1 THE POPULAR PRESS HOLDINGS IN THE MIDDLE EAST DEPARTMENT JOSEPH REGENSTEIN LIBRARY UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO Introduction: Survey of the Popular Press in the Islamic World 1 I. Arabic 25 II. Armenian, Azeri, Georgian, Kurdish and Russian 44 III. English, French and Hebrew 46 IV. Persian 54 V. Ottoman / Turkish 107 Appendices: 163 Persian Newspapers published in India, Middle Eastern Newspapers at CRL, Middle Eastern Newspapers Currently Received by the Library Official Gazettes in the Middle East Department Select bibliographies are included at the end of each section. Though compilation of this list was stopped in the mid 1990s, we believe it remains useful to library patrons as it contains information about materials that are not in the library catalog and thus can be found no other way. In the years since, new materials have been acquired, some uncataloged materials have been cataloged, and some items have been moved. It is important to communicate with the Middle East Department to determine how to access materials especially those listed as uncataloged. For further information, please consult a staff member in the Middle East Department office, JRL 560 (open Monday through Friday, 9AM to 5PM), or contact Marlis Saleh (details at
2 Middle Eastern Popular Press 1 1. INTRODUCTION: SURVEY OF THE POPULAR PRESS IN THE ISLAMIC WORLD. Background: The introduction of a popular newspaper and serial press to the Islamic world came with the introduction of the western newspaper form itself, in part a product of 18th century European, particularly French, influence on the Ottoman government in Istanbul, and Napoleon's invasion of Egypt in The rapid development of newspaper and serial publications in the Islamic world reflects the growing local sense of awareness of European culture, nationalism, and popular interest in political and cultural affairs on a public level which characterized the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. (Brief accessible surveys of the popular press in the Islamic world are to be found in the article "Djarida" in the first and second editions of the Encyclopedia of Islam, and in the article "Basın" in the Türk Ansiklopedisi.) The relatively late adoption of moveable type printing by the Arabs, Persians, and Turks is an interesting chapter in the history of printing and book production, a history in which the Islamic world had earlier played a critical role. The craft of paper making came to Europe by way of the Islamic World. The Arabs may have acquired the technique from Chinese prisoners taken at Samarkand by the Arabs in 704. Eventually papermaking spread into Europe through Muslim Spain sometime during the 13th and 14th centuries. Undoubtedly one of the most literary of the world's cultures, large numbers of books and documents were produced on paper by scribes in the Islamic world from the early centuries of Islam. Yet when printing technology finally reached the Middle East it was initially slow to take hold and spread. Block printing in the Islamic world dates from the 10th century and, like paper making, came first to the Middle East, and was introduced from there to Europe. Use of wood block printing in the Islamic world seems to have been only sporadic however, limited to brief portions of the Koran, some official communications, playing cards, and one instance of paper money during Ilkhanid rule in Iran. Moveable metal type was a European invention later introduced into the Islamic world via European language presses established first in İstanbul in the 15th 16th century. A Koran was printed in Venice between Non Muslim religious minorities established non Arabic script presses, and produced the first printed texts in the Ottoman Empire. Various explanations have been advanced to explain the relative lateness of the acceptance of Arabic script printing in the Muslim World including a belief in the religious importance of the Arabic script itself, and the possibility of a monopoly held by the scribal class. The first Arabic script press in the Middle East was established in İstanbul by Ibrāḥīm Müteferrika, who produced a number of books during the eighteenth century. By the end of the 18th century, the Ottoman government was aware of the use of the press made by the French government through the establishment of a French press in İstanbul in the 1790's, which produced official bulletins and communiques. In 1796 the Gazette française de Constantinople began publication, the first newpaper to be established in the Middle East. In 19th century Egypt and Iran lithography became widespread before the extensive adoption of moveable type to print books. It was the Europeans who first introduced the newspaper, on moveable type Arabic script presses, to the Muslim world during the Napoleonic invasion of Egypt. The French brought out several French newspapers during their occupation of and for a brief period printed, with the Arabicscript presses they had brought with them, official proclamations and the first Arabic script newspaper al Tanbīh. In the early part of the 19th century French newspapers appeared in Morocco and in Izmir.
