JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL AND INSTRUCTIONAL STUDIES IN THE WORLD

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1 JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL AND INSTRUCTIONAL STUDIES February 2012 Volume 2 Issue 1 ISSN:

2 February 2012, Volume: 2 Issue: 1 ISSN: Contact Addresses Prof. Dr. Zeki Kaya, Gazi Üniversitesi, Endüstriyel Sanatlar Eğitim Fakültesi, Eğitim Bilimleri Bölüm Başkanlığı, Gölbaşı Ankara/Türkiye E. Mail: Fax: Prof. Dr. Uğur Demiray, Anadolu Üniversitesi, İletişim Bilimleri Fakültesi, Yunusemre Kampüsü, Eskişehir/Türkiye E. Mail: Phone: Assist. Prof. Dr. Ilknur Istifci, Anadolu Üniversitesi, Yabancı Diller Yüksek Okulu, İki Eylül Kampusü, Eskişehir/Türkiye E. Mail: Phone: Sponsors Abstracting & Indexing WJEIS is listed in; Editors Prof. Dr. Zeki Kaya, Gazi University, Turkey Prof. Dr. Uğur Demiray, Anadolu University, Turkey Associate Editor Assist. Prof. Dr. Ilknur Istifci, Anadolu University, Turkey JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL AND INSTRUCTIONAL STUDIES i

3 February 2012, Volume: 2 Issue: 1 ISSN: Editorial Board Prof. Dr. Abdul Hakim Juri, University of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Prof. Dr. Ahmet Mahiroğlu, Gazi University, Turkey Prof. Dr. Alan Smith, The University of Southern Queensland, Australia Prof. Dr. Ali H. Raddaoui, University of Sfax, Tunisia Prof. Dr. Ali Şimşek, Anadolu University, Turkey Prof. Dr. Augustyn Bańka, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Poland Prof. Dr. Boriss Misnevs, Transport and Telecommunication Institute, Latvia Prof. Dr. Cevat Celep, Kocaeli University, Turkey Prof. Dr. Coşkun Bayrak, Anadolu University, Turkey Prof. Dr. Emine Demiray, Anadolu University, Turkey Prof. Dr. Esmahan Ağaoğlu, Anadolu University, Turkey Prof. Dr. Francis Glasgow, Guyana University, South America Prof. Dr. H. Güçlü Yavuzcan, Gazi University, Turkey Prof. Dr. Jim Flood, Open University, United Kingdom Prof. Dr. K. M. Gupta, Motilal Nehru National Institute of Technology, India Prof. Dr. Mehmet Durdu Karslı, Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Turkey Prof. Dr. Mehmet Kesim, Anadolu University, Turkey Prof. Dr. Modafar Ati, Abu Dhabi University, United Arab Emirates Prof. Dr. Mohamed Ziad Hamdan, Modern Education House, Syria Prof. Dr. Müfit Kömleksiz, Cyprus International University,TRNC Prof. Dr. Paul Kawachi, Bejing Normal University, China Prof. Dr. Ramesh C. Sharma, Indira Gandhi National Open University, India Prof. Dr. Rozhan M. Idrus, School of Distance Education, University Sains, Malaysia Prof. Dr. Santosh Panda, Indira Gandhi National Open University, India Prof. Dr. Sharif H. Guseynov, Transport and Telecommunication Institute, Latvia Prof. Dr. Tamar Lominadze, Georgian Technical University, Georgia Prof. Dr. Tayyip Duman, Gazi University, Turkey Prof. Dr. Tony Townsend, University of Glasgow, United Kingdom Prof. Dr. Valentina Dagiene, Institute of Mathematics and Informatics, Lithuania Prof. Dr. Yoav Yair,The Open University of Israel, Israel Prof. Dr. Yüksel Kavak, Hacettepe University, Turkey Prof. Dr. Zdena Lustigova, Chareles University, Czech Republic Assoc. Prof. Dr. Antonis Lionarakis, Hellenic Open University, Greece Assoc. Prof. Dr. Gonca Telli Yamamoto, Okan University, Turkey Assoc. Prof. Dr. I. Hakki Mirici, Akdeniz University, Turkey Assoc. Prof. Dr. Natalija Lepkova, Vilnius Gediminas Technical University, Lithuania Assoc. Prof. Dr. Nedim Gürses, Anadolu University, Turkey Assoc. Prof. Dr. Shivakumar Deene, Karnataka State Open University, India Assoc. Prof. Dr. Steve Wheeler, University of Plymouth, United Kingdom Assist. Prof. Dr. Irfan Yurdabakan, Dokuz Eykul University, Turkey Assist. Prof. Dr. Katherine Sinitsa, International Research and Training Center, Ukrania Assist. Prof. Dr. Roxana Criu, Cuza University, Romania Dr. Hisham Mobaideen, Mu'tah University, Jordan Dr. Simon Stobart, University of Teesside, United Kingdom JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL AND INSTRUCTIONAL STUDIES ii

