.e. bal m n, which is a noun like the word in (9) kardeflimin. The problem here is not a structural problem. Nevertheless, we tend to reject the sentence based on our world knowledge. We know that under normal circumstances (e.g. except for in novels, stories, etc.) fish cannot walk. We can say that () is grammatical and yet it is not acceptable. Now consider (11): 11. *Ben bal m n yemini yemedi gördüm. Sentence (11) is ungrammatical. It may be produced by a tired native speaker. Still, hearers can interpret this sentence in terms of meaning. So, it can be acceptable, although it is ungrammatical. Therefore, as we have separated the notion of grammaticality from that of correctness, we have to make a distinction between the terms of grammaticality and acceptability. Syntax is primarily concerned with whether words are properly combined to form a sentence rather than whether the sentence is meaningful, weird, or logical. Sentence () above thus shows a sentence in which words are properly put It is to your form turn! a grammatical sentence, but the result is semantically odd. 1 This shows 1 that syntax is autonomous, it has an independent status apart from meaning. Our aim in the following chapters on syntax is to make the reader aware of the structure of Turkish. Such awareness is of crucial importance for language teachers 2 2 and any language professional, such as translators, textbook writers, etc. This knowledge will provide a systematic frame of reference for the language teacher to relate details It is your to turn! one another within a systematic whole, which would otherwise 3 remain obscure 3 and unrelated. Answer the following questions. 4 Discuss whether 4 the following sentences are grammatical, acceptable, and correct or not. I. Ahmet yaflayan bir ölüdür. II. Bu flekilde befl köfleli bir üçgen görünmektedir. III. Sana 1.85 cm. boyunda olman emrediyorum. 5 5 IV. Dün akflam sinemaya gidece iz. V. Duymad m ben Murat n geldi dün
15 Unit 1 - Syntax 9 Summary In this unit, we have seen that syntax investigates the structure of sentences and their component units. The aim of syntactic analysis is to write rules to specify, or generate, all and only grammatical sentences in a language, while excluding those that are ungrammatical. We can define grammar as a set of rules in a language that describes phonological, morphological, and syntactic regularities. We have seen that syntactic investigation is not prescriptive. This means that it does not provide any rules that should be obeyed by speakers. Therefore, syntactic analysis, like all levels of linguistic analysis, is descriptive. Syntax describes how language is structured, rather than imposing correct language use. We have also seen that since language is specifically a human property, language analysis will shed light on how the human mind works. Thus, syntactic analysis can be considered as a study of human cognitive abilities. The human mind consists of a faculty which is specific for language. All native speakers have implicit knowledge of the grammatical rules of their native language. This knowledge is known as competence. Competence is in contrast with performance, which is defined as the manifestation of language in actual use. In syntax, we analyze grammatical sentences and we try to write rules that can only generate grammatical sentences. Since we do not want our rules to generate ungrammatical sentences, we also compare and contrast ungrammatical sentences with grammatical sentences. So, ungrammaticality is a notion that concerns us as well as grammaticality. We have also seen that some sentences can simply be weird even if they are grammatical. This is a difference that we explained by the notion of acceptability vs. unacceptability.
