1 THE EFFECTS OF DRAMA BASED INSTRUCTION ON SEVENTH GRADE STUDENTS GEOMETRY ACHIEVEMENT, VAN HIELE GEOMETRIC THINKING LEVELS, ATTITUDE TOWARD MATHEMATICS AND GEOMETRY A THESIS SUBMITTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF NATURAL AND APPLIED SCIENCES OF MIDDLE EAST TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY BY ASUMAN DUATEPE IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY IN SECONDARY SCIENCE AND MATHEMATICS EDUCATION AUGUST 2004
2 Approval of the Graduate School of the Natural and Applied Sciences Prof. Dr. Canan Özgen Director I certify that this thesis satisfies all the requirements as a thesis for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. Prof. Dr. Ömer Geban Head of Department This is to certify that we have read this thesis and that in our opinion it is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a thesis for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. Assoc. Prof. Dr. Behiye Ubuz Supervisor Examining Committee Members Prof. Dr. Sibel Güneysu (Başkent U., ELE) Assoc. Prof. Dr. Behiye Ubuz Assoc. Prof. Dr. Aysun Umay Assoc. Prof. Dr. Ahmet Arıkan Assist. Prof. Dr. Ali Eryılmaz (METU, SSME) (HU, ELE) (GU, SSME) (METU, SSME)
3 iii I hereby declare that all information in this document has been obtained and presented in accordance with academic rules and ethical conduct. I also declare that, as required by these rules and conduct, I have fully cited and referenced all material and results that are not original to this work. Asuman Duatepe
4 iv ABSTRACT THE EFFECTS OF DRAMA BASED INSTRUCTION ON SEVENTH GRADE STUDENTS GEOMETRY ACHIEVEMENT, VAN HIELE GEOMETRIC THINKING LEVELS, ATTITUDES TOWARD MATHEMATICS AND GEOMETRY Duatepe, Asuman Ph.D., Department of Secondary Science and Mathematics Education Supervisor: Assoc. Prof. Dr. Behiye Ubuz August 2004, 310 pages The aims of this study were to investigate the effects of drama based instruction on seventh grade students achievement on geometry (angles and polygons; circle and cylinder), retention of achievement, van Hiele geometric thinking level, attitudes toward mathematics and attitudes toward geometry compared to the traditional teaching; to get the students views related to the effects of drama based instruction on their learning, friendship relations, awareness of themselves, and the role of teacher and students; and to get the view of teacher who was present in the classroom during the treatment on drama based instruction. The study was conducted on three seventh grade classes from a public school in the academic year, lasting 30 lesson hours (seven and a half week).
5 v The data were collected through angles and polygons; and circle and cylinder achievement tests, the van Hiele geometric thinking level test, mathematics and geometry attitude scale, and interviews. The quantitative analyses were carried out by using two multivariate covariance analyses. The results revealed that drama based instruction had a significant effect on students angles and polygons achievement, circle and cylinder achievement, retention of these achievement, van Hiele geometric thinking level, mathematics attitude, and geometry attitude compared to the traditional teaching. According to the interview responses of the experimental group students and the classroom teacher, significantly better performance of the experimental group students was attributable to the potential of the drama based instruction to make learning easy and understanding better by; supporting active involvement, creating collaborative studying environment, giving chance to improvise daily life examples, giving opportunity to communicate, providing meaningful learning, supporting long-lasting learning and providing selfawareness. Keywords: Mathematics education, drama based instruction, geometry achievement, van Hiele geometric thinking levels, attitude toward mathematics, and attitude toward geometry.