4 February 2012, Volume: 2 Issue: 1 Contents ISSN: CONTENTS. i FROM EDITORS.iii ARTICLES EMOTIONAL EXPRESSIVITY AND SUBMISSIVE BEHAVEIOR Ahmet Akin, Seydi Ahmet Satici, Ahmet Rifat Kayis. 1 DO WE TRAIN TEACHERS FOR A MORE GENDER-EQUAL SOCIETY? A COMPARATIVE STUDY Inan Oner Diktas, Irem Kizilaslan...7 TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS AT ELEMENTARY LEVEL THROUGH MAKING CONNECTION BETWEEN PREVIOUS KNOWLEDGE IN MATHEMATICS AND ITS USE IN EXISTING SITUATION Shahinshah Babar Khan...15 AN INQUIRY INTO EFL TEACHERS' AND LEARNERS' PERSPECTIVES ON CLASSROOM DISCIPLINE Pinar Sali. 21 VOICES FROM PRACTITIONERS: WHAT DO ELT TEACHERS EXPECT? Sezgi Sarac Suzer 27 İLKÖĞRETİM 4. VE 5. SINIFLARDA SOSYAL BECERİ DÜZEYİ İLE SOSYAL BİLGİLER DERSİNE YÖNELİK TUTUMLARIN ÇEŞİTLİ DEĞİŞKENLER AÇISINDAN İNCELENMESİ Neriman Coşkun, Osman Samancı 32 İLKÖĞRETİM 8. SINIF ÖĞRENCİLERİNDE FOTOSENTEZ VE SOLUNUM KONUSUNDA OLUŞAN KAVRAM YANILGILARI Tohit Güneş, Nilay Şener Dilek, Meral Hoplan, Oktay Güneş.42 ORTAÖĞRETİM ÖĞRENCİLERİNİN BİLİŞÜSTÜ YETİLERİ KULLANMA DURUMLARININ BAZI DEĞİŞKENLER AÇISINDAN İNCELENMESİ H. Şenay Şen ÖĞRENCİLERİN SOSYAL VE EKONOMİK YAŞAMLARINA DERSHANELERİN ETKİSİ Şenay Sezgin Nartgün, Üstün Altundağ, Raşit Özen..54 İLKÖĞRETİM ÖĞRENCİLERİNİN MEVSİMLER KONUSUNU KAVRAMA DÜZEYLERİNİN SAPTANMASI Cumhur Türk, Merve Alemdar, Hüseyin Kalkan OKUL ÖNCESİ ÖĞRETMENLERİNİN YAŞLARI VE MESLEKİ DENEYİMLERİ AÇISINDAN KAYNAŞTIRMA UYGULAMALARINA İLİŞKİN GÖRÜŞLERİNİN İNCELENMESİ Hamide Özdemir, Emine Ahmetoğlu 68 İLKÖĞRETİM İKİNCİ KADEME ÖĞRENCİLERİNİN ZİHİNSEL DÖNDÜRME BECERİLERİNİN BAZI DEĞİŞKENLER AÇISINDAN İNCELENMESİ Zeynep İrioğlu, Erhan Ertekin JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL AND INSTRUCTIONAL STUDIES i

5 February 2012, Volume: 2 Issue: 1 Contents ISSN: SOSYAL BİLGİLER VE T.C. ATATÜRK İLKELERİ VE İNKILAP TARİHİ DERS KİTAPLARINDAKİ KARAKTERLERE İLİŞKİN ÖĞRENCİ GÖRÜŞLERİ Adem Öcal, Recep Polat, Gökhan Arı...82 LİSE ÖĞRENCİLERİN PROBLEM ÇÖZME BECERİSİ ALGILARININ BELİRLENMESİ Gülşah Sezen Vekli, Günay Paliç 89 AKADEMİSYENLERİN AKADEMİK KARİYERE YÖNELİK TUTUMLARIN İNCELENMESİ Demet Baran, Günay Paliç 96 FEN BİLGİSİ ÖĞRETMEN ADAYLARININ FEN BİLGİSİ LABORATUVAR UYGULAMALARI I II DERSİNE YÖNELİK GÖRÜŞLERİ M. Handan Güneş, Oktay Güneş, Meral Hoplan.102 TÜRKİYE İLKÖĞRETİM TÜRKÇE DERSİ ÖĞRETİM PROGRAMI İLE ABD MASSACHUSETTS İNGİLİZCE EĞİTİMİ ÇERÇEVE PROGRAMI NIN KARŞILAŞTIRILMASI Ahmet Çebi, Tuğba Durmuş SINIF ÖĞRETMENİ ADAYLARININ FEN VE TEKNOLOJİ ÖĞRETİMİNDE KULLANILAN LABORATUVAR ARAÇ GEREÇLERİ İLE İLGİLİ BİLGİLERİNİN İNCELENMESİ Gonca Harman SINIF FEN VE TEKNOLOJİ DERSİNDE BİRLİKTE ÖĞRENME TEKNİĞİNİN ÖĞRENCİLERİN AKADEMİK BAŞARILARINA ETKİSİ Gökhan Aksoy, Fatih Gürbüz MÜZİK ÖĞRETMENLİĞİ BÖLÜMÜ ÖĞRENCİLERİNİN TEKNOLOJİ KULLANIMINA YÖNELİK GÖRÜŞLERİ Deniz Beste Çevik, Mahir Alkan..135 FARKLI AKADEMİK UNVANLARA SAHİP FEN ÖĞRETMENLERİNİN BRANŞLARA GÖRE MODEL VE MODELLEME HAKKINDAKİ GÖRÜŞLERİ İsmet Ergin, İbrahim Özcan, Musa Sarı 142 MÜZİK ÖĞRETMENİ ADAYLARININ KAYNAŞTIRMAYA İLİŞKİN GÖRÜŞLERİNİN BELİRLENMESİNE YÖNELİK BİR ÇALIŞMA (BALIKESİR ÜNİVERSİTESİ ÖRNEĞİ) Elif Güven, Deniz Beste Çevik..160 JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL AND INSTRUCTIONAL STUDIES ii

6 February 2012, Volume: 2 Issue: 1 From Editors ISSN: From Editors Journal of Educational and Instructional Studies in the World WJEIS has published its Volume 2 Number 1 issue. The aim of WJEIS is to make readers reach educational and instructional articles in the fields of educational sciences and various disciplines. Journal of Educational and Instructional Studies in the World WJEIS will be published quarterly; in February, May, August and November. Moreover, a special issue may be published once a year. It is important for the journal to continue its publication through the studies of researchers who send articles to WJEIS to be considered for blind review. Thus, studies from researchers in every part of the World are expected. In the evaluation of the articles in WJEIS, authors and reviewers identities are kept confidential. In other words, articles are reviewed in a process that conforms to norms of scientific literature. WJEIS will provide sharing of educational and instructional studies in the World. As the editors of the journal, we hope to meet with readers, authors and reviewers in the next issue. February 2012 Kind regards Prof. Dr. Zeki Kaya Prof. Dr. Uğur Demiray JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL AND INSTRUCTIONAL STUDIES iii

