1 UNIT 21 I NEED A CAR WHICH IS STRONG Giriş: İngilizce de Relative Clause olarak adlandırılan sıfat cümleleri, isimleri nitelemek için kullanılan cümlelerdir. Bu yapıda özne ve nesne konumundaki insanları nitelemek için who, whom veya that ; hayvanları, bitkileri ve cansız varlıkları nitelemek için ise which ya da that kullanılır. Adjective Clauses Sıfat Cümleleri İsimleri, varlıkları, her türlü şeyi tanımlamak için kimi zaman tek kelimeden oluşan sıfatlar (örn.; good, bad, handsome, ugly, light, heavy), kimi zaman birkaç kelimeden oluşan sıfat tamlamaları (örn.; twelve-year- old, good-looking, bad-mannered) kullanılır. Sıfat cümleleri de tıpkı sıfat ve sıfat tamlaları gibi sadece isimleri niteler. Atatürk is the first president of Turkey. He founded the Republic of Turkey. Atatürk, who founded the Republic of Turkey, is the first president of Turkey. (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti ni kuran Atatürk Türkiye nin ilk başkanıdır.) Alexander Graham Bell invented the telephone. It is the greatest invention in the world. Alexander Graham Bell invented the telephone, which is the greatest invention in the world. (Alexander Graham Bell, dünyanın en büyük icadı olan telefonu icad etti.) My brother wants to marry a girl. She lives in Bursa. My brother wants to marry a girl who/that lives in Bursa. (Kardeşim, Bursa da yaşayan bir bayanla evlenmek istiyor.) The doctor examined my eyes. He graduated from Atatürk University. The doctor who/that examined my eyes graduated from Atatürk University. (Gözlerimi muayene eden doctor Atatürk Üniversitesi nden mezun oldu.) There is a German sports car outside. It belongs to my uncle. There is a German sports car outside which/that belongs to my uncle. (Dışarıda amcama ait olan bir Alman yapımı spor araba var.) Niteleme eylemini, nitelediğimiz kişi değil, bir başkası yapıyorsa who yerine whom da kullanılabilir. I visited a professor. I met him for the first time five years ago. I visited a professor whom I met for the first time five years ago. (Ben, ilk olarak 5 yıl önce tanışmış olduğum bir profesörü ziyaret ettim.) 121
2 Fakat bilmemiz gereken oldukça önemli bir nokta ise whom ilgi zamirinin resmi oluşu ve yaygın olarak kullanılmamasıdır. İngilizce de günlük konuşmalarda, sohbetlerde whom yerine daha sıklıkla who veya that ilgi zamirleri kullanılır veya hiçbir ilgi zamirine ihtiyaç duymadan da cümleyi tamamlayabiliriz. I visited a professor who/that I met for the first time five years ago. VEYA I visited a professor whom I met for the first time five years ago. Eğer söz konusu ilgi zamirinden sonra biz özne geliyorsa, ilgi zamiri (who/which/that) atılabilir. Ancak, ilgi zamirini bir fiil takip ediyorsa ilgi zamiri atılamaz. The girl that I met is from Bursa. =>=>=> The girl I met is from Bursa. The car that you bought is very strong. =>=>=> The car you bought is very strong. The car that won the championship in France is an Italian sports car. (The car wins the championship in France is an Italian car. ŞEKLİNDE DEĞİL!) DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSE & NON-DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSE DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSE İngilizce de Defining Relative Clause olarak adlandırılan sıfat cümlelelerinde önemli olan nokta, hakkında pek bir şey bilmediğimiz veya hiçbir şey bilmediğimiz ismi (insanlar, canlı varlıklar, cansız varlıklar v.b.) who, whom, which, that, where, when gibi kelimelerle, herhangi bir noktalama işareti kullanmadan tanımlamaktır. Örn.; The car (which/that) you have is very popular in our country. The place where I live is very hot. I have a house which/that has a swimming pool. My father has a car which/that has 8 airbags. Yiğit Sarp has a toy which/that is made of safe materials. Doğa has blonde hair which/that is wavy. Duru is a girl who/that is helpful. Burak is a boy who/that is good at English. Deniz is a baby boy who/that is very cute and lovely. NON-DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSE 122 İngilizce de Non-Defining Relative Clause olarak adlandırılan sıfat cümlelelerinde önemli olan nokta, hakkında bilgi sahibi olduğumuz, tanıdığımız ismi (insanlar, canlı varlıklar, cansız varlıklar v.b.) who, whom, which, where, when gibi kelimelerle, sıfat cümlesini iki virgül arasında kullanmak şartıyla tanımlamaktır. Örn.; Celine Dion, who is very popular, is my favorite singer. Mercedes, which is expensive, is very popular in our country. Ottoman Palace, where I stay, is very comfortable. Rolex watches, which have diamond inside, are produced in Switzerland. Marmaris, which has beautiful tourist attraction places, is in the south-west of Turkey. Trabzon, where summer Olympic games are held, is a beautiful city. Ömer Seyfettin, who is a great Turkish short story writer, was born in Balıkesir.