16 Turkish Syntax, Semantics, Pragmatics and Discourse (Türkçe Tümce Bilgisi, Anlambilim, Edimbilim ve Söylem Çözümlemesi) Self-test 1. Consider the following: It is not correct to use neden and için together in a sentence as Çok çal flmam m nedeni s nav geçmek için. One would expect to find such a statement in: a. Descriptive grammar b. Prescriptive grammar c. Mental grammar d. Competence e. Grammaticality 2. Descriptive grammar: a. is judgmental b. does not make a distinction between correct and incorrect language use. c. describes only the use of the language of highly educated people. d. states that we should always make grammatical sentences. e. sets some norms. 3. Language is creative because: a. The number of sentences in a language is limited. b. Speakers can make sentences that they have never heard before. c. Speakers can create new words. d. There are many rules in a language. e. Speakers can create new rules in their native language. 4. Universal Grammar: a. investigates some inborn and unconscious knowledge about what can constitute a human language. b. includes descriptive and prescriptive grammar. c. informs us that not all languages are alike. d. informs us that some languages do not have any rules. e. informs us that there are no differences in human languages. 5. Which one of the following is an example of recursion? a. Ben bunu yapmad m. b. Nuri her gün salata yer. c. Canan Ali ye olay anlatt. d. Ben senin ne yapt n bilmiyorum. e. Her akflam iki saat boyunca kitap okur. 6. Which one of the following is NOT correct about syntax? a. It is the study of sentence structure b. It is the study of rules of a language beyond sentence. c. It investigates how sentences are made. d. It investigates how sentences are understood. e. It investigates smaller units of sentences. 7. Competence: a. is what a native speaker knows about the grammatical rules of his/her language. b. is what a native speaker knows when s/he learns a foreign language. c. is full of hesitations and other imperfections. d. is not abstract. e. includes a speaker s knowledge about the world in general. 8. Consider the following: Some native speakers of Turkish inform us that both k z n y lan sokan adam dün geldi and k z n y lan n soktu u adam dün geldi are sentences that can be used in the language. In the former case y lan is indefinite; while in the latter it is definite, a certain snake that is known by the speaker and hearer. This type of analysis is an example of: a. Descriptive grammar b. Prescriptive grammar c. Universal Grammar d. Acceptability e. Grammaticality 9. Competence of a native speaker does NOT include: a. hesitations, false starts, etc. in spoken language. b. unconscious knowledge about the rules of grammar. c. intuitions about ungrammatical sentences d. interpretation of sentences e. knowledge about forming phrases.. What can we say about the following sentence? nsanlar k rm z sevgi denizinde bo ulmufllar. a. It is grammatical but unacceptable. b. It is grammatical and acceptable. c. It is illogical. d. It is ungrammatical but acceptable. e. It is ungrammatical and unacceptable.
17 Unit 1 - Syntax 11 Turkish Alive Read the following and try to answer whether it has a descriptive or prescriptive approach. Herkesin yapt, yanl fl olur mu? Radikal 2 Temmuz 1999 NECM YE ALPAY Türkçe söz konusu oldu unda, bilimsel disiplin gere i kesinleyici dil kullanmaktan kaç nmas beklenebilecek kifliler bile kolayca yanl fl/do ru hükmü verebiliyor. Tan k oldu um ilk örnek kendi kalemimden ç km flt. Sonuncusu, Emre Kongar n tarihli Cumhuriyet gazetesindeki En Çok Yap lan Yanl fllar bafll kl yaz s. lk örnek dedi im yaz m on y l önce, Metis Çeviri dergisinin dokuzuncu say s nda yay mlanm flt. Konu, kötü çevirilerin ve ngilizce nin Türkçe üstündeki olumsuz etkilerinden kaynakland n düflündü üm sorunlar, pardon, yanl fl lard. Anlam fl oldu unuz üzere, o yaz da ben de ço u kifli gibi dil yanl fl sözünü büyük bir rahatl kla, bol bulamaç kullan yor, kendime göre do ru olan belirli bir kullan ma ayk r gördü üm her örne i yanl fl buluyordum. Kuralc dilbilgisi yandafl say laca m akl ma bile gelmemiflti. Bu yöndeki bilimsel elefltiri, Bo aziçi Üniversitesi nden, Ifl n Bengi den