1 21 Istanbul University from the Establishment in 1453 by Fatih Sultan Mehmed to Atatürk s University Reform in 1933 Prof.Dr.Dr.Arslan Terzioğlu I. INTRODUCTION 2003 is a very important year for it is hosting very important events: one of the crucial events of the past millennium; the conquest of Istanbul and the 550 th anniversary of the establishment of Istanbul University by Fatih Sultan Mehmed; the 80 th anniversary of the establishment of the Turkish Republic and the 70 th anniversary of the university reform in 1933 by Great Ataturk. Today, by the opening of this international symposium, we will enlighten scientifically the relations between one of the Europe s oldest universities; Istanbul University s past and the European Universities. The Ottoman Turkish Empire was realm on 3 continents during 14 th,15 th and 16 th centuries. One of the reasons for this success, that this huge empire s government was putting emphasis on science, technique and young generations who would be directing the culture. The empire was applying a multidirectional educational system. We can classify Ottoman educational system under four dots. 1. Settlement of the universities (medreses) to educate kadı (lawman), doctors, mufti, nişancı (Grand Chancellor), teachers, who were civil servants at the level of civil citizens. These universities were similar to the ones that were established under the realm of Sultan Alparslan, the Emperor of the Great Seljuk Empire at 11 th century. Medrese were settles in Iznik, Bursa, Edirne, and other cultural centers(1), which have the qualifications of the Seljuk s Nizamiye Universities that are considered as the first state universities. 2. A disciplinary education based on master- learner relationship for rasing up young talented staff on art and on other subjects about business in the guilds like Ahilik Association, Sedefkarlar Karhanesi, Necceran-ı Mimaran Karhanesi(2). 3. The educational support for Ottoman army in technical professions on military basis. 4. For the sake of the future of the empire, maintaining the education for qualified and sophisticated young politicians and government men at military palace universities and schools like Enderun-u Humayun, at the palaces of Ottoman Emperors in Istanbul and Edirne(3). Rather than the influences of ancient Sumerian, ancient Egypt, Museion and its library which was built in Hellenistic era in
2 22 Alexandria in 331 B.C, Gondeshapur medicine school that has been established in 350 A.C, the school of science for the name of Bayt alhikma in Abbasid period in Baghdad at 830 A.C; the influence of Qarahanid, Gaznawid and Seljuk Turks were dominant in this wide range education system. According to some science historians, Nizamiye University that has been established in Baghdad by Seljuk Turks, was the oldest state University in the world. Another important point is the book of Keykavus bin Iskender s book that he wrote in 1082 in early Seljuk Turks realm. The book was in Persian and named as Qabusname. This deontological book recommends some piece of works and books that will be useful in medicine education at hospitals and universities. It put emphasis on Galenos Sitte Aşere and Hippocrates Aforizmaz (4). After Keykavus bin Iskender, again in Seljuks era, Nidhamii Aruzi, in his book Chahar Maqala, counts Er- Razi s Hunayn bin Ishaq s and Ibn Sina s (Avicenna) Qanun (5), beside the work of Galenos and Hippocrates. Depending to this point, it is seen that in 12 th century, in Seljuk medicine education, Avicenna s Qanun was dominant. It s a fact that it is reflected to Europe. The important works that shape and classify the scşence and medicine in Europe were Hunayn bin Ishaq s Medhal fi t Tıbb (in Latin; Isogoge in artem - 9 th century) and al Farabi s (A.C 950) Kitab-ül Ihsa il ulum on declaring of the sciences. According to this and other related information, if we look at Schipperges list, depending on his researches on the books of Europe s medicine schools like Salerno, Montpellier and Paris in the middle era and Renaissance; we see the influence of Seljuk universities and hospitals not only on medicals and hospital architecture, but also medicine education (Table II). This influence was so great that in the classification of medicine and medicine education in Europe; Hunayn b. Ishaq s classification was taken as basis. Prof. Dr. Schipperges researches declare it as below. Table I: Ars medicina (articella) Theorica Practica Naturalia (Physiology) 1- Elemanta 2- Nonnaturalia (Dialectic) 1- Aer (Air) Praeternaturalia (General Pathology, Aetiologie Symtomatologie) 1- Morbus 2-Causa Diaeta Pharmacia Chirurgia
3 23 Temperamenta 3- Humores 4- Membra 5- Virtutes 6- Actiones 7- Spiritus Additiva 1- Aetates 2- Colores 3- Figures 4- Sexualitas 2- Motus et quies (Movement and Resting) 3- Cibus et potus (Eating and Drinking) 4- Somnus et vigilia (Sleeping and Awakening) 5- Excreta et retenta (Excretory and Saturation) 6- Affectus animi (Affection of Soul) (occasio) 3- Signum The examinations of the doctors were done by the high civil servants called muhtesip, which were equal to vezirs in Seljuk. In Ottoman Empire there were ihtisab s servants who were responsible of these exams. Prof. H. Schipperges put out the fact that, this control mechanism in Seljuk is seen in Catholic Spanish cities under the name of Hermandades, Communidades, Germanias(8). As we pointed out before, the medicine of the Europe of Hunayn bin Ishaq, er Razi, İbn Sina, Galenos and Hippocrates of Seljuk. In addition to this; long before Friedrich the II s Constitutiones Medicinales in 1231; we see a PhD thesis in medicine, submitted to Adudi Hospital in Baghdad in Seljuk era in One of the copies of this thesis is held in Hagia Sophia Museum today. All these lead to the conclusion of the importance of the influence of Seljuk s universities and medicine schools on Salerno Medicine School. Schipperges point out that; Friedrich s Constitutiones Medicinales (1231) was put into legislation in Seljuk s era with the influence of Islam rather than the applications of health institutions of Arl, Marcillia, Northern Italy and Germany with the influence of Roman and Byzantium tradition. This shows the influence level of Seljuk (9) while Seljuk education system was acting a dominant role on European Universities of Renaissance; at the center of Byzantium, Istanbul, the first university was established under the name Katholicon Mouseon in 1400 by Byzantium Emperor Manuel II ( ) located around Kariye Mosque. At the establishment of this university, French and British universities were taken as example(10). Another important point to show the Seljuk influence is this; in Paris University (establishment in 1254) the student were classified into 4; according to their nationalities as: natio gallicorum, natio picardorum, natio normanorum, natio anglicorum. 30 years bedore this; in Mustarsirriye university (established in 1232 in Baghdad at Seljuk era) which considered as the second university for medicine education; there was same kind of division between students according to their religion(11). The Byzantium Emperor Manuel the 2 nd s university was placed in Prodromos Petra Monastry at first ; and then moved to Ksenon Tou Kralou Hospital which was established in Hence this university was giving education heavily on medicine. The last president (rector) of this university was Joannes Argyropoulos (on duty between ) who returned from Paduva University at A miniature from ; Oxford (cod. Barroci 87 Folio, 33v) shows the portrait of the person and a part of the mentioned medicine faculty(12).
