81-PATTERNS OF OCEAN LIFE

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1 81-PATTERNS OF OCEAN LIFE reproduce drastically otter urchins fur kelp interdependence starve predator prey A striking example of how man can (1) alter the (2) patterns of ocean life has occurred off the coasts of southern California. In the nineteenth century, these waters had a large population of that busy little animal called the sea (3), which ate sea (4), which, in turn, fed on large brown algae called (5). Sea otters almost totally disappeared due to (6) traders who encouraged hunters to kill off otters for their valuable furs. With the disappearence of the otter, sea urchins started to (7) in vast numbers, leading to a great increase in their population. This caused sea urchins to almost entirely exhaust kelp beds. At this point, man had replaced the original balance of nature with a new pattern. The sea urchins, which previously had been the (8) of the sea otter, had become the (9) and the kelp had become the new prey. As the kelp began to disappear, sea urchins began to (10). With the reduction of the urenin population, the kelp managed to reproduce and increase their numbers. Yet, the sea urchins again increased and so on. A eyele taking from 10 to 12 years started to repeat itself. regain sufficient pollution destruction abundant A further step came when sewage (11) caused an additional (12) of kelp - not because sewage kills kelp but because sewage feeds sea urchins, which once again increased in numbers with this new source of food. If sea otters had been present in (13) quantities, the kelp beds would still be (14). In order to re-establish the proper balance in the eco-system, marine biologists have put forward a number of solutions. In time and with the help of man, nature may (15) its previous order. KELİME ANLAM EŞ ANLAM abundant bol, çok, dolu, bereketli, verimli plentiful, copious, profuse; full, abounding with destruction imha, yok edilme, tahribat, yıkma, tahrip, ruin, desolation, annihilation öldürme drastically şiddetle, sert bir biçimde, zorlayıcı olarak intensely, in an extreme manner, severely fur kürk, post, kürklü hayvan, dil pası, kireç tabakası (çaydanlık vb.) of or relating to fur; resembling or feeling like fur; made of fur interdependence bağlılık, dayanışma mutual dependence, reciprocal dependency, mutual reliance kelp esmer suyosunu, bir tür suyosunu, varek otter su samuru, lutr, çok iğneli olta takımı pollution kirletme, kirlenme, bozulma, çevre kirliliği, pislik contamination; desecration; dirtying, soiling; spoiling, destruction predator yırtıcı hayvan hunter, creature which hunts other creatures for food prey av, kurban, yem creature that is hunted and killed for food; victim, casualty regain yeniden kazanmak, tekrar kavuşmak, geri dönmek, geri gelmek recover, get back, repossess; arrive again, reach a place again reproduce yeniden üretmek, yenisini yapmak, çoğaltmak, türetmek, kopyasını çıkarmak, procreate, multiply, produce offspring; duplicate, copy; re-create, remake reprodüksiyon yapmak, çoğalmak starve açlıktan kıvranmak, açlıktan ölmek, çok hunger, famish acıkmak, midesi kazınmak, sefalet çekmek, aç olmak, aç bırakmak, açlıktan öldürmek, mahrum etmek sufficient yeterli, kâfi, yeter, nitelikli, elverişli enough, adequate urchins afacan, sokak çocuğu, yaramaz çocuk, kirpi, deniz kestanesi mischievous child; hedgehog; sea urchin

2 82-GROWING UP experience warmth whole disapproval obey reaction praise avoid When we are young, the house where we live is our (1) world. Everything is provided for us - food and shelter, (2) and love. We (3) our parents without question, because if mummy and daddy say it, it must be right. Every (4) we have is classified as good or bad according to their (5). We quickly learn to do those things which earn their (6), and to (7) doing those things which upset them and earn their (8). respect annoyed conflict exposed to hold swear forbidden independent adolescence As we grow older, we are more and more (9) outside influences - school, friends and other adults. We soon start to realise that there are other values which are different from those our parents (10). For example, your parents have told you that some words, such as 'bloody', are (11) words, and they have (12) you to use them. However, in your friend's house, everyone - children and grown-ups -says things like 'Bloody hell!' when they are (13) and no-one seems to think that there is anything wrong with it. You are confused; you wonder what the right thing to do is. You try to resolve the (14) of values between two groups of people - your parents on the one hand, and your friend's parents on the other - for whom you have equal (15). Eventually what happens is that we start to lead double lives; we reserve some forms of behaviour for the home, and others for the world outside the home. The real conflict starts when we reach (16). We begin to question everything and everyone, including our parents and their values, because we want to establish our own (17) values. allow views extremes resentful lead rebellious protection Unfortunately, as long as we are living at home and are dependent on our parents, we cannot (18) our own lives according to our own (19) of right and wrong. The trouble is that if our parents give us more freedom, we are bound to make mistakes, and they will wonder if they have given us too much freedom. On the other hand, if parents (20) too little freedom, their teenage children are likely to become (21) and (22). Somewhere between the two (23), it ought to be possible to find a sort of 'democratic' alternative, which allows children the freedom to grow up and to make their own decisions, including mistakes, but which also offers them help and (24) when they need it.