3 2 Middle Eastern Popular Press Popular Press in the Middle East: It was in the Egypt of Muḥammad ʿAlī in the 1820's that the publication of the first regular Arabic serial began al Waqāʾiʿ al Miṣrīyah (microfm. JQ37 RR5; UC holdings ; ). It was published at various frequencies in Arabic and briefly in Turkish as the official organ of Muḥammad ʿAlī's government and the sole newspaper in Egypt during the period of his rule. During Ismāʿīl's reign al Waqāʾiʿ al Miṣrīyah was published daily under the editorship of Muḥammad ʿAbduh ( ). It attained importance beyond its role as an official organ, as a newpaper in its own right containing foreign news items and editorials as well as official orders and decrees. (Numbers prior to 1840 are lost; it has continued to the present day.) Similar official government publications began in Ottoman İstanbul in the 1830's with the introduction of the Moniteur ottoman and Takvim i Vekaʿyi ( microfc. RR5; UC holdings ; ), both in 1831, the latter published as the official organ of the Ottoman government until 1922, when it was supplanted by the new Republican government's Resmi Gazete (J7.T1A4 RR5; UC holdings complete 1922 present). The Ottoman government policy of establishing official papers in each province gave impetus to the publication of similar official gazettes in the Arab provinces of the Ottoman Empire. Privately owned newspapers followed the appearance of these official publications. The first privately produced newspaper, Ceride i Havadis, was founded in Istanbul in 1840 by the Englishman, William Churchill. Published in Ottoman Turkish, it was mainly commercial in purpose but also contained articles and features, the writing of which provided an apprenticeship in journalism to a number of Turkish literati. In the 1850's private newspapers printed in Arabic were established in Ottoman Beirut, some with the backing of the Ottoman government. The first important independent Arabic newspaper was the pro Ottoman al Jawāʾib, which was founded in İstanbul by the Lebanese Aḥmad Fāris al Shidyāq in 1860 (microfm. AP95.4 RR5; UC holdings: ). It attained widespread circulation in the Arab world during the course of its lifetime, and was the first Arabic paper to attain world wide circulation. The establishment of privately owned newspapers marked the beginning of an efflorescence of newspaper publishing in Arabic, Persian, and Turkish in the latter half of the 19th century. These newspapers brought to the forefront issues such as nationalism, secularism, anti colonialism and Islamic fundamentalism which were current at the time. They played an important role in the evolution of Middle Eastern political and cultural life, and remain a valuable source for the study of the history and culture of that period. However, expression of anti government views often resulted in censorship and led to the closing of some of these newspapers, as well as to the movement of newspapers and journalists to more tolerant locations. Ottoman censorship brought to Egypt a number of talented journalists who played a major role in the development of the popular press there and, later, throughout the Islamic world. Journalists who had begun their careers in the Ottoman provinces of Syria and Lebanon were forced to move to the relatively freer climate of Egypt under the descendants of Muḥammad ʿAlī and later under the British occupation. However, about 1890, the expression of anti British nationalist views forced the British to exert stronger control over the opposition press in Egypt. Egypt: In 1876, the Lebanese exiles Salīm and Bishāra Taklā founded the newspaper al Ahrām (microfm. AN95.2; UC holdings: microfm. AN95 2) in Alexandria. Initially pro Ottoman, it remains one of the most important and influential newspapers in the Arab world today. The latter half of the nineteenth century witnessed the growth of newspapers and journals in Egypt representing various political and religious points of view: Muslim, Christian, pro Ottoman, pro
