Metin türleri ve çeviri yöntemleri. Tümce ve metin analizi çalışmaları. Çeviri sorunlarını örnekleyen metinler.

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1 Ġngilizce-Türkçe Genel Çeviri 2 İçindekiler Metin türleri ve çeviri yöntemleri. Tümce ve metin analizi çalışmaları. Çeviri sorunlarını örnekleyen metinler. Çeviri sınavları için öneriler. Çeviri sınavında başarı alıştırmaları. Genel Çeviri 1 kitabıyla, eşsiz bir kaynak. Hakan Gür Yazar ÖĞRENCĠ KĠTABI ii

2 GENEL ÇEVİRİ KİTAPLARININ KULLANIMINA İLİŞKİN KURALLAR Genel Çeviri 1 ve Genel Çeviri 2 olarak derlenerek internet ortamına yerleştirilen PDF dosyalarının kullanımı aşağıdaki koşullara bağlıdır: 1. Genel Çeviri 1 ve Genel Çeviri 2 dosyalarının içeriği dosyaların içinde ve dildersleri.gen.tr sitesinde Genel Çeviri 1 ve Genel Çeviri 2 için verilen bağlantılar altında mevcuttur. Kullanım koşulları bu dosyaların her ikisini de kapsamaktadır. 2. Kullanıcı olarak, söz konusu dosyaları ticari amaçla olmamak koşuluyla kendi bilgisayarına kaydedebilir, bu dosyaları kopyalayabilir, başkalarına iletebilir, sayfalarda yer alan Hakan Gür - dildersleri.gen.tr ibaresini silmemek ve değiştirmemek koşuluyla dosyaların içeriğinde düzeltme ve düzenlemeler yapabilirsiniz. Burada sözü edilen "ticari" kavramı ile Genel Çeviri 1 ve Genel Çeviri 2 kitaplarının özgün biçimleri ya da değiştirilmiş biçimleriyle iletilmesi, çoğaltılması ve/veya kullanılmasının öncesinde ya da sonrasında ücret talep edilmesi, kitapların satılması kastedilmektedir. Kitapların kişi ya da kurumlar tarafından ücretsiz olarak öğrencilere verilmesi ve sonucunda kurumsal (okul, üniversite, dershane ve benzerleri) ya da kişisel temelli (özel ders gibi) çeviri öğretim ortamlarında kullanılması serbesttir. 3. Kuralların erişilebilir olması için çeşitli önlemler alınmıştır; buna göre: a) bu kurallar dosyaların özgün biçimlerinin kullanıma sunulduğu internet sayfalarında yer almakta, b) dosyaların sayfalarının üst bölümünde yer alan Hakan Gür - dildersleri.gen.tr ibaresine eklenen bağlantı yoluyla kullanıcı bu kurallara yönlendirilmekte, c) her bir dosyanın girişinde kurallar ayrıca verilmektedir. Bu nedenle kullanıcı olarak dosyaları ister bu siteden ya da başka kaynaklardan edinmiş olun, bu kuralları okumuş ve kabul etmiş olmaktasınız. 4. Bu kurallar dosyalara ayrıca eklendiği için, dosyaların yer aldığı dildersleri.gen.tr sitesinin geçici ya da kalıcı olarak devre dışı kalması, siteye erişilememesi, sitenin adının değiştirilmesi gibi durumlarda da kurallar geçerliliğini koruyacaktır....:::::... Genel Çeviri 1 kitabı elinizde yoksa, dildersleri.gen.tr adresinden temin edebilirsiniz. ii

3 Yazar Giriş Kullanım notları Kısaltma ve simgeler iv v vi vi Konular 1: Çeviri ve çevirinin aşamaları 1 2: Metin türleri ve çeviri yöntemleri 6 3: Tümce analizi 13 4: Tümce analizi ve çevirisi 43 5: Metin analizi ve çevirisi 58 6: Çeviri sınavına hazırlık ve son düzeltmeler 219 7: Çeviri sınavlarında başarı 227 Noktalama imleri 233 Çeviriler 240 Yararlanılan kaynaklar 243 iii

4 Yazar Hakan Gür Ankara Üniversitesi DTCF İngiliz Dili ve Edebiyatı kürsüsünden mezun oldum. Türk- İngiliz Kültür Derneği, Bilkent Üniversitesi Hazırlık Bölümü ve Ankara Üniversitesi TÖMER'de İngilizce okutmanlığı yaptım. ODTÜ Yabancı Diller bölümünde yüksek lisans, Ankara Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Türkçenin Öğretimi ve Eğitimi Anabilim Dalı'nda da doktora çalışmamı tamamladım ve lisansüstü eğitim programında Türkçenin Yabancı Dil Olarak Öğretimi dersleri verdim. İmge, Dost ve Bilgi Yayınevleri için kitap çevirileri gerçekleştirdim; çevirmenlik yapmayı sürdürüyorum.. iv

5 Giriş Genel Çeviri 1 kitabının Giriş bölümünde, Genel Çeviri kitaplarının hazırlanmasında izlenen yaklaşım ayrıntılı olarak açıklanmakta. Modüler bir temele oturan bu yaklaşımın ilk üç modülüne ilişkin konular Genel Çeviri 1 kitabında ele alınmaktadır. ÇEVİRİ KURSU MODÜLÜN GENEL HEDEFLERİ Kitap SÖZLÜK KULLANIMI MODÜL 1 Çeviri için sözlük seçimi ve kullanımı 1 SÖZCÜK BİLGİSİ MODÜL 2 Bağlamdan yararlanarak anlamın tahmin edilmesi 1 İNGİLİZCE DİLBİLGİSİ MODÜL 3 İngilizce dilbilgisinin niteliklerinin anlaşılması 1 METİN ve ÇEVİRİ TÜRLERİ Metin türlerinin ve bunlara uygun MODÜL 4 çeviri yöntemlerinin tanınması 2 TÜMCE ANALİZİ MODÜL 5 Çeviri için tümce analizinin yapılması 2 METİN ANALİZİ MODÜL 6 Çeviri için metin analizinin yapılması 2 ÇEVİRİNİN KONTROLU MODÜL 7 Yapılan çevirinin son kez gözden geçirilmesi 2 SINAVLARA HAZIRLIK MODÜL 8 Çeviri sınavlarında sürenin kullanımı 2 Konular Yine birinci kitapta olduğu gibi, Genel Çeviri 2 kitabındaki her bir konuda Giriş, Sunu, İşleme, Üretme ve Sınama bölümleri bulunmakta. Beşinci konuda yeterince çeviri alıştırması yapabileceğiniz sayıda ve çeşitlilikte metin yer almakta. Bu metinlerin hemen hepsinin sonunda da Böylesi de var! başlığı altında, derlenmiş ilginç yazım hataları, tutarsızlık içeren ifadeler ve çeviri hatalarını bulabilirsiniz. Ele alınan sıralamanın izlenmesi durumunda, Genel Çeviri 2 kitabının çok yararlı bir çeviri malzemesi haline geleceğinden eminim. Hakan GÜR Almanya, 2010 v

6 Kullanım notları Genel Çeviri 2 kitabı, Genel Çeviri 1 kitabını işlemiş ve dolayısıyla İngilizce'nin temel dilbilgisini edinmiş çeviri öğrenenleri içindir. Ayrıca, bu kitabı kullanacak olanların sözlük kullanma becerisini edindikleri kabul edilmekte ve birinci kitapta sözlük ile ilgili öneriler mevcut olduğu için, bu kitapta bu konuya değinilmemektedir. Genel Çeviri 2 kitabının amacı, Genel Çeviri 1 kitabını kullanarak dilbilgisi ile ilgili sorunlarını büyük ölçüde çözmüş olan öğrenenin, çeviri esnasında karşılaşacağı diğer sorunları tanıtmak ve öneriler sunmaktır. Bunu yaparken de cümceden metne doğru aşamalı bir gelişme izlenmektedir. Kitap işlenirken bu sıranın izlenmesi, konu atlanmaması öngörülmüştür. Noktalama imlerinin İngilizce ve Türkçe'deki farklı kullanımları çeviri açısından kimi zaman sorun çıkarabilmekte. Bu nedenle, kitabın sonuna noktalama imleri ile ilgili notlar eklenmiştir. Kısaltma ve simgeler Genel Çeviri 2 kitabında kullanılan tüm kısaltma ve simgeler birer örnek ile birlikte aşağıda açıklanmaktadır. Simply stated, computational linguistics is no more than the use of electronic digital computers in linguistic research. These machines are employed to scan texts and to produce, more rapidly and more reliably than is possible without their aid, such reliable tools for linguistic and stylistic research as word lists, frequency counts, and concordances. But more interesting and theoretically much more difficult than the compilation of lists, is the use of computers for automatic grammatical analysis and translation. These machines =? their =? such as? Eşit ( = ) işareti, sözcük ya da yapının metin içinde hangi sözcük ya da yapının yerine kullanıldığını sormaktadır. These machines = electronic digital computers their = electronic digital computers' Uzun düz çizgi ( ), sözcükten önce ya da sonra hangi yapının geleceğini sormaktadır. to produce such Ok ( ) işareti, sözcük ya da yapıya dikkat edilmesi gerektiğini, bu sözcük ya da yapının birden fazla anlam taşıyabileceğini belirtir. Örnekte verilen as sözcüğü zaman, neden, benzerlik, yorum ya da kıyas gösterebilir (bu kullanımların her biri Genel Çeviri 1 kitabında ayrıntılı olarak işlenmekte). as such as yapısı = gibi (such reliable tools... as) Diğer kısaltmalar: Ö Özne I am a teacher. Y Yüklem I am a teacher. N Nesne I am a teacher. vi

7 1 Çeviri ve Çevirinin Aşamaları Çeviri... 2 Çevirinin aşamaları Sözcük tanımlama Terim tanımlama Yapısal analiz Anlama Dil aktarımı Erek dilde düzenleme İfade etme... 5 Sonuç

8 Sözlük anlamı ile çeviri Çeviri bir dildeki (KAYNAK DİL) konuşma ya da yazının bir başka dile (EREK DİL) aktarılması işlemi, ya da bu işlemin sonucunda oluşan erek-dil versiyonudur. (Richards et al., 1989: 299) Newmark'a (1988: 5) göre ise çeviri bir metnin anlamını bir başka dile, o metnin yazarının amaçladığı şekilde aktarmaktır. Sağduyu bize bu işin kolay olması gerektiğini söylüyor, zira insan bir dilde söyleyebildiğini diğer dilde de o kadar iyi şekilde söyleyebilmeli. Ancak Newmark yine aynı sayfalarda, çevirinin hiç de sağduyunun bize söylediği gibi kolay bir olay olmamasını, diller arasındaki büyük farklılıklara bağlamakta. Yüzyılın ilk çeyreğinde bilgisayar çevirisi alanında çalışmış olanların düşmüş olduğu en büyük yanılgı, yabancı dilin söz varlığının ve tümce oluşturma özelliklerinin çoğu edinildiğinde çeviri yapmanın artık hiç de sorun olmayacağı düşüncesiydi (ayrıntı için, Goshawke, 1987). Ancak bugün çok iyi biliyoruz ki çeviride söz varlığı ve dilbilgisinden öte unsurlar devreye girmekte. Bir tür mıntıka temizliği (bu terimi Stern (1987) clearing the ground olarak kullanmakta) amacını taşıyan bu ilk konumuzda, herhangi bir metnin çevirisini yapma görevi ile karşı karşıya kalındığında ne tür çeviri aşamalarından geçildiği incelenmekte. 2

9 Çevirinin Aşamaları Herşeyden önce, Genel Çeviri kitaplarında amaçlanan çevirinin ne olduğunu saptamamız gerekebilir. Genel amaçlar, yapılan çevirinin orijinal metnin yansıttığı anlamı yansıtması ve bunun yanısıra da orijinal metindeki formu yansıtmasıdır. Birinci amaçtan kasıt çeviri metin ile özgün metnin aynı uzunlukta olması gibi bir koşulun aranmaması (bu nitelik İletişimsel Çeviri adı altında Konu 2 içinde işlenmekte), ikinci amaçtan kasıt ise, özgün metindeki yazı özelliklerinin (devrik, altı çizili, koyu, tablo içinde gibi) yansıtılmasıdır. Bu amaçlar sadece yazılı çeviri için gözetilmekte, sözel olarak yapılan çevirinin öğretilmesi hedeflenmemektedir. Bu durumda ele alınacak sorun, kaynak dildeki yazılı bir metni erek dile yazılı olarak, anlamı ve yazının formunu koruyarak aktarmaktır. Bunu yapmak isteyen bir çeviri öğrencisinin çevirinin hangi aşamalarından geçtiğini saptarken, aslında kişilerin yaptığı çeviri ile değil de bilgisayar çeviri ile ilgilenen bir bilim adamının, Walter Goshawke'ın tanımlamasının kapsamlı ve titizlikle saptamalardan olduğu hemen göze çarpmaktadır. Goshawke'ın belirttiği gibi, bilgisayarın çeviriyi yapabilmek için çözmesi gereken sorunlar, çeviri yapan insanın çözmesi gereken sorunlardan farklı değil. Goshawke'a (1987: ve 42-56) göre bu sorunlar, sırası ile: 1. Duyma 2. Sesleri Tanımlama 3. Heceleri Tanımlama 4. Sözcük Tanımlama 5. Sözcük Tanıma 6. Terim Tanıma 7. Yapısal Analiz 8. Anlama 9. Dil Aktarımı 10. Erek Dilde Düzenleme 11. İfade Etme Goshawke'ın (1987:13) da belirttiği gibi, bu sorunlardan ilk üçü bilgisayar çevirisi konusunu ilgilendirmemekte. Bunun nedeni de, açıkça görüldüğü gibi, Duyma, Sesleri Tanımlama ve Heceleri Tanımlama aşamalarının anında çeviri yapılacağı zaman söz konusu olmasıdır. Konumuz yazılı çevirinin aşamaları olduğuna göre, Sözcük Tanımlama aşamasının da bir kenara bırakılması gerekmekte çünkü bu aşama noktalama imlerinden ve sözcüklerin yanlışlıkla bitişik yazılmasından kaynaklanan - her ikisi de yine bilgisayarı ilgilendirecek türden - sorunları içermektedir. 1. Sözcük Tanımlama 2. Terim Tanımlama Her bir sözcük yalnızca bir tek nesne ya da kavrama karşılık gelse çeviri olayı son derece kolaylaşabilirdi. Oysa sözcükler birden fazla anlam taşıyabilmekteler. Çevirmenin en iyi yardımcısı olan sözlük bile kimi durumlarda yetersiz kalabilmekte. Bu nedenle de, dikkatli okumanın ve sözlüğü çok iyi kullanabilme önem kazanmakta. Bu arada, pek sık görülmese de, karşılaşıldığında büyük sorunlar oluşturabilecek yazım hatalarını da unutmamalı. Goshawke'ın (1987: 46-47) deyimler ve özel isimlerin çevirisinin zorluğu olarak ele aldığı Terim Tanımlama aşaması, özellikle Baker (1992) ve Newmark (1991) gibi yazarların da değindikleri, yalancı dostlar konusunda karşımıza çıkmakta. İngilizce bir metindeki sympathetic (=anlayışlı) sözcüğünün anında sempatik olarak, dramatic (=büyük, muazzam) sözcüğünün de dramatik olarak aktarılması bunun en sık rastlanılan örneklerinden. Karşımıza 3

10 3. Yapısal Analiz 4. Anlama 5. Dil Aktarımı pek fazla bir sorun olarak çıkmasa da, özel isimlerin erek dile aktarılması konusunu da (örneğin John F. Kennedy ismi Ankara'daki sokak levhasında olduğu gibi Can F. Kenedi mi olmalı) Terim Tanımlama aşamasına ekleyebiliriz. Bir bağlam içinde sözcük ve terimlerinin analiz ve tanımlaması yapılan tümcenin yapısal analizinin yapılabilmesi, her şeyden önce, kaynak dilin tümce oluşturma kurallarının çok iyi bilinmesini gerektirmektedir. Karmaşık bir tümcenin ana tümcesini, varsa yan tümcesini ya da tümcelerini saptayarak bir anlamda tümcenin iskeletini bulup çıkarmak, bir sonraki Anlama aşamasının gerçekleştirilebilmesi için kaçınılmaz olabilir. İlk üç aşamayı başarıyla geçip Anlama aşamasında bocalayan çeviri öğrencilerinin bu başarısızlığının genelde dört temel sorundan kaynaklandığı görülmekte: Mevcut bilgiye gereğinden fazla güven. Çeviri yapan kişinin kaynak metindeki konuya yakınlığı, kimi zaman, özellikle de Yapısal Analiz aşamasında hata yapıldıysa, "olsa olsa böyledir" yaklaşımı ile sonuçlanabilmektedir. Bu da kaynak metinde değinilmeyen anlamların ya da tamamen ters anlamların aktarımını beraberinde getirmektedir. Acelecilik. Gerek çeviri sınıflarında, gerek sınıf dışında çeviri genelde acele ile yapılmakta ve hemen bir sonraki tümceye geçilmektedir. Bunun nedeni zaman azlığı ya da özellikle ticari amaçla çeviri yapılan durumlarda "bitse de kurtulsam" mantığı. Gözden geçirme alışkanlığının bulunmaması. Newmark (1988) çeviri sınavlarına girenlere örneğin üç saat sürecek bir sınavda çeviriyi yeniden gözden geçirmek için bu sürenin 35 dakikasını ayırmalarını, ticari amaçla çeviri yapanlara ise - mümkünse - birinci okuma ile ikinci okuma arasında iki günlük bir ara bırakmalarını önermekte. Bilgi eksikliği. Ya da dikkatsizlik ile bilgi eksikliğinin bir araya gelmesi. Buna iyi bir örnek olarak yasama ve yürütme yetkilerinden söz eden bir metinde öğrencinin yürütme sözcüğünün karşılığı olarak çalma sözcüğünün yabancı dil karşılığını kullanması gösterilebilir. Dil Aktarımı konusunda iletilebilecek konular çevirinin yapılış yolu ve anadilde yetkinlik başlıkları altında derlenebilir. Çevirinin yapılış yolu söz konu olduğunda, öncelikle, artık bir deyim haline gelmiş olan "Çeviri kadına benzer. Güzel olursa sadık olmaz; sadık olursa güzel olmaz," (Oscar Wilde) sözüne değinmeden geçilemez. Burada sadık olmaktan kastedilen, çeviri olayının kaynak dildeki tümcenin yapısının ve anlamının erek dile aktarımı olarak görülmesi ise, bu terim kabul edilebilir. Ancak, çevirinin amacı tümcenin yapısını aktarmak değil tümcenin anlamını aktarmaktır. Çeviride, kaynak dildeki tek bir tümcenin taşıdığı anlamın erek dile birden fazla tümce ile ve çok daha farklı tümce yapıları ile aktarılması gerekebilir. Kaynak tümcenin yazarının iletmek istediği anlam ile erek tümcenin verdiği anlam aynı ise sadakat gerçekleşmiş ve güzel bir çeviri yapılmış demektir. Dil Aktarımı aşamasında, çeviri yapan kişinin kaynak dildeki tümcenin yansıttığı mesajı tam olarak kavramasının ardından bu mesajı erek dilde, kaynak dildeki tümcenin yazarı erek dilde yazıyor olsaydı kendisinin yapacağı şekilde, aktarması gerekir. Bu da, açıkça anlaşılabileceği gibi, her iki dilde de yetkin olmayı gerektirir. Bu nitelik çeviri için büyük önem taşımakta. 4

11 Çeviri her iki dilde de yetkin olmayı gerektirir ve çoğu kimse anadilini doğal olarak gayet iyi bildiği varsayımından yola çıkarak çeviri için yabancı dili öğrenmenin yeterli olduğunu düşünmektedir. Oysa aynı çeviri öğrencileri dil öğrenimleri esnasında yapılan yazma çalışmalarında "Ben bu konuyu Türkçe bile yazamam ki!" diyebilmekte, eğitimleri esnasında ve sonrasında yeterince yazma çalışması yapmadıklarını dile getirmektedirler. 6. Erek Dilde Düzenleme 7. İfade Etme Kaynak dildeki anlamı kavranan ve erek dile nasıl aktarabileceği konusundaki aşama da tamamlanan tümce, Erek Dilde Düzenleme aşamasında erek dilin tümce oluşturma kurallarına uygun biçimde dile getirilecektir. En son aşama, Çevirinin Aşamaları ana başlığı altında da değinildiği gibi, erek dile aktarılacak metnin kaynak dildeki formu ile aktarılması konusunu da içermektedir. Çeviri derslerinde ya da sınavlarda aranmayan bu koşul ticari ya da mesleki amaçla çeviri yapılması durumunda önem kazanabilir. Sonuç Çevirmenin kendisine karşı, kaynak dildeki metnin yazarına karşı ve kaynak metnin kendisine ulaşabilme şansı olmayan, ulaşabilse bile anlayabilme şansı olmayan erek dildeki okuyucuya karşı sorumlulukları bulunmakta. Tüm bu sorumlulukların yerine getirilebilmesi için, günümüzde artık bir bilim haline gelen çeviri konusunda doğuştan bazı yetenekler gerekeceğine inanmak yersiz olur. Çeviri aşamaları tam olarak incelendiğinde ortaya çıkan tablo, çeviri için gerekli olanların her iki dilde yetkinlik ve duyarlılık, dikkat, titizlik ve isteklilik olduğunu göstermektedir. Genel Çeviri kitapları (isteklilik bölümü size ait olmak üzere), tüm bu niteliklerin geliştirmesini amaçlamaktadır. 5

12 Metin Türleri ve Çeviri Yöntemleri 2 Giriş... 7 Sunu Metin türleri Çeviri yöntemleri... 8 Ġşleme... 9 Üretme - Sınama

13 Giriş Genel Çeviri 2 kitabının ikinci konusunda, çeviride karşılaşılan çeşitli türde metinler ve çeviride rol oynayan farklı unsurlar ele alınmakta. Ayrıca, kullanışlı iki çeviri yöntemi tanıtılmakta. Konuya başlamadan önce, çeviride karşılaşabileceğiniz metin türleri hakkındaki mevcut bilginizi ölçün. Alıştırma Aşağıda, metinlerden alınma bazı tümceler yer almakta. Bu tümcelerin ve tür metinlere ait olduklarını inceleyin. Metin türlerinin bir listesini oluşturmaya çalışın. Wherever I travelled in Britain, there was the usually bright and busy post office, with its red letter-box, comforting windows, and its sign waving like a big flag. "... I hope you haven't lost any money, Herr Christoph? " As a matter of, Frau Nowak, that's partly why I came down to see you today...." This book presents a warm welcome, finally, for Carcanet's reissue, in a revised translation, of Natalia Ginzburg's wonderful Family Savings, a fictional anthology of an exceptional family of radical, intellectual Turin Jews. 1. Metin türleri It won't be long before we are faced with the disdainful scorn of that particular breed of human being that feels that Christmas is beneath them. I am not in any way referring to those who are barred from celebrating Christmas by their religious views but those who disapprove for the mere sake of it, or so it seems. Sunu A Textbook of Translation başlıklı kitabında Peter Newmark (1988: 13) dört metin türü sıralamakta. Bu listeye ekleyebileceğiniz metin türleri var mı? 1. Anlatım (Narration) 2. Betimleme (Description) 3. Tartışma (Discussion) 4. Karşılıklı konuşma (Dialogue) 7

14 2. Çeviri yöntemleri Metin türleri çeşitli olduğu gibi, çeviri yöntemleri de bir o kadar çeşitli. Aşağıda verilen özgün metni ve üç farklı çeviriyi inceleyin. Kullanılan her bir çeviri yöntemini tanımlayabilir misiniz? Özgün metin It is a psychological commonplace for a son to feel affection for his mother and to wish his father out of the way. The results are more interesting and more profound when a son, who takes after his mother, dislikes her character and standards of value. 1 O bir psikolojik alışılmış şeydir bir oğul için yakınlık hissetmek annesi için ve istemek babasını yolun dışında. Sonuçlar daha ilginçtir ve daha derindir ne zaman ki bir oğul, ki o alır sonra annesini, onun kişiliğinden hoşlanmaz ve değer standartlarından. [ Çeviri yöntemi: ] 2 Bir oğulun annesine yakınlık duyması ve babasının yolundan çekilmesini istemesi sık rastlanan psikolojik bir olgudur. Annesine benzeyen bir oğul onun kişiliğinden ve değer yargılarından hoşlanmadığı zaman, sonuçlar daha ilginç ve derindir. [ Çeviri yöntemi: ] 3 Bir erkek evladın bir yandan annesine yakınlık duyarken bir yandan da babasının "gölge etmemesini" istemesi sık rastlanan psikolojik bir olgudur. Bu evlat bir de annesine çekmişse ve de annesinin kişiliğinden ve değer yargılarından rahatsızlık duyuyorsa, ortaya ilginç ve çarpıcı sonuçlar çıkacaktır. [ Çeviri yöntemi: ] Sizce özgün metin ne tür bir yerde yayınlanmış olabilir? 2 ve 3 numaralı metinlerin de nerede yayınlanabileceğini ve çevirinin ne tür bir okuyucu için yapılmış olabileceğini inceleyin. Günlük çalışmalarınızda ya da işinizde, yapmanız gereken çevirinin kabul edilir olabilmesi için ne tür bir okuyucuyu göz önünde bulundurmanız ve hangi çeviri yöntemini kullanmanız daha yararlı olacak? Newmark (1988: 45-57) çeşitli çeviri yöntemleri sıralamakta ve bunlar arasında en iyilerinin İletişimsel Çeviri ve Anlamsal Çeviri olduğunu belirtmekte. Aşağıda verilen çeviri örneklerini inceleyin. Özgün Fransızca metin De Gaulle'e ait. Ġletişimsel Çeviri All my life I have created a certain idea of France for myself. My feeling, as well as my reason, inspires me with this idea. In my mind, I imagine France as a fairy-tale princess or a madonna painted on frescoes, as though destined for a distinguished and exceptional future. Anlamsal Çeviri All my life, I have devised for myself a certain idea of France. Feeling inspires with it as well as reason. What is emotional in me naturally imagines France, like the princess in the fairy-tale or the madonna on the frescoes on the walls, as dedicated to an eminent and exceptional destiny. 8