3 KELİME ANLAM EŞ ANLAM adolescence gençlik, büyüme çağı, delikanlılık age of puberty; youth allow izin vermek, bırakmak, kabul etmek, imkân permit; enable vermek; koyvermek, vermek, itiraf etmek; indirim yapmak; hesaba katmak, göz önüne almak, düşünmek, fikrinde olmak; ayırmak annoyed rahatsız etmek, sinirini bozmak, huzursuz bother, harass, irritate etmek, canını sıkmak, sinirlendirmek, gıcık etmek, sataşmak, kızdırmak, sinir etmek, sinir bozmak, taciz etmek avoid kaçınmak, savuşturmak, sakınmak, önlemek, uzak durmak, korunmak; iptal etmek, evade, escape; keep away from; prevent, keep from happening; nullify, make void (Law) conflict çekişmek, anlaşmazlığa düşmek, savaşmak, oppose, disagree, quarrel, fight bağdaşmamak, tutmamak disapproval beğenmeme, itiraz, onaylamama; ayıplama, kınama negative opinion, lack of approval, disapprobation experience tecrübe, deneyim; pratik; başa gelen olay; knowledge obtained by doing; something exposed to extremes forbidden hold independent lead hayat, yaşam; olay; din değiştirme [amer.] bırakmak, maruz bırakmak, ortada bırakmak, terketmek; ışıklandırmak, ortaya çıkarmak, sergilemek, göstermek, teşhir etmek, açığa çıkarmak; karşı karşıya bırakmak; ışığa tutmak [fot.] aşırı derece, ölçüsüzlük, aşırılık, en uç nokta, sınır, son derece, tezat, çıkmaz yasaklamak, olanak vermemek, engel olmak, menetmek tutmak, kavramak, tıkamak, kaldırmak, el koymak, alıkoymak, gözaltına almak, devam etmek, almak, barındırmak, muhafaza etmek, karara bağlamak, çekmek, dayanmak, sadık kalmak, geçerli olmak, durmak bağımsız, özgür, hür, serbest, kendi geçimini sağlayan, maddi yönden bağımsız başında olmak, yol göstermek, öncülük etmek, önde gitmek, önderlik etmek, yönetmek, yönlendirmek, etkilemek, başı olmak, sürdürmek, sürmek, açmak (kartlarını), götürmek that one has lived through reveal, uncover, disclose; abandon extreme point, extremum ban; prohibit; deny; prevent have in one's hand; include, contain; keep, save; restrain; maintain, support, believe; direct, arrange; possess free; autonomous, self-governing, sovereign; self-reliant, self-sufficient conduct, escort; drive; guide; direct; take, bring; influence, cause; be in first place; live in a certain way, follow a certain lifestyle obey itaat etmek, uymak, dinlemek, riayet etmek, comply; listen to, mind sadakât göstermek, söz dinlemek praise övmek, methetmek, şükretmek express admiration, commend, extol, compliment, laud protection koruma, muhafaza, himaye, haraç, önlem, tedbir, korunma, kayırma defense, shelter, safety; act of safeguarding, act of defending reaction reaksiyon, tepki, tepkime, karşı kuvvet, tepme, geri tepme, gericilik, irtica, alerji action made in response to a stimulus; return to a previous state, restoration of a past condition rebellious asi, isyankâr, isyancı, serkeş, inatçı seditious, mutinous, resisting or challenging resentful alınmış, içerlemiş, dargın, küskün, gücenmiş, kinci, çabuk kızan authority having a feeling of ill will, bitter, indignant, angry

4 respect swear views warmth whole saygı göstermek, saymak, hürmet etmek, ilgili bulunmak, uymak, riâyet etmek kalaylamak, yemin etmek, ant içmek, küfretmek, sövmek, sövüp saymak, lânet okuma, yeminle söylemek, yemin ettirmek bakış, görüş, görüş alanı, manzara, panaroma, görünüm, görüntü, beklenti, amaç, fikir, kanı, gösterme, yayınlama ısı, sıcaklık, hararet, heyecan, içtenlik, samimiyet bütün, toplu, tüm, tam, sağlam, sağlıklı, yarasız beresiz, öz honor, admire, esteem, hold in high regard pledge, vow, solemnly promise; curse, use obscene language; testify under oath (Law); bind by an oath vista, scenery, sight; opinion, outlook; gaze, look; field of vision; in Computers display of a certain point of view of a three-dimensional image in CAD/CAM programs (Computers) heat; cordiality; excitement complete, not in pieces; full; entire, including every part; healthy, well

5 83-LONELINESS utter curious surrounded except crowd get rid of tackle Loneliness is a (1) thing. Most of us can remember feeling most lonely when we were not in fact lonely at all,.but when we were (2) by people. Everyone has experienced, at some time, that (3) sense of isolation that comes over you when you are at a party. It suddenly seems to you as if everybody knows everybody; everybody, that is, (4) you. This feeling of loneliness, which can overcome you when you are in a (5), is very difficult to (6). People living alone are advised to (7) their loneliness by joining a club or a society, by going out and meeting people. Does this really help? cheerful miserable uncertainties confidence situation combat There are no easy solutions. Your first day at work or at a new school is a typical (8) in which you are likely to feel lonely. You feel lonely because you feel left out of things. You feel that everybody else is full of (9) and knows what to do, but you are helpless. The fact of the matter is that, in order to survive, we all put on a show of self-confidence to hide our (10) and doubts. Therefore, it is wrong to assume that you are alone. The trouble is that you may not be able to hide the fact that you are lonely, and the (11) look on your face might put people off. Thus, trying to look reasonably (12) is a good starting point to (13) loneliness. at least functioning intrusion unavoidable tendency stranger guarantee pessimistic The next thing to avoid is finding yourself in a group where you are a (14) ; that is, you are in the sort of group where all the people already know each other. There is a natural (15) for people to stick together. You will do yourself no good by trying to establish yourself in a group which has so far managed to do very well without you. Groups generally resent (16), not because they dislike you personally, but because they have already had to work quite hard to turn the group into a (17) unit. To include you means having to go over a lot of ground again, so that you can learn their 'language' and get involved in their conversation at their level. In fact, the surest way of getting to know others is to have an interest in common with them. There is no (18) that you will then like each other, but (19) part of your life will be filled with sharing experiences with others. It is much better than feeling alone. If all this seems to be a rather (20) view of life, you have to accept the fact that we are all actually alone and that loneliness is sometimes (21).