4 24 II. THE CONQUEST OF ISTANBUL AND THE ESTABLISHMENT OF A UNİVERSİTY İN ISTANBUL Fatih Sultan Mehmed conquered Istanbul at 29 th of May 1453 at a very early age. He decided to make this city; Ottoman Empire s and even Eupope s one of the very important cultural center(12a). So he gave pace to structural organizations. He established the first Istanbul University in Molla Hüsrev Medrese in the rooms of Hagia Sophia, and the medrese of Molla Zeyrek in Pantokrator Monastry. Histrorical data and the resources give us information about this subject: on Hagia Sophia Medrese, we see information in Taşköprüzade s eş Şakaik. More detailed information is in Ebû Behrâm ed-dimashkî s translation of Atlası Minor. He gives information about Istanbul University: Fatih Sultan Mehmed; by arranging a special budget for the students that were going to have education; established a high school (equal to university); at the north of Hagia Sophia(12b). This is before the construction of the old palace (1454). The establishment of the Istanbul University at Hagia Sophia is declared in Fatih foundation documents. The papers of Fatih Foundation, at the realm of Sultan Murad the 3 rd, and the translations of these documents, mentiones the university of Fatih at Zeyrek(13). In addition to this; the copy of eş Şekaik, page 53 of Halil Hamid Pasha Library, nb. 327 in Isparta gives information. Table II THE BOOKS OF MEDICINE EDUCATION OF FATIH'S UNIVERSITY IN ISTANBUL (BASED ON SELJUK MEDICINE EDUCATION) AND OF EUROPEAN MEDICINE FACULTIES SELJUKS (XI.-XIV.century) 1st Year Hunayn b.ishaq: al- Mesa il fi t-tıbb Hunayn b. shak: Medhal fi t-tıbb Hippocrates: Aforizmalar (Fusul-ü Bokrat) Hippocrates: Maü s-şair Nişabûrlu Nili nin bu üç eser hakkında yazdığı şerhî 2nd Year er-razi: Kitab at-tıbb al-mansuri Galenos: Summeria Alexandrinorum (Galenin 16 Makalesi = EUROPE (Salerno, Montpellier, Paris) (XII.-XVI.yüzyıl) 1st Year Hunayn b.ishaq (Johannitus): Isagoge in artem parvam Galeni Hippocrates: Aphorismen Hippocrates: Prognostikon Hippocrates: De regimine acutorum (Constantinus Africanus tercümesinden) 2nd Year er-razi (Rhazes): Liber de medicina ad Almansorem Galenos Summeria Alexandrinorum (Montpellier de 1308 de) Galenos: De malici
5 25 Sitte Aşer li-calinus) Galenos: Teşrih-i Büzürk Tabit bin Kurra nın Zahire si Ebu Bekir Ecvinî nin Hedayası Ahmed Ferec in Kifâyesi yahut Ehliyesi Seyyid İsmail Cürcani: Zahire-i Harzemşahî Sehlî Mesili : Sad Bab 3rd and the other following years er-razi: Kitab al-hâwi Ali Abbas el-majusi: Kitab al-mûlûkî İbn Sina: Kanun fi t-tıbb De complexionibus De ingenio sanitatis De simplici medicina De morbo et accidenti De crisi et critis diebus 3rd and the other following years er-razi (Rhazes): Liber Continens Haly Abbas: Liber regius (Translation of Constantin Africanus) İbn al-jazzar: Viaticum (Translation of Constantin Africanus) Avicenna (İbn Sina): Canon medicinae (In Paris, after 1330) Montpeiller 16th century In 17th century in Vallodolid,Avicenna (Ibn Sina) Department has been establihed. Fatih Sultan Mehmed, not only established Istanbul University in Monasrty of Pantakrator dedicated to Molla Zeyrek. In this university, Seljuk university system was being applied. The establishment was lead by one of the famous scientists Molla Hüsrev. Fatih Sultan Mehmed was also made brought the science men to Istanbul that that have contributions to Renaissance; but had to escape from Europe because of the conservative Catholis pressure and racist understanding in 15 th century. The scientists from Italt and Spain, such as doctors like Ephraim bin Sandschi, Maestro Jakobo; artists, Gentile Bellini, Matteo de Pastis; architect Antonio Filarete(14). Fatih also added to his university these names; Greek rooted Georgios Amuritzes, who wanted protection from Fatih after the conquest of Trabzon; Ali Kuşçi from Semerkant; Ahmet Kutbeddin (later he was going to be the chairman of the medicine school of Fatih s University) and Altunizade, Ahi Çelebi, Beşir Çelebi from Iran(15). By these contributions; Fatih Sultan Mehmed established the first university; including astronomy and medicine; all positive and applicational sciences were being thought, just like the first state university of the world; Nizamiye Medresesi, established by Seljuk in Baghdad in 1067, other Seljuk universities and the hospital that was established by Yıldırım Beyazid in 1396 at Bursa(16). Fatih has given importance to positive sciences. An example of this is Ali Kuşçi. He
6 26 had copleted his education in Semerkant Observation House under the supervision of his master Uluğ Bey. Ali Kuşçi was visiting Istanbul as a consulate, but Fatih insisted him to stay in Istanbul and be a lecturer in his University. He was earning 200 akçe per day as his service as a professor. This amount of money had never been given to anyone until Ali Kuşçi(17). Some of the lectures that Ali Kuşçi gave aat the first university of Istanbul; today can be found in Inebey Libarary in Bursa. (nr. 24, hand written copies). Hagia Sophia Museum has the Muhammediye which is dedicated to Fatih Sultan Mehmed. It was written on astronomy and mathematics in Arabic. His second book was in Persian in hand written form. (nr. 2733)(18). One of our previous Rectors of Istanbul University Prof. Cemil Bilsel (who also wrote the history of our university) declares that After Fatih conquered Istanbul, in Zeyrek and in Hagia Sophia (at the university that he established), there was literature and Islamic law education in Turkish and medicine education began with literature and law(18a). We have proofs for this claim. At the last period of Seljuks, there was Amasya Hospital and Medical School established in After 14 years of lecturing and medical practice, in 1465, Sharaf addin Sabuncuoğlu wrote his famous book Cerrahiyetü l Haniye in Turkish with surgery paintings. Later he came to Istanbul to present his book to Fatih Sultan Mehmed. Under his masteries, we see Muhyiddin Mehi. (later he became palace physician) and Ghıyas Ibn Muhammed Isphahani (he was also Safawid palace physician in Persian) raised up(18b). According to this, at the time Fatih conquered Istanbul in 1453, there was medicine education in the rural prince (şehzade) city Amasya. We can accept that there was medicine education in this first university of Istanbul. The reason for this, in addition to Prodromos Petra Monastry, the left