15 Örneklerde de görüldüğü gibi, İletişimsel Çeviri türünde, okuyucunun gereksinimleri göz önünde bulundurularak, çeşitli tanım ve sözcüklerin basitleştirilmesi ve ayrıntılı olarak açıklanması yolu izlenmektedir. Bu nedenle de İletişimsel Çeviri yöntemi ile oluşturulan çeviri metni, Anlamsal Çeviri yöntemi ile oluşturulandan, genelde, biraz daha fazla yer kaplamaktadır. Her ne kadar bu iki yöntem dışında daha bir çok çeviri yöntemi bulunsa da bunlardan sadece Bire-Bir Çeviri Yöntemi işimize yarayabilir. Bu yöntem çeviri yapmak için değil, olası sorunları saptamak için kullanılmaktadır. Yapılması gereken ise, çevirisi yapılacak tümcedeki her bir sözcüğün altına o sözcüğün ilk anlamının yazılması His son cannot walk, let alone run. Onun oğul yapamaz yürü- izn ver- yalnız koş ve ortaya çıkan tümceden mantıklı anlam taşıyan bir tümce oluşturulmaya çalışılmasıdır. Oğlu yürüyemiyor, let alone run.???????????. Oluşan tümcede anlamı bozan bölümün sorun oluşturacağı ve ayrıca incelenmesi gerektiği ortaya çıkar. Sözlük ve dilbilgisi kaynaklarının yardıım ile sorun çözülmeye çalışılır. İşleme Alıştırma 1 Aşağıda verilen başlıkların ne tür metinlere ait olduklarını bulabilir misiniz? CRETE SCHOOL'S OUT IFS OF HISTORY VISITOR Yanıtlarınızı kontrol için metinleri okuyun. Bu arada da başlıkları yerleştirin 1. Crete, the largest and most important of the Greek islands, lies to the south of mainland Greece between the Aegean and the Libyan Seas. The general aspect of the island is diverse in character and physical features. A chain of high mountains divides the island into four distinct regions whose alternating scenery combines to form the impressive beauty of the Cretan landscape. The high mountain ranges of Lekra Ori (The White Mountains), Psiloritis and Dikti form, with their natural division, the island's four large provinces: Chania, Rethymon, Heraklion and Lassithi. 2. The setting is every child's dream. A huge, rambling, 300-year-old house, warmed by log fires, overrun by pets, and set in acres of natural playground in the Norfolk Broads. And no school. That is what makes the Kirkbride household so rare. James, 18, Tamara, 14, and Hoppy, 10, have spent the last four years doing what other children enjoy only at weekends and holidays. 9

16 They get up when they feel like, breakfast at leisure, and spend the rest of the day doing what they want. They walk, swim, fish, paint, read, play musical instruments, perform their own plays, cook or just sit around and chat. 3. Speculating "what if...?" is always enticing. What if Alexander Fleming's dishes of infected jelly had been tidied up and thrown out as they should have been - would we now be without penicillin? If James Watt had dropped off to sleep before his kettle boiled, would there never have been any trains? When it comes to invention or discovery, the chances are that if scientist A is hit by a falling roof-tile, scientist B will get there pretty soon all the same; for both would have been building on the same state of previous knowledge. Stephenson also invented the Davy lamp; a chap called Reis very nearly invented the telephone just before Bell; there were several other maniacs attempting powered flight just as doggedly as the Wright brothers. What's far more problematic is the follow-up. What happens after a discovery may indeed depend on the crucial presence of one man. If Darwin had died on the voyage [to Galapagos], then Wallace would have been the father of evolution - but without Darwin's brilliant tenacity in proving and presenting the thing, would the impact have been as great? 4. The big Town Hall clock was striking midnight when Frank began to cross the bridge. The night air was cold and damp. A low mist hung over the river and street-lamps gave little light. Frank was anxious to get home and his footsteps rang loudly on the pavement. When he reached the middle of the bridge he thought he could hear someone approaching behind him. He looked back but could see no one. However, the sound continued and Frank began walking more quickly. Alıştırma 2 Aşağıdaki durumlardan her birinde, hangi çeviri yönteminin daha yararlı olacağına karar verin. 1. Bir bankanın çeviri sınavına katılıyorsunuz. 2. İşyerinizde patronunuz bir faks messajını yazılı olarak çevirmenizi istiyor. 3. Komşunuzun oğlu İngilizce dil kurslarına katılmak amacı ile İngiltere'deki bir dil okuluna başvuruda bulundu. Sizden, dil okulundan gelen mektupta neler yazılı olduğunu iletmenizi istiyor. 4. Yüksek lisans/doktora teziniz için bir kitaptan çeviri alıntı yapmanız gerekmekte. 5. Bir gazete için çalışıyorsunuz. Süper iletkenler konusunda Amerikalı bir fizikçiyle söyleşi yaptınız. Hazırlayacağınız yazı gazetenin Pazar ekinde yayınlanacak. Alıştırma 3 En iyi çeviri yöntemini seçerken hangi unsurları göz önünde bulundurmak gerekebilir. Bir liste oluşturun. Unsurlardan biri örnek olarak verilmekte. 1. Okuyucu

17 Üretme - Sınama Verilen metinlerden her birinin çeviri olduğunu varsayalım. Bu durumda her birinin bir ansiklopedide bir öğrencinin ders notlarında bir öğretmenin ders sunusunda yer almış olabileceğini inceleyin. Çeviri için göz önünde bulundurulması gereken unsurları biz okuyucu, özgün metnin yayınlandığı yer, çeviri metninin yayınlanacağı yer ve metnin kendisi olarak saptadık. Bu unsurları da düşünerek, çevirisi en kolay gerçekleşecek metni Türkçeye aktarın. Diğer metinleri yardımcı olarak kullanabilirsiniz. Metinler: A. Throughout history, we have tried our best to constitute a synthetic language that would be derived from elements of natural languages, though with simpler grammar and spelling rules. In 1880, a German bishop, Johann Martin Schleyer, invented Volapük, and in 1887, a Polish doctor, Dr. Ludwik L. Zamenhof, invented Esperanto. Both Volapük and Esperanto were a combination of Latin, the Romance languages, and the Germanic languages. It was soon discovered that Volapük was so difficult that it was impossible to learn it. However, Esperanto is still a synthetic language which is the most popular among all synthetic languages. Esperanto is the language of conferences; not only are there various newspapers and journals published in Esperanto, but also a large amount of literature the Bible and the Koran among them have been translated into the language. Yet, Esperanto is by no means the official international language. Another synthetic language, Interlingua, was created in 1951 by the International Auxiliary Language Association, with grammar rules from English and the Romance languages and vocabulary from the main West European languages. Because it has mainly been used in international science and technology publications, Interlingua does away with high costs of multiple translations. W. Ashby and R. Clark, inventors of another language, Glosa, a language with a 1,000 Greek and Latin-origin words, initiated the language in However, there has been very little advancement towards the objective of a language accepted and used globally. 11

18 B. People have attempted various times to design an artificial language to be derived from elements of natural languages, yet with a simpler grammar and vocabulary: A German bishop, Johann Martin Schleyer, invented Volapük in 1880, which soon proved to be too difficult to learn; In 1887, Dr. Ludwik L. Zamenhof, himself a Polish doctor, invented Esperanto which, like Volapük, was a combination of Latin, the Romance languages, and the Germanic languages and which is today the most widely used artificial language. It is used in conferences; there are several newspapers and journals published in Esperanto and and there is a large literature translated into the languaue, including the Bible and the Koran. However, Esperanto is has failed to become a lingua franca. Interlingua, another artificial language, was created by the International Auxiliary Language Association in Based on grammar rules from English and the Romance languages and vocabulary from the main West European languages, Interlingua has mainly been used in international scientific and technological publications and thus eliminated high costs of translations from and into languages. W. Ashby and R. Clark invented Glosa, another artificial language with a 1,000 Greek and Latin-origin words, and introduced their language in Despite all these, there has been very little progress towards the purpose of a language accepted and used internationally. C. Many attempts have been made to construct artificial universal languages, based on elements of natural languages with simplifications of grammar and spelling. Volapük, devised in 1880 by the German bishop Johann Martin Schleyer, and Esperanto, invented in 1887 by a Polish doctor, Dr. Ludwik L. Zamenhof, were both based on a combination of Latin, the Romance languages, and the Germanic languages. Volapük eventually proved too difficult to learn and to use; Esperanto is still the most widely spoken of the artificial languages. It is used at international conferences, several newspapers and journals are published in the language, and there is a large translated literature, including the Bible and the Koran. Despite this, Esperanto still does not have official status as an international language. Interlingua, created in 1951 by the International Auxiliary Language Association, is derived from English and the Romance languages with a standardized vocabulary based on the main West European languages; it has primarily been used in international scientific and technological journals, thus eliminating the need for costly multiple translations. In 1981, Glosa, a language with a 1,000-word vocabulary derived from Greek and Latin roots, was pioneered by its inventors, W. Ashby and R. Clark. Little progress has been made, however, towards the goal of an internationally recognized and universally used language. 12

19 3 Tümce analizi Giriş Sunu Sözcük düzeyinde sorunlar Dilbilgisi düzeyinde sorunlar Anlam düzeyinde sorunlar Bütünlük düzeyinde sorunlar Ġşleme Üretme Sınama

20 Giriş Bu konuda, basit ve bileşik tümcelerin tanımlanması ve analiz edilmesi ele alınmaktadır. Genel Çeviri 2 kitabının bu en önemli konusunu çok dikkatli incelemenizi öneririm. Genelde, bir tümcenin çevirisini yaparken, tümce analizi tümcenin Türkçeye aktarılması için nasıl bir yol izlemektesiniz? Aşağıda verilen metinde koyu yazılı tümceleri Türkçeye aktarırken kendi çeviri yaklaşımınızı saptamaya çalışın. THE BIBLE The Bible, also called the Holy Bible, is the sacred book or Scriptures of Judaism and of Christianity. The Bible, while mainly a theological document written with the purpose of explaining the nature and moral imperatives of the Christian and Jewish God, is secondarily a book of history and geography. Selected historical materials were included in the text for the purpose of illustrating and underlining the religious teaching of the Bible. Historians and archaeologists have learned to rely upon the amazing accuracy of historical memory in the Bible. The smallest references to persons and places and events contained in the accounts of the Exodus, for instance, or the bibliographies of such Biblical heroes as Abraham and Moses and David, can lead, if properly considered and pursued, to extremely important historical discoveries. The archaeologists' efforts are not directed at "proving" the correctness of the Bible, which is neither necessary nor possible, any more than belief in God can be scientifically demonstrated. It is quite the opposite, in fact. The historical clues in the Bible can lead the archaeologist to a knowledge of the civilizations of the ancient world in which the Bible developed and with whose religious concepts and practices the Bible so radically differed. It can be considered an almost unfailing indicator, revealing to the experts the locations and the characteristics of lost cities and civilizations. Sunu Genel Çeviri 1 kitabında, çeviri işleminin dört aşaması olduğu belirtilmekte. Bu dört aşama, sırası ile, 1. Sözcük düzeyinde sorunlar 2. Dilbilgisi düzeyinde sorunlar 3. Anlam düzeyinde sorunlar 4. Bütünlük düzeyinde sorunlar şeklindedir. 14

21 1. Sözcük düzeyinde sorunlar İngilizce tümcede yer alan anlamını bilmediğiniz sözcüklerin Türkçe anlamını, sözlük kullanarak ya da sözcüğün anlamını tahmin çalışması yaparak saptayın. Bu aşamada yapmanız gerekenler: Türkçede, İngilizcedeki anlamdan farklı olarak kullanılan sözcüklere dikkat edin. Bu sözcükler arasında sempatik-symphathetic (= anlayışlı), dramatik-dramatic (= büyük), mamut-mammoth (=büyük), pratik olarak-practically (= tam olarak), economikeconomic (=ekonomiye ilişkin) sayılabilir; Anlamı çok sık karıştırılan sözcüklere dikkat edin. Alıştırma 1 Anlamı çok sık olarak karıştırılan sözcüklerden bazıları aşağıda sıralanmakta. Sözlük yardımı ile anlamlarını inceleyin. accept except expect accept They didn't accept the offer. except Everyone except the chairman is here. expect I'm expecting a parcel. adhesive adhesive adherent advice advice advise affect affect effect adherent You should use adhesive tape here. He is an adherent of the Liberal Party. advise I'll give you a piece od advice. He advised me to leave immediately. effect Smoking affects health. He was able to effect certain changes. alone lone lonely alone The house stands alone on the hill. lone There is a lone tree in the garden. lonely I'm feeling a bit lonely. aloud aloud loud alternative alternative alternate at last at last at least loud Don't speak aloud. I don't like loud music. alternate We are looking for alternative ways. It's been a week of alternate rain and sunshine. at least At last the post has arrived. There are at least twenty people present. 15

22 channel channel canal classic classic classical canal The Channel separates England and France. Canals have been built to irrigate the desert. classical This film is classic western movie. This is in the classical style of architecture. comprehensive comprehensible comprehensive It has comprehensive coverage of news. comprehensible This report is comprehensible only to lawyers. conscious conscious conscientious continual continual continuous credible credible creditable defective defective deficient desirable desirable desirous different different indifferent disinterested disinterested uninterested easy easy uneasy economical economical economic eligible eligible illegible conscientious He is badly hurt but he is still conscious. This is a conscientious piece of work. continuous They lived in continual fear. The brain needs a continuous supply of oxygen. creditable This is a barely credible excuse. This is a very creditable achievement. deficient We have bought a defective machinery! There is a deficient supply of water. anxious for It's desirable that you speak. We are desirous of better relations. indifferent We are different from them. He is indifferent to my problems. uninterested He is a disinterested observer. I'm completely uninterested in football. uneasy This problem is easy to solve. I feel quite uneasy. economic My new car is quite economical. The economic situation is terrible. illegible He is eligible to vote. His writing is almost illegible. 16

23 formerly formerly formally hard hard hardly helpless helpless helpful historic historic historical human human humane incident incident accident industrial industrial industrious ingenious ingenious ingenuous intelligent intelligent intelligible intolerant intolerant intolerable formally Peru was formerly ruled by the Spanish. I was invited formally. hardly It is hard to accept the truth. The traffic is hardly moving. helpful We are quite helpless under these situations. You have been most helpful. thank you. historical This is a historic moment. This is a historical society. humane They have found several human skeletons. A humane way to kill animals? Nonsense! accident This has been an interesting incident in my life. There has been an accident on the highway. industrious Industrial development causes pollution. He is very industrious. ingenuous What an ingenious gadget! She has such an ingenuous smile. intelligible He is very intelligent. This argument was barely intelligible. intolerable He is intolerant of any opposition. I have an intolerable pain. invaluable valueless valuable invaluable You help has been invaluable. valueless This antique coin is valueless. valuable This picture is very valuable. irrational irrational unreasonable unreasonable They gave a completely irrational decision. It is unreasonable to expect to work all night. 17

24 lie lay lie lay Don't lie on the grass; it is wet. He is laying the table. loose loosen lose loose My jacket button is loose. loosen You can loosen your tie. lose What did you lose? like alike likely unlike like People like you should not do sports! alike The two brothers are very much alike. likely It is likely that it will rain. unlike Unlike Tom, Peter is very athletic. means means meaning most most mostly official official officious popular popular populous meaning You can communicate by means of computers. What's the meaning of this word? mostly Most people do not like this taste. Seals are found mostly in the Arctic. officious He is a government official. An officious guard came and gave silly orders. populous This serial is very popular among housewives. London is the most populous area of Britain. practice practical practically practice You should do some practice. practical He has found some practical solutions. practically He is practically useless. presumption presumption assumption principle principle principal assumption She presented a presumption of innocence. This information is purely assumption. principal In principle, this plane shouldn't fly. What is the principal method here? prize price priceless prize He has received the grand prize. price What is the price of a pair of ordinary shoes? priceless This painting is priceless. raise raise rise rise He raised the lid of the box. The sun is rising. 18

25 ready ready readily regrettable regrettable regretful sensitive sensitive sensible signify signify significant suit suit suite terrible terrible terrific than than then through through thorough worth worth worthless readily Are you ready to dance? He readily volunteered for the service. regretful His behaviour at the party was most regrettable. She looked with regretful glances. sensible His skin is sensitive to temperature changes. What he suggested was very sensible. significant He signified the importance of the experiment. This point is very significant. suite You should wear a suit to the office. They bought a pink bathroom suite. terrific This food is terrible! I can't eat it. The music was terrific! I loved it. then There are more than ten people in the queue. Then, he showed me his ID. thorough He looked through the window. They gave a thorough check to the office. worthless Is it worth a second try? This stamp collection is worthless. Anlamını iyi bildiğiniz sözcükler konusunda bile kuşkucu olun (Çeviri derslerinde öğrencilere sık sık anımsattığım gibi, "Sözcüğün anlamını bilmiyorsanız sözlüğe bakın; sözcüğün anlamını biliyorsanız sözlüğe mutlaka bakın."). Anlamını iyi bildiğiniz bir sözcük, o tümcede farklı bir anlamda kullanılıyor olabilir: Dates are quite refreshing when you are in the middle of a desert. date = hurma Başka sözcük ya da sözcükler yerine kullanılan it, he, she, one, that, the former, the latter gibi değinme sözcüklerini (= reference words) inceleyin. Bu sözcükler metin içinde önceden değinilmiş ya da sonradan değinilen sözcükler yerine kullanılıyor olabilirler (değinme sözcükleri, beşinci bölümdeki Metin Analizi ve Çevirisi aşamasının başlangıç metinlerinde, metnin sağ tarafında belirtilmekte). 19

26 The pyramids on the west bank of the Nile were built by the pharaohs as royal tombs. They date from 3000 BC. The most celebrated are those at Gizza, built during the fourth dynasty, of which the largest is the one that housed the pharaoh Khufu, better known as Caeops. This is now called the Great Pyramid. Böyle sözcüklerin Türkçeye çeviri esnasında nasıl aktarılmaları gerektiğini düşünün. Örneğin, yukarıdaki örneğin ikinci satırında geçen They sözcüğü çeviri esnasında Onlar olarak mı yoksa Bu piramitler olarak mı aktarılmalı? Alıştırma 2 Aşağıda verilen tümcelerin herbirinde bir değinme sözcüğü bulunmakta. Bu alıştırmada koyu yazılı olarak verilen değinme sözcüklerini inceleyin. 1. Scott Fitzgerald, who first introduced him to a publisher, was one of the few contemporary writers that Hemingway did not turn against. 2. Catching sight of him in a supermarket one day, Archer followed the man with the limp to an apartment in a run-down neighbourhood. 3. The award was presented to the playwright by the Chairman of the Committee, who said of him that he brought pleasure to literally millions of theatergoers and television viewers. 4. While Jane was persuading Mary to ask her for the keys to the car, Mrs. Jones happened to be listening at the door and quickly went downstairs and out of the house. 5. Looking at her closely for the first time in months, Elizabeth realized sadly that the woman was indeed beginning to grow old. 6. Violet rushed past the general's daughter, strode to the door of the drawing room, and turned to throw her a look of withering scorn before slamming the door with grim satisfaction. 7. Knowing them well, the Hammonds realized that the Shepherds were unlikely to be on time to meet their guests. 8. Doctors treating patients with diet pills usually warn them of the dangers of addiction. 9. Though it is not usually difficult to understand them, stutterers often cause parents a lot of worries. 10. Intrigued by insects of all kinds, the youngsters spent hours trapping and studying them. 11. Its usefulness was a thing of the past, but his first bicycle continued to stand in the corner of his bedroom. 12. The defendants insisted on addressing the members of the jury, thus disregarding the advice of their lawyers. 13. Jean, along with her sisters Doris and May, baked cakes for the annual contest at the country fair. Jean was sorry hers lost, but happy that Doris won a ribbon for her entry. 14. The English surprisingly beat the French at the battle of Agincourt in 1415 because theirs were the most disciplined archers. 15. The opportunity to sample several possible majors as well as greater career flexibility after graduation are two reasons why students choose a liberal arts college; these are not the only ones, however. 16. Signs of ageing are unavoidable, but those that can be disguised are of particular interest to cosmetic companies. 17. The proposals were discussed at length by the members of the committee, with only one of them emerging intact. 18. Note that the instructions preceding the questions encourage students to concentrate only on the ones they feel they understand. 20

27 19. The NASA scientists and astronauts were equally excited by Al Shepherd's first sub-orbital flight and by John Glenn's orbital journey, but it was the latter which caught the attention of the American public. 20. Both the government and the private sector fund basic and applied research, but grants for the former tend to be relatively restricted in times of economic difficulties. Normal kullanımları dışında kullanılmakta olan sözcüklere dikkat edin. Metin yazarının kendisinin türettiği sözcüklere dikkat edin. POCKETY WOMEN UNITE? Pockets are what women need more of. The women's movement in the past decade has made giant strides in achieving greater social justice for females, but there's a great deal of work yet to be done. And it can't be done without pockets. Bu örnekte, başlıkta kullanılan POCKETY sözcüğü sözlüklerde yer almayan, metnin yazarının türettiği bir sözcük. 2. Dilbilgisi düzeyinde sorunlar Sözcük düzeyindeki sorunları hallettikten sonra, tümcenin dilbilgisi ile ilgili sorunlarını incelemeye başlayabilirsiniz. Birden fazla kullanımları olan AS, FOR, SINCE, YET sözcüklerine dikkat edin. Few people have been so influential in determining the course of the Western as Harte, since (1) the characters he established in these, and other, stories have since (2) become stock figures in the genre.... (Lewis, 1997: 1. Yazar Francis Brett Harte'ın biyografisinden) (1) -> because ; (2) -> since his writing anlamında, -den beri Tümcedeki THAT, GERUND (-ing) ve PAST PARTICIPLE (V 3 ) yapılara dikkat edin. That sözcüğü aşağıdaki niteliklerden birini taşıyabilir. Noun Clause Relative Clause Bu Değinme sözcüğü It is known that he is a drunk. I like books that were written by Kurt Vonnegut. Actually, I like that kind of music. The population of Turkey is higher than that of Iraq. Gerund yapının kullanılabileceği durumlar: Relative Clause Time Clause Ad Sıfat Reason Clause Yüklem çekimi He is a man living in poverty. Breaking the door, they went into the office. He came in smiling. Playing football is his main hobby. I've found the film interesting enough. Being a seaside resort, the city is beautiful. He's been studying. 21

28 Past participle yapının kullanılabileceği durumlar: Relative Clause Time Clause Sıfat Reason Clause Yüklem çekimi This is a building built before the War. Completed on time, the bridge looked marvellous. He seems to be interested in the scheme. Wounded several times, he died instantly. He has studied Alıştırma 3 Aşağıdaki tümcelerde gerund yapı bulunmaktadır. Tümcelerin özne ve yüklemini saptayın ve gerund yapının işlevini belirleyin. İlk tümce örnek olarak yapılmıştır. Ö Y 1. Jogging is good for health. Jogging İsim 2. I have been working too hard lately. 3. Having completed his speech, the Chairman sat down to sip his wine. 4. Animals living in zoos are, no matter how good the conditions are, actually imprisoned. 5. To tell you the truth, I hate being laughed at. 6. Opening the subject of artificial memory, the professor sat down to a corner to watch his colleagues express their views. 7. Speaking as a layman, I can only suggest that the Mayor should use all his initiative to stop this construction. 8. We have been looking forward to seeing his second wife. 9. Nothing is worth having if it can be had without spending an effort. 10. Reading, writing, speaking and listening are the five basic skills in language learning. 11. While learning a foreign language, the learner is expected to gain proficiency in all of these five skills. 12. Providing that he is given opportunities and time to practice, anyone can learn a foreign language. 13. The armoured-car my brother has been working on was used to carry the diamonds from one bank to another. 14. In most cases, avoiding dark streets will save your money and life. 15. There is definitely no point in insisting. 16. He came in murmuring. 17. The part of the plan concerning the decorating our club has been passed. 18. There is nobody paying any attention to the danger the current state of erosion has been posing. 22

29 19. Living comfortably in a remote village, Arthur C. Clarke has been sharing his life experiences with the primitives. 20. Hoping to find something to eat, he dived into the garbage bin. Tümcenin basit tümce mi, bileşik tümce mi olduğunu belirleyin. Man definitely overshadows the chimpanzee. The chimpanzee is, nevertheless, a creature of immense significance to the understanding of man. {Basit tümce} Recently it has been proved that the chimpanzee is capable of communicating with people in quite a sophisticated manner. {Bileşik tümce: Noun clause} Alıştırma 4 Aşağıdaki tümceleri inceleyin ve basit tümce mi yoksa bileşik tümce mi olduğunu saptayın. 1. To pass the test is his big dream. 2. That big office block will definitely create more jobs. 3. It is important to book in this restaurant well in advance. 4. That translation is a hard subject is accepted by everyone. 5. Those books will definitely help you in your studies. 6. Parking is strictly prohibited in this area. 7. Interesting ideas are rarely appreciated in the modern schooling system. 8. To err is human, to forgive is divine. 9. His will will be read before the closest relatives next weekend. 10. Both the old and sick have been seriously suffering from the consequences of air pollution. 11. The United States is among the few oil-producing countries. 12. To sleep till lunch time can be quite relating, especially on a Sunday. 13. Deep down in my heart lies the love for my lovely village. 14. The late Dean used to check the time every now and then out of habit. 15. Nothing will prevent him from completing his expedition into the Amazon rain forest. 16. Nowhere can you find a cheaper piece of furniture. 17. To the north of the desert is a surprisingly modern town. 23