6 KELİME ANLAM EŞ ANLAM at least bari, hiç olmazsa, en azından at the lowest, not less than; however, anyways cheerful neşeli, şen, neşelendirici, keyifli, neşe saçan, happy, glad, joyful mutluluk veren, istekli, içten gelen combat savaş, mücâdele, çarpışma fight, battle, struggle, war confidence güven, inanç, itimat, kendine güven; inanma; secret; trust; faith in oneself; certainty sır, sırdaşlık crowd kalabalık, cemaat, çokluk, izdiham, sürü, topluluk; arkadaş grubu, yığın public; large group of people; large number of objects grouped together curious acayip, garip, ilginç, tuhaf; ilgili,meraklı, inquisitive, desiring to know and understand anything; odd, strange; rare except hariç tutmak, dışında tutmak, ayırmak; karşı exclude, leave out; protest, object çıkmak, itiraz etmek functioning işlevini yerine getirmek, işlemek, çalışmak working, operating get rid of başından savmak, kurtulmak, savuşturmak, be released from, go away from, throw out başından atmak, temizlemek, öldürmek, yakasını sıyırmak, kovmak, savmak guarantee garanti etmek, garantiye almak, kefil olmak, söz vermek, teminât vermek vouch for; give a guarantee; give a warranty; promise, assure intrusion zorla girme, davetsiz gelme, izinsiz girme, tecâvüz, ihlal entry by force or without permission; encroachment, infringement, trespass miserable sefil, perişan, zavallı, acınacak halde, berbat unhappy, dejected, wretched pessimistic kötümser, karamsar, pesimistik seeing only the bad side, tending to expect the worst situation durum, hal, şartlar, konum, yer, mevki, görev condition, circumstance; location, place, position; post, job, place of employment stranger yabancı, işin yabancısı, acemi odd, unusual, peculiar; foreign, unfamiliar, unknown surrounded etrafını çevirmek, sarmak, etrafını sarmak, encompass, enclose; encircle; besiege kuşatmak, çevirmek, çevrelemek tackle başarmak, becermek, yakalamak, topu ayağından almak, uğraşmak, ele almak, deal with; stop, bring down (as in football); undertake; set about girişmek, koyulmak tendency eğilin, meyil, yüz tutma, çalma (yeşile vb.), inclination, leaning, partiality eğilim unavoidable kaçınılmaz, zorunlu, iptal edilemez inescapable, not avoidable, inevitable uncertainties belirsizlik, kararsızlık, şüphe, tereddüd, kesin state of being uncertain, doubtfulness, utter olmama, değişkenlik tüm, bütün, tam, kesin, mutlâk, sapına kadar, su katılmadık ambiguity complete, total, absolute

7 84-CHOOSING A CAREER judge find out inheriting for instance decision persuade admire One of the first things we try to (1) about people is what their job is. It helps us to define their status. We can (2) where they stand socially, and estimate how much they earn. However, it is more interesting to know how a man comes to choose his job than what he does. The trouble is that we often choose a career for the wrong reasons. Take, (3), those people who 'follow in father's footsteps', either entering the same trade or profession, or (4) the family business. John decides to become a doctor because his father was a doctor. In fact, the word 'decides' is too strong; he probably never even thought about it. Funnily enough, some people make the opposite (5), namely that whatever else they might do, they will certainly not do what their father did. Our teachers are the fırst to (6) us to choose a specific career, probably because we are top students in that subject. We may also be persuaded by people whom we (7) to select a career for which we are unsuited. eventually attitude disappointed pleased overjoyed The (8) of our parents toward our choice of career is interesting. They are quite (9) when we announce our intention to study medicine, (10) when we switch to languages and (11) when we finally start to study law. Clearly, they have a definite idea of the benefits different jobs will bring. Even though they appear to leave the choice entirely to their children, they know that their children will (12) respect their wishes. Apart from talent attractiveness issue influenced (13) these pressures from parents, teachers and other people, we may choose a career due to factors such as the (14) of the profession or the prospect of earning a lot of money in a short time. It ought to be easy to choose a career. We only have to do those things for which we have a natural (15). It is a pity, therefore, that we have to decide about our future at a stage in our lives when we can easily be (16) by factors which have little or nothing to do with the main (17).

8 KELİME ANLAM EŞ ANLAM admire hayran kalmak, çok beğenmek, takdir etmek, be impressed by someone; adore, venerate hayran hayran bakmak, hayran olmak apart from başka, dışında besides, except for, in addition to attitude tutum, tavır, davranış, poz, durum, konum, posture, policy; treatment, sentiment fikir, düşünce, duruş attractiveness çekicilik, cazibe, albeni beauty, appeal, charm decision karar, hüküm, kararlılık; sonuç ruling, determination disappointed hayal kırıklığına uğratmak, ümidini boşa disillusion, fail to meet expectations çıkarmak, umudunu boşa çıkarmak, düş kırıklığına uğratmak, boşa çıkarmak; altüst etmek, bozmak eventually sonunda, neticede, nihayet, sonuçta finally, in the end find out bulup çıkarmak discover for instance örneğin, meselâ for example, e.g. influenced etkilemek, tesir etmek, söz geçirmek, etkili affected, impacted, persuaded, swayed olmak, ikna etmek inheriting miras olarak almak, kalıtımla kazanmak, miras almak, mirasa konmak receive by legal right at a person's death; receive as a legacy; receive by genetic issue judge overjoyed persuade pleased talent çıkarma, yayınlama, piyasaya sürme, basım, sayı, konu, mesele, sorun, sonuç, nesil, çocuklar, irin, iltihap, akıntı, çıkış, son, akıbet hüküm vermek, muhakeme etmek, yargılamak, karara varmak, hakemlik etmek, değerlendirmek, değer biçmek, tahmin etmek, anlam çıkarmak, kanısında olmak çok memnun kalmak, çok mutlu olmak, aşırı sevinmek kandırmak, inandırmak, aklını çelmek, ikna etmek, razı etmek memnun etmek, hoşuna gitmek, hoşnut etmek, keyif vermek, tenezzül etmek, buyurmak marifet, yetenek, kabiliyet, yetenekli kimse, eski para ve tartı sistemi transmission act of sending out, distribution; something sent out, publication, edition; subject, topic, matter under discussion; end result; children, offspring preside over a court trial and make decisions; rule, determine; criticize; assess; act as a judge very happy, blissful convince, induce, sway satisfy a desire; cause pleasure, give pleasure innate ability or skill; capacity for achievement; talented person; any of a number of ancient coins (used in Greece, Rome and the Middle East)

