The Routledge Intermediate. Routledge modern language readers. Reader. Turkish. Political and Cultural Articles. Şenel Symons

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1 Routledge modern language readers The Routledge Intermediate Turkish Reader Political and Cultural Articles Şenel Symons

2 The Routledge Intermediate Turkish Reader The Routledge Intermediate Turkish Reader has been specially designed for intermediate and advanced learners ofturkish and comprises a broad selection of graded readings. Written by prominent Turkish academics and journalists, the collection of modem texts presented here has been carefully selected to ensure students receive maximum exposure to current political and cultural issues related to Turkey: from gender, ethnicity, religion and social class through to arts and history. Each reading is fully supported by: an introduction written by a prominent academic or journalist in the related field a vocabulary list with English translation and vocabulary in context short grammar explanations of any difficult structures encountered in the te>..t text-related comprehension questions, language exercises and subject specific questions to generate class discussion and essay writing in Turkish a key to comprehension questions and language exercises a list of suggested further reading (online support). Suitable for both class use and independent study, The Routledge Intermediate Turkish Reader is an essential tool for increasing language proficiency and enriching learners' socio-cultural knowledge of Turkey. ~enel Symons is a specialist on sociolinguistics and has been teaching Turkish at the University of Oxford, UK, since 2004.

3 ROUTLEDGE MODERN LANCiUACiE READERS Series Editor: ltesh Sachdev Routledge Modern Language Readers provide the intermediate language learner with a selection of readings which give a broad representation of modem writing in the target language. Each reader contains approximately 20 readings graded in order of difficulty to allow the learner to grow with the book and to acquire the necessary skills to continue reading independently. Suitable for both class use and independent study, Routledge Modern Language Readers are an essential tool for increasing language proficiency and reading comprehension skills. Forthcoming: Arabic Chinese Dutch Hindi Japanese Polish

4 The Routledge Intermediate Turkish Reader Political and Cultural Articles ~enel Symons 1 Routledge \. ~&.Fnlnc:lsCiroup LONDON AND NEW YORK

5 First published 20IZ by Routledge 2 Park Square, Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxen OXr4 4RN Simultaneously published in the USA and Canada by Routledge 711 Third Avenue, New York, NY Rou* is an imprint of the Ta}'lor 11{ Frarn:is Group, an informa business <t} 2012 ~enel Symons The right of ~enel Symons to be identified as author of this work has been asserted by her in accordance with sections 77 and 78 of the Copyright, Designs and Patents Actr988. All righm reserved No part of this book may be reprinted or reproduced or utilized in any form or by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying and recording, or in any informati.on storage or retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publishers. Trademark noj;ice: Product or corporate names may be trademarks or registered trademarks, and are used only for identification and explanation without intent to infringe. BritisJJ Library Cataloguing in Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British library LibmT) of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data A catalog record for this book has been requested ISBN: r6-6 (hbk) ISBN: r7 3 (pbk) ISBN: (ebk) Typeset in Scala by Graphicraft limited, Hong Kong

6 This book is dedicated to David and River

7

8 Contents Acknowledgements viii Introduction I I Gender and education in Turkey 3 2 The social construction of men in Turkey 9 3 The problematic headscarf in Turkey I6 4 The concept of happiness in Turkey 23 5 The politics of water in Turkey 29 6 The new Turkish penal code 38 7 Sexual honour in Turkey 45 8 The multiculturalism of Turks throughout history 52 9 Orhan Pamuk's contribution to the literary world 62 IO The Turkish military's political role 69 II Turkey and the Middle East 77 I2 Economic sustainability in Turkey and in the world 84 I3 The Kurdish question in Turkey 9I I4 Nationalism in Turkey 99 I5 Turkish cinema and politics Io8 I6 Arabesk music in Turkey n8 I7 Recent relations between the EU and Turkey I29 I8 The Turkish left and Kemalism I38 I9 Turkish perceptions of 'the West' I48 Key to exercises Index I6I I83