30 18. Jogging has recently lost its initial popularity. 19. Not everyone is capable of improvising. 20. Failing in a test is definitely not the end of everything. 21. The new executive committee backs our efforts to join a union. 22. To tell the truth in all occasions is not always beneficial. 23. What will happen to those poisoned seals in the North Sea is still unknown. 24. "Why" is not the right question to ask while learning a foreign language. It is better to ask "How?". 25. Mr. Richardson is expected to arrive in about an hour. 26. Little do we know about the dark side of the Moon. 27. Can you imagine a social outbreak in the USA in the next 25 years? 28. There are several alternatives to take into consideration. 29. That the rate of inflation will increase is hard to deny. 30. I'd rather stay here and take a nap. 31. How many times do I have to tell you not to park your car here in front of my window! 32. Will Ms Jo Lewis see the Manager as soon as possible please. 33. Those snakes weekly eat almost a pound of meat. 34. Held hostages by the terrorists in the building were two French journalists. 35. Tourism had always been the main source of capital input in this small Pacific island. 36. People in remote parts of the country fail to accept the social changes so quickly. 37. Cans need to be disposed properly. 38. It can hardly move. 39. Someone watching secretly through a key-hole or a crack or something like that is generally called a "peeping Tom". 40. It is a relief to complete all these 40 sentences with hardly a mistake. 24

31 Basit tümcenin Ö+Y+N unsurlarını saptayın. A man who smiles when greeting a friend, or who inclines his head when passing an acquittance in the street, is not necessarily acknowledging that the other has a superior social status. A man who... -> Özne is acknowledging-> Yüklem Bileşik tümcenin Ana Tümce ve Yan Tümce unsurlarını saptayın. Daha sonra bu unsurları S+V+O açısından inceleyin. Tümcenin unsurlarını birbirinden ayırmak için // ve / işaretlerini kullanın; geçici olarak bir kenara bırakılabilecek bölümleri [ ] ile belirleyin. Mary, [the president of the family council,] conferred upon Robert the title vicepresident, // because she thought / he would do a good job. Alıştırma 5 Bu alıştırmada, a. Basit Tümce - Bileşik Tümce ayrımını yapın. b. Bileşik tümce ise Ana Tümce - Yan Tümce bölümleri saptayın. c. Yüklemleri belirleyin. d. that, gerund ve past participle yapıları inceleyin. İlk tümce örnek olarak yapılmıştır. 1. The teacher times the test. a. Basit tümce c. Yüklem, times 2. Those who want to relax for a few days and read book a first class cabin on the cruise liner. 3. Hardly had he caught the fish when he saw the no fishing sign a few metres away. 4. People who have very few hours for a decent sleep dream of a long, deep sleep in a quiet place. 5. Placed on the summit of the mountain was a huge monastery. 6. He tried with all his might to save the tree in the garden, but it was in vain. 7. This group of extremists generally plant harmless bombs. 8. Finally the car hit the pavement and came to a stand. 9. This song will doubtlessly become a great hit in weeks to come. 10. So deeply rooted is my hatred that I don't think I'll ever forgive him. 11. In the formula E = mc 2, what does E stand for? 12. Surprisingly, Peter's cat mothers his pet dog's puppies. 13. What he is after is a mystery to me. 14. Interrupting other people is likely to result in an argument. 25

32 15. Following a long travel on one of the roughest country roads on camel back is a rather long climb down into a deep pit. 16. Down rock two large stones. 17. Tomorrow's hearing in the Central Court will be of a decisive character. 18. Surprisingly, this tiny boat houses more than a dozen people. 19. Only when he tried the new jacket on did he realize how much weight he had gained recently. 20. Not only can she play the guitar, she is a fine singer as well. 21. The problem so far has been how we will handle the high rate of unemployment. 22. Here lies the grave of the fireman who helped save children in the Orphanage. 23. Yesterday, many crops were damaged due to a severe freeze unknown to living memory. 24. Nicotine deposits in lungs to form cancer and other forms of lung disorder. 25. That was definitely the wrong decision to take under these circumstances. 26. Then, Tom and his closest friends head into the manager office and slam the door. 27. Under on condition will your money be refunded. 28. Pete aims to celebrate the Valentine's Day with his girlfriend out in the country. 29. Deep down in this mine lie rich deposits of titanium. 30. Students reserving a room in advance need to sign in at least 24 hours before they move in. 31. Should you feel in need, I'm in my room. 32. There seem to be several advantages of doing exercises early in the morning. 33. Salute the flag before you step aboard a military boat. 34. Modern offices are generally equipped with micro-processors. 35. Decorated with balloons and colourful ribbons was there a beautiful Mercedes. 36. There is hardly any point in insisting on the old plan. 37. Swimming in a lake may well be dangerous. 38. The little girl mouthed the word so that her mother wouldn't hear what she was telling. 39. We will try and reach the spot that the helicopter pilot pointed. 40. Hardly anyone actually intends to kill themselves when they attempt for suicide. 26

33 Bileşik tümcede Ana Tümce ile Yan Tümceyi birbirine bağlayan yapıyı (= clause marker) belirleyin. (Genel Çeviri 1 kitabı bu konuda size kaynak teşkil edecektir.) Kimi zaman bu yapının unsurları birbirinden çeşitli sözcüklerle ayırılmış olabilir. Mary, [the president of the family council,] conferred upon Robert the title vicepresident, // because she thought /{that} he would do a good job. Alıştırma 6 Aşağıdaki tümcelerde tümce türünü belirleyip yanına Relative Clause (RC), Noun Clause (NC), Comparison Clause (CC), Adverbial Clause (AC), Verbless Clause (VC) yazın (bu yapıların her biri Genel Çeviri 1 kitabında ayrıntılı olarak işlenmekte). İlk beş tümce örnek olarak yapılmıştır. 1. Do you know the tax collector operating in this town? (RC) 2. He was lying in front of the grate, unconscious. (VC) 3. Soon after the war was over, he was shot accidentally. (AC) 4. He claims that speeding on roads is not so dangerous. (NC) 5. We aren't experienced enough to teach these students. (CC) 6. As long as there is water available, I can live on any island. 7. The place where he left his car was a remote village near Kent. 8. Actually, you can't go wherever you want. 9. Hardly had he entered when he noticed the missing table. 10. Amused, they spent a minute or two outside the pub. 11. They were so terrified that they could hardly speak. 12. That counting all these paper files will take up a lot of our time is obvious. 13. Who is the youngest in this class? 14. Youngest members of the club have appealed that they are given better priority at the election. 15. He arrived at the scene of the accident, too late. 16. They are planning to do away with the Chairman, which is to say that we are in for a terrible chaos. 17. The sooner you complete the project, the more time you will have to revise it. 18. It is usually argued that Mexican people do not pay attention to time. 19. Now that we have come to a conclusion, we can get back to our original question. 20. The statue erected a year ago has, unfortunately, been damaged. 27

34 Aşağıdaki tümcelerden bazılarında birden fazla clause yapı bulunmaktadır. Bunları tanımlayın. 21. They usually argue that the closer you get to the Equator, the less likely you are to see clocks in parks and town halls. 22. I am really sick and tired of her repeatedly asking for help for so trivial matters. 23. Swimming in the pond, the boys splashed water and threw mud at one another. 24. The thing which annoys me most is the fact that though they know nothing bout engineering, they are the ones to decide whether or not the project is feasible. 25. Would you please return the books you borrowed as soon as possible? 26. Seeing that he was getting uneasy, we decided to leave the room silently to give him a chance to talk to the psychiatrist in private. 27. Nowhere can you find so nasty people as those who live by the mountain peak. 28. What we intend to do here is to start a new scheme and thus provide the young with opportunities to participate in the political system. 29. I had been working peacefully when, suddenly one day, the personnel manager invited me into his office on the top floor to tell me something extremely important. 30. The children got so much bored with the puppet show, they started playing games right there, in the middle of the auditorium. 31. Is it true that the woman standing over there is deaf and dumb? 32. Under no circumstances are we authorized to give our price list as this might cause competition. 33. Because not many people can afford to buy a car, most banks offer credit. 34. The new secretary the job office recommended is not as competent as she seems to be. 35. Provided that there is plenty of time and equipment, it is likely that anyone in your position can learn what you have been doing so far. 36. Even though she studied as hard as she could, she failed to enter the test simply because she went into the testing room almost an hour late. 37. The milkman, seeing that the front door had been left ajar, opened the door cautiously to see the young woman sitting in a wooden chair, her eyes fixed on the side window. 38. How many copies do we need to have to submit to the committee? 39. Where the children have been playing used to be a shopping center almost a decade ago. 40. What I have always wanted to do is to find a person intelligent enough to understand what I'm talking about. 28

35 Alıştırma 7 Aşağıdaki tümcelerin bazıları bileşik tümce, bazılarında ise bir "tümcecik" ("tümcecik" kavramı, yan tümce niteliğini taşımayan, yüklemden yoksun birim için kullanılmakta) yer almakta. Tümceleri inceleyin. 1. Not so sure, he raised his head to read the document. 2. Before the end of the concert, most of the audience had already left. 3. People living in the desert depend on dates and other fruit for water. 4. Through their electing the former Interior Minister the President, the minority group have challenged the majority's authority. 5. Although he lived most of his life in misery, Toulouse Lautrec produced extremely vivid and colourful works. 6. Bats are known to carry rabies from one victim to another without having to suck blood or bite. 7. Located on the high slopes of a mountain, Katmandu attracted hundreds of thousands of young people in the 60's and 70's. 8. King Henry VIII, notorious for his tragic marriages, is an important character in English history. 9. Our planet, though it is not the largest in our solar system, seems to be the only planet to have an atmosphere to provide enough oxygen for life. 10. Calling themselves members of the Red Army of Italy, these terrorists terrorized Italy for almost a decade, killing and kidnapping various important figures. 11. As well as being a tourist site, Antalya is famous for its international harbour. 12. Australia, which is now the smallest continent, was once one part of a larger continent. 13. Unless we have a better plan by tomorrow morning, we can have no chance of earning our clients' trust. 14. That it rained so much, after all these dark clouds, is not surprising at all. 15. At the far end of the long corridor stood an antique coat-hanger. 16. Which class will first use the language lab is the crucial question here. 17. Whatever they claim it to be, this plan is a complete fake. 18. Count Dracula, the famous hero in horror books, originally lived centuries ago. 19. Do many people apply for the summer courses at the institute? 20. Can you repeat "Two witches are watching two watches; which witch would watch which watch?" without reading the sentence? 29

36 3. Anlam düzeyinde sorunlar Bu aşamada tümcenin yansıttığı anlamın Türkçeye aktarılması hedeflenmektedir. Dikkat etmeniz gereken noktalar şunlar: Anlamı kavramak için mevcut tüm ipuçlarını (bağlam, çizim, dipnot, kıyaslama gibi) kullanın. Bu amaçla, tüm metni dikkatle okuyun. Önemli olan, İngilizce tümcenin yapısal niteliklerinin aktarılması değil, anlamının yansıtılmasıdır. Bu nedenle de, İngilizce tümcenin uzunluğunda bir Türkçe tümce üretmek gibi bir amaç güdülmemelidir. İngilizce tümcedeki her bir sözcüğün Türkçeye aktarılması gerekmediği gibi, olduğu gibi aktarılması da anlamsız olacaktır. Örneğin,... make concessions... yapısını.. tavizler yapmak.. olarak Türkçeye aktarmak hiç de doğru olmayacaktır.... tavizlerde bulunmak../.. taviz vermek... olarak aktarılması gerekir. 4. Bütünlük düzeyinde sorunlar Bütünlük aşamasında, Türkçeye aktarılmış olan tümcenin kendisinden önceki ve sonraki tümcelerin, içinde bulunduğu paragrafın ve en son olarak da metnin anlamı ile uyum için de olup olmadığının incelenmesi gerekir. Genel Çeviri 2 kitabının bu konusunda, değinilen bu aşamaların ilk ikisi ele alınmakta. Diğer ikisi ise bir sonraki konuda işlenmekte. Alıştırma 8 Tümce analizi için kimi zaman dilbilgisi ve sözcük bilgisi ile ilgili sorunları çözümlemek yeterli olmamakta. Örneğin, aşağıda verilen tümceyi Türkçeye aktarmayı deneyin. The people who live next door but one have a revolting cat. (revolting [adj.]= iğrenç) Tümcenin anlamını aktarmayı başaramazsanız, bir de sorunu oluşturan yapının kullanıldığı aşağıdaki tümceyi inceleyin. Our house is the last but one on the left-hand side. Çeviriyi yine de başaramadıysanız, bu yapı aşağıdaki kısa paragrafta da ele alınmakta. 30

37 I live in a quiet part of the town. My neighbours are all retired people who spend the entire day either watching television or sitting in the veranda and knitting. Some have interesting habits like model-ship building, and some have pet animals, mainly cats. For example, the Bucks', living next door, own a beautiful Siamese cat. Those who live next door but one have a revolting cat. Walk two houses further left, and you will see the smallest dog you are ever likely to meet. Alıştırma 9 Bir önceki alıştırmada olduğu gibi, bu alıştırmada tüm sözcüklerinin anlamını bildiğiniz bir tümcenin analizini yapmanız gerekmekte. I didn't notice that the bus had stopped to pick up some passengers, and I went straight into the back of it. Sizce bu tümceyi söyleyen kişi nerede? Tümce içinde görüşlerinizi destekleyen ipuçları neler? İşleme Alıştırma 1 Aşağıdaki tümcelerde 1. tümcenin sözcüklerinin Türkçe karşılığını saptayın; 2. yüklem olabilecek sözcükleri belirleyin; 3. bunlardan hangisinin esas yüklem olduğunu saptayın; 4. tümce basit tümce ise unsurlarını / işareti ile birbirinden ayırın; 5. tümce bileşik tümce ise ana tümce ile yan tümceyi // işareti ile ayırın; clause yapıları tanımlayın; 6. tümcede şimdilik bir kenara bırakılabilecek unsurları [ ] ile belirleyin; 7. tümceyi Türkçeye aktarın; 8. çevirinizde kullandığınız Türkçenin güncel, anlam bakımından özgün tümcenin anlamına uygun olup olmadığını kontrol edin. 1. Some drugs intended to counteract insomnia are not without dangerous side effects. 2. A wild animal is more apt to be irascible when hungry than when satiated. 3. To prove a Rembrandt painting authentic is to make certain it was painted by Rembrandt himself. 4. Papers which document the inception of a country's new government provide historical records of its beginnings. 5. The law requires that gifts of eloquence be reported accurately on the owner's income tax return. 6. A year by year increase in the number of a company's pensioners may not necessarily reflect company growth. 7. A driver who covers a distance of 1200 kilometres in three days averages 400 kilometres per day. 8. Any statesman who opposes liberalizing immigration quotas objects to the entrance of immigrants into his country. 31

38 9. To state that ocean temperatures are fairly stable over vast areas does not rule out the possibility of temperature differences. 10. Not everyone properly described as eccentric possesses the essential qualities of genius. 11. An agreement to increase spending for research hardly guarantees the success of the project dependent upon that research. 12. Discrepancies in the testimony of a court witness tend to discredit his reliability. 13. The superstition that red infuriates a bull results form mistaking coincidence for cause and effect. 14. Culture includes all the ways of behaving which an individual learns from others as a member of society. 15. Because athlete's foot and other fungus infections depend upon individual susceptibility, the widespread use of preventive techniques has not been adopted. 16. Notwithstanding its general acceptance, the idea that all nature exists for the direct benefit of the human race rests on no reliable foundation. 17. The four-minute mile wouldn't amount to much were it not for the fact that the human body is poorly adapted for running or anything else but thinking. 18. It is probable that out of any large group of top-rank scientists a fair proportion will be neither saints nor sinners. 19. Feudal landowners, instead of pursuing the system of farming their lands by the labour of their dependants, became landlords by receiving rent for the use of their lands. 20. Animals with backbones constitute but a relatively small proportion of living things and are a comparatively recent group without the length of history behind them possessed by many other types of plants and animals. 21. This comprehensive plan for a system of common schools was, in the face of the most discouraging opposition, constantly adhered to Thomas Jefferson, although he did not live to see universal education an accomplished fact. 22. The director agreed to whittle the entries down to about 1000 volunteered paintings which would go into the show along with offerings from a specially invited group of already recognized name artists. 23. The central idea of English mercantilism was that as the whole is greater than any of its parts, the national economy should aim at the prosperity of the nation as a whole, even when that meant the disadvantage of one segment or another. 32

39 Alıştırma 2 Tümce ile en yakın anlamı taşıyan tümceyi işaretleyin. Daha sonra tümceyi analiz edin. 1. Not even a genius is capable of high anger and high thinking at one and the same time. a. The ability to think and the habit of anger develop at different times in a person's life. b. Good thinking does not take place during periods of violent anger. 2. A large part of the British and American press has in effect abandoned the pretence of dealing exclusively with facts. a. Some British and American newspapers no longer pretend to deal only with the facts. b. Many British and American newspapers print only the facts. 3. A widely held myth is that the common people always applaud the spending of public money in their behalf, but oppose the levying of taxes. a. It is widely believed that the common people will favour the spending of public money on their behalf, but oppose the levying of taxes. b. It is true that the common people will favour the spending of public money on their behalf, but oppose the levying of taxes. 4. A genius glories in his willingness to be wrong; for probing in the dark for the truth is bound to bring ninety-nine fruitless gropings for one successful grasp. a. Typically, the search for truth is marked by more mistakes than successes. b. A true genius may experience many failures before he finds success. 5. Tourists in Canada impressed by the Frenchness or the Englishness of the people are astonished to learn that one of every five Canadians is other than French or British in origin. a. Tourists in Canada are astonished to learn that the majority of the people who live there are neither French nor English in origin. b. Although visitors to Canada are impressed by the French or English characteristics of the people, substantial numbers of Canadians are neither French nor British in origin. 6. The only difference between electricity generated in an atomic plant and electricity produced in ordinary steam generating plants is in the fuel that heats the water for steam to spin the generator. a. Electricity produced in an atomic plant is no more dangerous than any other electricity. b. Electricity produced in an atomic plant is exactly the same as electricity produced in a steam generating plant. 33

40 7. In the case of a living author, an appraisal of his personal character on the basis of what he publishes may unduly sanctify him or, on the other hand, justify a suit for libel. a. Any appraisal of an author's character on the basis of the writings will justify a suit for libel. b. The evaluation of a man's character on the basis of his writings is not necessarily valid. 8. Any substance taken into body that can be utilized for the release of energy, for the regulation of body processes, or for the building or repair of tissues falls into the category of food. a. To be classified as a food, a substance must have all these properties: it must help release energy, help regulate body processes, and build or repair body tissue. b. A substance is food if, when taken into the body, it can be used to release energy. 9. The effects of an increasing majority of women upon our society are certain to be formidable. a. The effects of an increasing majority of women upon our society may prove to be trifling. b. The effects of an increasing majority of women upon society will be menacing. 10. Although the monastic schools were hostile to classical literature as representing the temptations of the world, and religious beliefs prevented the use of any work of science, they preserved for us a considerable amount of Greek and Roman culture. a. Today we are indebted to the monastic schools for some of our understanding of Greek and Roman culture. b. Since the monastic schools opposed the teaching of classical literature, it is doubtful that they performed any valuable service. 11. Patriotic sensitiveness to differences between English and American usage of the language did not appear until after the revolution, and sprang not from a sense of lack or fault in American English, but rather from an unwillingness to use English textbooks. a. After the Revolution American patriots were sensitive about their faulty use of English. b. Sensitiveness to differences in English and American use of the language grew out of an unwillingness to use English textbooks. 12. Radiant energy from the sun is the source of practically all the forces that man directs upon the earth. a. There is no power or force under the control of man that did not have its source in the radiant energy from the sun. b. Most of the forces that man directs on the earth had their sources in the radiant energy of the sun. 34

41 13. Any disease or injury which occurs during the course of employment and raises out of that employment is defined by law as an industrial injury. a. A disease arising out of employment but developing after the termination of employment is not legally an industrial injury. b. To be defined by law as an industrial injury a disease or injury must have two characteristics: it must occur during employment and arise out of that employment. 14. As long as America remained overwhelmingly English, it was English music that dominated and the music of the literate classes included more hymns than love songs. a. During the British period in America the music of the educated people consisted largely of British hymns. b. Learned people in America during the British period had little music of any kind. 15. Had the author expressed his own considered opinions as to the importance of each thread in his story, he would have enhanced the book so as to make it the ultimate word on the subject. a. The book does not constitute the final word on the subject. b. No book is valuable which does not include the author's opinions. 16. The value of collective action in providing the means of public education - an unknown value in Europe in the seventeenth century - was not promptly found in the New World. a. A strong desire for public education was one of the reasons for the establishment of the colonies of the New World. b. The value of group action in providing the means of public education was not known in seventeenth century Europe. 17. Animals are said to be warm-blooded or cold-blooded: the former means that they have a constant body temperature while the latter means that the body temperature varies with the external temperature. a. The temperature of cold-blooded reptiles is lower in cold weather than in warm weather. b. The body temperature of cold-blooded animals is always lower than the body temperature of warm-blooded animals. 18. There are savage peoples today with whom the year is a somewhat indefinite unit, while the moon and its phases are so evident and impressive that the calendar is for these tribes an enumeration of moons. a. Since the savage peoples can see the moon and its changes, they are more impressed by it than by the year which they cannot see. b. Savage peoples who cannot think in terms of the year as a unit of time can not keep an accurate calendar. 35

42 19. Geometry has its origin in the valley of the Nile where it developed to meet a practical need; it was used in the measurement of the earth's surface in the restoration of boundaries obliterated by the annual inundations of the river. a. Originally geometry was developed to weigh and measure the dirt displaced by the overflowing waters of the Nile. b. The original geometry text was buried for centuries in the flooded lands beside the Nile. 20. A school which places a premium on intellectual achievement is less concerned with athletics than with superior academic students. a. Superior students are rarely good athletes. b. If a school strives chiefly for superior academic standing, it is more interested in good students than in good athletes. 21. All told, the South produces almost half of out lumber and the proportion may well increase, for the climate encourages secondgrowth timber. a. Because of the climate, the South may in time produce fifty per cent or more of our lumber. b. The climate of the South encourages the growth of the finest timber in the country. 22. Prices are determined in part by the forces of demand on the buyer's side and by supply and cost of production on the seller's side. a. A company with the sole right to a patent can ask and get any price it wishes for the patented product. b. The cost of production, the size of supply, and the demand for the product are all factors which help to determine the price. 23. We are accustomed to thinking of bacteria as omnipresent and versatile, playing a many role in the drama of life, now helping and now hindering. a. We are used to the idea that some bacteria are helpful and others harmful. b. Bacteria are all alike in that they are present everywhere and always a danger to man. 24. An industry that is protected by the government is in dangerous position, for the ability to improve manufacturing techniques cannot be developed under the soft blanket of protection. a. An industry is most apt to improve its manufacturing techniques if it enjoys freedom from fear of competition. b. In a sense, governmental protection serves as a hindrance rather than a help to an industry. 36

43 25. The Spartans dwelt in the midst of hostile people they had subjugated, and strength, courage, and obedience to the laws had to be developed in their youth if they were to survive. a. The training of Spartan youth was determined in part at least by the nearness of unfriendly people. b. Since they lived in the midst of the conquerors, Spartan youths were forced to learn obedience. 26. Let it not be supposed that scientific descriptions rob nature of her beauty or that our delighted sense of colour is in any danger of being blunted by tracing the sources of our sensations. a. If we attempt to describe a sunset scientifically we are no longer able to appreciate its beauty. b. Nature itself is not changed by our efforts to describe it scientifically. 27. A diplomat who goes to a country where modes of salutation are different from those he has already learned must be carefully instructed lest he shock the expectations of the nation which he seeks to influence. a. If a diplomat is to influence the country to which he goes, he must not behave in any way which is contrary to expectation. b. A foreign country has been offended by a diplomat who failed to know and observe its modes of salutation. 28. When primitive man evolved to the level where he practised barter, which is one step above anything of which an animal is capable, the range of attention was infinitely broader than it was at the stage of robbery. a. In the history of man the stage of stealing precedes the stage of trading. b. Early trading was accompanied by music and group celebrations. Alıştırma 3 Verilen tümceleri sorulara göre inceleyin. Birinci sorunun yanıtı örnek olarak verilmekte. 1. Which of the following sentences was written by a football fan? a. Despite the fact that the game of basketball is of great appeal, it is definitely unable to match the extraordinary individual skills of the professional players or seasonlong build up of excitement that football provides. b. Football used to be a perfect game, the favourite game of whole Europe, Asia, Africa and South America; however, times have changed and football has fallen behind the times, its place in the media having been taken by professional basketball. 2. Which of the following statements was written by a supporter of drugcontrol laws? a. In fact, it is not our wish to limit individual freedoms, but we cannot allow the use of even mild drugs as the situation currently is. b. Much as we understand the fear that widespread use of drugs leads to increased social problems, we still insist on the fundamental right of our citizens to freely use anything they choose to do so. 37