parts of the Byzantium University, were located in Ksenon Tou Kralou Hospital. The Byzantium University was established by Manuel the second in the earlies of 1400). It is known that the last president of this Byzantium University was Joannes Argyropoulos, who returned from Paduva in He was a professor, first in Florence than in Roma Universities before the conquest of Istanbul(19). In addition to these there was a hospital in Pantokrator (which can be considered as the first step of Istanbul University). This hospital was established in 1204 but plundered by the crusaders. According to some sources, it s been possible that, there would be a medicine education in the remained parts of this hospital(20). Following the first establishment, there were hospitals and medreses in Fatih Külliyesi. In this multipurpose mosque, there was also medicine education in addition to other sciences. We see this information written in Fatih Foundation documents(21). According to the old sources, in addition to Molla Hüsrev Medrese in Hagia Sophia rooms and Molla Zeyrek Medrese in Pantakrator
7 27 Monastry, Fatih Sultan Mehmed has also given the start of the establishment of the two new universities. 1. The University in Fatih Külliyesi (completed in 1470). In this university, there were education of almost all sciences, including medicine(21a). 2. Palace University called Enderun-u Hümayun. This university was settled in Topkapı Palace, which was called Saray-ı Cedid-i Âmire, between (22). 1. Fatih established the university and named with his own name: Fatih Külliyesi. This university is the basis of today s Istanbul University. The content and the schedule of the courses were organized by Ali Kuşçi and Molla Hüsrev. This fact was declared in Ayvansaraylı Hüseyin Efendi s book called Haikat ül Cevami. The schedule was transferred from Kanun-u Talebe-i Ulum(23). According to Prof. Süheyl Unver: Unfortunately we don t have the completed one. If this is really the order of universities (Medreseler Nizamnamesi) written by Molla Hüsrev, with the approval of Ali Kuşçi, this piece of work is very valuable. The language is the language of the period which makes us believe that this is the original(24). According to Sami History, the program of the universities was organized as first college and the second college by Ali Kuşçi(25). This will considered as a proof for the claim that was mentioned above(26). 2. Fatih Sultan Mehmed established palace school in the old palace which has been built after the conquest of Istanbul He also established Enderun Teşkilatı in Topkapı Palace (that was established as Saray-ı Cedid-i Âmire between ). In Topkapı, there was also a palace school and Enderun was the highest level of it(27). During the wars of Belgrad and Bogdan; the Enderun School members and graduates acted like Fatih s guards; and died for him in order to protect him. Fatih Sultan Mehmed saw this deication and put more emphasis on Enderun. He increased the number of people who were studying in Enderun; and Enderun took a public identity just like palace university(28). Fatih ordered to educate civil servants for every level needs of government. This information is placed in old sources like Tarih-i Ata(29). According to Tarih-i Ata, in Enderun School, there were cources like Gypsy Life and Civilization, Public Services, Politics, Art of War, Astronomy, Natural Sciences, and other arts and sciences including medicine(30). The graduates were getting diplomas with Sultan s monogram on it(31).
8 28 Alberto Bobovio s book in Italian Saray-I Enderun. It is written that in Enderun University, there were not only religious and philosophy sciences, Turkish, Arabic, Persian, music and other arts, there were but also the education of mathematics, technical and medical sciences. There were also qualified Turkish and Jewish lecturers(32). These universities and schools about Istanbul University in Fatih time, followed by the big university, built by Sinan the Architect in Süleymaniye Külliyesi, in Kanuni Sultan Suleyman era. There was medicine education in Süleymaniye Hospital (which s construction was completed at 14 th of May, 1557) and in schools of medicine(33). As Katip Çelebi puts in his work called Mizan ül Hak, the Ottoman Empire s going backwards began with not paying attention and importance to natural sciences in 17 th century after Kanuni(34). III. THE BEGINNING OF THE MODERN MEDICINE EDUCATION OF ISTANBUL UNIVERSITY Turkey, either on technical or scientific terms was taking Europe as example. At the beginning of the 17 th century, Ottoman palace doctors were translating the famous works of their European colleagues in Istanbul; and by the help of translators of the Pashas in Vienna. This might lead us to the point that Turkish medicine was becoming European. In fact the real European attempts were achieved under the realm of Sultan Selim the 3 rd, and Sultan Mahmut. At the 2 nd at the beginning of 19 th century, Sultan Selim III, has accomplished the modernization of the navy along with the army. The law that was made at 17 th of February 1805, callede Bahriye Kanunnamesi declared that, in Istanbul Navy (Tersane-I Amire), a modern medicine center should be established to raise doctors and surgeons. First, a hospital called Spitalya has opened at 9 th of January 1806; then Tıbhane (or Tabibhane) has opened following to this. It has military basis. All this information gained from archieves(35). The hospitals were closed due to the Kabakçı case at 25 th May 1807 which led to the dismiss of the Sultan Selim III; and the following rebellious act Alemdar Mustafa Paşa case at 14 th /15 th of November The hospital buildings were completely burnt down in July 1822(36). Chief Physician (Hekimbaşı) Mustafa Behçet Efendi, according to some sources, who were supposed to has his medicine education in Venice, offered to establish a modern medicine school to Sultan Mahmud II. This proposal was accepted by the Sultan and the new medicine school was established as Tıbhane-I Amire and Cerrahhane-I Amire at Tulumbacıbaşı Konağı in Şehzadebaşı at 14 th of March 1827(37). This school can be considered as the step in the development of Mekteb-I Tıbbiye-I Adliye-I Şahane. The latter was established at 17 th of February 1839 in Galatasaray by the orders of Sultan Mahmud II. The
9 29 lecturers, like Dr. Bernard from Vienna were giving lessons in this academy(38).