9 Acknowledgements I would like, first of all, to thank my husband David for his generous support, which was vital throughout this project. Most of all, I am grateful to my one-year-old son, River, who has been extremely patient with me while I have been working on this book. I promise to buy him broccoli (his favourite food) with the money I earn from this book. It has been a great pleasure to work with Andrea Hartill, the Senior Commissioning Editor for Language Learning at Routledge. She has always been friendly, positive and encouraging. I would also like to thank Samantha Vale Noya at Routledge for her friendly support in this project and my students Ross McQueen, Paulina Dominik and Anya Todd for giving me feedback on vocabulary and the ranking of the texts. Finally, I would like to thank all the contributors: Fatma Gok, Bogazi9- University; Selin Akyiiz-~a maz, Bilkent University; Dilek Cindoglu, Bilkent University; Yrldtz Silier, Bogazi9- University; Ay egiil Kibaroglu, Middle East Technical University; Fatih Selami Mahmutoglu, istanbul University; Oya Pancaroglu, Bogazi9- University; Meliz Ergin, Kos: University; Omit Cizre, Bilkent University; Ozlem Tiir, Middle East Technical University; Ay e Uyduranoglu, Bilgi University; Zeynep Gambetti, Bogazi~i University; E. Fuat Keyman, Ko~ University; Can Diindar; Martin Stokes, Oxford University; Saime O~riimez, Bilkent University; Cemil Ko~, Sabana University; Kiir ad Ertugrul, Middle East Technical University and the newspapers Radikal, Cumhuriyet, Milliyet, Yeni $afak, Zaman and Stargazete for granting permission to publish the articles in Turkish. Every effort has been made to contact copyright holders. If any have been inadvertently overlooked the publishers will be pleased to make the necessary arrangements at the first opportunity.

10 Introduction The Routledge Intermediate Turkish Reader has been designed to introduce readers to significant articles of contemporary political and cultural issues on Turkey which will facilitate their comprehension of Turkish, develop their linguistic skills and familiarize them with the social context. In view of this, my intention has been to collect samples to paint a representative picture of contemporary discussions of prominent problems. In other words, I aimed to cover a wide political spectrum of a highly controversial nature which mirrors the inflammatory nature of Turkish politics. I am well aware that some pieces in this reader might cause considerable offence, but I do think that it is useful to study the social and political prejudices in a country in order to understand the social context better. I would like to reassure the readers of this book that the views expressed in some pieces do not reflect my personal approach or that of the publishers. Users of the Routledge Intermediate Turkish Reader will be able to think about the theme of the reading passages, understand the meanings of vocabulary items in a specific context, and extract the main ideas of the text and understand them in the Turkish political and cultural context They will also improve their linguistic skills in Turkish by doing language exercises, recognizing and repeating grammar points that they have already covered, and consolidating and reflecting upon what they have read by writing a summary. Moreover, they will be able to search for general and specific information by doing further reading, and activate their linguistic skills by having a discussion on the topic and writing an essay on a related theme. Since 2004, prior to and during the preparation of the Routledge Intermediate Turkish Reader, some of the articles included have been used in my classes at the University of Oxford. In the light of my classroom experience, I have arranged the selections in order of difficulty, taking into account my students' individual assessments. The selections consist of articles by distinguished Turkish academics and columnists that appeared in the Turkish press between 2004 and The articles in Turkish are as they appeared in the original sources except for some shortening, which is indicated thus: (... ).Each article is preceded by an introduction in English written by an expert in the related field and is followed by some notes on political and cultural issues, people and historical events which are mentioned in the article. These will help the user work through the text without the guidance of a teacher. An index is also provided at the end of the book to assist the student. Each of the individual selections is provided with its own vocabulary list. In order to avoid merely passive knowledge of words, this reader provides usages in sample sentences. The English translations of the Turkish idioms and words have been restricted to the meaning