geldi. Bengi, Dilbilim Araflt rmalar adl üniversiteleraras y ll n 1993 say s nda (Hitit Yay., Ankara), benimki de içinde olmak üzere Metis Çeviri dergisinde ç km fl yaz lardan baz lar n elefltirel bilinç aç s ndan elden geçiriyordu. Bengi nin yaz s n ilk okudu umda tats z bir duyguya kap ld m an ms yorum. Ne demifller, elefltiri çikolata de il ki a za tat versin. [...] Dolay s yla, Ifl n Bengi nin yaz s n bir güzel unutmuflum. Buna karfl l k, yaz dan yararlanmaktan geri durmay p Türkçe konusunda kolay kolay yanl fl/do ru diyemez olmuflum. Sonradan fark ettim. Kuralc teriminin aç klamas n, Berke Vardar yönetiminde haz rlanm fl Dilbilim Terimleri Sözlü ü nden alal m: Gerçekten kullan lan olgular ortaya koymaya çal flan betimsel dilbilime karfl t olarak, bir dilde zorunlu olarak ortaya ç kan yeni biçimleri, ülküsel ve donmufl bir örnek u runa yads yan, iyi kullan m, güzel kullan m, yanl fl diye nitelendirilen biçimlere karfl savunan, sorunlar yanl fl-do ru karfl tl içinde ele alan geleneksel dilbilgisini nitelemek için kullan l r. Dilbilgisinde kuralc tutum, bilimsel anlay flla çeliflir. Benzer bir tan m için, Nurettin Koç un Dilbilgisi Terimleri Sözlü ü ne de bak labilir. Denebilir ki bizler iflin bilimini yapm yor, uygulamas na bak yoruz. Ancak, böyle olmas iflin bilimini gözönünde tutmay engellemedi i gibi, gerekli de k l yor. Bilim her zaman do ru söyledi inden de il. (Kuralc l k da bilimdendi). Birincisi, insan n ufkunu geniflletip düflünme, bilerek konuflma olana verdi inden. kincisi, dilbilim yaz lar nda, kesinleyici dil de içinde, elefltirilecek pek çok Türkçe uygulama sorunu bulundu undan! Kongar n söz konusu yaz s ndaki bu yanl fl da hemen hemen herkes yap yor belirtimi, aç kça kuralc dilbilgisinden yana görünüyor. fiu var ki Kongar n, bu belirtiminde kuralc / betimlemeci ayr m n dikkate ald n pek sanm yorum: Alm fl olsa bunu özel olarak belirtirdi. Yukar da da dedi im gibi, dile dikkat eden ço u okuryazarda görülen bir e ilim olarak, belirli kullan mlar, çok da tan mlanmam fl, en az ndan gelifltirilmemifl bir do ru ya göre yanl fl buluyor. Bu, izlenimsel elefltiri diyebilece imiz, benim yazd klar m da kapsayan bir elefltiri/de erlendirme türünün kolayca düflebilece- i bir tuzak, ama kaç n lmaz de il, gibi geliyor bana. Kongar n hemen hemen herkes taraf ndan yap l yor derken kastetti i yanl fl merak edilmifl olabilir. Arapça ço ul ekine bir de Türkçe ço ul eki eklenmesinden söz ediyor: mücevheratlar, icraatlar gibi. Böylece, yayg nlaflan gereksiz anlamsal yinelemelerden birine iflaret etmifl oluyor. Yine de bu yayg nlaflman n nedenleri aras nda, Türkçe nin bir huyu bulunuyor olamaz m? Zaman içinde ço uldan ço ula fark oluflturmak istiyordur belki... Ya da, söz konusu sözcüklere zaman içinde tekillik kazand racakt r. Sözgelimi, icraat sözcü ünün tekiline pek rastlanmaz oldu... Aç kças, ayk r l klara iflaret edilirken, cahillik ten ve ukalal k tan baflka nedenleri de olabilece i düflünülse demeye çal fl yorum. Kongar söz konusu yaz s nda öyle yapm yor. S ralad yanl fl lardan biri de ne... ne... ba lac ndan sonra cümlenin olumsuz fiille bitirilmesi. Ancak, bu fikri, yerleflik bir kuraldan söz edercesine, gerekçelendirmeden dile getiriyor. Oysa Memet Fuat n Cumhuriyet teki köflesinde de ( ve ) uzun uzun ele alm fl oldu u üzere, tart flmal bir nokta bu. Uygulamada iki türlüsüne de rastlan yor. (Yeri gelmiflken bu konuda Kongar n seçimine kat ld m belirtmeliyim. Ne... ne... ba lac ndan sonra fiil de olumsuz yap l rsa anlamsal yineleme do uyor; olumsuzluk, gereksiz yere yinelenmifl oluyor.) Herkesin yapt yanl fl tan söz etmek belki daha çok, bilimsel disiplini baflka alanlarda edinmifl olanlar n bafl na geliyordur: Bilindi i gibi, pek çok alanda, herkesin yapt yanl fl, yanl fl olmaktan ç km yor. Dil alan nda ise bir ad m sonra, galat meflhur nitelemesiyle de olsa bünyeye yerleflip, göze batmaz oluyor. Kongar n ele ald m yaz s nda bir kötüleflme buldu umu söylemek zorunday m. Tam bir y l önce ayn sütunlarda yazd birkaç yaz, karfl laflt r lmaz ölçüde iyiydi tarihli olan na, ço ul eki konusundaki (tümüyle kat ld m) görüflünü kimsede rastlamad m bir netlik ve incelikle gerekçelendiriyordu. Üstelik, dilde bu budur demek zor anlay fl n savunarak.