7 February 2012, Volume: 2 Issue: 1 Article: 01 ISSN: EMOTIONAL EXPRESSIVITY AND SUBMISSIVE BEHAVEIOR Assoc. Prof. Dr. Ahmet Akın Sakarya Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Seydi Ahmet Satıcı Artvin Çoruh Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Ahmet Rıfat Kayiş Kastamonu Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Abstract The purpose of this study is to examine the relationships between emotional expressivity and submissive behavior. Participants were 307 university students. In this study, the Turkish version of the Berkeley Expressivity Questionnaire and the Turkish version of the Submissive Acts Scale were used. The relationships between emotional expressivity and submissive behavior were examined using correlation analysis. Positive expressivity (r=.38, p<.01), negative expressivity (r=.28, p<.01), impulse strength (r=.47, p<.01) and total emotional expressivity scores (r=.50, p<.01) were found negatively associated with submissive behavior. Results were discussed in the light of the related literature. Key Words: Emotional expressivity, submissive behavior. INTRODUCTION Emotional expression is of vital importance to adaptive human functioning and plays a central role in psychopathology. Among theorists and practitioners in the fields of psychology, psychiatry, and psychotherapy, it is a common belief that people s mental health is related to how they express their emotions (Sloan & Marx, 2004). Particularly, psychotherapists with a psychodynamic or humanistic orientation emphasize the role of emotional expressivity for maintaining psychological and physical well-being and thus aim at improving their clients access to and expression of feelings (Leising, Müller, & Hahn, 2007; Whelton, 2004). Research on both the verbal and the nonverbal expression of emotion can be found in numerous fields of psychology, such as health psychology (Fernandez-Ballesteros, Ruiz, & Garde, 1998), social psychology (Levine & Feldman, 1997), personality psychology (Abe & Izard, 1999), psychopathology (Buck, Goldman, Easton, & Smith, 1998), and so on (Trierweiler, Eid, & Lischetzke, 2002). Emotional expressivity has been defined by Kring, Smith, and Neale, (1994) as the degree to which an individual actively expresses emotional experience through verbal or nonverbal behaviors (p. 934). On the other hand, Gross and John (1997) have proposed a heuristic model of the emotion process in which environmental cues trigger emotional response tendencies; these tendencies prepare the individual to mount a behavioral response, subject to a number of emotion regulation processes. In this model of emotion, emotional expressions are the behaviors that arise from emotional impulses (Gross & John, 1997). Research on the relationships between emotional expressiveness and personality characteristics demonstrated that there was a connection between ability to express emotions and specific personality characteristics such as extraversion, dominance, and affiliation (Friedman, 1979; Friedman, Riggio, & Segall, 1980). Expression of emotions has also been shown to benefit physical health (Dobbs, Sloan, & Karpinski, 2007) in the general population (Sloan & Marx, 2004), as well as specific populations, such as women diagnosed with breast cancer JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL AND INSTRUCTIONAL STUDIES 1

8 February 2012, Volume: 2 Issue: 1 Article: 01 ISSN: (Stanton et al., 2000) and older adults (Shaw et al., 2003). Emotional expression also plays a central role in psychopathology, including depression (Sloan, Strauss, & Wisner, 2001), schizophrenia (Earnst & Kring, 1999), and borderline personality disorder (Herpertz et al., 2001). Studies suggest that emotional expressiveness also plays an important role in interpersonal interaction (Geist & Gilbert, 1996; Gottman & Levenson, 1992; King, 1993; Long & Andrews, 1990; Sullins, 1991). Within interpersonal relationships, the tendency to be emotionally expressive may impinge on the extent of both spouses satisfaction and dissatisfaction with the relationship. Submissive behavior means shying away from saying what he/she really mean and not seeking to achieve his/her needs, particularly when someone else has conflicting needs. Submissive behaviors may be viewed as non-hostile, non-coercive behavior characterized by considering the power, authority, or feelings of others, while denying or not standing up for one's own feelings and beliefs (Deluty, 1979, 1981a, 1985). Likewise, a submissive person is a shrinking violet who avoids upsetting others either because of fear or of compassion. When things go wrong, submissive people assume that they are to blame in some way and accept guilt when singled out by others. Submissive behavior is found to be associated with well-being. For example, studies demonstrated that depressed people see themselves as inferior to others and tend to adopt submissive behavior (Allan & Gilbert, 1997; Gilbert & Allan, 1994). Furthermore, research showed that submissive behavior was negatively correlated with self-esteem (Ozkan & Ozen, 2008), academic achievement (Yıldırım & Ergene, 2003), social comparison (Cheung, Gilbert, & Irons, 2004) and positively with depression (Cheung et al., 2004; O Connor, Berry, Weiss, & Gilbert, 2002), shame, rumination (Cheung et al., 2004), social anxiety, guilt, and fear of negative evaluation (Gilbert, 2000). In addition, Ongen (2006) found that comparative self-criticism and submissive behavior are independent predictors of depression in both high school and university students. It was also observed that there was no significant difference between the obese group and the normal weight group, in terms of submissive behavior (Odacı, 2007). The current study examines the relationships between emotional expressivity and submissive behavior. METHOD Participants Participants were 307 university students (164 (53%) were female, 143 (47%) were male) who were enrolled in mid-size state University, in Turkey. Measures Berkeley Expressivity Questionnaire (BEQ; Gross & John, 1995). Emotional expressivity was measured by using Turkish version of the Berkeley Expressivity Scale (Akin, 2010). This scale is a 15-item self-report measurement and consists of three sub-scales; positive expressivity, negative expressivity, and impulse strength. Each item was rated on a 7-point scale (1 strongly disagree, 7 strongly agree). Language validity findings indicated that correlations between Turkish and English forms were.83 for overall scale,.62 for positive expressivity,.81 for negative expressivity, and.75 for impulse strength Results of confirmatory factor analysis indicated that the model was well fit (x 2 =193.04, df=97, p=0.00, NFI=.96, CFI=.98, IFI=.98, RFI=.95, GFI=.95, AGFI=.92, RMSEA=.048, and SRMR=.048). The internal consistency reliability coefficients varied between.74 and.84 and test-retest reliability coefficients varied between.67 and.81 for three subscales. Also the corrected item-total correlations ranged from.43 to.80. Submissive Acts Scale (SAS). To assess submissive social behavior, the Submissive Acts Scale (SAS, Gilbert & Allan, 1994) is used. It contains 16 items and the participants were asked to indicate their degree of agreement with each statement on a 5-point likert scale ranging from this is a very bad description of me to this is a very good description of me (e.g., Even if I don t like it, I do things just because other people are also doing them and I allow other people to criticize and let me down and do not defend myself ). Higher scores indicate more submissive social behavior (Gilbert & Allan, 1994). SAS was adapted to the Turkish population by Şahin and Şahin (1992). Alpha reliability of the Turkish version for the university sample was.74. JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL AND INSTRUCTIONAL STUDIES 2