6 vi ÖZ DRAMA TEMELLİ ÖĞRETİMİN YEDİNCİ SINIF ÖĞRENCİLERİNİN GEOMETRİ BAŞARISINA, VAN HIELE GEOMETRİK DÜŞÜNME DÜZEYLERİNE, MATEMATİĞE VE GEOMETRİYE KARŞI TUTUMLARINA ETKİSİ Duatepe, Asuman Doktora, Orta Öğretim Fen ve Matematik Alanları Eğitimi Bölümü Tez Yöneticisi: Doç. Dr. Behiye Ubuz Ağustos 2004, 310 sayfa Bu çalışma drama temelli öğretimin, geleneksel öğretim yöntemiyle karşılaştırıldığında yedinci sınıf öğrencilerinin geometri (açılar ve çokgenler; ve daire ve silindir) başarılarına, bu başarıların kalıcılığına, van Hiele geometrik düşünme düzeylerine, matematiğe ve geometriye karşı tutumlarına etkisini araştırmayı; öğrencilerin dramanın öğrenmelerine, arkadaşlık ilişkilerine, ve kendilerine ilişkin farkındalıklarına, öğretmen ve öğrenci rollerine etkisi hakkındaki görüşlerini almayı; ve uygulama sında sınıfta bulunan öğretmenin drama temelli öğretimle ilgili görüşlerini almayı amaçlamıştır. Çalışma bir devlet okulunda bulunan üç yedinci sınıf üzerinde öğretim yılında gerçekleştirilmiş, 30 ders saati (yedi buçuk hafta) sürmüştür. Veri toplamak amacıyla, açılar ve çokgenler; ve çember ve daire başarı testleri, van Hiele geometrik düşünme düzeyi testi, matematik ve geometri tutum ölçeği ve görüşmeler kullanılmıştır.
7 vii Elde edilen niceliksel veriler, yapılan iki çoklu kovaryans analizi ile incelenmiştir. Analiz sonuçlarına göre gruplar arasında açılar ve çokgenler; çember ve daire başarı testleri, bu başarıların kalıcılığı testi, van Hiele geometrik düşünme düzeyleri testi, matematik ve geometri tutum ölçeklerinden alınan puanlara göre deney grubu lehine istatistiksel olarak anlamlı bir fark bulunmuştur. Deney grubu öğrencilerin ve deney grubundaki dersleri gözleyen öğretmenin görüşmelerde ifade ettikleri düşüncelere göre; deney grubu öğrencilerin kontrol grubu öğrencilerine göre daha iyi performans göstermesi drama temelli öğretimin aşağıdaki özellikleriyle ilişkilendirilmiştir: aktif katılımı gerektirmesi, grup çalışması ortamı yaratması, günlük hayat örneklerinin doğaçlanmasını içermesi, iletişim şansı yaratması, anlamlı öğrenmeyi sağlaması, kalıcı öğrenmeye yol açması, ve kendine ait farkındalığı sağlaması. Anahtar Kelimeler: Matematik eğitimi, drama temelli öğretim, geometri başarısı, van Hiele geometrik düşünme düzeyleri, matematiğe karşı tutum, geometriye karşı tutum
8 viii ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS There are many people that helped this dissertation during its long journey. First of all, I want to thank my supervisor Assoc. Prof. Dr. Behiye Ubuz for her high standards, careful edits, guidance, and recommendations. I always feel that she was with me throughout the research. I express my sincere appreciation to Prof. Dr. Sibel Güneysu for her positive personality. She made me feel that she is sharing my responsibility. I am thankful to Assist. Prof. Dr. Ali Eryılmaz for his valuable comments and feedbacks. I am deeply grateful to Dr. Tülay Üstündağ for her kindness in giving comments, criticism and suggestions; and scrutiny in checking lesson plans. I am sincerely grateful to Assoc. Prof. Dr. Aysun Umay for her affection and tenderness. I especially owe thanks to Elif. She provided me suggestions, encouragement, moral support and lots of documents related to this dissertation. Most importantly, despite the distances she accomplished to keep my motivation high, especially in the last phase of writing this dissertation. I wish to extend my thanks to Tufan for his great help on entering data and transcribing interviews. I am particularly thankful to him for showing me there is a world beyond this dissertation. I am also thankful to Oylum for always being with me in hope and frustration from the beginning of this PhD journey. Special thanks go to Mert for helping on entering data and formatting this final document. I would like to thank to Ömer for taking time to read this dissertation and giving valuable suggestions and comments. Last but not least, my appreciation extends to my family. Their constant patience and belief made these efforts possible. Without their unconditional love, pray and support, I cannot be here.