4 Middle Eastern Popular Press 3 western, pro British, pro reform, and nationalist, among which were the nationalist Abū Naẓẓārah (DT43 f.a32; UC holdings: complete ) founded by Yaʿqūb Ṣannūʿ and later moved to Paris, al Iʿlām, Cairo (microfm. AN95 19 RR5; UC holdings: ), and al Bayān, Cairo (microfm. AP95.A6B4; UC holdings: complete ). The bimonthly review al Muqtaṭaf (microfc. PJ3; UC holdings: ) was founded in Beirut in 1877 before being transferred to Cairo, and the pro British al Muqaṭṭam (microfm. AN95.30; UC holdings: ), established in 1889 by Mssrs. Ṣarrūf Nimr Maqāryus, stood in opposition to al Ahrām. The anti reform and traditionalist Islamic paper al Muʿayyad (microfm. AN95.29; UC holdings: ), founded in 1890 by Shaykh Yūsuf ʿAlī, heralded the appearance of a number of similar newspapers reflecting conservative religious views. Nationalist papers which professed views in opposition to the British occupation included Miṣr, edited by Adīb Isḥāq, al Liwāʾ edited by Muṣṭafā Kāmil, and al Jarīdah (microfm. AN95 21; UC holdings: ). By 1910 almost 150 newspapers were being published in Egypt. In addition to newspapers, a number of important literary, scientific, and religious reviews were published among which were al Hilāl founded in Cairo by Jūrjī Zaydān in 1892 and still published today (PJ7801.A2H52 RR5; UC holdings: complete 1892 ); al Muqtabas (AP95.A6M8 RR5; UC holdings: ) published by Muḥammmad Kurd 'Alī in Cairo and Damascus from 1908 to 1917; and al Mashriq in Beirut (AP95.A6M33 RR5; UC holdings: , 1947 ). The influential Shiite intellectual and religious review al ʿIrfān which began publication in Sidon, Lebanon in 1909 continues today in Beirut (AP95.A6I67; UC holdings: ). Egyptian newspapers in the early 20th century vigorously reflected a variety of political views until the suspension of the political press during the Egyptian revolution in In 1960 press ownership in Egypt reverted to private hands. Although newspapers have since then, in the main, reflected the official government line, distinctions have begun to emerge. Increased freedom of the press during the Sadat era allowed existing newspapers aligned with the religious right to flourish and also resulted in the appearance of a number of new periodicals representing opposition opinions, ranging from those of groups on the religious right to the socialists. Among these periodicals were al Daʿwah (published ; microfc. RR5; UC holdings: ), al Iʿtiṣām (published 1939 ; microfc. RR5; UC holdings: ), al Taṣawwuf al Islāmī (1979 ; microfc. RR5; UC holdings: ), and al Tawḥīd (1971 ; microfc. RR5; UC holdings: ), aligned with the Islamic right. On the left, al Ahālī (1979 ) represented the al Tajammuʿ party, Jarīdat al Shaʿb (1979 ; microfm. RR5; UC holdings: ) was published by the Egyptian Labor party, and al Aḥrār represented the al Aḥrār al Ishtirākīyūn Party. Lebanon, Syria and Palestine: The Levantine provinces of the Ottoman Empire were, in the 19th century, another center for the production of newspapers in Arabic. The first major Arabic paper, al Bashī, which was established in Beirut in 1869 by the Jesuits, continued publishing there until recently. Members of the Bustānī family published various titles in the 1870's and 1880's. In 1877 Khalīl Sarkīs, son in law of Butrus al Bustānī, brought out the daily Lisān al Ḥāl, ( ; microfm. RR5; UC holdings: , ), itself vaguely pro Ottoman and generally avoiding political contoversy. Other papers reflected the variety of confessional groups that made up levantine society Sunnī and Shiʿī Islamic, Maronite and Orthodox Christian. Syria's first printed publications resulted from the Ottoman government's policy that each vilayet should have its own newspaper. Arabic newspaper publication in Palestine began with the founding of al Karmal in Haifa in 1908 (published until 1934; microfm. RR5; UC holdings: ) by Najīb Naṣṣār, an Orthodox Christian, and al Karmal al jadīd ( , microfm. RR5; UC holdings:
5 4 Middle Eastern Popular Press complete ). In 1911 ʿIsā al ʿIsā established the paper Falasṭīn (microfm. AN95 15 RR2 & microfm. RR5; UC holdings: ) in Jaffa, the first Palestinian newspaper to go daily, which it did in These earliest Palestinian newspapers reflect local concern with the implications of Jewish immigration into Ottoman Palestine. Many publications were surpressed by the Ottoman authorities during the First World War. Post war Palestinian newspapers of the British Mandate period include: The Palestine Weekly ( microfm. RR5; UC holdings: complete ) and The Palestine Bulletin ( ; microfm. RR5; UC holdings: complete ). Newspapers were established in Iraq and the Arabian penninsula during the Ottoman occupation. The Ottoman governor Midḥat Pāshā set up the first newspaper in Iraq, al Zawrāʾ, in In the Arabian penninsula, Ṣanʿāʾ was established in 1877 and al Ḥijāz in Mecca in 1908, al Qiblah was published in Mecca from (microfm. AN95 RR5; UC holdings: complete ), and Sawṭ al Ḥijāz, in Mecca, from (microfm. AN RR5; UC holdings: complete ). Arabic Press Abroad: The Arabic press abroad developed in part as a reaction to difficulties in the Middle East in the late 19th century. Many Lebanese and Syrians fled from the difficult economic and political circumstances of the last years of Ottoman occupation. They sought opportunities in Europe and North and South America. A community of Syrian Christians flourished in New York during the early part of the 20th century and produced a number of Arabic newspapers and journals among which were al Kawn, published in New York (microfm. AN95 24 RR5; UC holdings: complete ), al Ṣāʾiḥ, first published in New York in 1912 (microfm. AN RR5; UC holdings: complete ) and al Funūn, also in New York ( ; PJ7501.F94; UC holdings: complete ). ʿUrwah al Wuthqā was published in Paris in 1884 by Jamal al Dīn al Afghanī and Muḥammad ʿAbduh (DT107.3.U83; UC holdings: complete 1884). Iran: Since the first experiments with lithography in Tabriz in 1817, the Iranian popular press was developed by two major patrons: (1) the state, and (2) expatriate Iranians. In the 19th century, the growing bureaucracy of the Qājār dynasty ( ) was the primary publisher of popular press periodicals, starting with the official gazette, Rūznāmah ʾi Vaqāyiʿ i Ittifāqīyah [Chronicle of Events] in 1851, which was the first newspaper of the present form and arrangement in Iran. Rūznāmah ʾi Vaqāyiʿ i Ittifāqīyah ( microfm. JRL 505; UC holding: ) was founded in the third year of the reign of Nāṣir al Dīn Shāh ( ) by the command of Mīrzā Taqī Khān Amīr Kabīr. At the beginning of the 1860s, the first illustrated Persian newspaper was published with the portraits of the notables of the Qājār court. The name of this illustrated newspaper, Rūznāmah ʾi Dawlat i ʿĀlīyah ʾi Īrān, was later changed to Rūznāmah ʾi Dawlatī [State Gazette]. A few years later, another newspaper, entitled Rūznāmah ʾi Millatī, was published in Tehran. The idea of popular press was welcomed in other parts of the country. In , the newspaper, Fārs, was published in Shiraz, and under the care of Mīrzā Taqī Khān of Kāshān, the newspaper, Farhang [Culture], was printed and published in Isfahan. In the same year, the newspaper entitled Tabrīz was founded in Tabriz. The first daily newspaper, Khulāṣat al Ḥawādith [Summary of Events], was printed in Tehran in