44 3. Which of the following statements was written by a person who likes Venice? a. For all its lovers' claims that Venice has once again become a beautiful city to be proud of, there is a great deal to be said for the jokes you hear about the city on radio and television. b. Thanks to recent nation-wide efforts, it has once again become a city to be proud of, despite the jokes you hear on radio and television about Venice and its slow sinking into the waters of the Aegean, 4. Which of the following statements was written by a language learner who prefers native speaker teachers to non-native speaker teachers? a. Their outstanding tolerance and even their almost perfect knowledge of foreign language notwithstanding, non-native language teachers simply cannot fill the gap that native speakers obviously is unaware of. b. They may obviously lack some of the cultural and even the linguistic advantages that non-native speaker teachers seem to have, but native speaker teachers more than make up for this with their excellent knowledge of the language that they teach. 5. Which of the following statements was written by an opponent of hunting? a. Hunting may have its opponents but they are usually people who either have never had the experience of hunting or are unable to feel the great excitement of this lovely activity. b. Hunters and some other people may well say anything they want about the excitement of the hunting, or the idea that the hunter is in a way an environmentalist, but that does nothing to hide the fact that it is the wild animals that suffer. 6. Which of the following statements was written by a proponent of the idea that circus is dying? a. In our modern age, with its freely available entertainment, accessible at the turn of a television or radio switch, the circus is simply an artificial activity, although it used to be quite popular in the past. b. Of course the circus has suffered a lot from the sort of competition that takes advantage of modern technology; yet, there is a vast qualitative difference in being present at a live performance which, however luxurious it may be, can never be replaced by video-recorded performances. 7. Which of the following statements by written by a vegetarian? a. The argument is sometimes put forward that man is not naturally a vegetarian because he was originally omnivorous; although such a claim may contain a grain of truth, it ignores the obvious fact that there are many aspects of the original human condition that we have seen fit to improve. b. Despite of the insistence of those who exclude meat and fish from their diet that such a course is both spiritually and physically beneficial, there is no evidence that fighting is less prevalent or exceptional longevity more likely in areas where vegetarianism is the rule. 38

45 8. Which of the following statements was written by a detractor of the Prime Minister? a. The Prime Minister has certainly achieved a number of minor improvements and there is no denying that thus far, the country has not quite gone to rack and ruin under his leadership; nevertheless, one searches in vain for the great attitudinal and economic breakthroughs we were so lavishly promised during the course of his campaign. b. Though the great breakthroughs the Prime Minister has promised obviously take some time to engineer, he can nonetheless already point to significant improvements in the nation's standard of living, which are portents of the exciting changes soon to be implemented. 9. Which of the following statements was written by a person in favour of small-town life? a. Possibly there are those who get pleasure from turning back the clock and seeking out the virtues we fondly imagine to have been associated with life in small towns in bygone days. Yet the most superficial perusal of contemporary accounts dealing with such an existence makes it quite clear that sterile deprivation of life's true pleasures would be a much more accurate assessment. b. It is true that city-dwellers and suburbanites have access to certain facilities that may be denied to the inhabitants of small towns. However, what they miss far outweighs such advantages, which, in any case, the vast majority rarely has the time or energy to take advantage of. 10. Which of the following statements was written by someone who opposes a particular job applicant? a. Peter certainly has a number of qualities that would appeal to my colleagues on the selection panel; however, it should be noted that he has a history of flirting from one job to another that is hardly consistent with this company's management approach. b. Although Peter has shown perhaps a regrettable tendency in the past to move rather quickly from one job to another, he is clearly the best-qualified candidate and would undoubtedly respond to our town brand of company loyalty. 11. Which of following statements by written by a tour operator? a. The cost of the tour is admittedly high. Against this, though, consideration must be given to the fact that it offers a unique opportunity to visit one of the world's most extraordinary tourist attractions in the company of congenial fellow-explorers and expert guides. b. However unusual the opportunity or expert the accompanying personnel, these can hardly be a justification for charging an amount that appears to fall not far short of the Gross National Product in some of the world's less developed nations, including that which is the destination of this "extraordinary" tour. 39

46 Üretme Alıştırma 1 Metinlerin içinde koyu yazılı tümceleri inceleyin. 1. Like any theory of importance, that of social or cultural anthropology was the work of many minds and took on many forms. Some, the best known of its opponents, worked on broad areas and attempted to describe and account for the development of human civilization in its totality. Others restricted their efforts to specific aspects of the culture, taking up the evolution of art, or the state, or religion. 2. In recent years there have been many reports of a growing impatience with psychiatry, with its seeming foreverness, its high cost, its debatable results, and its vague, esoteric terms. To many people it is like a blind man in a dark room looking for a black cat that is not there. The magazines and mental health associations say psychiatric treatment is a good thing, but what it is or what it accomplishes has not been made clear. Alıştırma 2 Tümceleri analiz edin ve Türkçeye aktarın. 1. As a result of the Ice Age, which evolved about 1 million years into the Palaeolithic Age, people were forced to seek shelter in caves, wear clothing, and develop new tools. 2. It is true that that that that I used in the sentence is not that that that we saw in the relative clause structures. 3. The Greeks attached so much importance to the Olympic Games that they calculated time in four-year cycles called "Olympiads" dating from 776 B.C. 4. On the other hand, the heterotrophic fungus, which depends on other elements to provide its food, not only absorbs and stores water for the plant, but also helps protect it. 5. The lichen's strong resistance to its hostile environment and its ability to live in harmony with such environment is one example that humanity should consider in trying to solve its own problems. 40

47 6. Years after discovery of the Rosetta stone, Jean François Champollion, a French philologist, fluent in several languages, was able to decipher the first word - Ptolemy - name of an Egyptian ruler. 7. The combination of carbon and hydrogen forms many thousands of compounds which are possible because of the various positions and joinings of these two atoms in the hydrocarbon molecule. 8. As brutal as the human sacrifice ceremonies were, the victims (usually taken from among captives from battles) accepted their fate passively, having been previously indoctrinated and heavily sedated. 9. The residue remaining after the light oils are distilled is known as heavy or residual fuel oil and is used mostly for burning under boilers. 10. What "Pete" the groundhog does next, many believe, will indicate whether spring is just around the corner or a long way off. 11. Children reared in poverty tend, on the average, to do poorly on tests of intelligence. 12. Probably the most lasting of the Roman heritage to the world can be found in laws based on Roman legal principles as found in England, Latin America, and the United States, as well as the Roman alphabet which forms the basis of many languages among which are English, Spanish, and German. 13. Article II of the United States Constitution states that only natural-born citizens of the United States who have attained the age of 35 years and who have resided in the United States for 14 years may become president. 41

48 Sınama Alıştırma Verilen süre içinde, metinle ilgili soruyu yanıtlayın ve tümceleri analiz edin dakika The Inca were originally a small warlike tribe inhabiting the south highland region of the Cordillera Central in Peru. The Incas had never acquired the art of writing, but they had developed a complicated system of knotted cords called quipus. These were made of the wool of the alpaca or llama, dyed in various colors, the significance of which was known to the officials. The cords were knotted in such a way as to represent the decimal system. Thus an important message relating to the progress of crops, the amount of taxes collected, or the advance of an enemy could be speedily sent by trained runners along the post roads. a) Yazıları olmadığı için, İnkalar basit, az gelişmiş bir toplum olarak görülürler. b) İnkalar düğümlü ip sistemini düşmanlarından aldılar. c) Hem iplerin rengi hem de düğümlenme biçimleri quipus'ın yansıttığı anlamın bir bölümüdür. d) İpler koşucular yolu ile gönderildiği için, İnkaların vergileri de bu koşucular yolu ile topladıklarını da rahatlıkla ileri sürebiliriz dakika There was a time when scholars held that early man lived in a kind of beneficent anarchy, in which each person was granted his rights by his fellows and there was no governing or being governed. Various early writers looked back to this Golden Age but the point of view that man was originally a child of nature is best known to us in the writings of Rousseau, Locke, and Hobbes. These men described the concept of social contract, which they said had put an end to the state of nature in which earliest man is supposed to have lived. a) Rousseau, Locke ve Hobbes'a göre, sosyal ilişki kavramı ilk insanların yaşadığı menfaate dayalı anarşi dönemine bir son verdi. b) Bu metnin yazarının, yönetim kavramının insan tarihinde her zaman için var olduğu düşüncesinde olduğu sonucunu çıkarabiliriz. c) Bu metinde değinilen yazarlar, insanın Altın Dönem'inde yaşadılar. d) Yazara göre, bilimadamları bugün de ilk insanın bir tür anarşi dönemi geçirdiği düşüncesini taşımaktadırlar. 42

49 4 Tümce analizi ve çevirisi Giriş Sunu Ġşleme Üretme Sınama

50 Giriş Bir önceki konu ile bağlantılı olan bu konuda, tümce analizinin ardından tümce çevirisi işlenmekte. Dördüncü konuya başlamadan önce, tümce analizinin incelendiği üçüncü konuyu ayrıntılı bir biçimde incelediğinizden emin olun. Üçüncü konuda, tümcenin analizi için önerilen temel noktaları unutmayın: 1. Sözcük düzeyinde sorunlar. 2. Dilbilgisi düzeyinde sorunlar. Tümcenin türü (basit ya da bileşik) Tümcenin unsurları (Ö+Y+N) as, for, since, yet sözcükleri Değinme sözcükleri that, -ing, V 3 yapıları 3. Anlam düzeyinde sorunlar 4. Bütünlük düzeyinde sorunlar Sunu Genel Çeviri 2 kitabının üçüncü konusunda tümcenin analizine ilişkin notlar ele alındı. Bu konuda ise tümcelerin Türkçeye aktarımı konusunda öneriler sunulmakta. Anlamı zihninizde yapılandırmaya çalışın. Bunu mevcut bilgilerinizle kıyaslayın. Bu yaklaşım bazı dilbilgisi ve sözcük bilgisi sorunları çözümlemenizde yardımcı olacaktır. Anlamı tam olarak kavrayamadıysanız, tümceyi çevirmeye kalkışmayın. Sözlü ya da yazılı olarak tümceyi çevirin. Tümce çok uzunsa ÖZNE+NESNE+YÜKLEM yapısını kullanarak tümceyi inceleyin ve tümceyi unsurlarına ayırarak yazılı çeviri yapın. Örneğin, The great advance in rocket theory 40 years ago showed that liquid-fuel rockets were far superior in every respect to the skyrocket with its weak solid fuel, the only kind of rockets then known. tümcesi incelendiğinde The great advance in rocket theory 40 years ago showed / that liquid-fuel rockets were far superior in every respect to the skyrocket with its (=skyrocket's) weak solid fuel, / the only kind of rocket (which was) then known. yapısı ortaya çıkmakta. Bu da Türkçeye ilk aşamada Roket teorisindeki büyük gelişme 40 yıl önce gösterdi ki sıvı yakıtlı roketler her açıdan zayıf katı yakıtlı uzay roketlerine çok daha üstün; o zamanlar bilinen tek roket türü. olarak aktarılabilir. 44

51 Çevirinizin Türkçesini inceleyin. Roket teorisindeki büyük ilerleme, 40 yıl önce, sıvı yakıtlı roketlerin o zamanlar bilinen tek roket türü olan ve zayıf bir yakıt türü olan katı yakıtları kullanan uzay roketlerinden her açıdan çok daha üstün olduklarını gösterdi. Yaptığınız çevirinin özgün tümcenin anlamını yansıtıp yansıtmadığını kontrol edin. Kimi zaman, aslında tümcenin anlattığı şeyi değil, sizin tümcenin anlattığına inandığınız şeyi çevirmekte olduğunuzu farkedeceksiniz. Bu da sizi çok hatalı çevirilere götürebilir. İşleme Alıştırma Aşağıda verilen tümcelerin tümü üçüncü konuda ele alındı. Bu tümceleri Türkçeye aktarın. 1. Not even a genius is capable of high anger and high thinking at one and the same time. 2. A large part of the British and American press has in effect abandoned the pretence of dealing exclusively with facts. 3. A widely held myth is that the common people always applaud the spending of public money in their behalf, but oppose the levying of taxes. 4. A genius glories in his willingness to be wrong; for probing in the dark for the truth is bound to bring ninety-nine fruitless gropings for one successful grasp. 5. Tourists in Montreal impressed by the Frenchness or the Englishness of the people are astonished to learn that one of every five Canadians is other than French or British in origin. 6. The only difference between electricity generated in an atomic plant and electricity produced in ordinary steam generating plants is in the fuel that heats the water for steam to spin the generator. 7. In the case of a living author, an appraisal of his personal character on the basis of what he publishes may unduly sanctify him or, on the other hand, justify a suit for libel. 45

52 8. Any substance taken into body that can be utilized for the release of energy, for the regulation of body processes, or for the building or repair of tissues falls into the category of food. 9. Although the monastic schools were hostile to classical literature as representing the temptations of the world, and religious beliefs prevented the use of any work of science, they preserved for us a considerable amount of Greek and Roman culture. 10. Patriotic sensitiveness to differences between English and American usage of the language did not appear until after the revolution, and sprang not from a sense of lack or fault in American English, but rather from an unwillingness to use English textbooks. 11. The effects of an increasing majority of women upon our society are certain to be formidable. 12. Radiant energy from the sun is the source of practically all the forces that man directs upon the earth. 13. Any disease or injury which occurs during the course of employment and raises out of that employment is defined by law as an industrial injury. 14. As long as America remained overwhelmingly English, it was English music that dominated and the music of the literate classes included more hymns than love songs. 15. The value of collective action in providing the means of public education - an unknown value in Europe in the seventeenth century - was not promptly found in the New World. 46

53 16. Animals are said to be warm-blooded or cold-blooded: the former means that they have a constant body temperature while the latter means that the body temperature varies with the external temperature. 17. Had the author expressed his own considered opinions as to the importance of each thread in his story, he would have enhanced the book so as to make it the ultimate word on the subject. 18. There are savage peoples today with whom the year is a somewhat indefinite unit, while the moon and its phases are so evident and impressive that the calendar is for these tribes an enumeration of moons. 19. Geometry has its origin in the valley of the Nile where it developed to meet a practical need; it was used in the measurement of the earth's surface in the restoration of boundaries obliterated by the annual inundations of the river. 20. A school which places a premium on intellectual achievement is less concerned with athletics than with superior academic students. 21. All told, the South produces almost half of out lumber and the proportion may well increase, for the climate encourages second-growth timber. 22. Prices are determined in part by the forces of demand on the buyer's side and by supply and cost of production on the seller's side. 23. We are accustomed to thinking of bacteria as omnipresent and versatile, playing a many role in the drama of life, now helping and now hindering. 24. An industry that is protected by the government is in dangerous position, for the ability to improve manufacturing techniques cannot be developed under the soft blanket of protection. 25. The Spartans dwelt in the midst of hostile people they had subjugated, and strength, courage, and obedience to the laws had to be developed in their youth if they were to survive. 47

54 26. Let it not be supposed that scientific descriptions rob nature of her beauty or that our delighted sense of colour is in any danger of being blunted by tracing the sources of our sensations. 27. A diplomat who goes to a country where modes of salutation are different from those he has already learned must be carefully instructed lest he shock the expectations of the nation which he seeks to influence. 28. When primitive man evolved to the level where he practiced barter, which is one step above anything of which an animal is capable, the range of attention was infinitely broader than it was at the stage of robbery. Üretme Alıştırma Metni dikkatle okuyun, 3. konuda verilen bilgilere göre koyu yazılı tümceleri inceleyin ve Türkçeye aktarın. TEACHING Teaching is supposed to be a professional activity requiring long and complicated training as well as official certification. The act of teaching is looked upon as a flow of knowledge from a higher source to an empty one. The student's role is one of receiving information; the teacher's is one of sending it. There is a clear distinction assumed between one who is supposed to know (and therefore not capable of being wrong) and another, usually a younger person, who is supposed not to know. However, teaching need not be the province of a special group of people nor need it be looked upon as a technical skill. Teaching can be more like guiding and assisting than forcing information into a supposedly empty head. If you have a certain skill you should be able to share it with someone. You do not have to get certified to convey what you know to someone else or to help them in their attempt to teach themselves. All of us, from the very youngest children to the oldest members of our cultures, should come to realize our own potential as teachers. We can share what we know, however little it might be, with someone who has need of that knowledge or skill. "Teaching" başlıklı bu metin, çeviri derslerime malzeme olarak almamdan çok sonraları, Eylül 1995 tarihinde, metin Türkiye İş Bankası Uzman Yardımcılığı Dil Sınavı'nda İngilizceden Türkçeye çeviri metni olarak kullanıldı. 48

55 Sınama Alıştırma 1 Bu alıştırmada, verilen boşluğu en uygun seçenek ile tamamlayın. Daha sonra tümceleri analiz ederek Türkçeye aktarın (bu alıştırmadaki metinlerin tümü değerli meslektaşım, İngilizce öğretmeni Sahir Köksoy tarafından sağlanmıştır). 1. In youth, most people maintain that black is black, white is white, and gray does not exist. It is only gradually that experience teaches us that there is no absolute evil, so there is no absolute good. Until this lesson is learned, children react either completely for or against everything they face, and tolerance is something which they. a) respect in their parents b) wish they possessed c) cannot comprehend d) have wholly lost 2. Copper is a fairly soft metal and it is easily moulded even when it is cold. It was the first metal that primitive man learned to use in making tools. Copper relics have been found that are older then recorded history. Copper is a lot more extensively used than any other metal except iron. This positive aspect is further supported by the fact that copper is not. a) expensive b) available c) soft d) plentiful 3. Ancient astronomers recognized that the planets were different from the stars. The name planet was given to those heavenly bodies which constantly change their positions with reference to the stars, because planet comes from the Greek word that means. a) bright b) astronomical c) wandering d) reflecting 4. The power of propaganda lies largely in the swiftness of its action. Like an odourless but deadly cloud, it seeps into the atmosphere until it has. a) overpowered all who are exposed to it b) blended harmlessly with the air c) been recognised and counteracted c) created the opposite of its intended effect 49

56 5. Scarcely any create that lives and breathes is as universally hated as the rat. Rats are carriers of many diseases. They give some service as scavengers, but this is overbalanced by their. a) harmful activities b) popularity as pets c) odd appearance d) sanitary value 6. One factor which affects the rate of chemical change is temperature. With few exceptions, an increase in temperature increases the rate of a chemical reaction. Most reactions at the temperature of boiling water are hundreds of times as fast as at room temperature. To slow down changes in foods, our kitchens are equipped with. a) thermometers b) refrigerators c) ventilators d) fire alarms 7. Most solids expand when their temperature rises. Because of this, concrete highways are made in sections that do not touch. The spaces between the sections are filled with tar, which oozes from the cracks in hot weather. If the road were not made in sections, the expansion of the solid concrete in hot weather would cause it to. a) expand b) meet c) buckle d) contract 8. Ideas are essential in the diet of business. A business gets hungry just as a man does. A man cannot live without food, and a business cannot advance without. a) ideas b) influence c) tradition d) budgeting 9. Coal formation began millions of years ago when giant plants died and formed a decayed vegetable matter called peat. Mud and sand covered the peat when large areas of earth sank below the ocean. Pressure and heat from water, sand, and mud caused the peat to form coal. The greater the depth of the earth above the peat, the greater the pressure of the peat and harder the coal. Anthracite, the hardest grade of coal, usually lies in the coal beds that are. a) easiest to mine b) in greatest demand c) most plentiful d) deepest 50

57 10. Alfred Bernhard Nobel ( ) was a Swedish chemist who invented dynamite and some other chemicals. He became very wealthy and in his will set up a large fund to pay annual awards in the five fields of physics, chemistry, physiology of medicine, literature, and international peace. The prizes average about $40,000, and aside from this it is a great honour to receive. a) $40,000 b) such a legacy c) the Nobel professorship d) a Nobel prize 11. Of all the lawbreakers in the thirties, only about 15 percent were ever arrested, 2 percent convicted, and 1 percent actually punished. One of the most pressing social problems was. a) lax law enforcement b) overcrowded prisons c) ambiguous laws d) prohibition violators 12. The total volume of long-distance trade during the Middle Ages was relatively small. Most areas where people lived were self-sufficient in the matter of the necessities of life. Transport was expensive and slow, whether by land or by sea. Goods that were carried in international trade were, for the most part,. a) breadstuffs b) luxury items c) woollen cloth d) oriental imports 13. It is an obvious and familiar fact that the younger a child, the less individually differentiated he is. Physically, all newborn children are. a) extremely active b) difficult to manage c) very much like their parents d) very much alike 14. The climate in equatorial regions is uniform throughout the year. There is nothing that can be called. a) a tropical climate b) a change of season c) the beginning of the year d) the heat of the noonday 15. Clothes keep us warm by keeping heat from escaping from the body. Wool keeps us especially warm because its fibers hold a layer of still air that is an excellent. a) source of heat b) cooling system for the body c) conductor of heat d) shield against heat loss 51

58 16. Scientists are constantly working to refine man's accuracy in the measurement of time. The most accurate method so far is a cesium clock that is accurate to two parts in a billion. Your watch would not be more than one second off 330 years from now if it ran with this accuracy. Polaris submarines and satellites in orbit many miles above the earth are dependent upon accuracy in estimating their location. This in turn depends upon. a) discovery of new metals b) rapid calculations c) ultimate accuracy in timing d) skilled navigation 17. During the last half of the nineteenth century, the United States and Germany made rapid progress in industrialization. Their deposits of coal and iron - essential factors in developing industry - aided them in becoming. a) self-sufficient b) cultural centers c) manufacturing centers d) democracies 18. Zoos spend a lot of money duplicating natural conditions for the keeping of captive animals. Much success has been achieved in this area, as exemplified by the case of three magpies. A storm blew open the door to the magpie cage and three of the blue Himalayan birds escaped. Reports from all over the big city told of the birds roosting on buildings, statues, and so forth. The day after the escape the magpies returned to their cage at the zoo, indicating that they. a) feared harm b) relished harm b) felt at home d) disliked captivity 19. The stimulus given to us by challenging tasks is necessary for the survival of our civilization. When we are no longer forced by necessity to work, unless we stir ourselves to activity we will perish. Deterioration began in the civilizations of Greece and Rome when the people became. a) barbaric b) participators c) spectators d) professionals 20. One generation often finds itself trying to protect its laws against the next generation, which would change the laws. Youth often thinks the previous generation resists change, and the older generation sometimes criticizes youth as being too. a) conforming b) indifferent c) energetic d) rebellious 52

59 21. Elephant hunting may not be so dangerous as some men have thought. A herd of elephants will usually flee from a hunter but, if the hunter comes upon a herd of elephants at close range, they may charge. Since the elephant has very poor eyes, the hunter's best protection is to get out range of the elephant's. a) tusks b) hearing c) herd d) vision 22. One of the pleasantest things in the world is going on a journey, but I like to go by myself. I can enjoy society in a room; but outdoors, nature is. a) best when seen by a friend b) company enough for me c) best enjoyed by a group d) not as pleasant as a book 23. Aristotle, a philosopher of ancient Greece was the first person we know of to write down descriptions of animals. His observations and classifications are extremely accurate to have been written over two thousand years ago. Aristotle is often credited with being the first. a) zoologist b) anthropologist c) philosopher d) botanist 24. An ocean-bottom seismograph has been designed to record natural earth tremors and remote nuclear explosions at a great distance under the surface of the ocean. The device operates unattended. It senses, gathers, and stores information on magnetic tape for later recovery and. a) construction b) defence c) interpretation d) recording 25. Rome and Carthage were great rivals for many years. For more than a century these two powers. a) traded with smaller powers b) struggled for supremacy c) protected each other d) lived peacefully together 53

60 26. Researchers are studying a popular Japanese rose that can be cultivated into a matted hedge. When a car runs off the road into a large tree, the shock of the impact is absorbed by the tree abruptly, endangering the car's occupants. In contrast, a hedge of these roses absorbs the shock of a collision gently. It is thought that this Japanese rose, planted in hedges along highways, could reduce. a) destruction of trees b) driving speeds c) traffic deaths d) careless driving 27. Although broken-down rock provides the basic material from which soil is formed, it is not soil. True soil in which plants will grow contains organic matter, that is, decayed animal and vegetable matter. Without this organic matter, broken rock, no matter how finely-broken it may be, is still only. a) organic rock b) top soil c) mountain soil d) rock 28. For many years the Chinese carefully guarded the secret of their method of raising silkworms and making silk. Anyone caught carrying silk worms or their eggs out of China was. a) considered a foreigner b) rewarded by the government c) punished by death d) automatically made a prince 29. The "cow war" occurred in 1934 between Minnesota and the Dakotas. A severe drought had dried up all grazing land in the area except for a small part of northwestern Minnesota. Farmers from North and South Dakota drove their cattle to this small area to graze. The governor of Minnesota, fearing that Minnesota cattle would not have enough grazing land, instructed National Guardsmen to prevent any Dakota cattle from crossing the line into Minnesota. The states involved, however, remained on friendly terms throughout the incident. Actually the "cow war". a) involved no cows b) was not a war c) created ill feelings d) attracted more cows 30. The people of the Netherlands, popularly called Hollanders or Dutch, have increased the land area of their country for cultivation by building dikes around a lake, marsh, or sea area to keep it from flooding. The water within the diked area is drained off into canals. The newly drained, dike-protected land is called a polder. Most of the land in the western part of the Netherlands is reclaimed land. This land is flat and. a) is of little use b) is flooded during ocean storms c) is good fishing ground d) lies below sea level 54