11 2 Introduction required by the context in order to avoid confusion. This book presupposes a good knowledge of the grammatical niles of modem Turkish. For this reason, the selections are accompanied by only brief notes on grammar points of potential difficulty. I have added grammatical notes on points where my students encountered problems or raised questions. The comprehension questions and tmejfalse exercises have been designed to make the meaning of the Turkish text as clear as possible and there is a key to the exercises which is especially for the benefit of those using the book without a teacher. The exercises have been designed to fill two separate one-hour teaching sessions and include some out-of-class activity between the sessions. Since the student might wish to have some guidance as to the best use of this reader, I would suggest that after reading the introduction in English, he or she tries to read through the Turkish text, concentrating his or her attention on its context in order to guess intelligently what the meaning is. A word-for-word translation will hinder comprehension of the content In order to develop good reading habits, I recommend avoiding writing out the fi.ill English translation of the whole text. As the second step, the student may wish to highlight any vocabulary or key concepts of political and cultural issues that are unfamiliar and go through the notes, vocabulary and grammar points provided, finally working on the comprehension exercises as a preclass activity. As a warm-up in class, the teacher may wish to discuss (in Turkish or in English) what the students have understood from the English introduction. During the actual class stage, the teacher may wish to take the following steps. Provide a brief e>..-planation (in Turkish) of the key concepts mentioned in the Turkish text. Elaborate on vocabulary and grammar taken directly from the text which are still potentially unfamiliar and difficult for students. Ask students to construct their own sentences using some potentially unknown or difficult words or idiomatic expressions from the list If the students fail to arrive at the correct meanings and usages, lexical items and idiomatic phrases can be explicitly taught by the teacher. Ask students to answer comprehension questions (in Turkish) in turn while asking the other classmates to decide whether the answers given are correct. The teacher interferes only when there is a need for assistance. As an online activity, ask students to fill in incomplete sentences in order to test idioms and words. (By purchasing this book you will have access to the Routledge online support for Turkish. You may also wish to do these exercises offline by using the printouts.) Ask students to write a very short summary of the text (in Turkish) including the general gist and the main points of the text and to reading it aloud. As a postclass activity, the teacher may wish the students to read from the further reading list provided on the Routledge online support for Turkish, writing an essay in Turkish and preparing for a class discussion the following week.

12 Chapter 1: Gender and education in Turkey Fatma Gok, Bogazifi University Women face multifaceted discrimination within the education system in Turkey. The roots of this discrimination lie in a patriarchal and male-dominared social sysrem which normalizes and legitimizes this discrimination and presents it as natural and inevitable. The patriarchal social system rests upon the class inequality of capitalism and acts in concert with its eoonomic and cultural processes. Discrimination against women in the educational system starts very early. Although eight years of primary education are compu]sory in Turkey, women access primary education less than men. Considering the whole female population, only 37.2 per cent finish primary school, 7 4 per cent secondary school and ro.6 per cent high school or its equivalent. A mere 3 9 per cent graduate from a higher education institution. By increasing the mandatory level of education to eight years in I997 more women have begun to receive education which in effect also means that more women have started to earn an independent income. But dialectics has taught us that it also means that they become part of the exploited capitalist workforce. In order to understand fully the relationship between women and education one must see more than simple discrimination in terms of quantity, and develop an approach that deals with the social functions of education from the woman's perspective and examines the effects of a patriarchal society. Important issues such as sensitivity towards the oondition of women, the quality and oontent of education, the ways of 'transmitting this content by teachers, the school culture and climate and the structure of educational institutions must be examined with this kind of approach. Although schools exist within a male-dominated society, they have a certain degree of autonomy. They are crucial because they can play an important role in the process of social transformation and establishment of a more equal educational system which promotes social justice. While generally schools reproduce inequality along class, sex and race lines, they are distinct from other major social institutions, such as workplaces, in that they are inherently rrruch less hierarchical and much more participative. Among students and teachers, the female-male ratio tends to be more equal than in other social institutions. Because schools transmit and produce knowledge, they can be independent of the economic process, and have the potential to promote critical hearts and minds. We need to reoognize the potential power of education, without expecting it to transform the whole of society. Turkey offers a unique example regarding the emancipation of women at the beginning of the Turkish Republic. Women's participation in all levels of education was an importantoomponent within Turkish modernization. The Kemalist reforms successfully attempted to emancipate women through decrees from above and this can be witnessed in the changes to the law that granted equal rights to women and various reforms in many areas including dress and participation in social and political life. While many researchers have delved into this topic there is still a serious gap within the literature. There is a need for more empirical studies of the ooncrete processes and institutions through which this modernized image of women was imposed on Turkish women, and related gender hierarchies were established.