6 Middle Eastern Popular Press 5 Being an authoritarian state, the Qājār dynasty did not look favorably upon criticism in the popular press. The editors of the newspapers were not completely free to publish. However, with the outbreak of the Constitutional Revolution (1905 6) and by the time that the Constitutional Revolution was adopted at the end of 1906, the censorship system had gradually collapsed. As a result, a large number of individuals began to issue newspapers. Four daily newspapers began to appear under the names of the Majlis [Assembly] ( microfm. JRL 505; UC holding: ), Nidā yi Vaṭan (Cry of the Homeland) ( microfm. JRL 505; UC holding: ), Ḥabl al Matīn [The Firm Bond] (fan305.t3h2 RR5 (cage) and microfm. JRL 505; UC holding: , ), and Ṣubḥ i Ṣādiq. Among these four papers, Ḥabl al Matīn and Ṣubḥ i Ṣādiq provided varied and well written articles. The idea of the freedom of the press, which came with the Constitutional Revolution, made a huge impact on publication in Iran. Newspapers like Ṣūr i Isrāfīl [Seraphʾs Trumpet] (AP95.S8 RR5 (cage) and microfm. JRL 505; UC holding: ), published in Tehran in 1907, and Īrān i Naw [New Persia] ( microfm. JRL 505; UC holding: ), edited and published by Sayyid Maḥmūd Shabistarī Āzarbāyjānī (Abū al iyā'), after the disposition of Muḥammad ʿAlī Shāh in 1909, set journalistic standards with their fiery editorial rhetoric and political activism. The Constitutional Period ( ) also saw the arrival of the first Iranian magazine produced for women, Dānish [Knowledge] ( microfm. JRL 505; UC holding: ), founded in Tehran in 1910 by the wife of Mīrzā Ḥusayn Khān Kaḥḥāl. During the Constitutional period, numerous satirical papers also began to appear. The first satirical newspaper was Ṭūtī, published in Bushihr in , edited by ʿAbd al Ḥamīd Khān Matīn al Salṭanah. After this comic paper came the newspaper Āzarbāyijān ( microfm. JRL 505; UC holding: 1907), published by ʿAlī Qulī Khān, known as Safaroff, formerly editor of Iḥtiyāj, in Tabriz in The most popular satirical papers were Kashkūl, (Tehran, ) ( microfm. JRL 505; UC holding: ), Tanbīh [Punishment], Ḥasharāt al Arẕ [The insects of the earth] (Tabriz, 1909), Buhlūl (Tehran, 1911), Shaydā, and Shaykh Chughundar [The Reverend Beetroot] (Tehran, 1911). The satirical column in the newspaper, Ṣūr i Isrāfīl, which was written by Mīrzā ʿAlī Akbar Khān Dihkhudā under the heading ʿCharand va Parand [Nonsensical talk],ʾ became very popular. Judging by its circulation, the newspaper, Ṣūr i Isrāfīl, was the most popular newspaper of the time. It was banned repeatedly, but the controversy generated by the repeated banning of the paper benefited its circulation. Two other newspapers are also worth mentioning in this period: Musāvāt ( microfm. JRL 505; UC holding: ), and Rūḥ al Qudus ( ) (fjq1782.t8; 1984 reprint edition). These two newspapers attracted readers with their personal attacks on the Qājār court; however, they were not as successful as Ṣūr i Isrāfīl whose success was chiefly owing to Dihkhudāʾs satirical column, without indulging in the inventive attacks characteristic of the other two papers. Besides the educated intellectuals, semi literate mullas also turned to journalism. Among these mullas, Sayyid iyā al Dīn Ṭabāṭabāʾī published Nidā yi Islām (Cry of Islam) as an orthodox religious guide in the political life of the country. Aware of the growing influence of newspapers, the court officials began to publish their own newspapers to discredit the progressive press. Three newspapers championed autocracy. These were the newspapers Uqyānūs [The Ocean] ( microfm. JRL 505; UC holding: 1908), Fikr [Thought] and the Turkish language newspaper Āy Mullā ʿAmū. The editors of most of these newspapers were unsuccessful to win over popular support, except Shaykh Faẕl Allāh Nūrī, who issued his anti constitutionalist publications, known as Rūznāmah ʾi Shaykh Faẕl Allāh Nūrī, in 1907 from his sanctuary in the shrine of Ḥaẕrat i Shāh ʿAbd al ʿAẓīm. To avoid censorship and reprisal, a number of Iranians began producing periodicals elsewhere in Asia and in the Middle East in particular. Akhtar [The Star] began publishing in Istanbul in 1875.