9 85-POWERS OF THE HUMAN BODY referred to permits mainly qualities store circulation combination The human body is made up (1) of bone, muscle and fat. Some 639 different muscles make up about 45 per cent of the body weight. Each of these muscles has four different and measurable (2). It can produce force which can be "measured as strength of muscle. It can also (3) energy which (4) it to work for extended periods of time independent of (5). in addition, a muscle can shorten or be stretched. The (6) of these four qualities of muscle is (7) as muscular power. vessels efficiently digestive continually If muscles are to function (8), they must be (9) supplied with energy fuel. This is accomplished by blood, which carries the energy fuels from the lungs and (10) system to the muscles. The blood is forced through the blood (11) by the heart. The combined capacity to supply energy fuels to the working muscles is called organic power. absence influenced presence development The capacity and efficiency with which your body can function depend on the degree of (12) of both your muscular and organic powers through regular exercise. However, the level to which you can develop these powers is (13) by such factors as the type of body you have, the food you eat, (14) or (15) of disease, rest and sleep. You are physically fit only when you have developed your muscular and organic power. come close to determine individual acquired routines Genetics and health (16) the top limits to which your physical capacity can be developed. This is known as your 'potential physical capacity'. This potential capacity varies from (17) to individual. Most of us, for example, could train for a lifetime and never (18) running a four-minute mile simply because we weren't built for it. The top level at which you can perform physically right now is called your 'acquired capacity' because it has been (19) or developed through physical activity in your daily (20). progressively wastage acquiring supplementing balanced You can avoid (21) of energy by (22) a level of physical capacity well above the level required to perform your normal daily tasks. This can be done by (23) your daily physical activity with a (24) exercise program performed regularly. Your capacity increases as you (25) increase the load on your muscular and organic systems.

10 KELİME ANLAM EŞ ANLAM absence yokluk, bulunmama; dalgınlık; gıyap failure to appear; state of being away, state of being not present acquired kazanmak, elde etmek, edinmek buy, purchase; obtain, attain balanced circulation combination tartmak, düşünmek, dengelemek, denk gelmek, dengede tutmak, karşılaştırmak, dengeli olmak, eşitlenmek, dengelenmek, salınmak, dalgalanmak, inip çıkmak sirkülasyon, devir, devretme, dolaşım, dolanım, tedavül, yayma, tiraj, dağıtım, cereyan, akıntı, piyasadaki para miktarı kombinasyon, birleştirme, birleşim, bağlanma, birlik, bileşim [kim.]; karıştırma; kartel; sepetli motosiklet; tek parça çamaşır make even weight, make equal; be made of even weight, be made equal moving around; distribution; movement of blood within the body joining, union (of two or more persons or things); number of things combined; motorcycle with a sidecar come close to yaklaşmak, gibi olmak continually sürekli olarak, boyuna, durmadan successively, sequentially determine kararlaştırmak, karara bağlanmak, karara varmak; belirlemek; neden olmak; sabitleştirmek; saptamak decide, settle; conclude; cause, affect development büyüme, geliştirme, gelişme; tab etme; son durum; kalkınma; geliştirilmiş ürün; site evolvement, gradual growth, evolution, maturation; progression digestive sindirimle ilgili, hazmettirici, sindirimi pertaining to digestion; promoting digestion düzenleyen, sindirim efficiently yeterli olarak, etkili biçimde; verimli biçimde; rasyonel olarak in an efficient manner, without waste (of time, resources, etc.) individual başlıbaşına, özel, tek, kişisel, bireysel, şahsi, özgün, birbirinden ayrı single, distinct, sole; of a particular person; unique, special, characteristic influenced etkilemek, tesir etmek, söz geçirmek, etkili affect, impact; impel, control olmak, ikna etmek mainly başlıca, çoğu principally, chiefly permits izin vermek, olanak vermek, ruhsat vermek, license; written permission; authorization müsait olmak presence huzur, hazır bulunma, varlık, varoluş, tavır, yapı, ön, protokol görevlileri attendance, state of being at hand; outward appearance, air, demeanor progressively dereceli olarak, derece derece, artan bir şekilde, ilerledikçe, devamlı olarak gradually, incrementally, successively; in the manner of becoming increasingly severe qualities kalite, nitelik, vasıf, özellik, yapı, mizaç, bünye, yetenek, kabiliyet, soyluluk, asalet degree of excellence; characteristic, attribute; nature, character; excellence referred to adlandırmak routines program, her günkü işler, sıradan işler, alışkanlık, adet, boş lâf, basmakalıp lâflar, yordam [bilg.] commonplace activity, everyday task; habit, custom, practice; procedure that is always the same; part of a computer program store yüklemek, depolamak, doldurmak, hafızaya almak, akılda tutmak, içermek, ardiyeye koymak containing instructions for a particular task collect and set aside for future use, amass, accumulate; put in storage, place in a warehouse; supply, equip, stock supplementing eklemek, ilave etmek, tamamlamak complement, make up for a deficiency; add on to, add as a supplement vessels kap, tas, damar, kanal, alet, tekne, gemi boat, ship; container, receptacle; tubular duct through which bodily fluids flow (e.g. blood vessel); wastage fire, israf, boşa harcama decay, deterioration; wasting; lessening; waste

11 86-MEDICINE İN THE SEVENTIES The successes and failures of scientific medicine came sharply into focus. New technology was available, but a more auestioning attitude to drugs emerged. reproduction manipulate fertilized egg invoked managed to Frogs implanted rejected On 25 July 1978, a girl called Louise Brown became the world's first 'test-tube baby'. An (1) from her mother's body had been successfully (2) in a laboratory. For childless couples, the technique (3) new hope. Was it possible to (4) human (5) even more dramatically? Scientists developed 'cloning' in the seventies. it means reproducing several identical living things from a single original. Gardeners have practised it for centuries by taking cuttings from one plant to produce others. Scientists (6) clone (7), and people suggested that it might be possible to clone humans, too. Ira Levin examined the idea in his novel The Boysfrom Brazil. in it, cells from Hitler's body are (8) in women around the world to create a whole race of Hitlers. This was a terrible fantasy. But despite its possibility, most scientists (9) the idea that a complex organism such as the human body could ever be cloned. revolutionized contraceptive scrutiny nervous morning sickness compensation side effects In 1979, Dr. Geoffrey Hounsfield won the Nobel Prize for physiology by developing the body scanner. This (10) X-ray techniques by scanning the body from all angles in three-dimensional sections. Drugs came under careful (11). The (12) drug, Thalidomide, was found to produce deformed children, and the drug company was forced to pay millions of pounds in (13). Doubts also grew about the (14) pill. Women over 35 who were heavy smokers were advised not to use it because of its dangerous (15). In contrast, natural medicine became hugely popular, especially acupuncture, an ancient Chinese method of anaesthetizing patients by sticking pins into points in the (16) system.