9 ix TABLE OF CONTENTS PLAGIARISM PAGE iii ABSTRACT. iv ÖZ... vi ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS viii TABLE OF CONTENTS....ix LIST OF TABLES... xiv LIST OF FIGURES.. xvii LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS....xviii CHAPTERS 1. INTRODUCTION Importance of Geometry The Need for Change in Geometry Instruction The Research Questions Hypotheses Definition of the Important Terms Significance of the Study Assumptions Limitations REVIEW OF THE RELATED LITERATURE Geometry Development of Geometry Concept Van Hiele Geometric Thinking Levels Level 0 (The Visual Level) Level 1 (The Descriptive Level) Level 2 (The Theoretical Level) Level 3 (Formal Logic) Level 4 (The Nature of Logical Laws) Properties of van Hiele Geometric Thinking Levels Students Understanding of Angles
10 x 2.5 Students Understanding of Polygons Students Attitudes toward Mathematics and Geometry Drama and Drama Based Instruction Phases of Drama Based Lesson Drama Techniques Researches on Drama Researches on Drama based Instruction Researches on Drama Based Instruction in Mathematics Education Summary on Effects of Drama METHODS Population and Sample Measuring Tools Angles and Polygons Achievement Test Circle and Cylinder Achievement Test Van Hiele Geometric Thinking Level Test Mathematics Attitude Scale Geometry Attitude Scale Variables Dependent Variables Independent Variables Procedure Development of Lesson Plans Used in the Experimental Group Treatment Treatment in the Experimental Group Treatment in the Control Group Treatment Verification Data Analyses Internal Validity DEVELOPMENT OF ACHIEVEMENT TESTS AND GEOMETRY ATTITUDE SCALE Development of Achievement Tests Development of Geometry Attitude Scale
11 xi 5. RESULTS Descriptive Statistics Descriptive Statistics of the Angles and Polygons Achievement Tests Descriptive Statistics of the Circle and Cylinder Achievement Test Descriptive Statistics of the van Hiele Geometric Thinking Level Test Descriptive Statistics of the Mathematics Attitude Scale Descriptive Statistics of the Geometry Attitude Scale Quantitative Results Missing Data Analyses Determination of Covariates Assumptions of the MANCOVA Inferential Statistics Follow-up Analyses Qualitative Results Experimental Group Students Opinions related to the Effect of Drama Based Instruction on Their Learning Experimental Group Students Opinions related to the Effects of Drama Based Instruction on Their Friendship Relations Experimental Group Students Opinions about the Effects of Drama Based Instruction on Their Awareness of Themselves Experimental Group Students Opinions related to the Role of Students in Drama Based Instruction Environment Experimental Group Students Opinions related to the Role of Teacher in Drama Based Instruction Environment Classroom Teacher s Opinions about the Drama Based Instruction Summary of Results Summary of the Results related with Quantitative Research Questions
12 xii Summary of the Results related with Qualitative Research Questions DISCUSSION, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS Discussion Conclusions Implications Recommendations for Further Researchers REFERENCES APPENDICES APPENDIX A: ANGLES and POLYGONS ACHIEVEMENT TEST APPENDIX B: OBJECTIVES OF EACH TASK WITH ITS FREQUENCY AND PERCENTAGE FOR ANGLES AND POLYGONS ACHIEVEMENT TEST APPENDIX C: CIRCLE AND CYLINDER ACHIEVEMENT TEST APPENDIX D: OBJECTIVES OF EACH TASK WITH ITS FREQUENCY AND PERCENTAGE FOR CIRCLE AND CYLINDER ACHIEVEMENT TEST APPENDIX E: VAN HIELE GEOMETRIC THINKING LEVEL TEST..189 APPENDIX F: OBJECTIVES OF EACH TASK WITH ITS FREQUENCY AND PERCENTAGE FOR VAN HIELE GEOMETRIC THINKING LEVEL TEST APPENDIX G: MATHEMATICS ATTITUDE SCALE APPENDIX H: GEOMETRY ATTITUDE SCALE APPENDIX I: LESSON PLANS APPENDIX J: EVALUATIONS OF LESSON PLANS INTERMS OF THE DRAMA BASED EDUCATION CRITERIA APPENDIX K: TREATMENT VERIFICATION FORM APPENDIX L: DRAFT FORM OF ANGLES AND POLYGONS ACHIEVEMENT TEST APPENDIX M: DRAFT FORM OF CIRCLE AND CYLINDER ACHIEVEMENT TEST
13 xiii APPENDIX N: TURKISH EXCERPTS FROM STUDENTS INTERVIEW RESPONSES APPENDIX O: TURKISH EXCERPTS FROM TEACHER INTERVIEW RESPONSES APPENDIX P: RAW DATA VITA
14 xiv LIST OF TABLES TABLE 3.1 Seventh grade classroom distributions with respect to public primary schools in Balgat district The distributions of the subjects in the EG and the CG in terms of gender The distribution of interviewees in terms of their group, the degree of participation, gender, quartiles of geometry attitude score and total achievement test score Outline of the procedure of the main study The comparison of the EG and the CG environment The comparison of the EG and the CG in terms of topics covered, their orders and administration of the tests The variable-set composition and statistical model entry order for the MANCOVA used for the comparing posttest The variable-set composition and statistical model entry order for the second MANCOVA Eigenvalues, % of variances explained by factors, factor loadings of the items, and item-total correlation of the draft version of the geometry attitude scale Eigenvalues, % of variances explained by factors, factor loadings of the items, and item-total correlation of the last version of the geometry attitude scale Descriptive statistics related with the POSTAPA and DELAPA for the EG and the CG Descriptive statistics related to the POSTCCA and the DELCCA for the EG and the CG Descriptive statistics related with the PREVHL and the POSTVHL for the EG and the CG Descriptive statistics related with the PREMAS and the POSTMAS for the EG and the CG