10 30 IV. FROM THE IMPERIAL MEDICAL SCHOOL (MEKTEB-I TIBBIYE-I ADLIYE-I ŞAHANE) IN GALATASARAY - ISTANBUL TO DAR UL FUNUNU OSMANI FACULTY OF MEDICINE At the end of year 1838, the school moved to Enderun Agaları Mektebi near Galatasaray Imperial Medical School and got the name of Mekteb-i Tıbbiye-i Adliye-i Şahane. The principal was Dr. K. A. Bernard ( ) from Vienna. Ziver Paşa wrote a poem about the establisment of the department to the door of the school. This poem was placed in Ziver Paşa s master work(27). He gives date for the year but no specific month of day. Mevki nde kıldı ihya Padişah Tıbhaneyi 1254 Fenn-i ebdan saye-i Şahide bulsun iştihar 1254 (Here is a calculation of ebced which means that the first mnemonic formula of Arabic letters according to their numerical value. Elif 1, be 2, jim 3, dal 4) In the history of Ata, year is given as 1839, but again there is no exact date(39). In the archieves that we found in Haus, Hof and Staatsarchiv of Vienna in 1989, it s declared that Mekteb-i Tıbbiye-i Şahane has opened with, first formal than religious ceremony at 17 th of February After that with another new ceremony at 11 th March 1839, the education has begun(40). Another important point is, in both of these ceremonies, Sultan Mahmud the second made a speech called Nutk-u Humayun and this speech was published in the 5 th of May 1872 dated and 1460 numbered issue of Takvim-i Vekayi; but nne of these are mentioned in these sources(41). At the end of the education year of Mekteb-i Tıbbiye-i Şahane, Sultan Abdülmecit honered and came to the final examinations that were done at 22th of November This information is in Berliler Medicinische Central Zeintung, issue dated 27 th of November 1840(42). After French Revolution, French became a favorite language trougt out the Europe. In this Galatasaray Medicine School, the education language was also French. It is important to emphasis the point that while all the lecturers were from Vienna, why French language was being choused. Along with Vienna Medicine School, Josephinum was opened at 7 th of November 1785 in Vienna. This school was based on military and surgery medicine and was very famous in Europe. It has impacts on the famous military medicine school Academia Chirurgica Regia in Copenhagen established in 1797 and Berlin military medicine school Pepinier(43). In addition to this, the Ottoman diplomat Mehmed Vahid Efendi, mentiones about the military medicine
11 31 school Josephinum with admiration in his book Sefaretname, which was translated to French later. He made his observations through his visit in Vienna between 1 st -17 th of February He adds in his book that; although Paris has this kind of institution; it was none better than the one established in Vienna(44). The director from Vienna, Dr. Bernard, organized the medicine school at Galatasaray as taking Josephinum Vienna as example. He established a botanic garden and made brought a gardener called Skalak from Vienna(45). Galatasaray Mekteb-I Tıbbiye-I Sahane has a rich library of 1300 medcicine books and mineral collection in 1842(46). Dr Bernard was lecturing on surgery and inner diseases. The clinic lectures were given at five patient yards of Mekteb-I Tıbbiye-i Şahane. At school, also midwifes were raised and injections were done free. Dr. Bernard declared that, the medicine school was giving education for 4 years of preparation and 4 years of medicine education. This declaration was placed in the rapport called Rapport sur les truvaux de l Ecole de Medicine de Galata-Serai (47) in Journal de Constantinople et des interet Orientaux, dated 26 th of September 1843; and in the news of Klenckes Allgemeiner Zeitung German Magazine(48) in The preparation school s lectures were; zoology, mathematics, geography painting, calligraphy, Ottoman History, Turkish, Arabic, and also, M.Guerrieri was giving Latin language lectures. In 20 th of July 1842 dated Allegemenie Medicine Central Zeitung, it is written that last week an application medicine school called Hospital d Instruction was established in Mekteb-i Tıbbiye-i Şahane. The hospital consisted of inner diseases, surgery and eye clinics of 50 beds each(49). There were similarities between the Galatasaray s education program and the one of Josephinum Vienna, which was being applied till 1822 and endures for 5 years (50). According to Allgemeine Medicinische Central Zeitung s 3 rd of December 1845 dated, 97 th issue (sp. 776); 22th of Nov dated news declares that the new director Ismail Efendi (took the duty 14 years ago) said that the preparation and the medicine education of the school raised to 5 years each; so the complete education was totally raised to 10 years. Dr. K.A. Bernard, after the intense work of lecturing and management, died from Pyamie a result of Phlegmone in his neck at the age of 36 at 2 nd of November He buried in Maria Draperis Church s cemetery (51) Till the day he died, he wrote lots of books in French, for his students. He wrote books on botanic, Auskultation and Perkussion and as a result of his disease in his eyes, he wrote a book on Bursa thermal waters after his visit for healing(51). The book was in French and after this he is known as the first establisher of Balneology in Turkey. His book, published in 1844, Pharmacopea Castrensis Ottomana, considered as the first