9 February 2012, Volume: 2 Issue: 1 Article: 01 ISSN: Procedure Permission for participation of students was obtained from related chief departments and students voluntarily participated in research. Completion of the scales was anonymous and there was a guarantee of confidentiality. The scales were administered to the students in groups in the classrooms. Themeasures were counterbalanced in administration. Prior to administration of scales, all participants were told about purposes of the study. In this research, Pearson correlation coefficient was utilized to determine the relationships between dimensions of emotional expressivity and submissive behavior. These analyses were carried out via and SPSS RESULTS Table 1 shows the means, standard deviations, and inter-correlations of the variables used. Table 1: Descriptive Statistics, and Inter-correlations of the Variables Variables Positive expressivity 1 2. Negative expressivity.24** 1 3. Impulse strength.70**.25** 1 4. Total emotional expressivity.82**.62**.87** 1 5. Submissive behavior -.38** -.28** -.47** -.50** 1 Mean 21,65 25,80 31,54 78,99 34,79 Standard deviation 4,99 5,66 7,24 13,95 8,13 **p<.01 When Table 1 is examined, it is seen that there are significant correlations between emotional expressivity and submissive behavior. Positive expressivity (r=.38, p<.01), negative expressivity (r=.28, p<.01), impulse strength (r=.47, p<.01) and total emotional expressivity scores (r=.50, p<.01) were found negatively associated with submissive behavior. DISCUSSION The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between emotional expressivity and submissive behavior. Results indicated that there are significant relationships between these variables. Positive expressivity, negative expressivity, impulse strength and total emotional expressivity scores were found negatively associated with submissive behavior. Results from studies on the relationship between well-being and submissive behavior (Cheung et al., 2004; Gilbert, 2000; Gilbert & Allan, 1994; O Connor et al., 2002; Ozkan & Ozen, 2008; Turkum, 2005) consistently showed that, submissive behavior is negatively associated with many indicators of well-being such as self-esteem, academic achievement. Nevertheless, emotional expressivity was found related positively to physical health (Dobbs, Sloan, & Karpinski, 2007), diminished depression (Sloan, Strauss, & Wisner, 2001). It also plays an important and positive role in interpersonal interaction (Geist & Gilbert, 1996; Gottman & Levenson, 1992; King, 1993; Long & Andrews, 1990; Sullins, 1991). In contrary depression (Cheung et al., 2004; O Connor, Berry, Weiss, & Gilbert, 2002), shame, rumination (Cheung et al., 2004), social anxiety, guilt, and fear of negative evaluation (Gilbert, 2000) were found positively related to submissive behavior. Thus the negative relationships between emotional expressivity and submissive behavior are understandable. WJEIS s Note: This article was presented at International Conference on New Trends in Education and Their Implications - ICONTE, April, 2011, Antalya-Turkey and was selected for publication for Volume 2 Number 1 of WJEIS 2011 by WJEIS Scientific Committee. JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL AND INSTRUCTIONAL STUDIES 3

10 February 2012, Volume: 2 Issue: 1 Article: 01 ISSN: REFERENCES Abe, J. A., & Izard, C. E. (1999). A longitudinal study of emotional expression and personality relations in early development. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 77, Akın, A. (2010, April). The validity and reliability of Turkish version of the Berkeley Expressivity Scale. Paper presented at the World Conference on Psychology, Counselling and Guidance, April, 21-25, Antalya, Turkey. Allan, S., & Gilbert, P. (1997). Submissive behavior and psychopathology. British Journal of Psychopathology, 36, Buck, R., Goldman, C. K., Easton, C. J., & Smith, N. N. (1998). Social learning and emotional education: Emotional expression and communication in behaviorally disordered children and schizophrenic patients. In W. F. J. Flack & J. D. Laird (Eds.), Emotions in psychopathology: Theory and research (pp ). New York: Oxford University Press. Cheung, M. S. P., Gilbert, P., & Irons, C., (2004). An exploration of shame, social rank, and rumination in relation to depression. Personality and Individual Differences, 36, Deluty, R. H. (1979). Children's Action Tendency Scale: A self-report measure of aggressiveness, assertiveness, and submissiveness in children. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 47, Deluty, R. H. (1981a). Assertiveness in children: Some research considerations. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 10, Deluty, R. H. (1985). Consistency of assertive, aggressive, and submissive behavior for children. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 49(4), Dobbs, J. L. Sloan, D. M., & Karpinski, A. (2007). A psychometric investigation of two self-report measures of emotional expressivity. Personality and Individual Differences, 43, Earnst, K. S., & Kring, A. M. (1999). Emotional responding in deficit and non-deficit schizophrenia. Psychiatry Research, 88, Fernandez-Ballesteros, R., Ruiz, M. A., & Garde, S. (1998). Emotional expression in healthy women and those with breast cancer. British Journal of Health Psychology, 3, Friedman, H. S. (1979). The interactive effects of facial expressions of emotion and verbal messages on perceptions of affective meaning. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 15, Friedman, H. S., Riggio, R. E., & Segall, D. O. (1980). Personality and the enactment of emotion. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, 5, Geist, R. L., & Gilbert, D. G. (1996). Correlates of expressed and felt emotion during marital conflict: Satisfaction, personality, process, and outcome. Personality and Individual Differences, 21, Gilbert, P. (2000). The relationship of shame, social anxiety, and depression: The role of the evaluation of social rank. Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, 7, Gilbert, P., & Allan, S. (1994). Assertiveness, submissive behavior, and social comparison. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 33, JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL AND INSTRUCTIONAL STUDIES 4