15 xv 5.5 Descriptive statistics related with the PREGAS and the POSTGAS for the EG and the CG Correlation coefficients between independent and dependent variables and their significance for the MANCOVA comparing posttests scores Correlation coefficients between independent and dependent variables and their significance for the MANCOVA comparing delayed posttests scores Box's test of equality of covariance matrices for the MANCOVA comparing posttests scores Box's test of equality of covariance matrices for the MANCOVA comparing delayed posttests scores Results of the MRC analysis of homogeneity of regression for the MANCOVA comparing posttests scores Results of the MRC analysis of homogeneity of regression for the MANCOVA comparing delayed posttests scores Levene's Test of equality of error variances for the MANCOVA comparing posttest scores Levene's Test of equality of error variances for the MANCOVA used for comparing delayed posttest scores Correlations between covariates Multivariate tests results for the MANCOVA comparing posttest scores Tests of between-subjects effects Multivariate tests results for the MANCOVA comparing delayed posttest scores Tests of between-subjects effects Step-down ANCOVA for the POSTCCA Step-down ANCOVA for the POSTVHL Step-down ANCOVA for the POSTMAS Step-down ANCOVA for the POSTGAS Step-down ANCOVA for the DELAPA Step-down ANCOVA for the DELCCA
16 xvi B.1 Objectives of each task with its frequency and percentage for angles and polygons achievement test D.1 Objectives of each task with its frequency and percentage for circle and cylinder achievement test F.1 Objectives of each task with its frequency and percentage for van hiele geometric thinking level test P.1 Raw data of the study
17 xvii LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE 3.1 The arrangement of the classroom in regular lessons The arrangement of the classroom for drama activities which require more available space The arrangement of the classroom for drama activities which require group communication Boxplot of the POSTAPA and the DELAPA for the EG and the CG Boxplot of the POSTCCA and the DELCCA for the EG and the CG Boxplot of the PREVHL and the POSTVHL for the EG and the CG Boxplot of the PREMAS and the POSTMAS for the EG and the CG Boxplot of the PREGAS and the POSTGAS for the EG and the CG
18 xviii LIST OF ABBREVITIONS ABBREVIATION EG: Experimental group CG: Control group APA: Angles and polygons achievement test CCA: Circle and cylinder achievement test VHL: Van Hiele geometric thinking level test MAS: Mathematics attitude scale GAS: Geometry attitude scale MGP: Mathematics grade in previous year MOT: Method of teaching PREVHL: Students pretest scores on van Hiele geometric thinking level test PREMAS: Students pretest scores on mathematics attitude scale PREGAS: Students pretest scores on geometry attitude scale POSTAPA: Students posttest scores on angles and polygons achievement test POSTCCA: Students posttest scores circle and cylinder achievement test POSTGAS: Students posttest scores on geometry attitude scale POSTMAS: Students posttest scores on mathematics attitude scale POSTVHL: Students posttest scores on van Hiele geometric thinking level test DELAPA: Students delayed posttest scores on angle and polygon achievement test DELCCA: Students delayed posttest scores on circle and cylinder achievement test MANCOVA: Multivariate analysis of covariance ANCOVA: Univariate analysis of covariance Sig: Significance Df: Degree of freedom
19 xix N: Sample size α: Significance level
20 1 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Importance of Geometry Geometry has received a substantial attention since 2000 BC. Throughout the history, it has great importance in people s lives with its origin in the need for human beings to specify quantities and to measure figures and lands. The widely known quote of Plato, "Let no man ignorant of geometry enter here over the door of his academy can be given as an example of importance given to geometry (Burton, 1999; p. 79). The fact that Elements, the famous geometry book written by Euclid around 300 BC, has more editions than any other book except for the Bible can be another example (Malkevitch, 1998). Nowadays, geometry still maintains its importance in mathematics curriculum. In order to represent and solve problems in other topics of mathematics and in daily life situations, sound geometry knowledge is necessary. It is also used in other disciplines such as science and arts. The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM, 2000), the largest organization for teachers of mathematics in the world, has emphasized the importance of geometry in school mathematics