18 12 Turkish Syntax, Semantics, Pragmatics and Discourse (Türkçe Tümce Bilgisi, Anlambilim, Edimbilim ve Söylem Çözümlemesi) References Adal, Oya/(2003) Anlamak ve Anlatmak. Pan Yay nlar, stanbul. Radford, Andrew (1997) Syntax: A Minimalist Introduction. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. Yalç n, fiiar. (1997) Do ru Türkçe. Metis Yay nlar, stanbul. Linguistic Society of America What is Correct Language? Key to 1 1 I. Adal says that It is your a turn! sentence such as Sinirleri bir 2 2 hayli bozulmufl, ziyadesiyle üzülmüfltü is not 3correct, because 3 there are two clauses here, as follows: 4 4 a. Sinirleri bozulmufltu. b. Ziyadesiyle It is your üzülmüfltü. turn! 5 5 In (a) the subject is sinirleri and in (b) the subject 6is the person 6 who is being talked about. Since the subjects It are is your turn! different, Adal suggests that we 7 7 should express both subjects. II. Adal s approach is prescriptive because she 8 8 prescribes how the sentence should be used. A 9descriptive 9 approach would only describe the sentence as It it is your is turn! used. III. Syntactic analysis would suggest that native speakers can use null subjects and that Turkish allows subject drop. IV. 12 A Turkish teacher 12 can be prescriptive and s/he might state the It is your same turn! rule as Adal I. Turkish has It is your Subject-Object-Verb turn! order, but 3 3 English has Subject-Verb-Object order. This is a 4variation and 4 it is considered to be a parameter of Universal Grammar. 5 5 II. In Turkish, while a sentence such as Gitti ini gördüm is grammatical, in English saw is gone is 6 6 not. This is a difference across languages. Some 7languages allow 7 subject drop; others like English do not. Snice It is this your turn! is also a difference, it is known 8 8 as parameter. This is known as pro-drop or nullsubject parameter
19 I. Competence It is your is turn! the subconscious knowledge of 4 4 a native speaker about the rules of his/her language. Performance is the language that is 5 5 used by the native speaker. Thus, competence 6is abstract 6because it cannot be directly seen or heard, but It is it your turn! can be tested by asking the 7 7 speaker s intuitions on sentence grammaticality. 8Performance, 8 on the other hand, is concrete because we can hear and tape record what a 9 9 speaker says or we can read what a writer has written. II. Syntax is mainly concerned with the analysis of 11sentence formation 11 rules in the cognition of native speakers. Linguists who are involved in syntactic analysis ask native speaker judgments in order to It understand is your turn! the rules they have as a part of their 1 competence. Syntax is not concerned with performance errors, such as slips 2 2 of the tongue or incomplete sentences that are produced under stress or fatigue, etc. 3 3 Unit 1 - Syntax 13 V. *Duymad m ben Murat geldi dün. This sentence is ungrammatical because the words are not in the correct order and the verb in the embedded clause does not have the correct morphemes, such as geldi ini. 4 4 I. Ahmet yaflayan bir ölüdür. 5 5 This sentence is grammatical. However, it is not acceptable because being alive and dead at the 6 6 same time is a contradiction. We can interpret 7the sentence 7 as a metaphor only. This is grammatcal, It is your but turn! unacceptable under normal 8 8 circumstances. II. 9Bu flekilde befl 9 köfleli bir üçgen görünmektedir. This sentence is grammatical; yet it is unacceptable since üçgen has only three sides, not five. This It your turn! contradicts with our world knowledge. III. 12 *Sana boyunda olman emrediyorum. This sentence can be considered as ungrammatical, because one cannot order someone to do something that is beyond his control. To be tall is not our choice, so we cannot be tall or short with our own will. As a result, emretmek is incompatible with an involuntary verb, such as being tall. IV. *Dün akflam yeme e gidece iz. This sentence is ungrammatical because the time adverb shows past; while the morpheme. -EcEk at the verb stem indicates future.
20 2TURKISH SYNTAX, SEMANTICS, PRAGMATICS AND DISCOURSE (TÜRKÇE TÜMCE B LG S, ANLAMB L M, ED MB L M VE SÖYLEM ÇÖZÜMLEMES ) Aims In this unit we will try to seek answers to the following questions: What is a constituent? How do we represent constituents? How are constituents organized? What relationships do the members of a constituent have? What tests do we use to check constituency? Key Words constituents nodes binary branching heads immediate constituents ultimate constituents modifiers complements Contents Turkish Syntax, Semantics, Pragmatics and Discourse (Türkçe Tümce Bilgisi, Anlambilim, Edimbilim ve Söylem Çözümlemesi) The Internal Structure of Syntactic Categories: Constituents INTRODUCTION CONSTITUENTS
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