12 KELİME ANLAM EŞ ANLAM compensation telâfi; karşılama, taviz, tazmin, tazminat; bedel, ödün, maaş recompense, repayment; something done to make up for (a loss, deficiency or fault) contraceptive gebeliği önleyici, doğum kontrolü sağlayan, used to prevent conception koruyucu egg yumurta; bomba; torpido; eşek şakası testis, testicle, orchis, ball, ballock, bollock, nut fertilized verimli kılmak, gübrelemek, döllemek, aşılamak impregnate, inseminate; enrich the soil by the addition of organic or chemical substances frogs kurbağa, ilik, kopça, iki başlı kas, fransız [kötü] toad, toad frog, anuran, batrachian, salientian implanted nakletmek, aklına sokmak firmly establish, embed, plant; graft, insert (Medicine) invoked yalvarmak, yakarmak, dua etmek, yardım istemek, çağırmak, hatırlatmak requests help or protection (from a deity); summon a spirit through witchcraft; request, make an appeal; pray; activate a command, cause a certain action managed to manipulate idare etmek, halletmek, becermek, işletmek, kıvırmak, çekip çevirmek, çevirmek, icabına bakmak, yolunu bulmak, geçinmek, terbiye etmek el ile işletmek, idare etmek, hile yapmak, oynama yapmak (Computers) succeed in/to handle or operate with the hands; influence, manage, control; adapt or change to suit one's purpose morning sickness sabah bulantısı, hamilelerde sabah bulantısı nervous sinir, sinirli, gergin, asabi, ürkek agitated, tense, anxious, apprehensive; of or relating to the nerves rejected reddetmek, geri çevirmek, kabul etmemek, istememek, ıskartaya çıkarmak, çıkarmak, kusmak refuse, decline, deny, turn down reproduction revolutionized yeniden yapma, türetme, üreme, çoğalma, tekrar oynama, reprodüksiyon, taklit, eserin kopyası, yeniden basma, kopan organın tekrar çıkması devrim yapmak, köklü değişiklik yapmak, ayaklandırmak, devirmek procreation, act of producing offspring; duplication, act of copying; copy, duplicate; re-creation, act of remaking cause a revolution, overthrow an established government; cause a major change scrutiny dikkatli inceleme, ince eleyip sık dokuma, oyların yeniden sayımı close examination, inspection; examining look, searching look side effects yan etki negative effect that may be caused due to use of medicine; typical accompanying effect

13 87-SHARKS: MAGNIFICENT AND MISUNDERSTOOD Dr. E. Clark is a famous biologist and professor of zoology at the University of Maryland. In this article, she has described her research on sharks. admit shark targets distinguish My early experiments with (1) behaviour at Cape Haze surprised a great many scientists - including, I must (2), myself. The experiments showed how easily many types of sharks learned to (3) between right and wrong targets, which is a skill they developed as quickly as laboratory while (4). misconceptions unpredictable contradict primitive safer More recent studies of sharks' brains, sensory systems, and types of behaviour (5) popular (6) of sharks as stupid, (7) eating machines, with nothing more than (8) brains and a good sense of smell. In fact, sharks are as predictable as any animal - even one's wife or husband - if one takes time to study and get to know them. Those of us who have had an opportunity to dive frequently with sharks do so, knowing that it is far (9) to swim with these animals than to drive on an average city street or highway. orient species sensitivity retention The last few years have produced exciting new knowledge about sharks. Barely a decade ago, there were only 250 accepted (10) ; today, that number has climbed by a hundred. Sharks are a great deal more sophisticated than we once thought, and we now know that they have a higher (11) to electric fields than any animal ever studied. They have also been shown to (12) to Earth's magnetic field. Sharks can match laboratory white rats in certain learning tests, and they have a surprisingly long (13) span. Thus, they are hardly the primitive and senseless creatures that man has mistaken them for. slashing mammals territory invasion For the most part, the normal shark diet consists of fishes, mollusks, and crustaceans. Few sharks actually hunt or feed on marine (14). No shark normally feeds on man. Most shark attacks on humans are bite-andrelease or (15) types of actions that suggest warnings rather than attempts to kill. We accept the fact that a dog bites a stranger if the latter invades its (16). Are the rare shark attacks on humans caused by the similar (17) of what the shark considers its territory? blame rarity inhabitants hazardous predict accuracy mankind When we consider the (18) of shark attacks among hundreds of millions of swimmers each year, we should ask ourselves a moral question: Because we like to swim and dive in an environment unnatural to our species, is it right for us to kill off tens of thousands of harmless (19) of that environment to ensure our peace of mind? We have invented many sports that are more (20) than going into the sea. When we kill ourselves at these, we (21) no one else and simply accept the risks. But when it comes to sharing the sea, v/e insist that sharks take all the risks. With further research we may one day be able to (22) sharks' behaviour with great (23). When that day comes, I feel certain we will recognize that sharks present no threat to (24).