11 February 2012, Volume: 2 Issue: 1 Article: 01 ISSN: Gottman, J. M., & Levenson, R. W. (1992). Marital processes predictive of later dissolution: Behavior, physiology, and health. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 63, Gross, J. J., & John, O. E (1995). Facets of emotional expressivity: Three self-report factors and their correlates. Personality and Individual Differences, 19, Gross, J. J., & John, O. P. (1997). Revealing feelings: Facets of emotional expressivity in self-reports, peer ratings, and behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 72, Herpertz, S. C., Werth, U., Lukas, G., Quanaibi, M., Schuerkens, A., Kunert, H., Kunert, H. J., Freese, R., Flesch, M., Mueller, I. R., Osterheider, M., & Sas, H. (2001). Emotion in criminal offenders with psychopathy and borderline personality disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry, 58, King, L. A. (1993). Emotional expression, ambivalence over expression, and marital satisfaction. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 10, Kring, A. M., Smith, D. A., & Neale, J. M. (1994). Individual differences in dispositional expressiveness: Development and validation of the emotional expressivity scale. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 66(5), Leising, D., Müller, J., & Hahn, C. (2007). An adjective list for assessing emotional expressivity in psychotherapy research. Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy, 14, Levine, S. P., & Feldman, R. S. (1997). Self-presentational goals, self-monitoring, and nonverbal behavior. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 19, Long, E. C. J., & Andrews, D. W. (1990). Perspective taking as a predictor of marital adjustment. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 59, O Connor, L. E., Berry, J. W., Weiss, J., & Gilbert, P. (2002). Guilt, fear, submission, and empathy in depression. Journal of Affective Disorders, 71, Odacı, H. (2007). Depression, submissive behaviors, and negative automatic thoughts in obese Turkish adolescents. Social Behavior and Personality, 35(3), Ongen, D. E. (2006). The relationships between self-criticism, submissive behavior, and depression among Turkish adolescents. Personality and Individual Differences, 41, Ozkan, İ. A., & Ozen, A. (2008). Oğrenci hemşirelerde boyun eğici davranışlar ve benlik saygısı arasındaki ilişki. TSK Koruyucu Hekimlik Bülteni, 7(1), Shaw, W. S., Patterson, T. L., Semple, S. J., Dimsdale, J. E., Ziegler, M. G., & Grant, I. (2003). Emotional expressiveness, hostility, and blood pressure in a longitudinal cohort of Alzheimer caregivers. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 54, Sloan, D. M., & Marx, B. P. (2004). Taking pen to hand: Evaluating theories underlying the written emotional disclosure paradigm. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 11, Sloan, D. M., Strauss, M. E., & Wisner, K. L. (2001). Diminished response to pleasant stimuli by depressed women. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 110, Stanton, A. L., Danoff-Burg, S., Cameron, C. L., Bishop, M., Collins, C. A., Kirk, S. B., Sworowski, L. A., & Twillman, R. (2000). Emotionally expressive coping predicts psychological and physical adjustment to breast cancer. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 68, JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL AND INSTRUCTIONAL STUDIES 5

12 February 2012, Volume: 2 Issue: 1 Article: 01 ISSN: Sullins, E. S. (1991). Emotional contagion revisited: Effects of social comparison and expressive style on mood convergence. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 17, Şahin, N. H., & Şahin, N. (1992, June). Adolescent guilt, shame, and depression in relation to sociotropy and autonomy. The World Congress of Cognitive Therapy, Toronto, June Trierweiler, L. I., Eid, M., & Lischetzke, T. (2002). The structure of emotional expressivity: Each emotion counts. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 82(6), Turkum, A. S. (2005). Do optimism, social network richness, and submissive behaviors predict well-being? Study with Turkish sample. Social Behavior and Personality: An International Journal, 33, Whelton, W. (2004). Emotional processes in psychotherapy: Evidence across therapeutic modalities. Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, 11, Yıldırım, İ., & Ergene, T. (2003). Lise son sınıf oğrencilerinin akademik başarılarının yordayıcısı olarak sınav kaygısı, boyun eğici davranışlar ve sosyal destek. Hacettepe Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, 25, JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL AND INSTRUCTIONAL STUDIES 6

13 February 2012, Volume: 2 Issue: 1 Article: 02 ISSN: DO WE TRAIN TEACHERS FOR A MORE GENDER-EQUAL SOCIETY? A COMPARATIVE STUDY İnan Öner Diktaş Dokuz Eylul University İrem Kızılaslan Dokuz Eylul University Abstract Teachers gender perceptions influence their classroom behaviors and their attitudes to girls and boys in class respectively. As key factors in educational settings, teachers who have traditional gender role orientations, consciously or unconsciously, contribute to their students acceptance of socially prescribed gender roles, which are rather dysfunctional. Therefore, it is crucial that teachers are trained to identify and counter gender stereotyping for a more gender-equal society. The present study aimed to investigate and compare the gender role perceptions of senior student teachers from two different departments, namely, English language teaching and Turkish language teaching. The sample for the study was obtained from the education faculty of a large state university in western Turkey. Gender role orientation was assessed with the Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI, Bem 1974). Findings seem to have important implications for teacher education institutions in Turkey. Key Words: student teachers, gender roles, teacher training. INTRODUCTION The role of the school as an important agency of socialization is accepted among social scientists and educators. When children begin school it is usually the first time that they come under the supervision of people who are not their relatives. It is likely that the school is the first agency that encourages children to develop loyalties and sentiments that go beyond the family and link them to a wider social order. The school is an agency through which individual personalities are trained to be adequate to the performance of adult roles (Ballantine & Spade, 2008). Consequently, schools are powerful sites for the construction of culturally patterned gender relations. In other words, children learn and evaluate values for their future adult behavior, of which their gender regimes are an important component (Adler, Kless, & Adler, 1992). Myhill and Jones (2006) suggest that schools can either reproduce the dominant gender ideology of the wider society or be a potential site for developing non-traditional gender identities (p.100). Within the school atmosphere, the teacher plays an important role in the social development of the child. Therefore, as change agents and facilitators of gender equality, teachers are critical to the genderdevelopment of students. As Chisholm and McKinney (2003) suggest, teachers can provide role models, a sense of direction and encouragement to boys and girls or they can denigrate or marginalize them and so perpetuate stereotypes and particular ways of looking at and discriminating between boys and girls in the classroom. The roles played by male and female teachers, their attitudes towards male and female students, their expectations of male and female achievement and career paths, and the way they reward and discipline their students influence male and female students gender role perceptions (Leach, 2000). It is also true that teachers have a propensity for unconsciously as well as consciously reproducing their own experiences, which prevents the success of gender initiatives taken by reformers (Sikes, 1991). Given the strongly patriarchal nature of the Turkish society, role differentiation on the basis of gender is rather striking. Despite the numerous advancements made during the EU accession period, Turkey is still further behind the member states in terms of gender issues. Ger (2011), Chairwoman of TUSIAD Gender Equality JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL AND INSTRUCTIONAL STUDIES 7