3 EVALUATION QUESTIONS Exercise Describe the object of the sentence using one of the relative pronouns who, which, that. 1. An American is a person (live in America) 2. Cat Van is an animal (live in Van) 3. A cooker is a thing (cook food) 4. An artist is someone (draw pictures) 5. A cow is an animal (make milk) 6. A banana is a fruit (be yellow) 7. A DVD player is a thing (play DVDs) 8. A driver is a person (drive a car) 9. A CEO is someone (direct a company) 10. A telephone is a thing (connect people) Exercise Describe the object or the subject of the sentence using one of the relative pronouns who, which, that. 1. We spent our holiday in Bodrum last year. Bodrum is in the south-west of Turkey. Last year we 2. People live in the Netherlands. They are called Dutch. The people 3. We went to Ankara. Ankara is the capital of Turkey. We 4. Ayşe Kulin was born in İstanbul. She wrote Füreyya. Ayşe Kulin 5. We visited Tortum Waterfall. It is in the east of Turkey. We visited 6. Kızılırmak is 1355 km long. People know it for its length. Kızılırmak 7. We met an old man. He told us about the World War II. We 8. The mountain is the highest mountain in Turkey. It is called Mt. Ararat. The mountain 123
4 I NEED A CAR WHICH IS STRONG Assistant : Hello sir, how can I help you? A Man : I would like to rent a car. Assistant : What kind of car are you looking for? A Man : I need a car which is strong and big. I need especially a car that has six seats at least, because five of my friends who are from England are coming to visit me tomorrow. Assistant : We have such cars. Would you like to see one? A Man : OK. That s great. How much is the rent per day and per week? Assistant : It s 200 TL per day and 1000 TL per week. A Man : Is oil included? Assistant : No. A Man : OK. I will rent it. Assistant : Could you fill in this form, please? A Man : Yes, sure. EVALUATION QUESTIONS Exercise Match the following questions with the answers. ( ) 1- What kind of car are you looking for? ( ) 2- Why do you need a big car? ( ) 3- How much is the rent? ( ) 4- Is oil included? A- It is 200 TL per day. B- Tomorrow I will have 5 friends who are from England. C- No. D- I need a car which is strong and big. ROBIN HOOD The story of Robin Hood is a very famous story which is known almost everywhere in the world. There are many versions of this story which is about 600 years old. Robin is a hero who steals from the rich people and gives them to the poor. Little John, Brother Tuck, Will Scarlet are his friends. Lady Marion is the woman who Robin married, and the Sherwood Forest is very famous because his adventures happened there. However there is no evidence about the existence of Robin Hood. Historians found different Hoods who lived in different parts of England, but Robin and Hood were popular names which were used by many people so there were a lot of Robin Hoods at that time. The story of Robin Hood was completed by So most probably 1200s are the years when Robin lived. Today Nottinghamshire is a very popular place for tourists. Many people visit the Sherwood Forest and Edwinstowe village, where Robin lived, and the Edwinstowe Church, because Lady Marion and Robin Hood married at that church. 124
5 EVALUATION QUESTIONS Exercise Answer the following questions according to the passage. True or False?(T/F) 1. The story of Robin Hood is known only in England. 2. Robin is a hero because he helped poor people. 3. Lady Marion is Robin s sister. 4. Robin s adventures happened in the Sherwood Forest. 5. There were many Robins who lived in different parts of England. 6. Robin Hood died in Edwinstowe is a village where Robin lived. 8. The Sherwood Forest is in Nottinghamshire. Exercise Vocabulary Fill in the blanks with the following words. versions adventures hero evidence historians completed probably existence 1. He always tells us about his. 2. Ataturk is a great who won great victories in Turkish history. 3. are the people who studies history. 4. The of my family makes me very happy. 5. Many of this book were published. 6. James is not at home. He is at work. 7. He started writing a book two years ago, but he hasn t yet. 8. We couldn t find the men who stole our car. We have no. 125