12 32 pharmacological work of Turkey. In addition to this, under his supervision, the publishing of la Gazette Medicale de Constantinople began. After his death, according to Ottoman sources in 1846, but according to Wurzbach, in 1847, Doctor Sigmund Spitzer from Vienna became the manager of Galatasaray Medicine School(52). Spitzer played an important role in the education of dissection of the corpses. He sent four successful students of the seniors to Vienna to give their Medical Doctor exams in order to prove that Galatasary Medicine School was giving qualified European education. In 1848, these students had succeeded in their exams and became doctors of Vienna Medicine Faculty(53). One of these students Musa Arif Bey, became Mekteb-i Tıbbıye Nazırı(54) after a very profession life. Another student of these group, Stephan Aslanian Pasha became a lecturer in Mekteb-I Tıbbiye-I Şahane(55). With the examinations in Vienna, the medicine school in Galatasaray has proved its quality. During the management of Spitzer; the school continued to live its golden age that began with Dr. Bernard. The Sultan declared that, the Medicine School has turned to a faculty called Darulfünun-u Tıbbıye-I Şahane(56). If we examine the diplomas, we see that the institution name was written as Faculté de Medicine de Constantinople (Istanbul Medicine Faculty) This is just like the diplomas of European Universities, giving the doctors the rights and privilidges of being doctors and surgeons with the words: docteur en Medicine et en Chirurgie (57). At the 11 th of November 1848, after the burnt of the building at Galatasaray, Mekteb-i Tıbbiye-i Şahane moved to Kumbarahane barracks. After 18 years in this building, the school had had to move into the city walls of Topkapı Palace, because of the Cholera epidemic. (The Kumbarhane Barracks were turned to cholera hospital.) The military medicine school s managerial parts moved to red barracks in Gülhane; the classes moved to Gergeroğlu Konağı in Hasköy. In 1874, there was a return to Galatasaray, then back to Demirkapı in 1876 and the management part moved to Kuleli(58)(59). V. FROM DARÜ L FUNUN-U OSMANİ MEDICINE SCHOOL TO ISTANBUL MEDICAL FACULTY OF ISTANBUL UNIVERSITY Mekteb-i Tıbbiye-i Askeriye-i Şahane joined with Mekteb-I Tıbbiye-I Mülkiye-i Şahane at the building Haydarpaşa(60) with the recommendations of the head master Prof. R. Reider Pasha. The school got the name of Darulfünun-u Osmani Medicine Faculty in 1909(61) and important impacts on Turkish Medicine. The building at Haydarpaşa, opened at the birthday of abdülmecid the 2 nd. In the planning of this building, we see Italian architects Valauri and D Aranco and also the very important contributions of Reider Pasha. He recommended to construct pavilion system, the patient pavilions were built as the ones in Hamburg s Eppindorf Hospital s
13 33 Curschman type pavilions; and the main conference hall was built as the auditorium of Leipzig s Surgery Clinic(62). The lecturers of the military school came together and wrote a letter to ministry of military at 23 rd of July 1908, at the establishment of constitutional government; asking for better conditions for the academy. The ministry of military made the declaration that the development of the school had being left to the school itself. At the first meeting of the related issue; the decision of the unifying the military and the civil medicine school had taken. At the mentioned time, the lecturers of the civil medicine school, Cemil, Ziya Nuri and Süleyman Numan Pashas thought that, this kind of reform could be applicable in the civil medicine school; so they decided to transform the civil medicine school to medicine faculty. Both civil medicine school and Şam Mekteb-I Tıbbiye began to give education under the supervision of ministry of education. After being a faculty, the beginning of this institution is taken as 1 st of November, (63) This medicine school which was one of the schools of Darulfunun-u Osmani, now referred as medicine faculty; and with total acceptation teacher of surgery clinic, Muşir Cemil Pasha became the Dean of this faculty(64). The last general meeting of the lecturers of this medicine school at Kadırga was 29 th of June, 1909 and the decision for a break till 1 st of September 1909 had taken(65). The lecturers of the military medicine school didn t approve the transform of this medicine school to faculty at Kadırga. The military medicine school joined to medicine faculty in term of financial basis after the Minister of Finance Cavit Bey passed the budget of 1909 of military medicine school to medicine faculty(66). Although the academic staff problem hadn t being solved; at 5 th of September 1909, the commission decided to give the clinics of the military school and the building at Haydarpaşa to Darulfünun-u Osmani Medicine Faculty. All the equipment of the building had passed to the control of Ministry of Education and the students of the military medicine school had the obligation of staying in the parts that were left to them. The Darülfünun-u Osmanî Medicine Faculty, settled in Haydarpaşa, organized according to the order of the Medicine Faculty of Lyon in France and served for Turkish Medicine until the university reform of Ataturk in With the beginning of the World War I, all the staff of the faculty had joined to the army, so the faculty couldn t be opened. Hospital with 1500 beds had turned to a military hospital. In 1916, the faculty began to give education and for the short terms, it graduated doctors for Turkish army. For some reasons, for a short while, the faculty moved to the old Turkish Doctors Association building in Cağaloğlu in The last graduates of the faculty began