14 February 2012, Volume: 2 Issue: 1 Article: 02 ISSN: Working Group, describes the parameter for gender equality in Turkey as follows: A man equals 0.56 woman. That is, two women are equal to one man, which is an unchanging fact of Turkey for the last ten years. According to General Directorate on the Status of Women in Turkey (2009): (a) 57.2 % of women work in the agriculture sector and 50 % of the women in agriculture sector are part of family work force without pay; (b) One out of every three women is a victim of violence; (c) 63 % of women between the ages of 15 and 19 approve violence against women. It is apparent that the current status of gender equality in Turkey requires more thinking and new attitudes. For a more gender-equal society, there is a strong need for improvements in teacher training and professional development, in addition to other initiatives taken. As Dee (2005) indicates, teacher perceptions clearly influence student access to future educational opportunities and may also shape the learning environment in meaningful ways. However, the impact of teachers in the questioning of conventional representations for women and in the creation of alternative environments for boys and girls (Stromquist, 1995) is often ignored within the Turkish context. In fact, teachers with adequate gender sensitivity training can impact on the school as a whole, empower other teachers, use texts to foster gender awareness and create relationships in the classroom that acknowledge and promote the participation and contribution of all learners (Chisholm & McKinney, 2003). Few studies on gender perceptions of Turkish university students demonstrate why gender and sexual politics must be explicitly addressed in teacher education programs. Karakitapoğlu Aygün and Imamoğlu (2002) explored the value domains of 101 students from different departments of a large state university. Findings related to gender differences in value domain suggest that, unlike women, Turkish men are still inclined to the traditional pathway as indicated by a normative frame of reference and tradition-religiosity domains. Another study by Vefikuluçay, Zeyneloğlu, Eroğlu and Taşkın (2007) investigated the gender role perceptions of 236 students from a smaller state university in Turkey. The authors found out that male students have more traditional views on gender roles related to marriage, family life and social life. Similarly, Baba (2007) qualitatively analyzed the gender role perceptions of elementary school teacher candidates from three universities. Results were congruent with the findings of the previous studies. Student teachers in the sample, particularly males, hold low transformative power to transform the inequalities in society. Considering the importance of teachers in bringing up a more gender-aware generation, the present study aimed to investigate and compare the gender role perceptions of senior student teachers from two different departments, namely, English language teaching (ELT) and Turkish language teaching (TLT). It was hypostasized senior student teachers from the ELT department would have a more modern attitude towards gender roles as a result of the four years of foreign language education and culture they had at university. METHOD Participants The sample for the present study was obtained from the education faculty of a large state university in western Turkey. Senior student teachers (138 females, 91 males) from the Departments of English Language Teaching and Turkish Language Teaching participated in the study. Table 1 describes the age distribution of participants and Table 2 describes the number of participantsi Table 1: Age Distribution of participants Age n % , ,8 26 and over 2,9 Total ,0 JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL AND INSTRUCTIONAL STUDIES 8

15 February 2012, Volume: 2 Issue: 1 Article: 02 ISSN: Table 2: Number of participants Department Sex Total Female Male ELT ,6% 28,4% TLT ,2% 47,8% Total Instrument Gender role orientation was assessed with the Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI; Bem 1974). The BSRI is a widely used instrument that measures masculine and feminine gender roles and yields a measure of androgyny. Four common typologies are used to classify people based on scores on the BSRI: masculine, feminine, androgynous and undifferentiated. As Bem (1975) suggests, a masculine sex role represents not only the endorsement of masculine attributes, but also the rejection of feminine attributes. Similarly, a feminine sex role represents not only the endorsement of feminine attributes, but also the rejection of masculine attributes. On the other hand, an androgynous sex role allows an individual to engage freely in both masculine and feminine behaviors. It is accepted that individuals should be encouraged to be androgynous. That is, they should be encouraged to be both instrumental and expressive, both assertive and yielding, both masculine and feminine, depending upon the situational appropriateness of these various behaviors (Bem, 1975, p. 634). Research has supported the benefits of psychological androgyny, including its positive relationship with creativity, life satisfaction and achievement motivation (e.g. Jönsson & Carlsson, 2000; Erol Öngen, 2007; Keller, Lavish, & Brown, 2007). The BSRI consists of 60 adjectives, (20 masculine, 20 feminine, and 20 gender neutral), which are rated by respondents on a seven-point scale that ranges from 1 (never and almost never) to 7 (always or almost always true). The BSRI was adapted into Turkish by Kavuncu (1987), and its validity and reliability was determined by her as well: Cronbach alpha coefficients were.73 for Femininity scale and.75 for Masculinity Scale. Later in 1999, Dökmen tested the reliability and validity of the Turkish version of the BSRI. For the present study, the median-split procedure described by Bem (1977) was used to divide the subjects in high and low groups. Participants classified as masculine scored high on masculine items and low on feminine items. Participants who scored high on feminine items and low on masculine items were classified as feminine. Participant classified as androgynous scored high on both masculine and feminine items. Finally, participants classified as undifferentiated scored low on both masculine and feminine items. FINDINGS Table 3: Women and men subdivided into the different gender role categories Group Class Count/ % Feminine Masculine Androgynous Undifferentiated Total Females ELT Count Males %of Total TLT Count %of Total Total Count %of Total ELT Count %of Total TLT Count %of Total Total Count %of Total JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL AND INSTRUCTIONAL STUDIES 9