7 6 Middle Eastern Popular Press Ḥabl al Matīn began publishing in Calcutta in In Cairo, Iranians produced Ḥikmat [Wisdom] in 1890 ( microfm. JRL 505; UC holding: 1899), Surayyā [The Pleiades] in 1898 and Parvarish [Nurture] in The Iranian expatriate press in Europe began with the newspaper Qanūn [The Law] ( microfm. JRL 505; UC holding: ), which was published by the opportunistic, reforming bureaucrat Mīrzā Malkam Khān Nāẓim al Dawlah, in London in Among all the newspapers, published either antecedent to the Constitutional Revolution or subsequent to the Revolution, Qānūn, Surayyā, Ḥabl al Matīn and Parvarish were the best in terms of literary style. Musāvāt and Rūḥ al Qudus were the boldest in their language. The best satirical and the most amusing were the Charand va Parand column of the Ṣūr i Isrāfīl, the literary column of the newspapers Sharq [The East] and Nasīm i Shumāl [Breeze of the North], edited by Sayyid Ashraf of Gilan, and the newspapers Āẕarbāyijān, Kashkūl, Ḥasharāt al Arẕ and Buhlūl. The finest newspapers in terms of illustration were Sharāfat, Sharaf (fap95.p3s521 RR5 (cage); UC holding: ), Adab and Āẕarbāyijān. Under Muẓaffar al Dīn Shāh ( ), a new trend started in Tabriz: the principals of newlyestablished schools, based on modernist ideas, sought permission to issue publications to encourage parents to enroll their children. In Tehran, this idea was also welcomed; Mīrzā Ḥasan Rushdīyah published Maktab, Nāẓim al Islām Kirmānī published Nawrūz ( microfm. JRL 505; UC holding: ), and Anjuman i Maʿārif published Maʿārif. The years after the Constitutional era of , between 1912 and 1917, mark the end of the period of relative freedom of press in Iran. By the beginning of World War I, the Iranian popular press reflected its official, expatriate and constitutional influences. The First World War aggravated the politically volatile atmosphere in Iran with foreign invasions and tribal rebellions, and a number of intellectuals outside Iran began to consider questions of culture and politics to remedy the problems that vexed Iranian society. In Berlin, Kāvah (1916) (PK57 microfm. RR5 (cage); UC holding: ), edited by Sayyid Ḥasan Taqīzādah, and Īrānshahr (1922) (AP95.I73 RR5 (cage)) began clamoring for cultural and national revival. With the outbreak of the Russian Revolution of 1917, which came as a godsend to Iran, some of these sentiments abroad were echoed by periodicals produced in Iran such as Muḥammad Taqī Malik al Shuʿarāʾ Bahārʾs Dānishkadah [The College] (1918) ( microfm. N47 JRL 505), Vaḥīd Dastgirdiʾs Armaghān [Gift] (1919), Saʿīd Nafīsīʾs Sharq [The East] (1924) and Maḥmūd Afshārʾs Āyandah [The Future] (1925). Other papers with titles reflecting the earnest nationalism of the times emerged with such names as Tajaddud [Renewal] and Kūshish [Endeavor] ( microfm. RR5 (cage)). One hundred twentyfive newspapers and forty periodicals were being published in this period. However, the number dropped drastically when Riẕā Shāh came to power in By the time he was forced to abdicate in 1941, the number of newspapers and periodicals had reached less than 50. Between the years 1941 and 1953, when Muṣaddiqʾs nationalist government fell, the Iranian press was revived. In less than a year, the number of newspapers and journals rose from 50 in 1941 to 464. This period saw the flourishing of newspapers such as Mardum [The people] ( microfm. JRL 505; UC holding: ), published by the Ḥizb i Tūdah, Iranʾs Communist Party. A number of newspapers, such as Āsiyā [Asia] ( microfm. JRL 505; UC holding: 1954), and Bākhtar i Imrūz [Todayʾs East] ( microfm. JRL 505; UC holding: ), edited by Ḥusayn Fāṭimī, devoted attention to the issue of oil nationalization. Among the popular newspapers and periodicals of this era, the most satirical ones were Arjang [The sacred book of Manicheanism], Umīd [Hope] ( microfm. JRL 505; UC holding: ), Tawfīq [Success] ( microfm. JRL 505; UC holding: ), founded by Ḥusayn Tawfīq in 1927, Ḥallāj [The cotton carder], Nasīm i Shumāl ( microfm. JRL 505; UC holding: ), Hardanbīl [The easygoing one], Qalandar [The Sufi beggar], Yū Yū [The yo yo], and Bābā Shamal (fap95.p3b15 and microfm. JRL 505; UC holding: , 1947), an independent journal