by stating geometry is a natural place for the development of students' reasoning and justification skills (p. 40). The significance of geometry, for anybody who does not plan to become a mathematician, is to develop visualization, reasoning abilities, and appreciation of the nature. Every human being from a housewife to an engineer needs some geometry intuition to understand and interpret the world. Sherrard (1981) labeled geometry as a basic skill in mathematics that is significant for every student since; it is an important help for communication as geometric terms are used in speaking, it is faced in real life, it helps to develop spatial perception, learning geometry prepares students for higher mathematics courses and sciences and for a variety of occupation requiring mathematical
21 skills, general thinking skills and problem solving abilities are facilitated by geometry, and studying geometry can develop cultural and aesthetic values The Need for Change in Geometry Instruction Although much effort is used in teaching geometry, evidence from numerous researches makes it clear that many students are not learning geometry as they need or are expected to learn (Baynes, 1998; Burger & Shaugnessy, 1986; Clements & Battissa, 1992; Crowley, 1987; Fuys 1985; Fuys, Geddes, & Tischler, 1988; Mayberry, 1983; Mitchelmore, 1997; NCTM, 1989; Prescott, Mitchelmore, & White, 2002; Senk, 1985; Teppo, 1991; Thirumurthy, 2003; Ubuz & Ustün, 2003; Usiskin, 1982; van Hiele, 1986; van Hiele-Geldof, 1984). Especially in Turkey, the students geometry achievement is lower than the other areas of mathematics. In the Third International Mathematics and Science Study, the mathematics and science achievement of eighth-grade students in 38 countries were measured. Turkish students got the lowest mean scores from the geometry part of the test comparing to other four content areas of fractions and number sense; measurement; data representation, analysis and probability; and algebra. Of the 38 participating countries, Turkey was the eighth from the end in terms of the average of general mathematics achievement but it was the fifth from the end for the geometry part of the test (Mullis, Martin, Gonzalez, Gregory, Garden, O Connor, Chrostowski, & Smith, 2000). A need for increasing geometry achievement of students has been realized by mathematics educators (NCTM, 1989; NCTM, 2000). The needs and interest of today s children are far more different than the children of the past decades. The traditional instructional methods do not seem to be responsive to the potential of today s children (Battista & Clement 1999; Garrity, 1998; Schoenfeld, 1983). Definitions of typical mathematics classroom involve phrases such as passive learners, rote learning, single predetermined ways to solution, paper and pencil tasks, and most importantly computational proficiency. The textbook drives classroom mathematics learning under the orchestration of the teacher (O Connor, 1998). As Battista and Clement (1999) observed in many
22 3 classrooms, mathematics was taught by using examples to explain students how to solve problems. Then letting the students solve similar problems. As a top down approach, generalizations, rules and definitions were given firstly then examples are shown. Similarly, Garrity (1998) stated that mathematics classes are commonly based on rote memorization of facts, teachers are lecturing and students are working countless problems from the book. Instruction is not designed to promote meaningful learning. Indeed, learning mathematics without understanding has been a problem of mathematics teaching (Skemp, 1976; Hiebert & Carpenter, 1992). Generally, instruction in geometry has been teacher-centered, proceduresbased, and prescriptive (Baynes, 1998; Keiser, 1997; Mayberry, 1983). This method is lacking in creativity, visualization, and conceptual development (Keiser, 1997; NCTM, 2000). Schoenfeld (1983) also supported the ideas that students cannot be creative enough in a traditional class. Furthermore, this approach was problematic for many students and teachers, and both groups considered geometry to be the most frightened subject (Malloy & Friel, 1999). As a consequence, it is not a surprise that many students lose interest in geometry. Schoenfeld (1983) associated the limitations of traditional teaching in mathematics with the teacher-oriented instruction and ready-made mathematical knowledge presented to the students. Most formal school experience never gives students the opportunity to do anything with mathematics except for lean back and listen. Students should be given a chance to be involved in the teaching and learning process to learn meaningfully. An important problem of today s schools mentioned in Principles and Standards is disengagement of students from mathematics (NCTM, 2000). Students have become irrespective to the teachers; show negative attitude; and not value the mathematics in school. As a result of that, discipline problems have aroused in schools. If the ways we present mathematics are not consistent with the needs of students and appropriate to their interest we will still face the same difficulties in school. As stated by Clements and Battissa (1992) what is needed more is to conduct teaching/learning research that leads students to get geometry