16 February 2012, Volume: 2 Issue: 1 Article: 02 ISSN: Examination of gender role classification for female ELT student teachers in the sample yielded the following group membership: feminine (n=25, 26.47%), masculine (n=10, 14.70%), psychologically androgynous (18, 26.47%), and undifferentiated (22, 32.36%). For female TLT student teachers, the distribution was as follows: feminine (n=15, 35.71%), masculine (n=6, 8.5%), androgynous (n=16, 22.85%), and undifferentiated (n=23, 32.85%) ELT TLT Feminine Masculine Androgynous Undifferentiated Figure 1: Gender role classification for female student teachers The gender role classification for male ELT student teachers was as follows: feminine (n=3, 11.11%), masculine (n=9, 33.33%), psychologically androgynous (n=5, 18.51%), and undifferentiated (n=10, 37.05%). For male TLT student teachers: feminine (n=5, 7.81%), masculine (n=23, 35.93%), psychologically androgynous (n=14, 21.87%), and undifferentiated (n=22, 34.37%) ELT TLT Feminine Masculine Androgynous Undifferentiated Figure 2. Gender role classification for male student teachers JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL AND INSTRUCTIONAL STUDIES 10

17 February 2012, Volume: 2 Issue: 1 Article: 02 ISSN: The non-parametric Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare the femininity, masculinity and neutrality scores of the two groups. The femininity mean rank of ELT student teachers (M=112,07) is significantly higher than TLT student teachers mean rank (M=106,86). However, the masculinity mean rank of ELT student teachers (M = 104,13) is lower than TLT student teachers mean rank (M = 106,40). On the other hand, the neutrality mean rank of ELT student teachers is higher than TLT student teachers (Mean for the neutral = 113,33, TLT students = 105,12, ), as Table 4 illustrates: Table 4: The Mann-Whitney U test results Variables Year N Sum of Mean Rank Ranks Feminine ELT , ,50 TLT , ,50 Masculine ELT , ,50 TLT , ,50 Neutral ELT , ,00 TLT , ,00 U P 5422,500, ,500, ,000,342 The T-test was used to compare femininity, masculinity and neutrality variables with the sex of the student teachers. The results show that while there is a significant difference between two sexes in the femininity variable (the score for female = 98,3793, for male = 93,9431), there is also a significant difference between males and females in the masculinity (the score for female = 99,2644, for male =108,1308) and neutral variables (the score for female = 90,9242, for male = 89,5000). With the higher femininity score, the females are more feminine than the males and the males are more masculine than the females. Table 5: The T-test results for femininity, masculinity and neutrality Std. Error Variables Sex N Mean Std. Deviation Mean Feminine Female , ,74923,96923 Masculine Neutral Male 87 93, , ,23547 Female , , ,08023 Male , , ,35942 Female ,9242 7,84645,68295 DISCUSSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS Male 84 89,5000 9, ,02486 The purpose of this study was to compare and contrast the gender role orientations of ELT and TLT senior student teachers. As we expected, female student teachers from the ELT department scored higher on masculinity and androgyny and lower on femininity. This difference can be explained by the fact that learning a foreign language has helped female ELT student teachers step out of their traditional gender roles and develop a more androgynous personality. This is an important change since a masculine or androgynous gender role may be more desirable in academic and work settings because of their demands for action and assertiveness.female student teachers from the TLT department seem to hold traditional gender stereotypes, which might suggest that their education encourages a more traditional view of gender. However, male student teachers scores were incongruent with our expectations. Although male ELT student teachers scored higher on femininity and a little lower on masculinity, their scores on androgyny were lower than their peers from the TLT department. Moreover, there were more individuals with an undifferentiated gender role orientation among the male ELT student teachers. This finding might suggest that traditional gender roles still have great influence on male ELT student teachers, unlike their female peers. JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL AND INSTRUCTIONAL STUDIES 11