13 4 Gender and education Egitimde Ayr1ma Son* Egitim-Sen, egitimde kadm-erkek e itliginin saglanmasr amacryla 'Cinsiyet aynmcrhgma hayrr' kampanyasr ba latb.. Bu ~er~evede, imza kampanyasr diizenleyecek olan sendika, pilot okullarda egitim de verecek. Egitim-Sen Merkez Kadm Sekreteri Elif Akgiil, diin sendika genel merkezinde diizenledigi basm toplantrsmda, ozellikle alt gelir grubundaki kadmlarm ve krz ~ocuklarmm egitimden faydalanmasmm zorla trgmr savundu. Tiirkiye'deki 7 5 milyon okumayazma bilmeyen ki iden 6 milyonunun kadm olduguna dikkat ~eken Akgiil, bu yrl 6oo bin kiz ~ocugunun okula kayrt yaptrrmadrgmr soyledi. Akgiin, e itsizligi artrran faktorler arasmda egitimin i~erigi, egitim ortamlan ve ogretmen tutumlarr gibi faktorlerin de yer aldrgrm vurguladr. Egitimdeki cinsiyet aynmcrhgmm, 'toplumdaki cinsiyet~ i boliimiinii peki tirdigini, kadrnlann i giiciine eksik katrhmma ya da belli sektorlerde yogunla masma' yol a~rm ifade eden Elif Akgiil, sorunun a dmasr i~ kampanya ile ongordiikleri hedefleri oyle srraladr: Bakanhgm egitim sistemindeki cinsiyet e itsizligi takip edilmeli. K1Z ~ocuklarr ve kadmlarm egitim hakkmr kullanmalan yoniindeki destek ve te Vik politikalarr siirekli olmah. Egitimin her diizeyinde ve i~eriginde, ders kitaplan ve materyalleri cinsiyet~ikten armdmlmah. Akgiil, egitim sektoriinde ~h an kadm oramnm yiizde 44, yoneticilik yapan kadmlarm oranmmsa yiizde 3' oldugunu da soyledi. Egi.tim-Sen is a trade union of teachers and other education workers in Turkey and a member of the Confederation of Public Employees Trade Unions (KESK Kamu Eme~eri Sendikalarr Konfederasyonu) and Education International. ann(dtr)mak purify Cl mak overcome aynmcrbk discrimination cinsiyet aynmaltgl gender discrimination dikkat ~ekmek attract attention, call attention to, point out Tiirkiye'de siyaset, askeri etkilerden anndmlmak isteniyor. Gii~ii bir insanm en onemli ozelligi, kar da trgr zorluklan Cl abilmek i~n ortaya koydugu kararhhk ve ~abadrr. Toplantrda, farkh etnik kokenden olanlarm aynmcrbga ugradrgr sonucuna ula ddr. Kiiresel cinsiyet aynmcrhg. endeksinde, Tiirkiye, ne yazrk ki, iist srralarda yer ahyor. ~vre orgiitleri, su kaynaklannm azaldrgma dikkat ~ekti.