14 KELİME ANLAM EŞ ANLAM accuracy doğruluk, kesinlik, tamlık; ayar preciseness, exactness admit kabul etmek, itiraf etmek, almak, içeri almak, meydan vermek accept, take, take on, allow in, let in, intromit blame suçlamak, sorumlu tutmak, kınamak, accuse, denounce ayıplamak contradict yalanlamak, aksini iddia etmek, çelişmek, deny; refute; oppose ters düşmek distinguish ayırt etmek, ayırmak, ayrım yapmak; seçmek; farketmek, anlamak; sivriltmek mark as different; see as different; discern, recognize hazardous tehlikeli, riskli, şüpheli, şansa bağlı dangerous, risky, perilous inhabitants oturan kimse, oturan, sakin, yerli resident, tenant, occupant, one who lives in a particular place invasion istila, saldırı, akın, tecâvüz, ihlal, nöbet, kriz encroachment, intrusion mammals memeli mankind insan soyu, insanlık, erkekler, insanoğlu, insanlar humankind, human race, humans collectively; men misconceptions yanlış kavrama, yanlış kanı incorrect idea, mistaken belief, misunderstanding, misinterpretation orient doğuya doğru yapmak, doğrultmak, eastern, of the orient yönlendirmek, yöneltmek predict önceden haber vermek, kehanette bulunmak prophesy, foretell, announce in advance primitive ilk, ilkel, ilk çağa ait, basit, primitif old, ancient; primeval, from prehistoric times; simple, crude; original, initial; uncivilized, uncultured rarity seyreklik, enderlik, az bulunma, nadide şey uncommonness, unusualness, rareness, scarceness; something which is unusual, uncommon item retention tutma, alıkoyma, kaybetmeme, koruma, keeping, holding çişini tutma, akılda tutma, hafıza, bellek, durdurma safer emin, sağlam, güvencede, emin ellerde, güvenli, tehlikesiz, kesin, muhakkak, korkusuz secure; guarded, protected; careful, cautious; unharmed; involving low risk or harm or loss sensitivity duyarlılık, hassaslık, duyarlık, alınganlık sensitiveness, sensibility shark köpekbalığı, dolandırıcı, otlakçı, bedavacı, large predatory fish; crook, villain; one who slashing species işinin ehli, usta tahrip, acımasız, ağır, şiddetli, imha edici, muhteşem, çok güzel çeşit, tür, cins, ortak özellikleri olan grup, aşai rabbani ayinindeki ekmek ve şarap loans money at a high rate of interest of someone or something that slashes; critical, sarcastic; driving, pelting; vivid, intense, strong; cool, amazing (Slang) most basic biological classification comprised of individuals that are able to breed with each other but not with others, subdivision of a genus; sort, class, kind; human race, mankind targets hedef, nişan, amaç mark, objective, aim, object, goal territory ülke, bölge, toprak, arazi, yarı saha area under the jurisdiction of a state; region, district, zone, area, domain unpredictable önceden bilinmez, ne yapacağı belli olmaz, sağı solu belli olmaz unforeseeable, uncertain, not predictable

15 88-ELECTRIC SHOCKS surface cautious handle complicated Most of us fear an electric shock, yet we know little about what is safe and what is not when we (1) electricity. For example, most of the time we are (2) about handling electrical devices which seem to be (3) in structure, but do not worry about turning off the electricity with a wet hand. Maybe you don't mind placing your radio or the hair drier on the wet (4) in the bathroom. values fluids bring about chest Body (5) are not as good conductors as metals. Their resistance is much higher. For example, a current of 20 microamperes flowing directly through the heart can (6) death. On the other hand, a current of 100 to 200 microamperes through electrodes on the (7) triggers the regular beating of the heart, after the heart has stopped. The reason for such a big difference in the effects of the two (8) is that the first current is sent directly to the heart and the second has to pass through the fluids of the body, which have a greater resistance. paralyzed injuries associated with arise from involuntary As you can see, in an electric shock, it is the current that matters, not the voltage. One thing about the (9) (10) electric shocks is that, most of the time, they (11) (12) body movements in response to the current. For example, the current may cause you to lose your balance and to fail off a ladder. Sometimes, the victim freezes with the current, maybe because some muscles are (13) for a moment, and he cannot let go of the thing he is holding. As he keeps holding the object, there will be more current sent through the holding. extension established frayed One other thing about electric shocks is the burns they cause. When the skin burns, a low resistance path is (14) for the current and now the current can cause more damage. Some electrical appliances require earthing. With these appliances, if the insulation becomes (15), the leakage is carried to the ground, without doing any harm. Most of the time, people use (16) cables without the earthing or make incorrect connections. it is not safe to do so. Always use the proper extensions and connections. excess fuses wind overloading caught up reach out inlet One other mistake made by most people is to (17) thick wires around (18), to prevent the fuse from blowing frequently. The fuses are there for safety, to prevent the (19) of the current. If they do not blow, then the (20) current may cause damage to the electrical appliances or even cause a fire. Briefly, it is not safe to play with electricity. Never forget that your body resistance is lowered greatly when it is wet. Always be careful with electricity, but never panic. If you see someone (21) in an electric shock, before you (22) to rescue him, go to the fuse box and shut off the circuit at the main (23).