18 February 2012, Volume: 2 Issue: 1 Article: 02 ISSN: Another important finding of the present study is that the number of student teachers with an undifferentiated gender role orientation is rather high in both departments. Research has shown that individuals who are undifferentiated in terms of gender role (low on both masculinity and femininity) tend to be less adaptable (as cited in Holt & Ellis, 1998). Bem s (1977) study on the distinctions between those individuals who score high on both masculinity and femininity and those individuals who score low on both showed that low-low scorers were significantly lower in self-esteem and self-disclosure. This finding might be related to student teachers future time perspectives. It was found by Kim (1991) that identity achieved students were more likely to see their future as certain and optimistic, and had an androgynous gender role attitude. On the other hand, identity diffused subjects were not sure about their future and indicated undifferentiated gender role attitude. It is highly possible that this uncertainty in our sample results from the Civil Servant Selection Exam (KPSS) that negatively influences the participants self-esteem and morale. On the whole, findings point to the fact that females in the sample scored significantly higher on femininity than did their male peers. Similarly, males in the sample scored significantly higher on masculinity than did their female peers. This finding is congruent with previous studies (e.g. Baba, 2007; Vefikuluçay, Zeyneloğlu, Eroğlu, & Taşkın, 2007) which found out that student teachers still have a traditional perspective on gender roles and that a university education does not generally enable student teachers to question prescribed gender roles. Given the fact that the problem of unconscious sexism in teacher attitudes and classroom behavior are a result of their gender perceptions, this finding has serious implications for teacher training institutions in Turkey. Naturally, teachers trained to identify and counter gender-bias would not be gender-blind in the future, which would help create a gender-equitable atmosphere in the classroom. Therefore, it is essential that teacher education period give enough attention to the issue of changing the traditional gender role perceptions of prospective teachers. Creation of a gender-aware climate seems to be an urgent need for all departments of education faculties. (Baba, 2007; Blumberg, 2008). To that end, the following recommendations could be taken into consideration: 1. Teacher training plays a major but unrecognized role in perpetuating gender stereotypes. Therefore, incorporating gender awareness to teacher education programs seems to an important step to be taken (Baba, 2007). As Sikes (1991) rightly states, such an awareness is essential if, when they become teachers, they are to be in a position to recognize and work to combat the differentiation, discrimination and bias which are characteristics of schools (p.145). 2. It is important that teacher educators review and examine the content and structure of teacher education courses. They must avoid using textbooks or other materials that may unwittingly reinforce gender stereotyping and demolish any equalitarian views that student teachers may have. They should also encourage student teachers to examine critically and sociologically their experiences, attitudes and behaviors in terms to gender stereotypes (Sikes, 1991). 3. Participatory, interactive courses on gender mainstreaming should be included in the curricula of teacher education institutions and in-service courses should be designed for teachers who have not taken this course at school (Göğüş Tan, 2007). As indicated in the AAUW Report (1992), such compulsory courses should focus on gender issues, including new research on women, bias in classroom-interaction patterns, and the ways in which schools can develop and implement gender-fair multicultural curricula. The courses should also include teacher self-awareness seminars to provide insight into personal attitudes and world view. However, a single training session is not generally enough to change teaching practice and behavior. Thus, monitoring and follow-up support is needed for a better impact (Tatar & Emmanuel, 2001; Aikman, Underhalter, & Challender, 2005). WJEIS s Note: This article was presented at International Conference on New Trends in Education and Their Implications - ICONTE, April, 2011, Antalya-Turkey and was selected for publication for Volume 2 Number 1 of WJEIS 2011 by WJEIS Scientific Committee. JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL AND INSTRUCTIONAL STUDIES 12

19 February 2012, Volume: 2 Issue: 1 Article: 02 ISSN: REFERENCES Adler, P. A., Kless, S. J., & Adler, P. (1992). Socialization to gender roles: Popularity among elementary school boys and girls. Sociology of Education, 65 (July), Aikman, S., Underhalter, E., & Challender, C. (2005). The education MDGs: Achieving gender equity through curriculum and pedagogy change. Gender and Development, 13 (1), American Association of University Women. The AAUW Report (1992). How schools shortchange girls. Washington DC: AAUW Educational Foundation. Baba, H. B.(2007). Teacher candidates as agents of change for a more equal society. (Unpublished master thesis). Middle East Technical University, Turkey. Ballantine, J. H., & Spade, J. Z. (2008). Schools and society: A sociological approach to education. London: Sage. Bem, S, L. (1974). The measurement of psychological androgyny. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 42 (2), Bem, S, L. (1975). Sex role adaptability: One consequence of psychological androgyny. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 31 (4), Bem, S. L. (1977). On the utility of alternative procedures for assessing psychological androgyny. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 45(2), Blumberg, R. L. (2008). The invisible obstacle to educational equality: Gender bias in textbooks. Prospects, 38, Chisholm, L., & McKinney, C. (2003). Reforms, innovations and approaches used to work with teachers to use them as change agents and facilitators of gender equality in different countries: Strengths and limitations. UNESCO Education portal. Retrieved from Dee, T. S. (2005). A teacher like me: Does race, ethnicity, or gender matter?. The American Economic Review, 95 (2), Dökmen Z. (1999). Bem Cinsiyet rolü envanteri kadınsılık ve erkeksilik ölçekleri Türkçe formunun psikometrik özellikleri. Kriz Dergisi, 7(1), Erol Öngen, D. (2007). The relationship between sensation seeking and gender role orientations among Turkish university students. Sex Roles, 57, Ger, N. (2011, January 24). Interview. Cumhuriyet, p. 11. Göğüş Tan, M. (2007). Gender mainstreaming and education. In U. Dufner and S. Sevim (Eds.), The debate on gender mainstreaming in Turkey (pp.39-45). İstanbul: Sena Ofset. Holt, C. L., & Ellis, J. B. (1998). Assessing the current validity of the Bem sex-role inventory. Sex Roles, 39, (11/12), Jönsson, P., & Carlsson, I. (2000). Androgyny and creativity. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 41, Karakitapoğlu Aygün., Z. & İmamoğlu, E. O. (2002). Value domains of Turkish adults and university students. The Journal of Social Psychology, 142(3), JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL AND INSTRUCTIONAL STUDIES 13

20 February 2012, Volume: 2 Issue: 1 Article: 02 ISSN: Kavuncu, N. (1987). Bem cinsiyet rolü envanterinin Türk toplumuna uyarlama çalışması (Unpublished master thesis). Hacettepe University, Turkey. Keller, C. J., Lavish, L. A., & Brown, C. (2007). Creative styles and gender roles in undergraduate students. Creativity Research Journal, 19, (2-3), Kim, J. R. (1991). College student s identity development and its relationship to gender, gender role and family interaction style. (Doctoral thesis), Purdue University, the USA. Leach, F. (2000). Gender implications of development agency policies on education and training. International Online Journal of Educational Development, 20 (2000), Myhill, D. & Jones, S. (2006). She doesn t shout at no girls: pupils perceptions of gender equity in the classroom, Cambridge Journal of Education, 36 (1), Sikes, P. J. (1991). Nature took its course? Student teachers and gender awareness. Gender & Education,3 (2), Stromquist, N. P. (1995). Romancing the state: Gender and power in education. Comparative Education Review, 39 (4), Tatar, M., & Emmanuel, G. (2001). Teachers perceptions of their students gender roles. The Journal of Educational Research, 94 (4), Turkish Republic Prime Ministry Directorate General on the Status of Women (2009). Retrieved from Vefikuluçay, D., Zeyneloğlu, S., Eroğlu, K., & Taşkın, L. (2007). Kafkas üniversitesi son sınıf öğrencilerinin toplumsal cinsiyet rollerine ilişkin bakış açıları. Hemşirelik Yüksekokulu Dergisi, JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL AND INSTRUCTIONAL STUDIES 14

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