14 34 their internship at the various hospitals in Istanbul from 1925 and then. The developments such as the acceptance of the female students began in 1922, just before the Republic. In education semester, F.K.B. class had being opened(67). In Ataturk time, with the efforts of the time s Minister of the Education Dr. Reşit Galip, the university reform has taken into consideration with the law numbered 2252, at 31 st of May At the same year s 31 st July, Dar ül-funun has being closed and at 18 th of November 1933 Istanbul University has been established. In this way, Istanbul University reborn in the university(68). As mentioned before, in 1848, the students of the Mekteb-i Tıbbiye-i Şahane had taken the exams in Vienna Medicine Faculty and graduated as the doctors of the mentioned schools. After this The Sultan gave order for turning the medicine school to medicine faculty with the name Darülfünun Tıbbiye Şahane. On the connection, a brief summary of Darülfünun will be necessary. VI. FROM DARÜ L FÜNUN ERA TO ISTANBUL MEDICAL FACULTY ISTANBUL UNIVERSITY OF In Mahmud the 2 nd era, Mekteb-i Maarif-i Adli has being established. In 1845, the idea of the establishment of Daru lfunun has appeared. (69) 1. At 21 st of July, Daru lfunun has being established. Italian architect Fossati, completed the construction of Daru lfunun building near Hagia Sophia in The principal of the Mekteb-i Osmani in Paris Hoca Tahsin Efendi became the principal of Daru lfunun. After a short time, the school dismissed.(70) 2. Daru lfunun Osmani, has being opened at 20 th of February 1870 by the Minister of Education Safvet Pasha. Hoca Tahsin Efendi became the principal and the program consist of :
15 35 1 Philosophy and Literature 2- Law 3- Natural Science and Mathematics(70a) 3. At Galatasaray Mektebi Sultanî, Daru lfunun-ı Sultanî has being established. In this instution, departments were: 1- Literature and Philosophy 2- Law 3- Natural Sciences after 1881, there is no source or data about this school(71) 4. Daru lfunun-ı Şahane, has being opened at today s Kız Lisesi at 1 st of September 1900 and departments were: 1- Teology 2- Mathematics 3- Literature and Philosophy(72). In addition to this; at the building settled in 1903 at Haydarpaşa, Mekteb-i Tıbbiye-i Şahane and Mekteb-i Tıbbiye-i Mülkiye unified under the name of Daru lfunun-u Osmani Medicine Faculty, in At 20 th of April 1912, in the Minister of Education Emrullah Efendi era, with a program, Istanbul Daru l Funun has been established. At 7 th of October 1925, with Istanbul Daru l Fununu Talimatnamesi, it gained and legal and scitific identity(73). Dar ul-funun has being closed and Istanbul University has been established depending on the law 2252 at 31 st of May 1933(74). Istanbul Daru l Funun Medicine Faculty was operating in the building that was constructed according to the ideas of Prof. Dr. Reider Pasha. The medicine faculty moved to the clinics at Çapa, Gureba and Cerrahpaşa in the European side. 42 German professors, who were running away from the Hitler Germany, placed with the lecturers who left the faculty with 1933 reform. In this action, there were two important names; Swiss pedagogy pfrofesor Malche and German pathology professor Schwartz. Only in Istanbul Medicine Faculty, there were 19 German medicine professor have worked as clinic and institute director between 1933 and In addition to these, the very important Turkish lecturers as Akil Muhtar Özden, Mazhar Osman, Hulusi Behçet, Tevfik Salim Sağlam Paşa, Neşet Ömer (who were very famous in their fields) have worked as academic staff in Istanbul University Medicine Faculty. Thus, Istanbul Medicine Faculty, became one of the very important medicine faculties of Europe after Ataturk s university reform in 1933(75).
16 36 VII. CONCLUSION Finally, it is important to emphasis one more thing: The Jewish scientists had a crucial role in European Renaissance with their translations of the Islamic works to Latin. Because of the conservative Catholic and racist attitudes, there was the dismiss of these scientists from Italy and Spain in 15 th century. After the conquest of Istanbul, Fatih Sultan Mehmed established a university in Istanbul, 550 years ago; and he gathered around very important Jewish doctors like Maestro Jacobo ran away from Italy (later he became Muslim and got the name Yakup Pasha) and Spanish Ephrahim b. Sandschi. Later he added artists, Gentile Bellini, Matteo de Pastis from Italy; architect Antonio Filarete; Greek rooted Georgios Amuritzes, who wanted protection from Fatih after the conquest of Trabzon; Ali Kuşçi from Semerkant; Ahmed Kutbeddin from Persia (later he was going to be the chairman of the medicine school of Fatih s University with a very high a salary of 20,000 Akçe) and Altunizade, Ahi Çelebi, Beshir Çelebi from Anatolia. There are very important similarities between the first creator of the Turkish Renaissance Fatih Sultan Mehmed s work and the university reform of Atatürk in At the 550 th anniversary of our university s establishment, we like to present our respect and thanks to our establisher Fatih Sultan Mehmed and Atatürk, who made us one the best universities of Europe with the university reform he made 70 years ago. REFERENCES (1) Uzunçarşılı,İ.H.: Osmanlı Devletinin İlmiye Teşkilâtı. Ankara 1965, p.1-3; Baltacı, Cahit: XV.