23 4 concepts meaningfully and excitingly. During the last decade, researchers have studied on how geometry topics should be presented so that students difficulties can be overcome. Many researchers have studied on using technology on geometry. Some of them studied on the effects of computer programs in geometry (Arcavi & Hadas, 2000; Baharvand, 2001; Bobango, 1988; Borrow, 2000; Chazan, 1998; Choi-Koh, 1999; Flanagan, 2001; Frerking, 1994; Furinghetti & Paola, 2002; Gerretson, 1998; Groman, 1996; Healy, 2000; Hodanbosi, 2001; Hölzl, 2001; Ives, 2003; Jones, 1998; Johnson, 2002; July, 2001; Kakihana, Shimizu & Nohda, 1996; Laborde, 1993; Laborde, 2002; Larew, 1999; Manouchehri, Enderson, & Pugnucco, 1998; Marrades & Gutierrez, 2000; Moss, 2000; Scher, 2002; Shaw, Durden & Baker, 1998; Sinclair, 2001; Thompson, 1993; Üstün, 2003; Washington-Myers, 2001) and some researchers conducted studies on usage of calculators in geometry (Din & Whitson, 2001; Dixon, 1997; Duatepe & Ersoy, 2002; Round, 1998; Ryan, 1999; Velo, 2001). These studies revealed that the use of technology is beneficial to students in developing their understandings of geometric concepts. A different aid for geometry teaching other than technology is barely seen in the literature. Nichols and Hall (1995) studied on the effects of cooperative learning method in geometry lessons and found that it has positive effects. The effects of manipulative besides cooperative learning were investigated by Garrity (1998). This study pointed out that it improved the attitudes towards mathematics and achievement. There still occurs a need to find different teaching methods in geometry instruction that meet the students needs and make them engage in geometry to provide meaningful learning. Constructivist learning theory basically claims that in order for learning to be meaningful, learners should actively construct knowledge. The teacher should assist learning by creating a stimulating learning environment for students, asking questions that require students to think critically, and allowing them to investigate, discover and question the concepts they are learning. Considering these facts, this study proposes an alternative teaching method in geometry; drama based instruction. Drama based instruction is an instructional method that allows students to improvise and construct a meaning of a word, a concept, an idea, an experience or an event by the utilization of theatre techniques and the play processes (San,
24 5 1996). This method creates an environment in which students construct their own knowledge by means of their experiences rather than imitating what has been taught (Bolton, 1986). They are assisted to build knowledge and discouraged to reproduce it. As they actively build their interpretations of the world, they have more ownership of their knowledge and thoughts. Concurrent with constructivists view, cooperation with others is encouraged. Social negotiation promotes the construction of common interpretations of events and objects (Heathcote & Herbert, 1985). While the only communication way for students in a traditional classroom is listening; and students are passive receiver in those settings, drama offers a variety of communication experiences to students (Heinig, 1988; Southwell, 1999). In drama activities, students are encouraged to express their own ideas and to understand the messages of others by using both nonverbal and verbal communication. In this method, the role of the teacher is the facilitator of students exploration, development, expression and communication of ideas, concept and feelings rather than the direct information giver. According to Andersen (2000) in drama activities, teachers are not the one who knows everything or the experts. Rather than that, they share the construction of knowledge with students. Teachers control and guide activities, challenge and extent thought by taking a role just as students (Wilhelm, 1998). By this way, they can give an immediate feedback whenever it is necessary. Since drama is a planned learning experience, teachers have the responsibility of designing, organizing and controlling the lessons (Heinig, 1988). Bolton (1988) stated that the students activity would be akin to child play without the teacher in role. This means that the necessary intervention of the teachers should be made when necessary. The most important responsibility of the teachers is to foster communication (Heinig, 1988). They must value and respect the sincere, open, and honest communication. Teachers questioning is an encouraging way to communicate in drama. Additionally, teachers can encourage creative thinking abilities by providing an accepting environment in which students can try and fail and not afraid of taking risks and explore (Heinig, 1988). Drama fosters many desirable cognitive and affective learning outcomes. When the literature on the effects of drama on the cognitive domain is