61 Alıştırma 2 Bu bölüme kadar sunulan bilgilere göre, aşağıdaki paragraflarda koyu yazılı bölümleri Türkçeye aktarın. 1. In childhood, showing-off takes simple direct forms. A child asking you to look at him as he stands on his head expects (and usually gets) immediate praise. As we grow older we seem to get more cunning in our efforts to draw the attention of others to ourselves. Only a professional acrobat has to go to the lengths of standing on his head to win a round of applause. Adults are capable of the subtlest forms of self-dispraise when they want to boast their achievements. 2. Today young people seem to be anxious to acquire useful knowledge to the exclusion of everything else. They seek knowledge not for its own sake, but so that they will learn how to do a job. But knowledge and education are not one and the same thing. A man may be in command of any number of facts and be brilliant at his job without necessarily being an educated person. Those who measure knowledge solely in terms of its usefulness often deliberately ignore the immense cultural heritage of the past when they regard the study of Latin and Greek as a "waste of time". 3. Nothing worth having is free in the sense that it can be had without effort. If we wish to acquire something, something else must be given in exchange for it. What we give cannot be always measured in terms of money. It can take many forms like time, effort, hard work, or concentration, for only by giving is it possible to receive. In fact, it is doubtful whether anything which appears to be "free" is really worth having. 4. It is not difficult to understand why an eclipse of the sun or moon instilled terror into the hearts of primitive peoples. Natural phenomena like rain, storms, and wind were once inexplicable, and god-like powers were attributed to them. Under such conditions, the blotting-out of the sun, the giver of light, the sudden fall of darkness at noon, could only be interpreted as the most evil of omens. Thousands of years passed before it proved possible to explain why such things happened. But even though science has taken the magic (and fortunately, the terror) out of eclipses, they still figure among the most impressive of all natural occurrences. 55

62 5. It took nothing less than two world wars for women to prove conclusively that they are capable of doing any kind of job, from serving as Minister of Health to driving steam-roller. Yet men are reluctant to acknowledge that women are as capable as they are, and not a few must wish that they had never been given the vote at all. It is fortunate for women, these days, that they do not have to chain themselves to lamp-posts or starve themselves to death to prove a simple point. If they go about the right way, they might even beat men to the moon. 6. The critic, then, has a twofold function: he must illuminate and evaluate. The first of these is quite straightforward. Acting as an intermediary between the artist and the public, a critic should be able to explain the intentions behind a book, a film, a play, or whatever it is he is criticizing. If the critic is reliable we should be better equipped to enjoy, say, a new novel, after we have read what he has to say. The second is far more difficult. When attempting to evaluate a work of art, the critic should be able to see it in relation to all that has gone before and to give his readers some indication of its possible worth. What he gives us, in effect, is his opinion; and more often than not, there are as many opinions as critics. 56

63 3. ve 4. konularda işlenen notlar şu şekilde özetlenebilir: S ÖZCÜK ve terimlerle ilgili sorunlara yönelik olarak yapılması gereken çalışma: Sözlük çalışması Değinme sözcükleri Sözlük kullanarak sözcüklerin Türkçesini bulun. Metin içindeki kullanımlarını anlam ve çeviri açısından inceleyin. D İLBİLGİSİ ile ilgili sorunlara yönelik olarak yapılması gereken çalışma: As, for, since, yet That,gerund,past participle Basit-Bileşik Tümce Clause Marker Ana-Yan Tümce Ö+Y+N Ne anlam taşıdıklarını saptayın. Ne anlam taşıdıklarını saptayın. Tümce türünü saptayın. Bileşik tümcede bağlantı yapısını bulun. // işaretini kullanın. Tümcenin unsurlarını belirleyin. A NLAM ile ilgili sorunlara yönelik olarak yapılması gereken çalışma Bağlam Taslak çeviri Tümceyi, metnin bütününün anlamına göre Türkçeye aktarın. Bu aşamada, çevirinizin Türkçesi konusunda fazla titizlenmeyin. B ÜTÜNLÜK ile ilgili sorunlara yönelik olarak yapılması gereken çalışma Türkçe Çevirinizi, İngilizce metni hiç kullanmadan okuyup düzeltin. 57

64 5 Metin Analizi ve Çevirisi Giriş Sunu Ġşleme-Üretme-Sınama Çeviri için 50 metin 1. Heart Growing vegetables Grounds for divorce Galaxy Language Man's future Ifs of history Lake Turkana Garbology Explain The 800 th life Desertification Women Who's afraid of the silicon chip Education The secret few people could guess United Nations The fountain and the water-jar Lightning The way up to heaven Political parties Women and space Common sense about smoking Intelligence The sacred rac Amber

65 27. Levophobia Self-confidence Magnetism The death penalty Slipper animalcule Tighten you belt Arranged marriages: an alternative to love marriages Nuclear energy Lie detector Barter Art New policy debate Investment Modern constitutions Television Economics and history The Rolling Stones Pioneer 10 pushes forward beyond goals, into the unknown California's germinal brains bank The manager's authority Ethical and legal considerations of public relations practice Human behaviour and social practice Democracy and adult education in Tanzania The twelve bottles of whisky

66 Giriş Genel Çeviri 2 kitabının beşinci konusunda, metin analizi ve çevirisi konusu ele alınmakta. Bu konuda, çeşitli metinler çeviri amacı ile incelenmekte. Metin analizinin aşamalarını tanıtabilmek için her bir metin için çeşitli okuma ve çeviri alıştırmaları verilmekte. Kullanılan simge ve kısaltmaların anlamları ayrıca sayfa 6'da bulunabilir. Konunun bu ilk sayfalarında, metin analizi ve çevirisi konusunda mevcut bilginiz ölçülmekte. Bunun ardından, konularına ve sundukları çeviri sorunlarına göre sınıflandırılmış metinler ve bunlara ait alıştırmalar verilmekte. Sunu Aşağıda, metin analizinin aşamaları örneklerle anlatılmakta. Öncelikle metnin tümünü okuyun The Germany of today has two very different recent pasts. In the aftermath of World War II, the victorious Allies divided up the defeated, devastated country and took away its sovereignty. What happened thereafter reads like a fairy tale in which the west was blessed and the east was cursed. Certainly, the rags-to-riches story of the German Federal Republic is in sharp contrast to the exploitation, repression and corruption story of the German Democratic Republic. Fairy stories have happy endings... and so it was that after 40 years of sun in the west and darkness in the east, the twain finally met - on the sunny side, of course - and became one. Meet United Germany: Perspectives (1992: 24) 1. Sözcük düzeyinde Bu bölümde, sol sütunda sözcükler metindeki haliyle verilmekte ve sizden bu sözcüklerin metin içindeki anlamlarını bulmanız istenmekte. Aşağıdaki tablo örnek vermek amacı ile tamamlandı. Parantez içindeki sayı satır numarasını göstermekte. Metin içinde Yalın hali Sözcük türü Anlamı recent (1) recent sıfat yakın zamana ait aftermath (1) aftermath ad sonrası victorious (2) victorious sıfat zafer kazanmış, galip Allies (2) Allies çoğul ad Müttefikler defeated (2) defeated sıfat yenik devastated (2) devastated sıfat yıkılmış, harap sovereignty (3) sovereignty ad hükümranlık thereafter (3) thereafter zarf ondan sonra 60

67 fairy (4) fairy ad, sıfat peri blessed (4) bless yüklem kutsamak Tümcede blessed sözcüğü the west was blessed olarak edilgen biçimde kullanılmakta. Blessed (kutsanmış) sözcüğünü kullanmak da bu bağlam içinde mümkün. cursed (4) curse yüklem lanetlemek Bless eyleminde olduğu gibi, burada da bir edilgen yapı söz konusu. rags-to-riches (5) rags-to-riches sıfat yoksulluktan varsıllığa sharp (6) sharp sıfat keskin contrast (6) contrast ad zıtlık exploitation (6) exploitation ad sömürü repression (6) repression ad gerileme corruption (6) corruption ad çürüme, bozulma twain (9) twain ad ikili Ayrıca 3. tümcedeki read yüklemine dikkat etmek gerekecek. Bunun nedenini aşağıdaki aşamalar esnasında farkedeceksiniz. 2. Dilbilgisi düzeyinde Bu aşamada, çeşitli alıştırmalar yolu ile, metinde dikkat edilmesi gereken dilbilgisi yapılarına dikkatinizi çekmek amaçlanmakta. İleri aşamalarda, alıştırmalar seyrekleşmekte. Aşağıda, örnek metnin her bir tümcesinin analizini bulabilirsiniz. The Germany of today has two very different recent pasts. Ö Y N In the aftermath of World War I, the victorious Allies divided up the defeated, (Zaman anlatan yapı) Ö Y N devastated country and (the victorious Allies) took away its sovereignty. Ö Y N What happened thereafter reads like a fairy tale in which the west was blessed Ö Y N () Ö Y and the east was cursed. which sözcüğü a fairy tale'i nitelendirmekte. Ö Y 61

68 Certainly, the rags-to-riches story of the German Federal Republic is in sharp contrast to Ö Y the exploitation, repression and corruption story of the German Democratic Republic. Fairy stories have happy endings... Ö Y N and so it was that after 40 years of sun in the west and darkness in the east, öyle oldu () Yan Tümce So it is / So it was türü yapılar sözlüklerde verilmekte. N that sözcüğü, was yüklemini açıklayan bölüme girişi yapan bir : görevi yapmakta. (Noun Clause yapı) the twain finally met [-on the sunny side, of course-] and (they) became one. Ö Y Ö Y N 3. Anlam düzeyinde Örnek metnin tümcelerinin Türkçeye aktarımını aşağıda bulabilirsiniz. The Germany of today has two very different recent pasts. Bugünün Almanyası iki çok farklı yakın geçmişe sahiptir. In the aftermath of World War II, the victorious Allies divided up the defeated, devastated country and took away its sovereignty. İkinci Dünya Savaşı'nın sonrasında, galip Müttefikler yenilmiş, yıkılmış ülkeyi böldüler ve hükümranlığını elinden aldılar. What happened thereafter reads like a fairy tale in which the west was blessed and the east was cursed. Bundan sonra nelerin olduğu, bir peri hikayesi gibi okunur; bu hikayede batı kutsanmakta ve doğu lanetlenmekteydi. Certainly, the rags-to-riches story of the German Federal Republic is in sharp contrast to the exploitation, repression and corruption story of the German Democratic Republic. Elbette, Federal Almanya Cumhuriyeti'nin yoksulluktan varsıllığa uzanan hikayesi Demokratik Cumhuriyeti'nin sömürülme, gerileme ve bozuşma hikayesi ile keskin bir tezat oluşturur. Fairy stories have happy endings... Peri hikayelerinin mutlu sonu vardır. 62

69 and so it was that after 40 years of sun in the west and darkness in the east, the twain finally met - on the sunny side, of course - and became one. ve öyle oldu ki batıda güneşli ve doğuda karanlık geçen 40 yılın ardından bu ikili sonunda birleşti - elbette güneşli tarafta - ve bir oldu. 4. Bütünlük düzeyinde Bu aşamada, tümcelerin hem yapısal hem de anlamsal olarak bir bütün oluşturmasına özen göstermek gerekmektedir. Sizden istenilen, metnin orijinaline bakmadan, çevirinizi anlam ve Türkçeye uygunluk açısından kontrol etmeniz. Bugünün Almanyası iki çok farklı yakın geçmişe sahiptir. Günümüz Almanya'sının iki çok farklı yakın geçmişi vardır. Ġkinci Dünya Savaşı'nın sonrasında, galip Müttefikler yenilmiş, yıkılmış ülkeyi böldüler ve hükümranlığını elinden aldılar. İkinci Dünya Savaşı'nın sonrasında galip Müttefik ülkeler yenilmiş ve yakılmış ülkeyi ikiye böldüler ve hükümranlığını elinden aldılar. Bundan sonra nelerin olduğu, bir peri hikayesi gibi okunur; bu hikayede batı kutsanmakta ve doğu lanetlenmekteydi. Bunun ardından gerçekleşenler, batı Almanya'nın kutsandığı ve doğu Almanya'nın da lanetlendiği bir peri hikayesine benzer. Elbette, Federal Almanya Cumhuriyeti'nin yoksulluktan varsıllığa uzanan hikayesi Demokratik Cumhuriyeti'nin sömürülme, gerileme ve bozuşma hikayesi ile keskin bir tezat oluşturur. Peri hikayelerinin mutlu sonu vardır. Peri hikayeleri mutlu sonla biter; ve öyle oldu ki batıda güneşli ve doğuda karanlık geçen 40 yılın ardından bu ikili sonunda birleşti - elbette güneşli tarafta - ve bir oldu. bu hikayede de batıda güneşli ve doğuda karanlık geçen 40 yılın ardından bu ikili sonunda birleşti - elbette güneşli tarafta - ve tek bir devlet oldu. 63

70 İşleme-Üretme-Sınama Alıştırma Bu bölümde ele alınan metnin incelenmesi esnasında, anlamın kavranmasında genelden ayrıntıya doğru bir sıralama izlenmekte. Ardından, tümcelerin analizini yapmanız ve Türkçeye aktarmanız gerekiyor. YOU AND YOUR BODY The imagery that we use for reconstructing our own insides seems to vary from country to country. For example, the French seem to have an obsession with the liver, while in Germany, they explain all their peculiar feelings in terms of an organ which they call "the circulation" - whatever that is. I remember, when I was producing an opera in Frankfurt about six months ago, that whenever singers arrived late for rehearsal they would apologize for it by saying they had had "ze circulation collapse" which had somehow reduced their efficiency. It is very easy to get the impression that everyone outside the English-speaking world is a hypochondriacal loony, or a visceral fantasist. This is not altogether so, because, although I have not been able to find, so far, an American "national organ" among the British, the last four feet of the intestine seem to loom larger than they ought to. The word "constipation" is used so often that it is very hard to know what is being referred to - regularity of the bowel, headaches or lassitude. A vast laxative industry is based on our national fantasy, and even the medical profession has sometimes fallen victim to the same obsession. In the early 1900s, there was a surgical craze for removing yards and yards of intestine at the slightest excuse. 220 Sözcük Metnin tümünü okuyun ve anlamını bilmediğiniz sözcüklerin altını tek çizgi ile, dilbilgisi yapılarının altını ise çift çizgi ile çizin. Sözcüklerin anlamı ile ilgili sorunları çözerken 3. konuda verilen notlardan yararlanın. Metinde koyu yazılı olarak verilen sözcüklerin metin içinde hangi sözcük ve yapıların yerine geçtiklerini ve Türkçeye nasıl aktarılmaları gerektiğini saptayın. Sözcük düzeyinde sorunlarla ilgilenirken aşağıdaki tabloyu kullanabilirsiniz. Metin içinde Yalın hali Sözcük türü Anlamı 64

71 Metindeki her bir tümcenin dilbilgisi açısından incelemesini yapın. Tümce analizini 3. konuda verilen notlara göre gerçekleştirin. Size yardımcı olması amacı ile birinci tümce örnek olarak incelenmekte. The imagery that we use for reconstructing our own insides (Relative Clause) seems to vary Y from country to country N For example, the French seem to have an obsession with the liver, while in Germany, they explain all their peculiar feelings in terms of an organ which they call "the circulation" - whatever that is. I remember, when I was producing an opera in Frankfurt about six months ago, that whenever singers arrived late for rehearsal they would apologize for it by saying they had had "ze circulation collapse" which had somehow reduced their efficiency. It is very easy to get the impression that everyone outside the English-speaking world is a hypochondriacal loony, or a visceral fantasist. This is not altogether so, because, although I have not been able to find, so far, an American "national organ" among the British, the last four feet of the intestine seem to loom larger than they ought to. The word "constipation" is used so often that it is very hard to know what is being referred to - regularity of the bowel, headaches or lassitude. A vast laxative industry is based on our national fantasy, and even the medical profession has sometimes fallen victim to the same obsession. In the early 1900s, there was a surgical craze for removing yards and yards of intestine at the slightest excuse. 65

72 Metnin anlamını anladığınızdan emin olmak için, aşağıdaki alıştırmayı tamamlayın. Bu alıştırmada, metinden alınan tümceyi izleyen ifadenin doğru olup olmadığını saptamanız gerekiyor. The imagery that we use for reconstructing our own insides seems to vary from country to country. Each country has its own way of describing internal organs...., while in Germany, they explain all their peculiar feelings in terms of an organ which they call "the circulation" - whatever that is. According to the writer, it is not at all definite what is meant by "the circulation". I remember, when I was producing an opera in Frankfurt about six months ago, that whenever singers arrived late for rehearsal they would apologize for it by saying they had had "ze circulation collapse" which had somehow reduced their efficiency. The singers' complaint is that rehearsals reduce their efficiency. It is very easy to get the impression that everyone outside the English-speaking world is a hypochondriacal loony, or a visceral fantasist. This is not altogether so, because, although I have not been able to find, so far, an American "national organ" among the British, the last four feet of the intestine seem to loom larger than they ought to. According to the writer, anyone except those living in those countries where English is spoken has an obsession related to their internal organs. Because of unknown reasons, American people have intestine that is longer than that of other people. The word "constipation" is used so often that it is very hard to know what is being referred to - regularity of the bowel, headaches or lassitude. "Constipation" may mean very different things. A vast laxative industry is based on our national fantasy, and even the medical profession has sometimes fallen victim to the same obsession. Every obsessed individual has been a victim of the medical profession. In the early 1900s, there was a surgical craze for removing yards and yards of intestine at the slightest excuse. In the early 1900s, surgeons removed a large part of the intestine without getting people's permission. 66

73 Verilen seçeneklerde, doğru olduğuna inandığınız tümceyi seçin ve tümcenin geri kalanını çevirin. The imagery that we use for reconstructing our own insides seems to vary from country to country. a) Kendi içlerimizi yeniden yapılandırmak için kullandığımız imaj. b) Kendi iç organlarımızı gözümüzde canlandırırken kullandığımız imge. c) Kendi görünür içimizi yeniden oluşturmada kullanılan bu imge. d) Kendi içimizin görünen yeniden oluşumunda kullandığımız bu imaj.... in Germany, they explain all their peculiar feelings in terms of an organ which they call "the circulation" - whatever that is. a) Almanya'da, tüm garip duygular "dolaşım" olarak adlandırdıkları. b) Almanya'da tüm garip duyguların terimleri "dolaşım" adını verdikleri. c) Almanya'da onlar kendilerinin tüm garip duygularını onların "dolaşım" olarak adlandırdığı. d) Almanya'da tüm garip duygular "dolaşım" terimiyle adlandırdıkları. I remember, when I was producing an opera in Frankfurt about six months ago, that whenever singers arrived late for rehearsal they would apologize for it by saying they had had "ze circulation collapse" which had somehow reduced their efficiency. a) sanatçılar ne zaman provaya geç kalsalar, verimliliklerini nasılsa azaltmış olan "dolaşım" bozukluğu" çektiklerini söyleyerek özür dilerlerdi. b) provaya geç kalan sanatçılar provanın verimliliklerini nasıl da azalttığını ve "dolaşım bozukluğu" çektikleri için geç kaldıklarını söyleyip özür dilerlerdi. c) verimliliklerini nasılsa azaltan "dolaşım bozukluğu" çektiklerini söyleyip özür dileyen sanatçılar provaya geç kalırlardı. d) sanatçılar ne zaman provaya geç kalsalar, verimliliklerini nasılsa azaltmış olan "dolaşım bozukluğu" için özür dilerlerdi. Diğer tümceleri ayrıntılı olarak analiz edin ve ardından çeviri işlemini gerçekleştirin. 67

74 Bunu izleyen sayfalarda, analiz ve çeviri amacı ile verilmiş çeşitli metinler bulunmakta. Metinleri verilen sıralamada incelemenizi öneririm. Verilen metinleri, 1. Sözcük düzeyinde sorunlar 2. Dilbilgisi düzeyinde sorunlar 3. Anlam düzeyinde sorunlar 4. Bütünlük düzeyinde sorunlar ile ilgili alıştırmaların ardından Türkçeye aktarın. 68

75 1. Heart The heart has long been considered to be where feelings of love dwell. In love songs throughout the ages love almost always goes together with the heart. The heart has continually been viewed as the place where love begins and grows. Even the Bible gives numerous references to love and the heart. as? 5 The role of the heart in love must come from what happens to it when a person feels strongly attracted to someone else. The strong feelings for the other person, especially in the early stages of relationship, have the results that the heart starts beating faster and breathing starts speeding up. it =? 10 According to psychologists, a love relationship is a situation that involves a lot of stress and the body reacts to this by getting ready to face the unknown. This has been called the "fight or flight" reaction, meeting danger by battling it or running away. So, with love, the heart accelerates and breathing becomes quick. 158 sözcük this =? it =? Macmillan A. SÖZCÜK Sözlük çalışması Değinme sözcükleri Metnin sağ kenarındaki sözcükleri inceleyin. Daha sonra, metinden alınmış aşağıdaki sözcüklerin tümce içinde Türkçeye nasıl aktarılmaları gerektiğini inceleyin. Metin içinde Yalın hali Sözcük türü Anlamı long dwell viewed numerous references attracted stages beating flight reaction battling 69

76 B. DİLBİLGİSİ As, for, since, yet That, gerund, past participle Basit-Bileşik Tümce Clause Marker Ana-Yan Tümce Ö+Y+N Basit tümceleri ve bileşik tümcelerdeki ana tümceleri örneklere göre saptayın. Ö Y N where = place where The heart has long been considered to be where feelings of love dwell. In love songs throughout the ages Ö Y N love almost always goes together with the heart. Ö Y N Relative Clause The heart has continually been viewed as the place where love begins and grows. Even the Bible gives numerous references to love and the heart. The role of the heart in love must come from what happens to it when a person feels strongly attracted to someone else. The strong feelings for the other person, especially in the early stages of relationship, have the results that the heart starts beating faster and breathing starts speeding up. According to psychologists, a love relationship is a situation that involves a lot of stress and the body reacts to this by getting ready to face the unknown. This has been called the "fight or flight" reaction, meeting danger by battling it or running away. So, with love, the heart accelerates and breathing becomes quick. 70

77 C. ANLAM Bağlam Taslak çeviri Bırakılan boşlukları tamamlayın. Kalbin düşünülmüştür. Çağlar boyunca. Kalp sürekli olarak. İncil bile. Kalbin aşktaki rolü. Diğer kişiye yönelik güçlü duygular,. Psikologlara göre Buna " ". Böylece, hızlanır. D. BÜTÜNLÜK Türkçe İngilizce metne bakmadan çevirinizi okuyun ve düzgün bir Türkçe kullanıp kullanmadığınızı saptayın. BÖYLESİ DE VAR! An 18-year-old girl accused of stealing vanishing cream has since disappeared, Huddersfield Magistrates were told yesterday. (What the Papers Say) 71

78 2. Growing Vegetables 5 If you grow your own vegetables, they are bound to be fresher than those you buy in the shops; and the chances are that you will find they taste better, too. You can also grow things it is difficult to find in the shops. And you may save money - a family of four could have saved around 70 last year by growing all their vegetables. All of this, by doing something that many people regard as a healthy leisure activity. those =? they =? this =? In the first part of this report, we tell you what is involved in growing your own vegetables and how to plan a vegetable garden. In the second, we tell you how to get the best value for money when buying seeds and plants. 10 Much of the report is based on the experiences of our members - nearly 1,500 filled in a mammoth questionnaire. We are very grateful indeed for the help they gave us. 1,500 they =? 15 One thing is clear from our members' experience: growing vegetables can be hard work. Routine jobs like weeding and clearing take up a lot of time, quite apart from the exhausting chore of digging. However, nearly all our vegetablegrowing members thought the results were definitely worth all the effort. 203 sözcük A. SÖZCÜK Sözlük çalışması Değinme sözcükleri a) Aşağıdaki sözcüklerin ve metin içindeki bilmediğiniz diğer sözcüklerin tümce içindeki Türkçe karşılıklarını sözlük yardımı ile inceleyin. Metin içinde Yalın hali Sözcük türü Anlamı chances healthy leisure involved value seeds mammoth questionnaire grateful 72

79 weeding exhausting chore b) Metnin sağ kenarında verilen sözcükleri inceleyin. B. DİLBİLGİSİ As, for, since, yet That, gerund, past participle Basit-Bileşik Tümce Clause Marker Ana-Yan Tümce Ö+Y+N a) Metinden alınan aşağıdaki tümcelerde birer relative clause yapı mevcut. Tümcede hangi sözcükler arasında gizli bir which bulunduğunu saptayın. If you grow your own vegetables, they are bound to be fresher than those you buy in the shops; and the chances are that you will find they taste better, too. You can also grow things it is difficult to find in the shops. We are very grateful indeed for the help they gave us. b) Aşağıdaki tümcelerde bir noun clause yapı bulunmakta. Bu tümcelerde de hangi sözcükler arasında gizli bir that (birinci tümcedeki "the chances are that" bölümüne ek olarak) bulunduğunu inceleyin. If you grow your own vegetables, they are bound to be fresher than those you buy in the shops; and the chances are that you will find they taste better, too. However, nearly all our vegetable-growing members thought the results were definitely worth all the effort. c) Metnin bir tümcesinde esas yüklem bulunmamakta. Hangi tümce? d) Bu metinde relative clause ve noun clause yapılar sık olarak kullanılmakta. Bu yapılara dikkat ederek tümcelerin analizini tamamlayın. C. ANLAM Bağlam Taslak çeviri Öncelikle aşağıdaki bölümleri çözümleyerek, metnin tümünü Türkçeye aktarın. 73