16 KELİME ANLAM EŞ ANLAM arise from ileri gelmek flow from something, come into being from something, result from something associated with ile ilgili connect to, ally with, join or unite with bring about ileri sürmek, meydana getirmek, neden olmak, yol açmak, beraberinde getirmek, bring forth, make happen, cause caught up orsa alabanda etmek (gemi) kapıp kaçmak, etkilemek, büyülemek, donatmak, bilgilendirmek, yetişmek, geri kalmamak overtake; bring up to date; be lifted up suddenly; become entangled with (figuratively and literally); point out errors; cautious tedbirli, ihtiyatlı, dikkatli, sakınan careful, wary chest sandık, kasa, göğüs kafesi, kutu; göğüs front part of the body from the neck to the waist; storage box; shipping box; bureau, cabinet; place in which the funds of an organization are stored; funds of an organization complicated karışık, karmaşık, anlaşılması zor; dallı budaklı (Argo), çapraşık, komplike, anlaşılmaz, çetrefilli confusing, hard to understand, difficult; complex established kurulmuş, yerleşmiş, sabit, belirlenmiş, resmileşmiş based, founded, firmly settled; recognized, accepted excess aşırılık, aşırıya kaçma, fazlalık, fazla; ilave; taşkınlık, ölçüsüzlük extra, leftover, superfluous, above and beyond extension uzatma, genişletme, artırma, temdit, uzatılma, ek, ilave, uzantı, ekleme; dahili telefon hattı expansion; branch of a telephone network; supplement, elongation; reprieve; group of letters (in DOS - 3 letters) which indicates the file type and is separated from the filename by a period (Computers) fluids sıvı, akıcı madde liquids, substances which can flow and change shape frayed yıpratmak, aşındırmak, yıpranmak, aşınmak, boynuz tüylerini dökmek (geyik) tattered, worn, having unraveled threads (of cloth); tired, irritable, upset fuses eritmek, kaynaştırmak, yanmak, atmak, erimek, kaynaşmak, tapa koymak combine by melting together; be combined through melting together; unite, combine; handle ellemek, dokunmak, eline almak, idare etmek, kıvırmak, kullanmak, ele almak, işlemek, başa çıkmak, üstesinden gelmek, be united or combined feel, touch with the hands; deal in, do business with; manage; treat injuries yara, zarar, hasar, kırma, incitme hurt; wound; harm, damage; insult, offense inlet koy, körfez, giriş, kakılmış şey narrow passage between islands; entrance involuntary istemsiz, istemeden yapılan, iradedışı not done willingly, performed reluctantly; unintentionally; instinctive overloading fazla yükleme load beyond capacity paralyzed kötürüm immobile, palsied, reach out elini uzatmak, uzanmak stretch out one's hand; get in touch with surface yüzey, dış görünüş, kanat (uçak) external; superficial values wind değer biçmek, paha biçmek, keşide etmek, değer vermek, değerini bilmek, çevirmek, sarmak, dolamak, kıvırmak, döndürmek, kıvrıla kıvrıla gitmek, dolambaçlı olmak, açmak (yol), sarılmak, dolanmak, prize, esteem, cherish; assess, estimate, appraise turn, coil; twist around, convolute; meander; bind, bandage; be bound; be twisted around; change direction

17 89-STRESS cavemen Nonetheless contemporary worry about suffer Stress is considered to be a natural part of the (1) world. Everybody is exposed to a certain amount of stress. (2), it should be made clear that stress doesn't occupy a greater place in our lives today than it did in the past. Although (3) didn't have to (4) the stock market or the atomic bomb, they worried about being eaten by a bear while they were asleep or about dying of hunger - things that few people worry much about today. It's not that people (5) more stress today, it's just that they think they do. Everybody thinks that he or she is under the greatest stress. The truth is that everybody actually is under stress because if we really managed to avoid stress completely, we would be dead. occur response agent emotional engaged Stress is the (6) of the body to any demand. Stress is the state you are in, not the (7) that produces it, which is called a stressor. Cold and heat are stressors. However, having a highly developed central nervous system, man most frequently suffers from stress due to (8) stressors. The thing for the average person to remember is that all. The demands that you make - whether on your brain or on your liver or your muscles or your bones - cause stress. For example, stress can (9) under deep anesthesia, when your emotions are not (10), or in animals that have no nervous system, or even in plants. insomnia irritable pulse judge accessible desire There are two ways of telling when someone is under stress. One, not (11) to the public, is biochemical and neurological - measuring blood pressure, hormone levels, the electric activity of the brain and so on. Nevertheless, there are other indicators that anyone can (12). No two people react the same way, but the usual responses are an increase in (13) rate and an increased tendency to sweat. You will also become more (14) and will sometimes suffer (15), even long after the stressor agent is gone. You will usually become less capable of concentrating and you will have an increased (16) to move about. disease predominant code historical warfare avoid behave There are various causes of stress. They differ in various civilizations and (17) time periods. At certain times, (18) and hunger were the (19) causes. Another, now and then, is (20) or the fear of war. At the moment, the most frequent causes of distress in man are psychological, e.g., lack of adaptation or not having a (21) of behaviour. The secret code to coping with stress is not to (22) stress but 'to do your own thing'. It implies doing what you like to do and not what you are forced to do. It is really a matter of learning how to live, how to (23) in various situations, to decide: "Do I really want to take over my father's business or want to be a musician?" If you really want to be a musician, then be one.

18 KELİME ANLAM EŞ ANLAM accessible ulaşılabilir, girilebilir, bulunur, elde edilebilir, kandırılabilir, etkilenebilir approachable; easily obtainable; easy to relate to; persuadable, easy to influence agent acenta, temsilci, ajan, distribütör; yapan kimse, etkili olan kimse, etken, etmen, faktör person authorized to perform a certain action; representative; factor, cause avoid kaçınmak, savuşturmak, sakınmak, önlemek, uzak durmak, korunmak; iptal etmek, evade, escape; keep away from; prevent, keep from happening; nullify, make void (Law) behave davranmak, hareket etmek; terbiyeli olmak, act, do terbiyesini takınmak, görgülü davranmak; cavemen mağara adamı, kaba adam, hoyrat adam cave man, cave dweller, troglodyte code kod, şifre; kanun, yasa, yasa kitabı, kural, cipher; original code prensipler, kılavuz, yönetmelik, tüzük, contemporary modern, çağcıl, aktüel, günümüze ait, modern, current çağdaş, yaşıt, eş zamanlarda yaşamış olan desire arzu, rağbet, şevk, istek; cinsel istek, iştah, passion, lust; strong wish; request ihtiras; isteme, rica etme; tutku; hırs, heves; disease hastalık, rahatsızlık, illet sickness, illness emotional duygulu, duyarlı, duygusal, hassas, hissi, full of feeling, passionate, sentimental heyecanlı, içli engaged bağlanmış, nişanlı; rezerve; tutulmuş, betrothed; busy (about a telephone line); meşgul; dolu occupied, involved historical tarihsel, tarihi, önemli, tarihe geçmiş, from the past, connected to the past; evrimsel important, consequential insomnia uykusuzluk, uyuyamama hastalığı inability to get enough sleep, sleeplessness irritable judge hırçın, sinirli, çabuk kızan, asabi, alıngan, tahriş olan, çabuk azan hüküm vermek, muhakeme etmek, yargılamak, karara varmak, hakemlik etmek, değerlendirmek, değer biçmek, tahmin etmek, anlam çıkarmak, kanısında olmak annoyed, grouchy, touchy, aggravated; abnormally sensitive to physical stimulation (Medicine) preside over a court trial and make decisions; rule, determine; criticize; assess; act as a judge Nonetheless yine de, bununla beraber, her şeye rağmen however, nevertheless occur cereyan etmek, çıkmak, ortaya çıkmak, oluşmak, olmak, görülmek, akla gelmek, meydana gelmek happen, take place, transpire; come to mind, suggest itself predominant üstün, baskın, ağır basan, hakim superior, supreme; (when followed by of, over) ruling, in control; primary, main, central; prevalent, widespread pulse nabız, nabız atışı, niyet, eğilim, titreşim, vuruş [müz.], baklagiller, bakliyat heartbeat, rhythmic expansion and contraction of the heart; throbbing, beating; edible seeds of various plants; plants producing these types of seeds response cevap, yanıt, tepki, yansıma, karşılık, reply, answer, reaction etkilenme, suffer acı çekmek, çekmek, zarar görmek, katlanmak, cezasını çekmek, kıvranmak, zayiat vermek, izin vermek, göz yummak feel pain, experience loss or harm, endure misfortune; be punished; tolerate, endure; stand, bear; allow, permit warfare savaş, harp, savaş hali, savaş durumu, war, combat; military operations, hostillties mücâdele worry about için kaygılan(mak) be concerned; make concerned; annoy, harass