14 Gender and education 5 efitsizlik inequality ifade etmek say, express, state ifboliimii division of labour imficii workforce ongonnek envisage, project oran rate, percmtage ortam environment pekiftinnek reinforc.e, strengthen, intensify saglamak provide savunmak assert sendika trade union takipetmek keep track of tefvik encouragement Kiireselle me siirecinin getirdi.gi serbest rekabet, efitsizligi artt.rmr tlr. Etnik ~tl ma anamas1 i9fl ellerinden gelen her eyi yaptrklan:m ifade eden bakan, onfuniizdeki donemin olduk~ hassas olacagmr soyledi. ifboliimii, bir toplumdaki degi ik gorev ve hizmetlerin, toplumun i.lyeleri arasmda kar rhkh ah veri ili ki.leri i~:;inde boliinmesi siirecine verilen add1r. Dar bir alanda uzmanla ma, i in niteliksiz ve yan nitelikli ifgiicti tarafmdan yaplimasma olanak tamrm, nitelikli i giici.lne olan ba~mllirk azalrm tlr. Yiiksek Ogrenim Kredi ve Yurtlar Kurumu, kredi verilmesi ongoriilen ogrencilerin listesini Milli Egitim Bakanh~'na iletti. Tiirkiye genelinde, Avrupa Birligi'ne katlimayr destekleyenlerin oraru% 40'111~ altma diiftii. Ogretim ortamlan ifadesi, sadece slillf ortam1 olarak anla lisa da, bir okulda ger~ekl~ilen her tiirlii egitim-ogretim etkinli.gini de i~ennektedir. Cinsiyet9- klcyelere meyclan okuyan degil, onlan peki ren bir karar bu. Spor yapma olanagmm, bir insan hakkr olarak, engelli vatanda lara saglanmas1 gerekmektedir. Kiirtajm temel bir kadm hakkr oldugunu savunanlar ile yasaklanmasr gerekti.gini di.i iinenler arasmdaki ~tl ma, daha uzun zaman siirecege benziyor. ideal bir diinyada, sendikalar, hic;:bir aynm gozetmeksizin, tiim i ~ilerin ortak orgiitleri olmalrdrr. Srkryonetim siiresince, 1..-urallann uygulanmasr dikkatle takip edilerek, bunlara uymayanlara kar I sert yaptlnmlar uygulandr. Teroriin online ge~ebilmek i~i11, bu yoksul bolgeye yonelik yatrnm tqviklerinin siirekliligi gerekmektedir.

15 6 Gender and education tutum attitude yogunla mak focus, concentrate yol a~ak cause, lead to yanftnde towards Gen~erin su~ i leme oranlannda, anne babalannm evdeki tutumlan, en belirleyici etken olarak ort.aya ~yor. Hiikiimetimiz, sorunlann ban 9l yollarla ~oziimii iizerine yogunlapcakbr. Bir makalede, yabancr sozciiklerin srkhkla kullamlmasr, anlatrm bozukluguna yol ~- Birle mi Milletler, sava tan sonra, yeni hiikiimetin kurulmasr yoniindeki ~balannr artrrdr. 1 Exercise 1 Match the expressions in the left column with their definitions in the right column. I anndrrmak a) iiretim siirecinde herhangi bir i e katrlan insan emeginin biitiinii aynmcrhk b) i boliimii c) i giicii d) ongormek e) furklr cinsiyet, dil, din, rrk, etnik koken, toplumsal smll, ya grbi nedenlerle insanlan bilin~i olarak dr lamayr ~yan bir yakla Im ileride olmasr isteneni goz oniinde tutmak ve onceden kararla tlrmak iz kalmayacak bi9ffide tamamen ortadan kalkmasmr saglamak bir i in yaprlmasmda sonu~lan verimli krlmak amacryla ki ilerin bilgi ve yeteneklerine gore gorev payla Iml 'Akgiil, egitim sektoriinde ~I an kadm oranmm yiizde 44, yoneticilik yapan kadrnlann oranmmsa yiizde 3 oldugunu da soyledi.' The clitic -(y)sa (ise) in oranmmsa indicates a contrast with what has been said in the previous clause and also signals that the speaker wishes to draw attention to the statement that is about to be made. It translates as 'whereas'. Example: Annem ~ok kat1 bir insand1, babamsa yumu,aclk. My mother was a strict person, whereas my father was a soft touch. 1 Exercise 2 Part A Are the following sentences true (1) or false (F) according to the content of the text? Please correct them if necessary.