80 Birinci paragrafta and the chances are it is difficult to find in the shops. All of this, by doing something that many people regard as a healthy leisure activity. İkinci paragrafta how to get the best value for money... Dördüncü paragrafta... One thing is clear quite apart from the exhausting chore of digging. D. BÜTÜNLÜK Türkçe İngilizce metne bakmadan çevirinizi okuyun ve düzgün bir Türkçe kullanıp kullanmadığınızı saptayın. Tümcelerin birbirleri ile zaman (= tense) ve anlam açısından uyumlu olmasını sağlayın. BÖYLESİ DE VAR! Traffic report on Radio Wales: A cow is loose on the M5; the police ask motorists not to use their horns. 74

81 3. Grounds for Divorce The grounds which make divorce are of two kinds. There are those due to the defects of one partner, such as insanity, dipsomania, and crime; and there are those based upon the relations of the husband and wife. It may happen that, without blame to either party, it is impossible for a married couple to live together amicably, or without some very grave sacrifice. It may happen that one of them, without disliking the other, becomes deeply attached to some other person, so deeply as to feel the marriage an intolerable tie. In that case, if there is no legal redress, hatred is sure to spring up. Indeed, such cases, as everyone knows, are quite capable of leading to murder. Where a marriage breaks down owing to incompatibility or to an overwhelming passion on the part of one partner for some other person, there should not be, as there is at present, a determination to attach blame. For this reason, much the best ground of divorce in all such cases is mutual consent. Grounds other than mutual consent ought only to be required where the marriage has failed through some definite defect in one partner. those =? those =? them =? as? as? Marriage and Morals Bertrand Russell 195 sözcük A. SÖZCÜK Sözlük çalışması Değinme sözcükleri a) Metnin sağ kenarında verilen sözcükleri inceleyin. b) Bu metinde, birden çok fazla anlam taşıdıkları için rahatlıkla karıştırılabilen sözcükler yer almakta. Bu sözcükleri tümcenin anlamına göre sözlük yardımı ile inceleyin (Genel Çeviri 1 kitabının ikinci konusunda, bu metnin sözcükleri ile ilgili çalışma yapıldı). Metin içinde Yalın hali Sözcük türü Anlamı grounds party grave sacrifice tie spring up determination 75

82 c) Sözlük anlamları rahatlıkla bulunabilecek diğer sözcükleri inceleyin. Metin içinde Yalın hali Sözcük türü Anlamı insanity dipsomania blame amicably intolerable redress hatred incompatibility overwhelming passion mutual consent defect B. DİLBİLGİSİ As, for, since, yet That, gerund, past participle Basit-Bileşik Tümce Clause Marker Ana-Yan Tümce Ö+Y+N a) Birinci tümceyi yeniden yapılandırın. The grounds which make divorce are of two kinds. There are b) Tümcelerde şimdilik [ ] içine alınabilecek bölümleri saptayın. It may happen that, without blame to either party, it is impossible for a married couple to live together amicably, or without some very grave sacrifice. It may happen that one of them, without disliking the other, becomes deeply attached to some other person, so deeply as to feel the marriage an intolerable tie. Indeed, such cases, as everyone knows, are quite capable of leading to murder. Where a marriage breaks down owing to incompatibility or to an overwhelming passion on the part of one partner for some other person, there should not be, as there is at present, a determination to attach blame. b) Tümcenin "or to an overwhelming..." bölümündeki to tümce içinde hangi sözcüğe bağlanabilir? Where a marriage breaks down owing to incompatibility or to an overwhelming passion on the part of one partner for some other person, there should not be, as there is at present, a determination to attach blame. 76

83 c) Tümcedeki through yerine hangi clause marker kullanılabilir? I) despite II) due to III) while Grounds other than mutual consent ought only to be required where the marriage has failed through some definite defect in one partner. d) Tüm tümcelerin analizini yapın. C. ANLAM Bağlam Taslak çeviri a) Metnin sağ kenarında verilen sözcüklerin Türkçeye nasıl aktarılmalarının daha iyi olacağına karar verin. b) Birinci tümcedeki make yüklemi Türkçeye nasıl aktarılmalı? c) Yedinci tümcedeki on the part of one partner bölümü Türkçeye nasıl aktarılmalı? d) Sekizinci tümcedeki much the best ground bölümü Türkçeye nasıl aktarılmalı? e) Dokuzuncu tümcedeki other than yapısı Türkçeye nasıl aktarılmalı? f) Tüm tümceleri Türkçeye aktarın. D. BÜTÜNLÜK Türkçe İngilizce metne bakmadan çevirinizi okuyun ve düzgün bir Türkçe kullanıp kullanmadığınızı saptayın. Tümcelerin birbirleri ile zaman (= tense) ve anlam açısından uyumlu olmasını sağlayın. BÖYLESİ DE VAR! Microsoft Windows 3.1 Türkçe programı içinde, ekran duvar kağıdı olarak önerilen şekillerden biri "Mısır"dır ve şeklin mısır bitkisi ile uzaktan yakından alakası yoktur. Ġngilizce Windows 3.1'de bu duvar kağıdı "Maze" olarak geçmekte. 77

84 4. Galaxy Galaxy is a vast ensemble of hundreds or thousands of millions of stars, all gravitationally interacting, and orbiting about a common centre. All the stars visible to the unaided eye from earth belong to the earth's galaxy, the Milky Way. The sun with its associated planets is just one star in this galaxy. For centuries man believed the Earth to be the centre of Creation. The true picture is far more aweinspiring. We live on a small planet revolving round a star of only average size, which is itself revolving, with thousands of millions of other stars, in one galaxy among millions in a Universe that may well be boundless. Scientific observation has so far probed only a fraction of it. Yet to travel to the frontiers of that observed fraction, even at 186,300 miles per second (the speed of light) would take 6,000 million years, about 20,000 times the total period that human life is estimated to have existed on Earth. The different bodies and structures in the universe, all of which appear to be receding from us, range from single galaxies to mammoth clusters containing as many as 500 galaxies. Although the cluster of galaxies to which our galaxy belongs is comparatively small (it has only 25 members), our galaxy itself, the Milky Way System, ranks among the larger of the known stellar systems. Counting its almost 100,000 million stars (of which the Sun with its family of planets is one) at the rate of one star a second would take about 2,500 years. 255 sözcük A. SÖZCÜK Sözlük çalışması Değinme sözcükleri Genel Çeviri 1 kitabının ikinci konusunda, bu metnin sözcükleri ile ilgili çalışma yapıldı. Metin içinde Yalın hali Sözcük türü Anlamı ensemble Creation awe-inspiring revolving boundless probed fraction frontiers 78

85 receding range mammoth clusters stellar 2. Metin'de incelendi. B. DİLBİLGİSİ As, for, since, yet That, gerund, past participle Basit-Bileşik Tümce Clause Marker Ana-Yan Tümce Ö+Y+N Verilen tümceleri inceleyin. We live on a small planet revolving round a star of only average size, which is itself revolving, with thousands of millions of other stars, in one galaxy among millions in a Universe that may well be boundless. which =? millions Scientific observation has so far probed only a fraction of it. it =? Yet to travel to the frontiers of that observed fraction, even at 186,300 miles per second (the speed of light) would take 6,000 million years, about 20,000 times the total period that human life is estimated to have existed on Earth. Yet =? Tümcenin temel yüklemi ne? The different bodies and structures in the universe, all of which appear to be receding from us, range from single galaxies to mammoth clusters containing as many as 500 galaxies. all of which =? Although the cluster of galaxies to which our galaxy belongs is comparatively small (it has only 25 members), our galaxy itself, the Milky Way System, ranks among the larger of the known stellar systems. it =? Ana tümce-yan tümceyi belirleyin. 79

86 Counting its almost 100,000 million stars (of which the Sun with its family of planets is one) at the rate of one star a second would take about 2,500 years. its =? which =? one =? C. ANLAM Bağlam Taslak çeviri Tümceleri tamamlayın. Galaxy is a vast ensemble of hundreds or thousands of millions of stars, all gravitationally interacting, and orbiting about a common centre. Galaksi, hepsi de yerçekimsel olarak karşılıklı etkileşen ve ortak bir merkezin. All the stars visible to the unaided eye from earth belong to the earth's galaxy, the Milky Way. Dünyadan araçsız bakıldığında görünne yıldızların. The sun with its associated planets is just one star in this galaxy. Bağlantılı gezegenleriyle birlikte Güneş. For centuries man believed the Earth to be the centre of Creation. Yüzyıllar boyunca, insanoğlu dünyanın. The true picture is far more awe-inspiring. Gerçek çok daha. We live on a small planet revolving round a star of only average size, which is itself revolving, with thousands of millions of other stars, in one galaxy among millions in a Universe that may well be boundless. Bizler sınırsız olabilecek bir evrendeki arasındaki bir galakside, milyarlarca diğer yıldız ile, sadece bir yıldızın çevresinde ufak bir gezegen üzerinde yaşamaktayız. 80

87 Scientific observation has so far probed only a fraction of it. Bilimsel gözlem onun sadece bir parçasını. Yet to travel to the frontiers of that observed fraction, even at 186,300 miles per second (the speed of light) would take 6,000 million years, about 20,000 times the total period that human life is estimated to have existed on Earth., saniyede 186,000 mil (ışık hızı) hızıyla bu kısmın yolculuk etmek 6 milyar yıl, yani, alırdı. The different bodies and structures in the universe, all of which appear to be receding from us, range from single galaxies to mammoth clusters containing as many as 500 galaxies. Tümü de bizden evrendeki farklı tek tek galaksilerden kadar farklılık gösterir. Although the cluster of galaxies to which our galaxy belongs is comparatively small (it has only 25 members), our galaxy itself, the Milky Way System, ranks among the larger of the known stellar systems. Her ne kadar oldukça ufak ise de (sadece 25 üyesi var), galaksimizin kendisi,, bilinen. Counting its almost 100,000 million stars (of which the Sun with its family of planets is one) at the rate of one star a second would take about 2,500 years. Yaklaşık 100 milyar yıldızını ( ) aşağı yukarı 2,500 yıl. D. BÜTÜNLÜK Türkçe Çevirinizi özgün metne bakmadan, Türkçe tümce yapısına uygunluk ve akıcılık açısından değerlendirin. BÖYLESİ DE VAR! Kalkan-Patara (Antalya) ile kumsal arasındaki dolmuşların şoförleri, yol kenarında yürüyen yabancı turistleri görünce yavaşlayıp pencereden uzanmakta ve o şahane (!) Ġngilizceleriyle "Bitch?", "Bitch?" diye sormaktalar. Turistler de her nedense "Yes, yes" dedikten sonra dolmuşa binmekteler. 81

88 5. Language That language is highly complex is shown by the fact that up to now it has not proved possible to translate mechanically from one language to another, with really satisfactory results. The best programmed computer still cannot consistently translate from, say, Russian into English. The fault lies not in the computer but in the failure to provide it with sufficiently accurate instructions, because we are still unable to handle this vastly complex system. It has been calculated that if the brain used any of the known methods of computing language, it would take several minutes to produce or to understand a single short sentence. Secondly, language is productive. We can produce myriads of sentences that we have never heard or uttered before. Many of the sentences in this book have been produced for the first time, yet they are intelligible to the reader. It is clear that we have some kind of sentence-producing mechanism - that sentences are produced anew each time and not merely imitated. One task of grammatical theory is to explain this quite remarkable fact. Thirdly, language is arbitrary. There is no one-to-one relation between sound and meaning. This accounts for the fact that languages differ, and they differ most of all in their grammatical structure. But how far are these differences only superficial, in the shape of words and their overt patterns? Some scholars would maintain that "deep down" there are strong similarities - even "universal" characteristics - disguised by the superficial features of sound (and perhaps of meaning). It is not clear how we can find the answer to this problem. A. SÖZCÜK 266 sözcük Sözlük çalışması Değinme sözcükleri Metnin tamamını okuyun ve aşağıda sıralanan sözcükler ile anlamını bilmediğiniz diğer sözcükleri sözlük kullanarak inceleyin. a) Birinci paragrafta Metin içinde Yalın hali Sözcük türü Anlamı proved satisfactory consistently failure sufficiently instructions handle vastly computing 82

89 b) İkinci paragrafta Metin içinde Yalın hali Sözcük türü Anlamı productive myriads uttered intelligible anew merely imitated task remarkable c) Üçüncü paragrafta Metin içinde Yalın hali Sözcük türü Anlamı arbitrary differ structure superficial overt patterns scholars maintain similarities disguised features B. DİLBİLGİSİ As, for, since, yet That, gerund, past participle Basit-Bileşik Tümce Clause Marker Ana-Yan Tümce Ö+Y+N Metinde relative ve noun clause sık kullanılmakta. Öncelikle aşağıda belirtilen yapıları çözümleyerek tüm tümceleri inceleyin. a) Tümcenin Ö+Y+(N) unsurlarını saptayın. That language is highly complex is shown by the fact that up to now it has not proved possible to translate mechanically from one language to another, with really satisfactory results. 83

90 b) say sözcüğünün işlevini inceleyin. The best programmed computer still cannot consistently translate from, say, Russian into English. c) Yapıyı inceleyin ve Türkçede nasıl ifade edileceğini saptayın. The fault lies not in the computer but in the failure to provide it with sufficiently accurate instructions, because we are still unable to handle this vastly complex system. d) yet sözcüğüne dikkat! Many of the sentences in this book have been produced for the first time, yet they are intelligible to the reader. e) Kısa çizgiden sonraki that nereye bağlanabilir? It is clear that we have some kind of sentence-producing mechanism - that sentences are produced anew each time and not merely imitated. C. ANLAM Bağlam Taslak çeviri a) Tümcelerden sonra verilen seçeneklerden hangisinin tümcenin çevirisi olduğunu bulun. That language is highly complex is shown by the fact that up to now it has not proved possible to translate mechanically from one language to another, with really satisfactory results. a) Bu dil oldukça karmaşık ve bu gerçek de bu güne kadar bir dilden diğer bir dile gerçekten tatmin edici sonuçlarla mekanik olarak çevirinin mümkün olmamasını kanıtlamakta. b) Dilin oldukça karmaşık olması, bir dilden diğer bir dile, gerçekten tatmin edici sonuçlarla, mekanik olarak çevirinin mümkün olduğunun bu güne kadar kanıtlanmış olmaması gerçeği tarafından gösterilmekte. c) Bu dilin oldukça karmaşık olduğu gerçeğini, bu güne kadar bir dilden diğer bir dile gerçekten tatmin edici sonuçlarla mekanik olarak çevirinin mümkün olduğunun kanıtlanmaması göstermekte. The best programmed computer still cannot consistently translate from, say, Russian into English. a) En iyi programlanmış bilgisayarın bile hâlâ Rusça'dan İngilizceye bile tutarlı bir biçimde çeviri yapamadığı söylenir. b) En iyi programlanmış bilgisayar bile hâlâ, diyelim ki, Rusça'dan İngilizceye tutarlı bir biçimde çeviri yapamamakta. c) En iyi programlanmış bilgisayar bile hâlâ Rusça'dan İngilizceden sözlü olarak tutarlı bir biçimde çeviri yapamamakta. 84

91 It has been calculated that if the brain used any of the known methods of computing language, it would take several minutes to produce or to understand a single short sentence. a) Hesaplara göre, beyin bilinen bilgi işlem yöntemlerinden birini kullansa, tek bir kısa tümceyi anlamak ya da üretmek birkaç dakika sürerdi. b) Beyin bilinen bilgi işlem yöntemlerinden herhangi birini kullansa, tek bir kısa tümceyi anlaması ve üretmesi birkaç dakikada hesaplanmıştır. c) Beynin bilinen bilgi işlem yöntemlerinden herhangi birini kullanması hesaplandığında, tek bir kısa tümcenin anlaşılması ya da üretilmesi birkaç dakika alırdı. The fault lies not in the computer but in the failure to provide it with sufficiently accurate instructions, because we are still unable to handle this vastly complex system. a) Bilgisayar hata yapmamakta fakat bize yeterince düzgün bilgi sağlayamamaktadır; zira, hâlâ bu karmaşık bilgisayar sistemini çözebilmiş değiliz. b) Hata bilgisayarda yatmamakta, biz bilgisayara yeterince bilgi sağlayamamaktayız; çünkü, hâlâ bu karmaşık bilgisayar sistemini çözebilmiş değiliz. c) Hata bilgisayarda değil, bizim ona yeterince düzgün bilgi sağlayamamızda yatmakta; zira, hâlâ dil denen bu karmaşık sistemi çözebilmiş değiliz. We can produce myriads of sentences that we have never heard or uttered before. a) Daha önce ürettiğimiz birçok tümce duyulmamış ya da söylenmemiş olabilir. b) Duyduğumuz ya da söylediğimiz birçok tümceyi daha önce hiç üretmemiş olabiliriz. c) Daha önce hiç duymadığımız ya da söylemediğimiz birçok tümceyi üretebiliriz. Many of the sentences in this book have been produced for the first time, yet they are intelligible to the reader. a) Bu kitaptaki tümcelerden çoğu ilk kez olarak üretilmiştir; okuyucu bunları hâlâ anlayabilmektedir. b) Bu kitaptaki tümcelerden çoğu ilk kez olarak üretilmiştir; yine de, bu tümceler okuyucu tarafından anlaşılabilir. c) Bu kitaptaki tümcelerden çoğu ilk kez olarak üretilmiştir; yine de okuyucu bunları anlayabilecek kadar akıllıdır. It is clear that we have some kind of sentence-producing mechanism - that sentences are produced anew each time and not merely imitated. a) Bir tür tümce üretme mekanizmasına sahip olduğumuz, tümcelerin basitçe taklit edilmeyip her seferinde yeniden üretildikleri açıktır. b) Bir tür tümce üretme mekanizmasına sahip olduğumuz açıktır; bu tümceler her bir seferinde yeniden üretilirler ve yalnızca taklit edilmezler. c) Şurası açıktır ki bir tümce üretme mekanizmasına sahibiz; bu tümceler her bir seferinde sadece taklit edilmeyip yeniden üretilmekteler. 85

92 This accounts for the fact that languages differ, and they differ most of all in their grammatical structure. a) Bu, dillerin birbirlerinden farklılıkları için hesaplanmaktadır ve diller en çok dilbilgisi açısından birbirinden farklıdır. b) Bu dillerin birbirinden farklılıklarını hesaplamaktadır ve diller en çok dilbilgisi açısından birbirinden farklıdır. c) Bu, dillerin birbirinden farklı olmaları ve herşeyden önce dilbilgisi yapıları açısından farklı olmaları gerçeğini açıklar. But how far are these differences only superficial, in the shape of words and their overt patterns? a) Fakat bu farklılıklar nereye kadar yüzeyseldir - sözcüklerin şeklinde ve görünür yapısında? b) Fakat bu farklılıkların yüzeyselliği sözcüklerin şekli ve görünür yapısı içinde ne kadar uzaktır? c) Fakat bu farklılıklar, sözcüklerin şekli ve görünür yapısı açısından ne ölçüde yüzeyseldir? Some scholars would maintain that "deep down" there are strong similarities - even "universal" characteristics - disguised by the superficial features of sound (and perhaps of meaning). It is not clear how we can find the answer to this problem. a) Bazı bilimadamları "derinlerde" sesin (ve belki de anlamın) yüzeysel özelliklerinin gizlediği güçlü benzerlikler - hatta "evrensel" özellikler - bulunduğunu öne sürerler. b) Bazı bilimadamları sesin (ve belki de anlamın) yüzeysel özelliklerin şekline bürünmüş güçlü benzerlikler - hatta "evrensel" kişilikler - olduğunu ileri sürerler. c) Bazı bilimadamları güçlü benzerlikler - hatta "evrensel" nitelikler - olduğunu ileri sürüp sesin (ve belki de anlamın) yüzeysel özelliklerini gizlemişlerdir. D. BÜTÜNLÜK b) Diğer tümceleri Türkçeye aktarın. Türkçe Tümceleri daha düzgün bir Türkçe ile ifade ederek bir bütünlük oluşturmaya çalışın. BÖYLESİ DE VAR! One day at lunch we saw a cat with something in its mouth climb over the wall. The cat was carrying a kitchen. 86

93 6. Man's Future A pessimist might argue: why seek to preserve the human species? Should we not rather rejoice in the prospect of an end to the immense load of suffering and hate and fear which has hitherto darkened the life of Man? Should we not contemplate with rejoicing a new future for our planet, peaceful at last, sleeping quietly at last after coming to an end of the long nightmare of pain and horror? To any student of history contemplating the dreadful record of folly and cruelty and misery that has constituted most of human life hitherto, such questions must come in moments of imaginative sympathy. Perhaps our survey may tempt us to acquiesce in an end, however tragic and however final, to a species so incapable of joy. But the pessimist has only half the truth, and to my mind the less important half. Man has not only the correlative capacities for cruelty and suffering, but also potentialities of greatness and splendour, realized, as yet, very partially, but showing what life might be in a freer and happier world. If Man will allow himself to grow to his full stature, what he may achieve is beyond our present capacity to imagine. Poverty, illness, and loneliness could become rare misfortunes. Reasonable expectation of happiness could dispel the night of fear in which too many now wander lost. And with the progress of evolution, what is now the shining genius of an eminent few might become a common possession of the many. All this is possible, indeed, probable, in the thousands of centuries that lie before us, if we do not rashly and madly destroy ourselves before we have reached the maturity that should be our goal. No, let us not listen to the pessimist, for, if we do, we are traitors to Man's future. 302 sözcük. Has Man a Future (1961) Bertrand Russell A. SÖZCÜK Sözlük çalışması Değinme sözcükleri Metin içinde Yalın hali Sözcük türü Anlamı seek preserve species rejoice prospect immense load hitherto contemplate nightmare dreadful 87

94 folly cruelty misery constituted tempt acquiesce correlative splendour stature misfortunes dispel wander eminent rashly maturity traitors B. DİLBİLGİSİ As, for, since, yet That, gerund, past participle Basit-Bileşik Tümce Clause Marker Ana-Yan Tümce Ö+Y+N a) Tümcede seek yükleminin öznesinin ne olabileceğini araştırın. A pessimist might argue: why seek to preserve the human species? b) Peaceful olan ne? Should we not contemplate with rejoicing a new future for our planet, peaceful at last, sleeping quietly at last after coming to an end of the long nightmare of pain and horror? c) Koyu yazılı bölümün tümcenin geri kalanı ile olan ilişkisini inceleyin. To any student of history contemplating the dreadful record of folly and cruelty and misery that has constituted most of human life hitherto, such questions must come in moments of imaginative sympathy. d) Koyu yazılı bölümü inceleyin. Perhaps our survey may tempt us to acquiesce in an end, however tragic and however final, to a species so incapable of joy. 88

95 e) Tümcede realize ve show yüklemleri koyu olarak işaretlendi. Bu yüklemlerin öznesinin ne olduğunu bulun. Man has not only the correlative capacities for cruelty and suffering, but also potentialities of greatness and splendour, realized, as yet, very partially, but showing what life might be in a freer and happier world. f) First Conditional yapılarda yan tümcede will kullanılmamaktadır. Aşağıda verilen tümcede yazarın neden will kullanmış olabileceğini inceleyin. If Man will allow himself to grow to his full stature, what he may achieve is beyond our present capacity to imagine. g) Tümcedeki relative clause yapıyı inceleyin; too many sözcükleri ile neyin/kimin kastedildiğini bulun. Reasonable expectation of happiness could dispel the night of fear in which too many now wander lost. h) Tümcede what sözcüğünü çeviri açısından inceleyin; an eminent few sözcükleri ve the many sözcükleri ile neyin/kimin kastedildiğini bulun. And with the progress of evolution, what is now the shining genius of an eminent few might become a common possession of the many. i) Tümcedeki relative clause yapıları inceleyin. All this is possible, indeed, probable, in the thousands of centuries that lie before us, if we do not rashly and madly destroy ourselves before we have reached the maturity that should be our goal. j) Koyu yazılı sözcüğü inceleyin. No, let us not listen to the pessimist, for, if we do, we are traitors to Man's future. C. ANLAM Bağlam Taslak çeviri Metnin tümünü Türkçeye aktarın. A pessimist might argue: why seek to preserve the human species? Karamsar biri : ne diye? 89

96 Should we not rather rejoice in the prospect of an end to the immense load of suffering and hate and fear which has hitherto darkened the life of Man? İnsanın yaşamını şu ana kadar karartan gerekmez mi? Should we not contemplate with rejoicing a new future for our planet, peaceful at last, sleeping quietly at last after coming to an end of the long nightmare of pain and horror? O uzun acı ve korku kabusunun sonuna gelişinin ardından gerekmez mi? To any student of history contemplating the dreadful record of folly and cruelty and misery that has constituted most of human life hitherto, such questions must come in moments of imaginative sympathy., bu türden sorular. Perhaps our survey may tempt us to acquiesce in an end, however tragic and however final, to a species so incapable of joy. Belki de araştırmamız bizi. But the pessimist has only half the truth, and to my mind the less important half. Fakat karamsar kişi gerçeğin sadece yarısına sahip,. Man has not only the correlative capacities for cruelty and suffering, but also potentialities of greatness and splendour, realized, as yet, very partially, but showing what life might be in a freer and happier world. İnsan hem zalimlik ve acı çekme kapasitesine hem de. If Man will allow himself to grow to his full stature, what he may achieve is beyond our present capacity to imagine. İnsanoğlu kendi kendisinin,. Poverty, illness, and loneliness could become rare misfortunes. Yoksulluk, hastalık ve yalnızlık. 90