8 Middle Eastern Popular Press 7 published by Riẕā Ganjiʾī from 1943 to the end of 1945 and from the end of 1947 to March Of the nine comic papers, the first five had begun publication shortly before 1941 and the remaining four were published after Riẕā Shāhʾs abdication. During Muṣaddiqʾs rule, when the oil industry was nationalized, six other journals began publication. These journals were Chalangar [The ironsmith], published by Muḥammad ʿAlī Afrāshtah, Lutī [The rouge], Shabchirāgh [The worldseeing lamp], Nūshkhand [The smirk], Dād va Bīdād [Justice and injustice], and Ḥājī Bābā, an unaffiliated journal resembling Bābā Shamal published by Parvīz Khatībī. Among these journals, the most successful were Ḥājī Bābā, Bābā Shamal, and Tawfīq. Ḥājī Bābā, of which 174 issues were published in a period of three years and a few months during the nationalization of the oil industry, was anti British. As a result, it was banned after the 1953 coup that toppled Muṣaddiqʾs government. Bābā Shamal, with its interesting cartoons, concentrated on political satire in the form of verses and topical interviews. Tawfīq, on the other hand, concentrated on political satire that had serious political overtones. Tawfīq, which had survived since 1927, ceased publication in early However, some of its contributors managed to continue their work by publishing the weekly Kārīkātūr [Caricature] in Another journal, Khandah [Laughter], survived the last years of the Muḥammad Riẕā Shāhʾs reign ( ) when the government had gradually dominated the press and virtually no criticism would be tolerated. After the 1953 coup, such journals as Taraqqī [Progress], edited by Luṭf Allāh Taraqqī, Sipīd va Siyāh [White and Black] ( RR5 (cage); UC holding: 1958), Tihrān i Muṣavvar [The Illustrated Tehran] ( RR5 (cage); UC holding: ), and Firdawsī ( microfm. JRL 505; UC holding: ), had gained popularity, especially the column called Kashkīyāt [Nonsensical talk], written by Manūchihr Maḥjūbī, in Tihrān i Muṣavvar, later replaced by another column called Fuẕūl Āghāsī [The arch meddler], written by Nāṣir Khudāyār, in the same paper, and the column called Anqarīb [In no time], written by Īraj Pizishkzād for the journal Firdawsī. The two major daily newspapers during the Shahʾs time were Kayhān [The world] ( microfm. JRL 505; UC holding: ), and Iṭṭilāʿāt [Information] (AN microfm. 2nd flr; UC holding: 1926 ), which both carefully avoided criticizing government policies and touchy political issues. Both Kayhān and Iṭṭilāʿāt have remained major daily newspapers after the 1979 Revolution, and the Islamic government has complete control over them. Before the 1979 Revolution, there were two popular journals for women: Zan i Rūz and Iṭṭilāʿāt i Bānuvān. Zan i Rūz ( microfm. JRL 505; UC holding: ) has been able to continue publication after the Revolution under a different editor, and its views on women reflect those of the Islamic Republic. Besides Zan i Rūz, there have been two other journals produced for women since the 1979 Revolution: Zanān (HQ A1Z27 Gen; UC holding: 1992 ), edited by Shahlā Shirkat, and Farzānah ( RR5 (cage); UC holding: 1993 ), a bilingual (Persian English) journal devoted to the field of womenʾs studies and edited by Maḥbūbah Ummī. For a short period of time, relative freedom was given to the press in Iran after the 1979 Revolution. A significant number of newspapers began publication. By June 1979, the number of periodicals of various political tendencies had risen to 222, of which 167 were newspapers and 55 were journals. The figure is very impressive although it includes periodicals printed and published outside Iran as well. The short period of the relative freedom of the press did not last very long, and two daily newspapers, Āyandigān ( microfm. JRL 505; UC holding: ), and Payghām i Imrūz ( microfm. JRL 505; UC holding: , 1979), were closed down. In the same month, 22 more newspapers and magazines were shut down. However, the Islamic regime had not been able to gain complete control over the press until the seizure of the American Embassy in Tehran in November 1979 when a large number of newspapers and magazines were forced to close and their editors were exiled.