-XVI. Asırlarda Osmanlı Medreseleri. İstanbul (1976) p.15-16,46,47; A.Adnan Adıvar: Osmanlı Türklerinde İlim. İstanbul (1970), p.12,13, (2) Evliya Çelebi: Seyahatname. Publisher: Z.Danışman, İstanbul (1962), vol.2, p ; Erdenen, Orhan: Eski Mimarlarımızın Yetişmeleri, Mimarlık, 32, 1966, p.20. Erdenen, Orhan: Osmanlılarda Mimarlık Teşkilâtı, Hayat Tarih Mecmuası, 2/12, 1967, p.47. (3) In Emin Bey: Tarihçe-i tarik-i tedris, İlmiye Salnamesi, İstanbul 1334 H., p claims that one of the medreses in Süleymaniye mosque settled only for mathemathics education. Mehmed Ali: Aynî. Daru lfünun Tarihi, İstanbul 1927, p.3 and Uzunçarşılı İ.H.: Osmanlı Devletinin İlmiye Teşkilâtı Ankara 1965, p.34 claim that one of the mentioned high schools left for natural sciences. But there is no data about these in the foundations registrations and documents. For the claim of education of architecture and engineering in Süleymaniye Complex, see Ergin, Osman: Türk Maarif Tarihi. İstanbul 1977, c.1-2, s.147,148,152; Erdenen, Orhan: Eski Mimarlarımızın Yetişmeleri Mimarlık, 32, 1966, p.20. (4) Keykâvus b. İskender b. Kâbus b. Veşmgir b. Ziyâr: Kâbusnâme. Mercimek Ahmed s translation. İstanbul (1978), p.2,
17 37 (5) Nizamii Arûzî: Çehar Makale, Tıb İlmi ve Meşhur Hekimlerin Mahareti. Translated by. A. Gölpınarlı, ed. Süheyl Ünver. İstanbul 1936, p (6) Schipperges,H: Arabische Medizin in lateinischen Mittelalter. Heidelberg- New York 1976, p (7) Schipperges,H: op. cit., p (8) See Baltacı,Câhid: XV-XVI. Asırlarda Osmanlı Medreseleri. İstanbul 1976, p.58. (8a) Schipperges,H: Arabische Medizin im lateinischen Mittelalter. Heidelberg, New York 1976, p (9) Schipperges,H: 1976, p ; Hein, Wolfgang-Hagen u. Sappert, Kurt: Die Medizinalordnung Friedrichs II. Eutin 1957, p.13, 101; Hein, W. H. und Sappert, K.: Zur Datierung der Medizinalordnung Friedrich II. Dtsch. Apotheker-Ztg. 1955, Geschichtsbeilage Nr. 2. (10) Birchler-Argyros, Urs Benno: Byzantinische Spitalgeschichte. Ein Überblick. Historia Hospitalium, Heft 15, , p (11) Mazaherî, Ali: Ortaçağda Müslümanların Yaşayışları, Trc. Bahriye Üçok, İstanbul 1972, p ; Rückbrod, Konrad: Universität und Kollegium. Baugeschichte und Bautyp. Darmstadt 1977, p.10, 11, 26. (12) Birchler-Argyros, Urs Benno: op.cit., p (12a) Kritovulos: İstanbul un Fethi. Translated by: Karolidi, İstanbul (1967), p.119. (12b) Üniversite Kütüphanesi, Yıldız Nr.1522; Nuruosmaniye Kütüphanesi, Nr (13) See Bilsel Cemil: İstanbul Üniversitesi Tarihi. İstanbul 1943, p.8; See Ünver, Süheyl: Fatih, Külliyesi ve Zamani İlim Hayatı. İstanbul 1946, p.9,11,13. (14) Babinger, Franz: Jaqûp, ein Leibarzt Mehmed s II. Roma 1951, p (15) Terzioğlu, Arslan: Türk-İslam Hastaneleri ve Tababetinin Avrupa da Tıbbi Rönesansı Etkilemesinden Türk Tıbbının Batılılaşmasına. İstanbul 1992, p.17. (16) See Terzioğlu, Arslan: Gründungsurkunden der Seldschukischen und Osmanischen Krankenhäuser. Kunst des Orients, Bd.X 1/2, 1976, p (17) Tarih-i Nişancı Paşa:Süleymaniye Kütüphanesi, Esad Efendi kısmı, Nr.2185; Ünver, Süheyl: Türk Pozitif İlimler Tarihinden Bir Bakış. Ali Kuşçi, Hayatı ve Eserleri, İstanbul 1948, p (18) See Ünver, Süheyl, op. cit., p (18a) Bilsel, Cemil: İstanbul Üniversitesi Tarihi. İstanbul 1943, p.90. (19) See Lampros, S: Agyropouleria (Agyropoulos). Verlag Sakellarios, Atina (20) See Eyice, Semavi: Über die byzantinischen Krankenhäuser. Historia Hospitalium, Heft 15, , p See., Isparta, Halil Hamid Paşa Library. Nr. 327, copy of eş-şekaiki Numaniye, Fol. 53. (21) Terzioğlu, Arslan: op cit. Kunst des Orients, Bd.X 1/2, 1976, p
18 38 (21a) See İlmiye Sahnamesi, İstanbul 1334, p.645; See Terzioğlu, Arslan: op.cit., p.150. (22) See Terzioğlu, Arslan: Saray-ı Humâyûn da Teknik Eğitim. Tarih ve Toplum. (23) Yaltkaya, Şerefeddin: Tanzimattan evvel ve sonra medreseler. Tanzimat I, İstanbul 1940, p (24) Ünver, Süheyl: op.cit., p (25) Sami Tarihi. İbrahim Müteferrika tab ı, fol. 90. (26) Ünver, Süheyl: op. cit., p.19. (27) Baykal, İsmail H.: Enderun Mektebi Tarihi. İstanbul 1953, vol.1, p.18,26,30,48,49. (28) Ali Seydi Bey: Teşrifat ve Teşkilatımız. İstanbul 1972, p.130. (29) Tayyârzâde Ahmed Ata: Tarih-i Ata. İstanbul , Vol.1, p.39,40. (30) Tayyârzâde Ahmed Ata: op. cit., p.39,40. (31) Tayyârzâde Ahmed Ata: op. cit., Vol.1, p.40; Bkz. Miller, Bernatte: The Palace School of Muhammed the Conqueror. Cambridge 1941, p.36. (32) Alberto Bobovio: Serai Enderum. Das ist İnwendige Beschaffenheit der Türkischen Kayserl: Rezidenz zu Constantinopoli Wien 1667, p.2,3, (33) Terzioğlu, Arslan: Mittelalterliche islamische Krankenhäuser. Diss. TU - Berlin 1968, p.171; Ünver, Süheyl: Fatih, Külliyesi ve Zamanı İlim Hayatı, İstanbul 1946, p.20; Barkan, Ömer L.: Süleymaniye Cami ve İmareti İnşaatı, Vol.1, Ankara 1972, p.78. (34) Katip Çelebi: Mizanü l-hak fi İhtiyari l-ahakk. Ed.: O.