97 Reasonable expectation of happiness could dispel the night of fear in which too many now wander lost. Makul ölçülerde mutluluk beklentisinin. And with the progress of evolution, what is now the shining genius of an eminent few might become a common possession of the many. Ve, evrimin ilerleyişi ile,. All this is possible, indeed, probable, in the thousands of centuries that lie before us, if we do not rashly and madly destroy ourselves before we have reached the maturity that should be our goal. içinde tüm bunlar olası,. No, let us not listen to the pessimist, for, if we do, we are traitors to Man's future. Hayır, karamsarı dinlemeyelim,. D. BÜTÜNLÜK Türkçe Çevirinizi İngilizce metne bakmadan kontrol edin. BÖYLESİ DE VAR! A very enjoyable affair was the Children's Hallowe'en Party. Added to the beauty of it all was the fact that few of the children could be recognised as they all wore masks. 91

98 7. Ifs of History Speculating "what if...?" is always enticing. What if Alexander Fleming's dishes of infected jelly had been tidied up and thrown out as they should have been then - would we now be without penicillin? If James Watt had dropped off to sleep before his kettle boiled, would there never have been any trains? When it comes to invention or discovery, the chances are that if scientist A is hit by a falling roof-tile, scientist B will get there pretty soon all the same; for both would have been building on the same state of previous knowledge - like the test-tube doctors. Stephenson also invented the Davy lamp; a chap called Reis very nearly invented the telephone just before Bell; there were several other maniacs attempting powered flight just as doggedly as the Wright brothers. What's far more problematic is the follow-up. What happens after a discovery may indeed depend on the crucial presence of one man. If Darwin had died on the voyage [to Galapagos], then Wallace would have been the father of evolution - but without Darwin's brilliant tenacity in proving and presenting the thing, would the impact have been as great? "What if...?" in history is even more fun. In the eighth century the Moors in Spain sent out a reconnaissance party along the Roman road into France, got ambushed, and decided that France was no go. There's a theory that if they'd had stirrups, they could have ridden down the ambush (without stirrups, you can too readily be pushed off your horse by anyone with a pike). Then the Moors might have gone ahead and invaded France. Here's another. When Leo Szilard, Weizman and Polyani were experimenting with chain reaction in Britain in the thirties, they tried to raise 2,000 to continue the work; they failed, and so took the research to America. Szilard was convinced that if they had succeeded in doing their work in Britain, German intelligence would certainly have got hold of it; he may well have been right, for when they offered one of their patents to the War Office, they were told "there appears to be no reason to keep the specification secret so far as the War Department is concerned." And why were they so certain that they must keep such stuff secret? Because Szilard had read H. G. Wells's The World Set Free and could thus envisage atomic war - you might almost say that H. G. Wells won the war. To my mind, you have to believe that things might all have been different - or simply believe in predestination, which is boring. "It will be all the same in 100 years" is the most dispiriting consolation I know; but it is not, fortunately, true. 456 sözcük 92

99 A. SÖZCÜK Sözlük çalışması Değinme sözcükleri a) Metnin tümünü okuyun ve anlamını bilmediğiniz sözcüklerin altını çizin. Daha sonra, sözlük yardımı ile bu sözcüklerin tümceye uygun anlamlarını bulun. b) Metinde çeşitli sözcükler yerine kullanılmakta olan it, that, this gibi değinme sözcüklerini saptayın ve nelerin yerine kullanıldıklarıın belirleyin. B. DİLBİLGİSİ As, for, since, yet That, gerund, past participle Basit-Bileşik Tümce Clause Marker Ana-Yan Tümce Ö+Y+N a) Daha önceki konularda, tümcenin analizi esnasında as, for, since ve yet yapılarına özellikle dikkat edilmesi gerektiği belirtildi. Buna göre, aşağıda verilen bölümleri inceleyin. Birinci paragrafta: What if Alexander Fleming's dishes of infected jelly had been tidied up and thrown out as they should have been - would we now be without penicillin? When it comes to invention or discovery, the chances are that if scientist A is hit by a falling roof-tile, scientist B will get there pretty soon all the same; for both would have been building on the same state of previous knowledge - like the testtube doctors. Stephenson also invented the Davy lamp; a chap called Reis very nearly invented the telephone just before Bell; there were several other maniacs attempting powered flight just as doggedly as the Wright brothers. İkinci paragrafta: If Darwin had died on the voyage [to Galapagos], then Wallace would have been the father of evolution - but without Darwin's brilliant tenacity in proving and presenting the thing, would the impact have been as great? Dördüncü paragrafta: Szilard was convinced that if they had succeeded in doing their work in Britain, German intelligence would certainly have got hold of it; he may well have been right, for when they offered one of their patents to the War Office, they were told "there appears to be no reason to keep the specification secret so far as the War Department is concerned." 93

100 b) Metnin özelliği, çoğu tümcenin olasılık ifadeleri içermesi. Tümcelerde hangi conditional (First, Second, Third) yapının kullanıldığını saptayın (bu yapılar Genel Çeviri 1 kitabında ele alınmakta). c) Metnin tüm tümcelerini analiz ettikten sonra, aşağıdaki alıştırmaya geçin. Burada, metinden sonra verilen ifadenin doğru olup olmadığını bulmanız isteniyor. What if Alexander Fleming's dishes of infected jelly had been tidied up and thrown out as they should have been - would we now be without penicillin? Alexander Fleming'in muhtemelen jöle kabını atması gerekti. When it comes to invention or discovery, the chances are that if scientist A is hit by a falling roof-tile, scientist B will get there pretty soon all the same; for both would have been building on the same state of previous knowledge. Stephenson also invented the Davy lamp; a chap called Reis very nearly invented the telephone just before Bell; there were several other maniacs attempting powered flight just as doggedly as the Wright brothers. Bu tümcelere göre, bütün bilimadamlarının (Bilimadamı A) üzerinde çalıştıkları projeyi tamamlayacak bir ortakları (Bilimadamı B) bulunmakta. Yazar, dolaylı olarak, Wright kardeşler için "manyak" sözcüğünü kullanmakta. What's far more problematic is the follow-up. What happens after a discovery may indeed depend on the crucial presence of one man. If Darwin had died on the voyage [to Galapagos], then Wallace would have been the father of evolution - but without Darwin's brilliant tenacity in proving and presenting the thing, would the impact have been as great? İcadı izleyen süre, icadın kendisinden daha önemli. Büyük olasılıkla, Wallace evrim teorisini asla bu kadar ünlü yapamazdı. In the eighth century the Moors in Spain sent out a reconnaissance party along the Roman road into France, got ambushed, and decided that France was no go. Araplar Fransa'ya barış getirmek istedilerse de insanlar onlara güvenmediler. There's a theory that if they'd had stirrups, they could have ridden down the ambush (without stirrups, you can too readily be pushed off your horse by anyone with a pike). Then the Moors might have gone ahead and invaded France. Araplar çok ağır mızrakları olduğu için atlarından düştüler. Bu nedenle de Fransa'yı istilayı başaramadılar. And why were they so certain that they must keep such stuff secret? Because Szilard had read H. G. Wells's The World Set Free and could thus envisage atomic war - you might almost say that H. G. Wells won the war. Szilard kitabı okumamış olsaydı, Almanya İkinci Dünya Savaşı'nı kazanabilirdi. 94

101 To my mind, you have to believe that things might all have been different - or simply believe in predestination, which is boring. "It will be all the same in 100 years" is the most dispiriting consolation I know; but it is not, fortunately, true. Yazara göre, geçmiş konusunda "şöyle olsaydı" türünden fikirler yürütmek hiç de fena olmaz. C. ANLAM Bağlam Taslak çeviri a) Aşağıda verilen alıştırmayı tamamlayın. When it comes to invention or discovery, the chances are that if scientist A is hit by a falling roof-tile, scientist B will get there (nereye?) pretty soon (pretty soon?) all the same (all the same?); for both (her iki ne?) would have been building on the same state of previous knowledge - like the test-tube doctors. If Darwin had died on the voyage [to Galapagos], then Wallace would have been the father of evolution - but without Darwin's brilliant tenacity in proving and presenting the thing (kastedilen ne?), would the impact have been as great? In the eighth century the Moors in Spain sent out a reconnaissance party along the Roman road into France, (özne?) got ambushed, and (özne?) decided that France was no go. Here's another (bir diğer ne?). When Leo Szilard, Weizman and Polyani were experimenting with chain reaction in Britain in the Thirties, they tried to raise 2,000 to continue the work; they failed (başaramadıkları ne?), and so took the research to America.... And why were they so certain that they must keep such stuff (kastedilen ne?) secret? To my mind, you have to believe that things (Türkçeye nasıl aktarılmalı?) might all have been different - or simply believe in predestination, which is boring. b) Öncelikle aşağıda koyu yazılı verilen yapıları inceleyerek metnin tümünü Türkçeye aktarın. Başlığın tümü: IFS OF HISTORY Birinci paragrafta: Speculating "what if...?" is always enticing. What if Alexander Fleming's dishes of infected jelly had been tidied up and thrown out as they should have been - would we now be without penicillin? 95

102 When it comes to invention or discovery, the chances are that if scientist A is hit by a falling roof-tile, scientist B will get there pretty soon all the same; for both would have been building on the same state of previous knowledge - like the test-tube doctors. Üçüncü paragrafta: "What if...?" in history is even more fun. In the eighth century the Moors in Spain sent out a reconnaissance party along the Roman road into France, got ambushed, and decided that France was no go. There's a theory that if they'd had stirrups, they could have ridden down the ambush (without stirrups, you can too readily be pushed off your horse by anyone with a pike). Then the Moors might have gone ahead and invaded France. Dördüncü paragrafta Here's another. When Leo Szilard, Weizman and Polyani were experimenting with chain reaction in Britain in the Thirties, they tried to raise 2,000 to continue the work; they failed, and so took the research to America. Because Szilard had read H. G. Wells's The World Set Free and could thus envisage atomic war - you might almost say that H. G. Wells won the war. Beşinci paragrafta To my mind, you have to believe that things might all have been different - or simply believe in predestination, which is boring. D. BÜTÜNLÜK Türkçe Condition clause yapıların Türkçeye aktarımında titiz davranmak gerekmekte. Zaman belirten takının yanlış seçilmesi second condition ile third condition yapının karıştırılmasına neden olabilir. Bu konuda özellikle dikkatli olun. Çevirinizi İngilizce metne bakmadan kontrol edin ve akıcı ve doğru bir Türkçe içerecek şekilde düzenleyin. WANTED: Zinc bath, for adult with strong bottom. BÖYLESİ DE VAR! 96

103 8. Lake Turkana 5 Suppose now, we are back on the eastern shores of Lake Turkana 2½ million years ago. Standing by the shores we would be aware of crocodiles basking in the tropical heat on sand-spits pointing finger-like into the shallow water. A little more than five miles away to the east savannah-covered hills rise up from the lake basin, sliced here and there by forest-filled valleys. At one point the hills are breached by what is obviously a large river that snakes its way down from the Ethiopian mountains. Where the river reaches the flood-plain of the lake it shatters into a delta of countless streams, some small, some large, but each fringed by a line of trees and bushes. it=? some =? some =? As we walk up one of the stream beds - dry now because there has been no rain for months - we might hear the rustle of a pig in search of roots and vegetation in the undergrowth. As the tree-cover thickens we catch a glimpse of a colobus monkey retreating through the tree tops. Lower down, mangobeys feed on ripening figs. In the seclusion of the surrounding bushes small groups of impala and water-buck move cautiously. From the top of a tree we could see out into the open, where herds of gazelle graze. After going about a mile up the stream we come across a scene that is strangely familiar. Before us is a group of eight creatures - definitely human-like, but definitely not truly human - some on the stream bed and some on its sandy bank. some =? some =? its =? R. Leakey ve R. Lewin, People of the Lake 260 sözcük A. SÖZCÜK Sözlük çalışması Değinme sözcükleri a) Sözcükleri inceleyin Metin içinde Yalın hali Sözcük türü Anlamı basking sand-spits shallow basin sliced breached 97

104 flood-plain shatter countless fringed rustle glimpse colobus monkey retreating mangobeys ripening figs seclusion water-buck cautiously herds gazelle graze b) Metnin sağ kenarındaki sözcükleri inceleyin. B. DİLBİLGİSİ As, for, since, yet That, gerund, past participle Basit-Bileşik Tümce Clause Marker Ana-Yan Tümce Ö+Y+N Tümceleri analiz edin. C. ANLAM Bağlam Taslak çeviri Aşağıda verilen tümce çevirilerinin her birinde hata bulunmakta. Bu hataları düzeltin. Birinci tümcedeki hata örnek olarak gösterilmekte. Suppose now, we are back on the eastern shores of Lake Turkana 2½ million years ago. Şimdi 2½ milyon yıl önce, Turkana Gölü'nün doğu kıyılarının arkasında olduğumuzu varsayalım. (... kıyılarına geri döndüğümüzü varsayalım.) Standing by the shores we would be aware of crocodiles basking in the tropical heat on sand-spits pointing finger-like into the shallow water. Kıyıda dikildiğimizde, kumluklarda, tropik sıcakta sığ suya parmak gibi uzanıp timsahların farkına varırız. 98

105 A little more than five miles away to the east savannah-covered hills rise up from the lake basin, sliced here and there by forest-filled valleys. Savan örtüsüyle kaplı tepelerin doğusunda, beş milden biraz daha ötede, orada ve burada ormanla örtülü vadiler göl tabanından yükselmekte. At one point the hills are breached by what is obviously a large river that snakes its way down from the Ethiopian mountains. Bir noktada, tepeler Etopya dağlarından aşağı kıvrılarak akan geniş bir ırmak tarafından görünür bir şekilde bölünmekteler. Where the river reaches the flood-plain of the lake it shatters into a delta of countless streams, some small, some large, but each fringed by a line of trees and bushes. Gölün kenarına eriştiğinde nehir, herbiri irili ufaklı ağaç ve çalılarla sıralı sayısız dereler halinde bir delta oluşturmakta. As we walk up one of the stream beds - dry now because there has been no rain for months - we might hear the rustle of a pig in search of roots and vegetation in the undergrowth. Aylardır yağmur yağmadığı için şimdi kuru olan dere yataklarından birinde yukarı doğru yürüyüp bitki örtüsünde gelişmemiş kökleri ve bitkileri ararken, bir domuzun hışırtısını duyabiliriz. As the tree-cover thickens we catch a glimpse of a colobus monkey retreating through the tree tops. Ağaç örtüsü kalınlaştığı için, ağaç tepelerine doğru kaçan bir kolobus maymunu gözümüze çarpar. Lower down, mangobeys feed on ripening figs. Onun biraz altında, mangolar olgunlaşan incirlerle beslenmekte. In the seclusion of the surrounding bushes small groups of impala and water-buck move cautiously. Küçük impala ve geyik grupları dikkatli dolaşarak tenha çalıları çevrelemekteler. From the top of a tree we could see out into the open, where herds of gazelle graze. Bir ağacın tepesinden, gazel sürülerinin otladığı yerler açıkça görülebilir. 99

106 After going about a mile up the stream we come across a scene that is strangely familiar. Dere boyunca bir mil kadar yukarı gidince, garip ve yabancı olmayan bir yere geliriz. Before us is a group of eight creatures - definitely human-like, but definitely not truly human - some on the stream bed and some on its sandy bank. Bizden önce bazı dere yataklarında ve bazı kumlu kıyılarında sekiz yaratıktan oluşan bir grup var - kesinlikle insan benzeri, ama kesinlikle tam olarak insan değil. D. BÜTÜNLÜK Türkçe Yaptığınız düzeltmeleri, özgün metne bakmadan, Türkçe tümce yapısına uygunluk ve akıcılık açısından değerlendirin. BÖYLESİ DE VAR! On the evening of May 13th, at about 7 o'clock, travelling north and giving off a roaring sound, my husband and I both saw clearly some silver coloured objects in the sky. 100

107 9. Garbology 5 A professor of anthropology at the University of Tuscon has created an entirely new field of science called garbology. William Rathje and his students have been studying the garbage left for collection in front of Tuscon homes since With the help of the local sanitation company, they have inspected and categorized some 120 tons of garbage and have arrived at some interesting conclusions. they =? 10 One result is that middle-income families waste more food than lower- or upperincome families. Another fact is that poor families pay more for their food and household items than wealthy families because they cannot afford to buy it in bulk. Finally, the overall waste figure is down to 15 percent, about half the figure from the first quarter of this century. This can be attributed to modern methods of refrigeration, transportation, processing, and packaging. it =? This =? 138 sözcük A. SÖZCÜK Sözlük çalışması Değinme sözcükleri Tabloda, sözcüklerden bazıları verilmekte. Sözcüklerin anlamlarını sözlük kullanarak bulun. Bunu yaparken de, sözcüğün metin içinde tek başına mı yoksa başka sözcüklerle terim oluşturarak mı kullanıldığına dikkat edin. Metin içinde Yalın hali Sözcük türü Anlamı Garbology entirely sanitation inspected conclusions household bulk overall attributed refrigeration processing B. DİLBİLGİSİ As, for, since, yet That, gerund, past participle Basit-Bileşik Tümce Clause Marker Ana-Yan Tümce Ö+Y+N 101

108 Tümceleri analiz edin. A professor of anthropology at the University of Tuscon has created an entirely new field of science called garbology. William Rathje and his students have been studying the garbage left for collection in front of Tuscon homes since With the help of the local sanitation company, they have inspected and categorized some 120 tons of garbage and have arrived at some interesting conclusions. One result is that middle-income families waste more food than lower- or upperincome families. Another fact is that poor families pay more for their food and household items than wealthy families because they cannot afford to buy it in bulk. Finally, the overall waste figure is down to 15 percent, about half the figure from the first quarter of this century. This can be attributed to modern methods of refrigeration, transportation, processing, and packaging. C. ANLAM Bağlam Taslak çeviri Türkçe tümceleri tamamlayın. A professor of anthropology at the University of Tuscon has created an entirely new field of science called garbology. Tuscon Üniversitesi'nde bir antropoloji profesörü. William Rathje and his students have been studying the garbage left for collection in front of Tuscon homes since William Rathje ve öğrencileri. 102

109 With the help of the local sanitation company, they have inspected and categorized some 120 tons of garbage and have arrived at some interesting conclusions. Yerel temizlik şirketinin yardımı ile,. One result is that middle-income families waste more food than lower- or upperincome families. Sonuçlardan biri,. Another fact is that poor families pay more for their food and household items than wealthy families because they cannot afford to buy it in bulk. Bir diğer gerçek. Finally, the overall waste figure is down to 15 percent, about half the figure from the first quarter of this century. Sonuçta, toplam israf miktarı. D. BÜTÜNLÜK This can be attributed to modern methods of refrigeration, transportation, processing, and packaging. Bu,. Türkçe Çevirinizi metnin aslına bakmadan, yapı ve anlam açısından denetleyin. BÖYLESİ DE VAR! Temel düzey İngilizce dersinde bir öğrencinin ev ödevi metninden bir tümce: I take an aspirin when I have an ararat. 103

110 10. Explain In science the meaning of the word "explain" suffers with civilization's every step in search of reality. Science cannot really explain electricity, magnetism, and gravitation; their effects can be measured and predicted, but of their nature no more is known to the modern scientist than to Thales who first speculated on the electrification of amber. Most contemporary physicists reject the notion that man can ever discover what these mysterious forces "really" are. Electricity, Bertrand Russell says, "is not a thing, like the St. Paul's Cathedral; it is a way in which things behave. When we have told how things behave when they are electrified, we have told all there is to tell." Until recently scientists would have disapproved of such an idea. Aristotle, for example, whose natural science dominated Western thought for two thousand years, believed that man could arrive at an understanding of reality by reasoning from self-evident principles. He felt, for example, that it is a self-evident principle that everything in the universe has its proper place, hence one can deduce that objects fall to the ground because that's where they belong, and smoke goes up because that's where it belongs. The goal of Aristotelian science was to explain why things happen. Modern science was born when Galileo began trying to explain how things happen and thus originated the method of controlled experiment which now forms the basis of scientific investigation. 233 sözcük it =? that =? Metinle ilgili çeviri çalışmalarına başlamadan önce, aşağıdaki soruları yanıtlayın. 1. The aim of controlled scientific experiments is to a) explain why things happen. b) explain how things happen. c) describe self-evident principles. d) support Aristotelian science. 2. What principles most influenced scientific thought for two thousand years? a) The speculations of Thales. b) The forces of electricity, magnetism, and gravity. c) Aristotle's natural science. d) Galileo's discoveries. 104

111 3. Bertrand Russell's notion about electricity is a) disapproved of by most modern scientists. b) in agreement with Aristotle's theory of self-evident principles. c) in agreement with scientific investigation directed toward "how" things happen. d) in agreement with scientific investigation directed toward "why" things happen. 4. The passage says that until recently scientists disagreed with the idea that a) there are mysterious forces in the universe. b) man cannot discover what forces "really" are. c) there are self-evident principles. d) we can discover why things behave as they do. A. SÖZCÜK B. DİLBİLGİSİ Sözlük çalışması Değinme sözcükleri Metin içinde Yalın hali Sözcük türü Anlamı gravitation amber reject notion dominated reasoning hence As, for, since, yet That, gerund, past participle Basit-Bileşik Tümce Clause Marker Ana-Yan Tümce Ö+Y+N Tümcelerde koyu yazılı bölümleri inceleyin. Science cannot really explain electricity, magnetism, and gravitation; their effects can be measured and predicted, but of their nature no more is known to the modern scientist than to Thales who first speculated on the electrification of amber. When we have told how things behave when they are electrified, we have told all there is to tell." Until recently scientists would have disapproved of such an idea. Aristotle, for example, whose natural science dominated Western thought for two thousand years, believed that man could arrive at an understanding of reality by reasoning from self-evident principles. 105

112 He felt, for example, that it is a self-evident principle that everything in the universe has its proper place, hence one can deduce that objects fall to the ground because that's where belong, and smoke goes up because that's where it belongs. C. ANLAM Bağlam Taslak çeviri Tümcelerde koyu yazılı bölümlerin Türkçeye nasıl aktarılabileceğini inceleyin. In science the meaning of the word "explain" suffers with civilization's every step in search of reality. Most contemporary physicists reject the notion that man can ever discover what these mysterious forces "really" are. Electricity, Bertrand Russell says, "is not a thing, like the St. Paul's Cathedral; it is a way in which things behave. Metnin tümünü Türkçeye aktarın. D. BÜTÜNLÜK Türkçe Çevirinizi anlam ve bütünlük açısından, özgün metne bakmadan kontrol edin. BÖYLESİ DE VAR! James Jackson wishes to thank the 600 odd people who voted for him in the recent Urban District Council Election. 106

113 11. The 800th Life 5 In the time between now and the twenty-first century, millions of ordinary, psychologically normal people will face a sudden confrontation with the future. Many of the citizens of the world's richest and most technologically advanced nations will find it increasingly painful to keep up with incessant demand for change that is a characteristic of our time. For them, the future will have arrived too soon. This book is about change and how we adapt to it. It is about those who seem to thrive on change, as well as those multitudes of others who resist it or seek flight from it. It is about our capacity to adapt. It is about the future and the shock that its arrival brings. them =? It =? it =? Western society for the past 300 years has been caught up in a storm of change. This storm, far from abating, now appears to be gathering force. Change moves through the highly industrialized countries with waves of ever-accelerating speed and unprecedented impact. It brings with it all sorts of curious social phenomena - from psychedelic churches and "free universities" to science cities in the Arctic and wife-swap clubs in California. 20 It breeds odd personalities, too: children who are at twelve are no longer children; adults who are at fifty are children of twelve. There are rich men who playact poverty, computer programmers who turn on with LSD. There are married priests and atheist ministers and Jewish Zen Buddhists. A strange new society is apparently developing in our midst. Is there a way to understand it, to shape its development? It =? it =? 25 Much that now seems incomprehensible would be far less so if we took a fresh look at today's rapid rate of change, for the acceleration of change does not merely affect industries or nations. It is a force that reaches deep into one's personal life, compels him to act out new roles, and confronts him with the danger of a new and powerfully upsetting psychological disease. This new disease can be called "future shock", and a knowledge of its sources and symptoms helps explain many things that otherwise resist rational analysis. 347 sözcük so? It =? 107

114 A. SÖZCÜK Sözlük çalışması Değinme sözcükleri Metin içinde Yalın hali Sözcük türü Anlamı confrontation incessant thrive multitudes seek 6. Metin'de işlendi. abating ever-accelerating unprecedented impact phenomena psychedelic wife-swap breeds playact priests midst incomprehensible acceleration merely 5. Metin'de işlendi. compels confronts symptoms rational B. DİLBİLGİSİ As, for, since, yet That, gerund, past participle Basit-Bileşik Tümce Clause Marker Ana-Yan Tümce Ö+Y+N a) Tümcenin analizini yapın: Many of the citizens of the world's richest and most technologically advanced nations will find it increasingly painful to keep up with incessant demand for change that is a characteristic of our time. b) Tümcede those sözcükleri ile neyin/kimin kasdedildiğini inceleyin: It is about those who seem to thrive on change, as well as those multitudes of others who resist it or seek flight from it. 108