16 Gender and education 7 I Y azrya gore, egitimde cinsiyet aynmcrhgr konusunda, smifsalhk olgusu, onemli bir rol oynamaktadrr. 2 Egitim-Sen tarafmdan, okullarda verilmekte olan toplumsal cinsiyet3 dersleri, "cinsiyet aynmcrlrgma hayrr" kampanyasmm bir par~srdrr. 3 Egitimin i~erigi, verildigi ortamlar ve ogretmenlerin cinsiyet9 tutumlan, e itsizligi artrran etkenler arasmdadrr. 4 Egitim-Sen, laz ~ocuklan ve kadmlann, egitim haklan konusunda, yeterince bilin~lendirilmediklerini ileri siiriiyor. 5 Prestijli makamlar soz konusu olunca, kadmlar, toplumsal goriiniirliiklerini yitiriyor. PartB Please answer the following questions. I Kadmlann [iicretli]4 i giiciine yetersiz kanhmr, metinde hangi gerek~eye dayandmhyor? 2 Par~da, Tiirkiye toplumundaki cinsiyet9 i boliimiiniin ortadan kaldmlabilmesi i9n, ne yapilmasr gerektigi iizerinde duruluyor? 3 Egitim-Sen, Milli Egitim Bakanhgr'nm egitim sistemine ili kin benimsedigi cinsiyet politikasmr nasd degerlendiriyor? 4 Egitim-Sen, ders kitaplarma yonelik nasil bir ele tiride bulunuyor? 5 Y azmm i~erigine dayanarak, egitim sektoriinde, kadm yonetici sayrsmm yiizde ~le smrrh olu U nasd yorumlanabilir? I Exercise 3 This exercise contains extracts taken from the article you have worked on. Match the sentence halves and then rewrite them in your own words in Turkish. I Egitim-Sen, egitimde kadm-erkek e itliginin 2 Egitim-Sen Merkez Kadm Sekreteri (... ), ozellikle alt gelir grubundaki kadmlarm ve laz ~ocuklannm 3 Tiirkiye'deki 7 5 milyon okumayazma bilmeyen ki iden 6 milyonunun kadm olduguna 4 Akgiin, e itsizligi artrran faktorler arasmda egitimin i~erigi, egitim ortamlan ve ogretmen tutumlan gibi faktorlerin de 5 KI.z ~ocuklan ve kadmlann egitim hakkmr kullanmalan a) yoniindeki destek ve te Vik politikalan siirekli olmalr. b) egitimden faydalanmasmm zorla Ugmr savundu. c) yer aldrgmr vurguladr. d) dikkat ~eken Akgiil, bu yrl 6oo bin laz ~ocugunun okula kayrt yaptlrmadrgml soyledi. e) saglanmasr amacryla 'Cinsiyet aynmcilrgma hayrr' kampanyasr ba lattl.

17 8 Gender and education I Exercise 4 Write a summary of the Turkish text you have read, including the following key concepts in your summary: okumayazma oran1 ve toplumsal cinsiyet kadm-erkek e~itligi egitimde cinsiyet aynmc1llg1 cinsiyets;i i~bolumu s;al1~an kadm oran1 toplumsal cinsiyet olgusunun kariyer uzerinde etkisi I Exercises How much do you agree with the statements below? Rate your opinion for each statement using the given scale. Talk about the statements in Turkish, say why you agree or disagree with them and compare your ideas with your classmates. I disagree I I 4 I 5 I I agree a) Yeterli sayrda anaokulu ac;llarak ve en az iki yrl iicretli annelik izni verilerek, ~I an kadmlara kariyerlerinde ilerleme olanag1 tanmmahdrr. b) Egitim ve kariyer hrrs1 yiiziinden, kadmlarm birincil i levi olan annelik gorevini aksatmalarma izin verilmemelidir. 1 Exercise 6 Choose a Turkish newspaper article, a Turkish television programme or a Turkish radio programme of interest to you and which is related to the topic you have worked on in this chapter. Report on your selection in Turkish to your classmates. I Exercise 7 Write an essay dealing with the subject described below and discuss its content in class. Turkiye'de, egitimde firsat e~itligi baglammda, toplumsal cinsiyet nas1l bir rol oynamaktadlr? Turkiye baglamml ya~adlglniz ulkedeki durumla kar~lla~tlrlniz. Notes * Radikal, Ig : Jwww.radikal.com.tr Jhaber.php?habemo= I 3% is written %3 in Turkish. 2 'at the rate/proportion of 40 per cent'. 3 'gender'. 4 'paid work in the public sector'.