19 90-BAD WATER diseases insidious dangerous battle Few things are as (1) as bad water. It's (2) for you and your children, but you usually can't tell if you have it. And if you do, you may not be able to find out where the problems are coming from. Water can carry some of our most serious (3) typhoid, dysentery, hepatitis - yet still look clear in the glass. We may do (4) over how we get our water and develop it, but we fear for its quality. solvent dealt with apparent necessity burden This issue is being (5) currently. There is a (6) to prevent pollution by passing laws which will maintain safe drinking water. However, this is difficult because it has become increasingly (7) that the sources of pollution are not just institutions that can be controlled by specific laws. The (8) of pollution belongs to all of us. Water's nature itself is a part of these complications. This simple structure of hydrogen and oxygen has even been called the universal (9). It takes into solution a vast number of substances, that is, dissolves them, but those it cannot dissolve are simply carried along. pollution barren remarkable flush poison dumped Human beings have put this characteristic to work in thousands of ways. We wash with it; we (10) with it; we mix it with chemicals to spray on our fields. We use it to make paint and plastic. We wash our workshop, garage and factory with it. But this (11) utility also means that it's very hard to put anything out of water's reach. Consequently, a lot of things we don't want in water get there anyway. If you pour (12) on the ground, even in the most (13) desert, water will pick it up molecule by molecule, and because water is always going somewhere, it will take it away. Technically, water (14) can be divided into two types: point-source pollution (waste (15) by factories or sewage 30 plants) and nonpoint-source pollution. In many ways, the second is the larger problem. jeopardy soybean spill pesticides fundamental convince Nonpoint-source pollution is what happens when you (16) oil on the garage floor, then wash it down. It happens when a (17) field is sprayed with (18) and then it rains. It happens when someone throws a dead battery into a valley, Water picks it all up and adds it to the system. Water is in serious (19) because we're not paying much attention to anything except pollution from a pipe. All this shows that a change is coming - a (20) change in the way we use and think about water. It's no use pointing fingers at industry. The only way to make progress is to have everyone realize that nonpoint-source pollution is the major cause of water pollution and to (21) them that it is no longer possible to ignore fresh water.

20 KELİME ANLAM EŞ ANLAM apparent belli, açık, aşikâr, ortada, bariz, besbelli, obvious; ostensible, pretended anlaşılır, görünüşte olan barren kısır; verimsiz, çorak, kıraç; anlamsız, boş, infertile, unproductive faydasız, sonuçsuz; budala (Argo) battle savaş, mücâdele, dalaş, çatışma combat, fight, war burden yüklemek, sırtına yüklemek load; weigh down convince ikna etmek, inandırmak persuade, convict, influence dangerous tehlikeli, riskli risky, not safe, perilous dealt with uğraş handle, take care of; do business with, trade with diseases hastalık, rahatsızlık, illet sickness, illness dumped dökmek, boşaltmak, indirmek, yığmak, damping yapmak drop abruptly, throw down; empty out; get rid of; reject someone, end a relationship flush kızarma, kırmızılık, sifon, su fışkırması, heyecan, coşkunluk, taşkınlık, ateş [tıp.], hararet, floş (poker), renk, aşırı cömertlik (Informal) redness, blush; flood, sudden flow of water; new growth; new increase; hand of playing cards; freshness, vigor, energy; hot flash fundamental esas, temel, ana basic, elemental; essential insidious sinsi, fırsat kollayan, hain crafty, cunning, deceitful; subtly treacherous or dangerous; deadly while appearing to be harmless jeopardy riziko, risk, tehlike endanger, imperil, put at risk, place in danger necessity gereken, zorunluluk, gerek, gereklilik, ihtiyaç, lüzum, kaçınılmazlık essential; indispensability; obligation; need, requirement; poverty pesticides böcek zehiri, zararlı bitki zehiri chemical mixture used to kill pests and insects poison zehir, ağı, aşı, içki toxin; venom pollution kirletme, kirlenme, bozulma, çevre kirliliği, pislik contamination; desecration; dirtying, soiling; spoiling, destruction remarkable dikkate değer, dikkat çekici, göze çarpan, klas, olağanüstü, fevkalade, kayda değer striking, noteworthy; extraordinary, exceptional solvent çözgen, eritken, çözümleyici dissolvent, dissolver, dissolving agent, resolvent soybean soya fasulyesi, soya spill dökmek, saçmak, serpmek, akıtmak, dökülmek, saçılmak, düşürmek, üstünden atmak (at), açığa vurmak, söylemek scatter; shed blood; cause to fall, tumble; reveal, divulge

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