Şaik Gökyay, İstanbul 1980, p.21. (35) Başbakanlık Arşivi, Cevdet Bahriye Tasnifi Nr (36) Saffet: Bahriye tarihimizden filâsalar. İstanbul 1329, p.30. (37) For further information see. Uzluk, Feridun: Türk Tıbbiyesinin 748. yıldönümü dolayısı ile Hekimbaşı Mustafa Behçet. Ankara (1954). (38) For further information see. Terzioğlu, Arslan: Das Josephinum und seine Ausstrahlung. Apotheker Journal, Heft 4 (1986), p (39) Ahmed Sadık Ziver Paşa: Âsâr-ı Ziver Paşa-Divanı ve Münşaat. Bursa 1313 H. (1895), p (40) Terzioğlu, Arslan: İstanbul Tıp Fakültesi Tarihçesi. İst. Tıp Fak Mecm. Vol.63, Nr.2, Supplementum 2, 2000, p.66. (41) Terzioğlu, Arslan: op.cit., p.68. (42) Berliner Medicinische Central Zeitung. IX Jg., 48.Stück; 27 November 1840, Sp.959. (43) Terzioğlu, Arslan: Das Josephinum und seine Ausstrahlung. Apotheker Journal. 8 (1986), p.42. (44) Vahid Efendi: Sefaretname-i Seyyid Mehmed Emin Efendi. El yazma nüshası. Süleymaniye Bibliothek, Esat Efendi Küt. İstanbul, Nr. 2277, varak 8 a, 8 b; Terzioğlu, Arslan: Das Josephinum und seine Ausstrahlung. Apotheker Journal, 8, (1986), p
19 39 (45) Başvekâlet Archiv: 1844 (1260 H.) Tarihli İrade Defteri; Neuburger, Max: Österreichische Ârzte als Pioniere der wissenschaftlichen Medizin und Sanitätswesens in der Türkei ( ). Wiener medizinische Wochenschrift 67 (1917), p (46) Wurzbach, Constant von: Biographisches Lexikon des Kaisertums Österreich. Bd. 1, Wien 1856, p.323. (47) Bernard, K.A.: Rapport sur le truvaux de l Ecole de Medicine de Galata- Sérai. Journal de Constantinople et des intéréts Orientaux, 26. Sept. 1843, p.22. (48) Allgemeine Zeitung für Militärärzte, herausgegeben von Ph. F.H.Klenckel. 2. Jg. Braunschweig 1844, p.141, 142, , (49) Stern, Bernhard: Medizin., Aberglaube und Geschlechtsleben in der Türkei. Bd. 1, Berlin 1903, p (50) Terzioğlu, Arslan: Das Josephinum und seine Ausstrahlung. Apotheker Journal, 8 (1986); p (51) Allgemeine Medicinische Central Zeitung, XIV.Jg., 97. Stück, 3 December 1845, Sp.776. (52) Rigler, Lorenlz: Nekrolog (für Dr.Joseph Wartbhichler). Wiener Medizinische Wochenschrift. 2 Jg. Nr.39, (1852), Sp.678. (52a) The grave of Dr.Bernard is found by the art historian Prof.Semali Eyice in See. Eyice Semai: Mekteb-I Tıbbiyenin İlk Müdürü Dr.Bernard ın Mezarı. Tarih Dergisi, Bd.2, 1952, p (53) Neuburger, Max: op. cit., Sp. 1688; See Ünver, Süheyl: Tıp Tarihimiz Yıllığı I. İstanbul 1966, p.48; Wurzbach, Constant von: op.cit., Bd.36, p.195. (53a) See. Sonntagsblättern Wiener Boote Nr.2, (54) Ünver,A.Süheyl: Osmanlı Tababeti ve Tanzimat Hakkında Yeni Notlar. Tanzimat I, Istanbul 1940, p.943. (55) Mezbur, Artin: Ermeni Hekimler (Universitaire) ( ). İstanbul 1950, p (56) Özbay,Kemal: Türk Asker Hekimliği Tarihi ve Asker Hastaneleri. Vol.2, İstanbul 1976, p.57. (57) Terzioğlu, Arslan: İstanbul Tıp Fakültesi Tarihçesi. İst. Tıp Fak. Mecm. Vol.63, Nr.2, Supplementum 2, 2000, p.16. (58) See A.Z.: Notice sur l Ecole de Médecine de Constantinople. Gazette Medicale d Orient, No.12 (1871), p.192; Ünver,Süheyl: İstanbul Tıp Fakültesi ( ). 107 Yılda Geçirdiği Çığırlar. Dirim, Vol.10, 1-2 (1935), p.16. (59) Terzioğlu, Arslan: op.cit., İst. Tıp Fak. Mecm. Supplementum 2, 2000, p.71. (60) Unat, Ekrem Kadri, Samasti,Mustafa: Mekteb-i Tıbbiye-i Mülkiye. İstanbul 1990, p.8. (61) Unat, Ekrem Kadri ve Samasti Mustafa: op.cit., p.76.
20 40 (62) Rieder, Robert: Für die Türkei. Bd.2, Die neue Militärmedizinische. Schule Haidar-Pascha. Jena 1904, p.xii, XVIII, XX. (63) See. Darülfünun-u Osmani Tıp Fakültesi Cemiyet-i Muallimin Mukerrerat ve Zabıt Defteri. 24 Şevval 1326, 5 Teşrinisani 1324 and 18th of November İstanbul Üniversitesi Cerrahpaşa Department of History of Medicine Library. (64) Unat, Ekrem Kadri: Kadırga daki Tıp Fakültesi. Cerrahpaşa Tıp Fakültesi Dergisi, Vol.12, Nr.:2, 12 Nisan 1981, p.211. (65) Unat, Ekrem Kadri: op. cit., p.218. (65a) Topuzlu, Cemil: İsbitbad-Meşrutiyet-Cumhuriyet Devirlerinde 80 Yıllık Hatıralarım. İstanbul 1951, p (66) Unat,Ekrem Kadri, Samasti,Mustafa: Mekteb-i Tıbbiye-i Mülkiye, İstanbul 1990, p.77. (67) Tis Medicine School in Haydarpaşa is declared as Medicine High School in 10th of October 1919 dated Darülfünun-u Osmanî Nizamnamesi.(See. Düstur, Second order, Vol 11, p.401). The law about İstanbul Darülfünunun Şahsiyesi Hükmiyesi is accepted at 21st of April 1924 and here also, the medicine faculty is referred as medicine high school. (See. Zabıt Ceridesi: Vol 8, p ). At the first years of the republic, on the diplomas,it is written as İstanbul Darülfununu Tıp Medresesi (medical high school); after the Alphabet Revolution in 1929, on the diplomas, it is written as Istanbul Darülfununu Tıp Fakültesi (medicine faculty). (68) Terzioğlu, Arslan: Cumhuriyet Dönemi Türk Tıbbına ve Tıp Eğitimine Kısa Bir Bakış, İstanbul 2003, p (69) Aynî, Mehmet Ali: Daru l-fünûn Tarihi. Ed.: Metin Hasırcı, İstanbul (1995), p (70) Aynî, Mehmet Ali: op. cit., p.40-46; Aslanapa, Oktay: İstanbul Darüfünun ve Üniversite Binaları Tarihçesi. İstanbul Üniversitesi, Vol.I, İstanbul (1983), p (70a) Aynî, Mehmet Ali: op. cit., p.50-56; Aslanapa, Oktay: op.cit., p.39. (71) Aynî, Mehmet Ali: op. cit., p.57-58; Aslanapa, Oktay: op.cit., p (72) Aynî, Mehmet Ali: op. cit., p.59-61; Aslanapa, Oktay: op.cit., p.39. (73) Aynî, Mehmet Ali: op. cit., p.61-62; Aslanapa, Oktay: op.cit., p (74) Terzioğlu,Arslan: Cumhuriyet Dönemi Türk Tıbbına ve Tıp Eğitimine Kısa Bir Bakış. İstanbul 2003, p (75) Terzioğlu,Arslan: op. cit, p.34. METNE AİT RESİMLER / PICTURES RELATED TO TEXT