18 Chapter 2: The social construction of men in Turkey Selin Akyilz-$a~maz, Bilkent University Westernization in the Turkish context has been generally analysed in the light of the delicate balance between traditional and modem. Turkey's adoption of Western norms, styles, and institutions in many areas of social, cultural and political life during the Early Republican period has been criticized. The formation ofturkey as a nation-state was considered a nation-building and a social engineering project and the reconstruction of identities was a crucial part of it. The new citizens of the Republic were 'gendered' by the state through reforms. Although women have been the subject of several studies on the effects of modernization reforms on identities in Turkey, men have remained the hidden side of the coin. It is significant 1D revisit Turkish modernization history with reference to the construction of masculinities. In the late Ottoman period, the Empire weakened in terms of military strength and economic wealth. The Tanzimat reform era ( ) was a turning point as the reforms were not limited 1D economic, militaristic, and institutional fields. The era was characterized by a:t:rempts to emancipate gendered identities from the existing order. The 'dandy' of the era can be considered a departure from sober Ottnman masculinity and also a threat to Ottoman communitarian conservatism.' The image of the dandy was characterized by aesthetic sensitivity and hyper-fashionability and the dandy was presented as the embodiment of modem decadence. Dandies imitated their Western counterparts, but their identity was defined within the boundaries of dichotomies such as traditionalfmodem or alafrankajalaturca." Following this period, the First World War and especially the War of Independence that marked the collapse of the Ottnman Empire as well as the establishment of the new Republic restored the dandies' lost prestige by rendering their de-masculinized bodies into soldiers. The dissolution of the Empire signified the loss of the absolute father, the sultan; and also the birth of an iconic father, Mustafa Kemal Atatiirk.3 Throughout the Keinalist modernization project, men were the cultural ideal charged with the task of modernizing women and society as well as the duty of providing welfare. The borders of how new women of the Republic would exist in society were drawn by Keinalist fathers. Changing the dress code was one of the first reforms as it signified the visibility of the new men. The law on clothing (1925) suggested wearing a hat and a tie and it symbolized the disengagement from traditional masculinity and, also, loyalty to the newly formed Republic. In addition, having a healthy masculine body as the bearer of national reforms was also among the expectations of the modem Turkish man. As the culture of nationalism has been constructed to emphasize masculine themes such as honour, patriotism, bravery and duty, the revolutionist men of the Republic would have 1D demonstrate that they were the protectors of society. Furthermore, balls and theatres were considered symbols of modem daily life.

19 10 The social construction of men Modernity has always been a reference point for the construction of masculinities in Turkey, but militarism is also constitutive. Militarism is a multifaceted network highlighting metaphors and symbols that provide a sense of manliness. The internalized understanding of 'every (male) Turk is a born soldier' is the illustration of a historically constructed reality. Going to the army and being soldiers are markers ofbeing real men in Turkish culture. The Mehm~i.k'l is idolized even if he does not die for the country. In twenty-first-century Turkey, related to widespread social changes and the effects of globalization, the boundaries of masculinity are being defined by multiplicities of identities. Although some stereotypes ofturkish masculinity such as kabada}'l, namely 'tough uncle', and Mehmet~ik as the protector of social order have been ossified in popular culture, Turkish society itself fabricates new forms of masculinities through its interaction with global images and identities. Class, ethnicity and most importantly religion have also been integrated as determining dynamics into the construction of masculinities. The power interplay between hegemonic masculinity and other masculinities has arisen on a shifting ground shaped by the heritages of Turkish culture, and currently, secularistflslamist cleavages. Muas1r Medeniyet ve Erkek Bedeni* Festen apkaya, b1ylictan sakala, tak1m elbiseden blucine, siyah ve lacivertten krrmlzi ve pembeye, ciddiyetten dogalhga, muhafazalclrhktan ozgiir dii iinceye... Tiirk erkeginin 81 yilhk modernle me projesi... 'Modern olmak' dilimizden dii llieyen bir kavram; 1923'ten bu yana sahip olmak istedigimiz kimlik. Gens: Cumhuriyet'in hedefi de 's:agda uygarhk seviyesini' yakalamaktr. Bu nedenle medenile me siireci, toplumsal ya amm tiim ayrmtrlanm kaps1yor, Bati'ya her alanda ozeniliyordu. Medenile me siirecinde sadece kadm bedenleri degil, erkek bedenleri de ba tan ayaga kadar tasarland1. Giyim ku amdan adab-1 mua eret kurallarma kadar her ey, alfabe ogretilir gibi ogretildi. Cumhuriyet'in kurucusu Mustafa Kemal, tiim milletin oniinde olmas1 istenen Batrh (modern) erkek modelinin ta kendisiydi. Gens: Cumhuriyet'in tasarladigi erkek, giyim ku ammdan oturup kalkmasma kadar Batih bir erkek. Medeni bir erkek, ciddi, mesafeli, her zaman kontrollii olmal1. Fes kaldmlmi, b1yikh erkek saytsi azalmi. Donemin modasma uygun tak1m elbise giymek, kravat takmak adeta zorunluluk. ~apka ise kiyafetin tamamlaytcisi. Her biri ciddiyet timsali. (... ) Derken Tarkan s:li<iyor ortaya. Oynama ~Ila.drm ~Ihd1m'la dans eden, viicudunu comert:s:e sergileyen, kiipe takan, istedigi gibi giyinen yeni bir erkek modeli Tarkan. Her renkten erkegin idolii artrk. 2ooo'lere gelince; kimi Tarkanvari, yani enerjik, ozgiir, s:ok renkli; kimi Alacakaranhk'm Komiser Ferit'i (Kenan imirzahoglu5) gibi mas:o ve geleneklere bagh. (... ) K1sacas1 tek tip donemi kapandi, s:ok s:e itlilik doneme damgasm1 vuruyor. Fes: The fez is a brimless cap which originated in Morocco. It appeared for the first time in the Ottoman Empire, and was worn by members of the army. It was soon adopted by Turks and was worn by many different religious and ethnic groups in the Ottoman Empire during the nineteenth century. Under the Ottoman Sultan Mahmud II (18o8-39), the fez replaced the turban and was seen as a symbol of change and modernity. Wearing the fez was banned in the early republican years.

20 The social construction of men 11 Sapka: A felt hat, which was viewed as symbolizing the modem and Western world, 6 especially in the early years of the Turkish Republic. 1923: The foundation of the Turkish Republic on 29 October with Mustafa Kemal as its first president and ismet (inonii) as its first prime minister, and with Ankara as its capital city. This put an end to the existence of the Ottoman Empire. ~agda Uygarbk Seviyesi: When the new republic was founded, Mustafa Kemal Atatiirk included the aim of reaching the highest level in terms of civilizational achievements, 'the level of contemporary civilization', as one of the leading principles and important targets for the Turkish Republic. Mustafa Kemal Atltiirk was the founder and first president of modem Turkey. He fought for the Ottoman Empire in the First World War, achieving great success against the Allied forces during the Dardanelles Campaign. After the Allied victory, British, French, and Italian troops were sent to Anatolia and appointed to restore order there. Mustafa Kemal incited the people against the Allied occupation, he overcame all other opposition, and the Republic ofturkey was established in He was given the name Atatiirk ('Father of the Turks') in His policies were based upon Westernization and secularization. Tarkan (Hiisamettin Tarkan Tevetoglu) is a Turkish pop singer who was born in Germany in 1972 and was raised in Turkey. Tarkan uses sexual and romantic themes in his work and has been nicknamed the 'Prince of Pop' by the media. Oynama Sdo.dtm Sllochm: This is the repeated section of the popular song 'A-acayipsin' from the second music album oftarkan which he released in 1994 with the same title as this song. adab-1 mtta eret etiquette adetl nearly alacakaranbk daybreak, dawn ba tln ayaga kadar from head to toe bed en body ciddiyet timsali seriousness personified, definition of seriousness Kimilerine gore, 'adab-1 mua eret', toplumsal hayata diizen getiren gorgii kurallan olarak, her devirde onemini koruyacaktrr. (old usage) Milletvekili, yalanlan yiiziine vurulunca, adeta dut yemi biilbiile dondii.' Alacakaranbk, giine dogmadan once beliren ya da batllktan sonra ortaya 9-kan, yan aydmhk hava durumuna denmektedir. Amcamm e i, ha tan ayaga kadar biitiin giyim ve siis e Yalarmt, sosyete markalanndan ses:meye ozen gosterir. Bebeklere, yaz giinlerinde bedenlerini serinletmek i9tl elma kabugu kaynatlp i9-rilirmi. Yazarm biiyiikbabast, emekli bir hakim olan, ciddiyet timsali Latif Bey'dir.

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