115 c) Tümcede from... to yapısını inceleyin: It brings with it all sorts of curious social phenomena - from psychedelic churches and "free universities" to science cities in the Arctic and wife-swap clubs in California. d) Tümcede koyu yazılı bölümleri inceleyin: It breeds odd personalities, too: children who are at twelve are no longer children; adults who at fifty are children of twelve. e) Tümcede koyu yazılı Much that bölümünü dikkatle inceleyin; for sözcüğünü inceleyin: Much that now seems incomprehensible would be far less so if we took a fresh look at today's rapid rate of change, for the acceleration of change does not merely affect industries or nations. f) Tümcede compel ve confront yüklemlerinin nereye bağlı olduğunu inceleyin: It is a force that reaches deep into one's personal life, compels him to act out new roles, and confronts him with the danger of a new and powerfully upsetting psychological disease. C. ANLAM Bağlam Taslak çeviri Metnin tümünü Türkçeye aktarın. In the time between now and the twenty-first century, millions of ordinary, psychologically normal people will face a sudden confrontation with the future. Günümüz ile yirmibirinci yüzyıl arasında,. Many of the citizens of the world's richest and most technologically advanced nations will find it increasingly painful to keep up with incessant demand for change that is a characteristic of our time. Dünyanın en zengin ve teknolojik açıdan gelişmiş ülkelerinin vatandaşlarının pek çoğu. For them, the future will have arrived too soon. Onlar için,. 109

116 This book is about change and how we adapt to it. Bu kitap. It is about those who seem to thrive on change, as well as those multitudes of others who resist it or seek flight from it. Kitap. It is about our capacity to adapt. It is about the future and the shock that its arrival brings. Kitap. Western society for the past 300 years has been caught up in a storm of change. Son 300 yıldır batı toplumu. This storm, far from abating, now appears to be gathering force. Bu fırtına. Change moves through the highly industrialized countries with waves of everaccelerating speed and unprecedented impact. Değişiklik. It brings with it all sorts of curious social phenomena - from psychedelic churches and "free universities" to science cities in the Arctic and wife-swap clubs in California. Beraberinde her türden garip toplumsal olguyu getirmektedir -. It breeds odd personalities, too: children who at twelve are no longer children; adults who at fifty are children of twelve. İlginç kişilikler de türetmekte:. 110

117 Much that now seems incomprehensible would be far less so if we took a fresh look at today's rapid rate of change, for the acceleration of change does not merely affect industries or nations. Günümüzde kavranamaz görünen. It is a force that reaches deep into one's personal life, compels him to act out new roles, and confronts him with the danger of a new and powerfully upsetting psychological disease. Bu, insanın kişisel yaşamının derinlerine işleyen,. This new disease can be called "future shock", and a knowledge of its sources and symptoms helps explain many things that otherwise resist rational analysis. Bu yeni hastalık. D. BÜTÜNLÜK Türkçe Çevirinizin Türkçesini özgün metne bakmadan kontrol edin. BÖYLESİ DE VAR! Deaths: Edgeworth. On March 16 th, Margaret, mother of Tom (by accident). Funeral 3.30 pm Thursday. 111

118 12. Desertification 5 10 Desertification, the loss of the soil's biological productivity, occurs naturally to a limited extent. The pace at which the process has spread recently, however, is largely man's own doing. This fact was highlighted by the great Sahel drought of The worst effects of this drought were caused by nomadic peoples who had earlier been forced by national governments to adopt agricultural and grazing practices that were not in accord with their traditions. In common with those of other nomads around the world, such traditions involved never staying in one place so long as to exhaust the earth that provided them with sustenance. When these people were not allowed to follow this tradition, the process of desertification moved ahead quickly. those =? them =? 120 sözcük A. SÖZCÜK Sözlük çalışması Değinme sözcükleri Aşağıdaki tabloda, metindeki sözcüklerden bazıları verilmekte. Bu sözcüklerin anlamlarını sözlük kullanarak bulun. Bunu yaparken de, sözcüğün metin içinde tek başına mı yoksa başka sözcüklerle terim oluşturarak mı kullanıldığına dikkat edin. Metin içinde Yalın hali Sözcük türü Anlamı Desertification pace process 9. Metin'de başka bir anlamı işlendi. spread highlighted Sahel drought nomadic adopt grazing 8. Metin'de işlendi. accord exhaust sustenance Metnin sağ kenarında verilen sözcüklerin metin içinde hangi sözcüğün/sözcüklerin yerine kullanıldığını bulun. 112

119 B. DİLBİLGİSİ As, for, since, yet That, gerund, past participle Basit-Bileşik Tümce Clause Marker Ana-Yan Tümce Ö+Y+N Tümcelerin herbirinin Ö+Y+(N) gibi temel unsurlarını, bileşik tümcelerin de ana tümcesi ile yan tümcesini belirleyin. Desertification, the loss of the soil's biological productivity, occurs naturally to a limited extent. The pace at which the process has spread recently, however, is largely man's own doing. This fact was highlighted by the great Sahel drought of The worst effects of this drought were caused by nomadic peoples who had earlier been forced by national governments to adopt agricultural and grazing practices that were not in accord with their traditions. In common with those of other nomads around the world, such traditions involved never staying in one place so long as to exhaust the earth that provided them with sustenance. When these people were not allowed to follow this tradition, the process of desertification moved ahead quickly. C. ANLAM Bağlam Taslak çeviri Bu aşamada metnin çevirisini yapmaya başlayabilirsiniz. Desertification, the loss of the soil's biological productivity, occurs naturally to a limited extent. Toprağın biyolojik üretkenliğinin. The pace at which the process has spread recently, however, is largely man's own doing. Ancak, yakın zamanlarda. 113

120 This fact was highlighted by the great Sahel drought of Bu gerçek. The worst effects of this drought were caused by nomadic peoples who had earlier been forced by national governments to adopt agricultural and grazing practices that were not in accord with their traditions. Kuraklığın en kötü etkileri. In common with those of other nomads around the world, such traditions involved never staying in one place so long as to exhaust the earth that provided them with sustenance. Dünyadaki diğer göçebelerin. When these people were not allowed to follow this tradition, the process of desertification moved ahead quickly. Bu insanların geleneklerini. D. BÜTÜNLÜK Türkçe Çevirinizi metnin aslına bakmadan, yapı ve anlam açısından denetleyin. BÖYLESİ DE VAR! There will be a procession next Saturday afternoon in the grounds of the Monastery; but if it rains in the afternoon, the procession will take place in the morning. 114

121 13. Women It is not often realized that women held a high place in southern European societies in the 10 th and 11 th centuries. As a wife, the woman was protected by the setting up of a dowry or decimum. Admittedly, the purpose of this was to protect her against the risk of desertion, but in reality its function in the social and family life of the time was much more important. The decimum was the wife's right to receive a tenth of her husband's property. The wife had the right to withhold consent, in all transactions the husband would make. And more than just a right: the documents show that she enjoyed a real power of decision, equal to that of her husband. In no case do the documents indicate any degree of difference in the legal status of husband and wife. The wife shared in the management of her husband's personal property, but the opposite was not always true. Women seemed perfectly prepared to defend their own inheritance against husbands who tried to exceed their rights, and on occasion they showed a fine fighting spirit. A case in point is that of María Vivas, a Catalan woman of Barcelona. Having agreed with her husband to sell a field she had inherited, for the needs of the household, she insisted on compensation. None being offered, she succeeded in dragging her husband to the scribe to have a contract duly drawn up assigning her a piece of land from Miró's personal inheritance. The unfortunate husband was obliged to agree, as the contract says, "for the sake of peace". Either through dowry or through being hot-tempered, the Catalan wife knew how to win herself, within the context of the family, a powerful economic position. that =? they =? that =? None =? 290 sözcük Metinle ilgili çeviri alıştırmalarına başlamadan önce, aşağıdaki alıştırmayı tamamlayın. 1. A decimum was a) the wife's inheritance from her father. b) a gift of money to the new husband. c) a written contract. d) the wife's right to receive one-tenth of her husband's property. 115

122 2. In the society described in the passage, the legal standing of the wife in marriage was a) higher that that of her husband. b) lower than that of her husband. c) the same as that of her husband. d) higher than that of a single woman. 3. What compensation did María Vivas get for the field? a) Some of the land Miró had inherited. b) A tenth of Miró's land. c) Money for household expenses. d) Money for Miró's inheritance. 4. Could a husband sell his wife's inheritance? a) No, under no circumstances. b) Yes, whenever he wished to. c) Yes, if she agreed. d) Yes, if his father-in-law agreed. 5. Which of the following is NOT mentioned as an effect of the dowry system? a) The husband had to share the power of decision in marriage. b) The wife was protected from desertion. c) The wife gained a powerful economic position. d) The husband was given control over his wife's property. A. SÖZCÜK Sözlük çalışması Değinme sözcükleri Metin içinde Yalın hali Sözcük türü Anlamı dowry desertion withhold consent 3. Metin'de işlendi transactions inheritance exceed household 9. Metin'de işlendi. compensation scribe duly assigning B. DİLBİLGİSİ As, for, since, yet That, gerund, past participle Basit-Bileşik Tümce Clause Marker Ana-Yan Tümce Ö+Y+N Metindeki tümceleri dilbilgisi açısından inceleyin. 116

123 C. ANLAM Bağlam Taslak çeviri a) Koyu yazılı bölümün Türkçeye nasıl aktarılacağını inceleyin. And more than just a right: the documents show that she enjoyed a real power of decision, equal to that of her husband. b) Devrik yapıya dikkat edin. In no case do the documents indicate any degree of difference in the legal status of husband and wife. c) Koyu yazılı bölümlerin Türkçeye nasıl aktarılacağını inceleyin. Women seemed perfectly prepared to defend their own inheritance against husbands who tried to exceed their rights, and on occasion they showed a fine fighting spirit. d) Koyu yazılı bölümü inceleyin. A case in point is that of María Vivas, a Catalan woman of Barcelona. D. BÜTÜNLÜK Türkçe Çevirinizi anlam ve bütünlük açısından, özgün metne bakmadan inceleyin. BÖYLESİ DE VAR! Mr. and Mrs. John Beverlin are rejoicing over an eight-pound daughter, their sixth child since last Saturday. 117

124 14. Who's Afraid of The Silicon Chip The one thing that got talked about non-stop throughout 1990s is about as big as this. For the electro-technologically minded, it's a miracle of micro-processing wizardry with the mind-boggling potential to revolutionise the whole of life. For the uninitiated, it's a source of bafflement, unease, and a vaguely sci-fi fascination. It represents the major challenge of the past century's last twenty years, so all the expert futurologists claim, yet sounds to most of us like some newly-fanged substitute for fried potato. It's the silicon chip. Not surprisingly, most non-scientists find that the effort of trying to grasp what a silicon is turns out to be just as bewildering as the struggle to comprehend what a silicon chip does. Forty years ago, the world's first electronic digital computers weighed about thirty tons and filled a room. Today silicon chip equivalent weighs a fraction of gramme and would disappear on your fingernail. Once designed, a silicon chip can be ludicrously cheap to manufacture in bulk. That is why everyone can now buy for peanuts such sophisticated gadgets as pocket calculators or complex TV games. Desk-top computers are as familiar as desk-top typewriters. Not only is the silicon chip small and ever more inexpensive, it is also reliable and immensely versatile. Already the world market is estimated at 3 billion a year. By the mid-2010s, one chip-maker predicts, every person in the world may need to own at least one microprocessing toy just to have an outlet for the industry's burgeoning supply. Such talk is typical of the increasingly extravagant claims being made on behalf of the silicon chip. It has been called the most significant invention since wheel. A single chip can far outstrip the mathematical speed and capacity of any man. Multi-chip computers can perform a million error-free calculations in the time it takes to blink and they're getting faster all the time. All that is holding them back is the speed at which data can be programmed in, or applications for them found. More and more small firms take advantage of small, purpose-programmed computers to keep the books. Instrumentation on cars gets neater and more comprehensive. Telephones have increased international capability, telephone and television-linked information systems are more comprehensive and more widespread. Cameras get smaller and more automated, fun toys like talking calculators and programmable video gadgets fight for the home entertainment market. Money continues to give way to computerised accounting 118

125 and debiting systems, all kinds of security systems are rapidly advanced. Shops keep track of their stock with micro-processing systems, all kinds of traffic control has become more efficient, less energy is wasted by better power systems. Mid-1990s, in short, certainly saw a gathering pace in the applied use of silicon ships but there is not the remotest chance that applications will keep pace with theoretical development. The long-term effects of the micro-processing revolution are incalculable - even for a silicon chip. The most talked-about social implication is, of course, the effect of ever more sophisticated automation on employment. Here, too, there has been a marked tendency to take off into scare mongering with exaggerated claims that silicon chips will cause overnight disruption, making millions redundant. A study by the UK Central Policy Review Staff is characteristically sober: "Reports suggesting large-scale loss of jobs from micro-processing applications overestimate the speed at which these applications could be introduced and underestimate the new markets created in the process." 568 sözcük A. SÖZCÜK Sözlük çalışması Değinme sözcükleri Metin içinde Yalın hali Sözcük türü Anlamı wizardy mind-boggling uninitiated bafflement newly-fanged ludicrous gadgets versatile outlet burgeoning extravagant outstrip blink debiting incalculable scare mongering disruption redundant sober overestimate underestimate 119

126 B. DİLBİLGİSİ As, for, since, yet That, gerund, past participle Basit-Bileşik Tümce Clause Marker; Ana-Yan Tümce Ö+Y+N a) Tümcede esas yüklemi bulun. The one thing that got talked about non-stop throughout mid 1990s is about as big as this. b) Koyu yazılı bölümleri dikkatle inceleyin. For the electro-technologically minded, it's a miracle of micro-processing wizardry with the mind-boggling potential to revolutionise the whole of life. For the uninitiated, it's a source of bafflement, unease, and a vaguely sci-fi fascination. c) Koyu yazılı bölümü inceleyin. It represents the major challenge of the past century's last twenty years, so all the expert futurologists claim, yet sounds to most of us like some newlyfanged substitute for fried potato. d) Tümcedeki noun clause ve comparative clause yapıları saptayın. Not surprisingly, most non-scientists find that the effort of trying to grasp what a silicon is turns out to be just as bewildering as the struggle to comprehend what a silicon chip does. e) Tümcedeki devrik yapıya dikkat edin. Not only is the silicon chip small and ever more inexpensive, it is also reliable and immensely versatile. f) Tümcedeki -ing yapıyı inceleyin. Here, too, there has been a marked tendency to take off into scare mongering with exaggerated claims that silicon chips will cause overnight disruption, making millions redundant. g) Tümcede ana yüklemi saptayın. "Reports suggesting large-scale loss of jobs from micro-processing applications overestimate the speed at which these applications could be introduced and underestimate the new markets created in the process." 120

127 C. ANLAM Bağlam Taslak çeviri Tümcelerde koyu yazılı bölümleri çeviri açısından inceleyin. Sonra metnin tümünü Türkçeye aktarın. For the electro-technologically minded, it's a miracle of micro-processing wizardry with the mind-boggling potential to revolutionise the whole of life. It represents the major challenge of the past century's last twenty years, so all the expert futurologists claim, yet sounds to most of us like some newlyfanged substitute for fried potato. That is why everyone can now buy for peanuts such sophisticated gadgets as pocket calculators or complex TV games. Such talk is typical of the increasingly extravagant claims being made on behalf of the silicon chip. Multi-chip computers can perform a million error-free calculations in the time it takes to blink and they're getting faster all the time. All that is holding them back is the speed at which data can be programmed in, or applications for them found. More and more small firms take advantage of small, purpose-programmed computers to keep the books. Cameras get smaller and more automated, fun toys like talking calculators and programmable video gadgets fight for the home entertainment market. Money continues to give way to computerised accounting and debiting systems, all kinds of security systems are rapidly advanced. The long-term effects of the micro-processing revolution are incalculable - even for a silicon chip. Here, too, there has been a marked tendency to take off into scare mongering with exaggerated claims that silicon chips will cause overnight disruption, making millions redundant. 121

128 A study by the UK Central Policy Review Staff is characteristically sober: "Reports suggesting large-scale loss of jobs from micro-processing applications overestimate the speed at which these applications could be introduced and underestimate the new markets created in the process." D. BÜTÜNLÜK Türkçe Çevirinizin Türkçesini özgün metne bakmadan kontrol edin. BÖYLESİ DE VAR! Would any friendly older couple with hours to spare like to help bury family in house and garden? 122

129 15. Education Albert Einstein once attributed the creativity of a famous scientist to the fact that he "never went to school, and therefore preserved the rare gift of thinking freely." There is undoubtedly truth in Einstein's observation; many artists and geniuses seem to view their schooling as a disadvantage. But such a truth is not a criticism of schools. It is the function of schools to civilize, not to train explorers. The explorer is always a lonely individual whether his or her pioneering be in art, music, science, or technology. The creative explorer of unmapped lands shares with the genius what William James described as the "faculty of perceiving in an unhabitual way." Insofar as schools teach perceptual patterns they tend to destroy creativity and genius. But if schools could somehow exist solely to cultivate genius, then society would break down. For the social order demands unity and widespread agreement, both traits that are destructive to creativity. There will always be conflict between the demands of society and the impulses of creativity and genius. 172 sözcük Metnin ana fikrini ifade eden tümceyi bulun. a) Albert Einstein and other geniuses and artists have said that schools limit creativity and genius. b) Schools should be designed to encourage creativity. c) Explorers can be compared to geniuses because both groups look at the world differently from the way most people do. d) Schools can never satisfy the needs of both geniuses and society as a whole. A. SÖZCÜK Sözlük çalışması Değinme sözcükleri Metin içinde Yalın hali Sözcük türü Anlamı attributed 9. Metin'de işlendi. gift civilize pioneering faculty perceiving perceptual patterns 5. Metin'de işlendi. solely cultivate widespread traits conflict impulses 123

130 Aşağıdaki tümcelerde koyu yazılı bölümleri ayrıca inceleyin. Albert Einstein once attributed the creativity of a famous scientist to the fact that he "never went to school,... he a) Einstein b) a famous scientist The creative explorer of unmapped lands shares with the genius what William James described as the "faculty of perceiving in an unhabitual way." The creative explorer of unmapped lands a) yalnızca gezginler kastedilmekte b) tüm mucitler kastedilmekte what a) Türkçeye olan şey olarak aktarılabilir b) Türkçeye ne olarak aktarılabilir Insofar as schools teach perceptual patterns they tend to destroy creativity and genius. they a) schools b) perceptual patterns For the social order demands unity and widespread agreement, both traits that are destructive to creativity. For a) - den dolayı b) - den beri c) için both traits a) 1= social order, 2= unity and widespread agreement b) 1= unity, 2= widespread agreement B. DİLBİLGİSİ As, for, since, yet That, gerund, past participle Basit-Bileşik Tümce Clause Marker Ana-Yan Tümce Ö+Y+N Albert Einstein once attributed the creativity of a famous scientist to the fact that he "never went to school,...." to hangi yüklem ya da sıfata bağlı? 124

131 It is the function of schools to civilize, not to train explorers. Tümceyi yeniden oluşturun: The function. The explorer is always a lonely individual whether his or her pioneering be in art, music, science, or technology. Asıl yüklem olan be neden is olarak değil de yalın olarak kullanılmakta? Bunun çeviriye bir etkisi olur mu? The creative explorer of unmapped lands shares with the genius what William James described as the "faculty of perceiving in an unhabitual way." Tümcede esas yüklem share. Buna göre: Kim paylaşmakta? Kiminle paylaşmakta? Neyi paylaşmakta? C. ANLAM Bağlam Taslak çeviri Sözcük ve dilbilgisi alıştırmalarını gözönünde bulundurarak metnin tümünü Türkçeye aktarın. D. BÜTÜNLÜK Türkçe Yaptığınız çeviriyi, özgün metne bakmadan, Türkçe tümce yapısına uygunluk ve akıcılık açısından değerlendirin. BÖYLESİ DE VAR! The American Women's Club of Brussels invites donations of clean undamaged babies and pre-school children's clothing. 125

132 16. The Secret Few People Could Guess 5 Brenda Linson never goes anywhere without an empty spectacles case. It is as vital to her as her purse. Yet, she doesn't wear glasses. The reason she can't do without it is because she can't read and she can't write. If ever she gets into any situation where she might be expected to do either of these things, she fishes in her bag for the specs case, finds it empty, and asks the person concerned to do the reading for her. Brenda is now in her late thirties. She's capable and articulate and until a few months ago hardly anybody knew she was illiterate. Her husband didn't know and her children didn't know. Her children still don't. It =? Yet? it =? these things =? it =? don't 10 She had any number of tactics for concealing her difficulty - for example, never lingering near a phone at work, in case she had to answer it and might be required to write something down. But, in fact, it is easier for illiterates to conceal the truth than the rest of us might imagine. Literacy is taken so much for granted that people simply don't spot the give-away signs. the truth =? It has never occurred to the children that their mother cannot read. She doesn't read them stories, but then their father doesn't either, so they find nothing surprising in the fact. Similarly they just accept that Dad is the one who writes sick notes and reads the school reports. Now that the elder boy Tom is a quite proficient reader, Brenda can skilfully get him to read any notes brought home from school simply by asking, "What's that all about, then?" doesn't they =? 25 Brenda's husband never guessed the truth in 10 years of marriage. For one thing he insists on handling all domestic correspondence and bills himself. An importer of Persian carpets, he travels a great deal and so is not around so much to spot the truth. While he's away Brenda copes with any situations by explaining that she can't do anything until she's discussed it with her husband. the truth =? it =? Brenda was very successful in her job until very recently. For the last five years she had worked as a waitress at an exclusive private club, and had eventually been promoted to head waitress. She kept the thing a secret there too, and got over the practical difficulties somehow. 382 sözcük the thing =? 126

133 A. SÖZCÜK Sözlük çalışması Değinme sözcükleri Metnin tümünü okuyun ve bilmediğiniz sözcüklerin altını çizin. kimi sözcükler tümce içinde kendi başlarına değil de başka sözcükler ile kullanılıyor olabilirler. Bu nedenle, sözlükte o sözcüğü incelerken, sözcüğün tüm kullanımlarını inceleyin ve tümcedeki kullanım ile kıyaslayın. Bunun ardından, metnin sağ yanında verilen sözcükleri inceleyin ve metin içindeki işlevlerini saptayın. Ayrıca, bu metinde, sözcük ve dilbilgisi düzeyinde, sık kullanılan any yapılarının ayrıca incelenmesi ve Türkçeye nasıl aktarılacaklarının saptanması gerekir. anywhere hardly anybody any number any notes any situations anything Birinci paragrafta Birinci paragrafta İkinci paragrafta Üçüncü paragrafta Dördüncü paragrafta Dördüncü paragrafta B. DİLBİLGİSİ As, for, since, yet That, gerund, past participle Basit-Bileşik Tümce Clause Marker Ana-Yan Tümce Ö+Y+N Tümcelerin basit mi yoksa bileşik mi olduklarını saptadıktan ve Ö+Y+N yapılarını belirledikten sonra, aşağıda verilen yapıları belirtilen paragraflarda bulun. a) Birinci paragrafta as as The reason (why) because b) İkinci paragrafta Comparison clause so that 127

134 c) Üçüncü paragrafta Reason clause C. ANLAM Bağlam Taslak çeviri Tümceleri Türkçeye aktarın. Önce kolay olan tümcelerle başlayın. Böylece zor tümcelerin anlamını çıkarmanız kolaylaşacaktır. Bu aşamada, çeviriyi yaparken bileşik tümceleri şimdilik karmaşık bir yapı halinde aktarmanız gerekmemekte. Örneğin, üçüncü paragrafın birinci tümcesi It has never occurred to the children that their mother cannot read. bu aşamada Türkçeye Çocuklar asla farkına varmadılar, annelerinin okuyamadığının şeklinde aktarılabilir. D. BÜTÜNLÜK Türkçe Tümceleri düzgün bir Türkçe ile oluşturun Çocuklar annelerinin okuyamadığının farkına asla varmadılar ve tümcelerin anlamlarının birbirleri ile ve metnin tümünün anlamı ile uyumluluğunu kontrol edin. BÖYLESİ DE VAR! The many friends of Mrs. Barrett will be sorry to learn that she injured her foot on Sunday. It will probably be six weeks before the fool can be released from a plaster cast. 128

135 17. United Nations In one very long sentence, the introduction to the UN Charter expresses the ideals and the common aims of all the peoples whose governments joined together to form the UN. "We the peoples of the UN determined to save succeeding generations from the scourge of war, which twice in our lifetime has brought untold suffering to mankind, and to reaffirm faith in fundamental rights, in the dignity and worth of the human person, in the equal rights of men and women and of nations large and small, and to establish conditions under which justice and respect for the obligations arising from treaties and other sources of international law can be maintained, and to promote social progress and better standards of life in larger freedom, and for these ends, to practice tolerance and live together in peace with one another as good neighbours, and to unite our strength to maintain peace and security, and to ensure, by the acceptance of principles and the institution of methods, that armed force shall not be used, save in the common interest, and to employ international machinery for the promotion of economic and social advancement of all peoples, have resolved to combine our efforts to accomplish these aims." The name United Nations is accredited to UN President Franklin D. Roosevelt, and the first group of representatives of member states met and signed a declaration of common intent on New Year's Day in Representatives of five powers worked together to draw up proposals, completed at Dumbarton Oaks in These proposals, modified after deliberation at the conference on International Organization in San Francisco which began in April 1945, were finally agreed on and signed as the UN Charter by 50 countries on 26 June Poland, not represented at the conference, signed the Charter later and was added to the list of original members. It was not until that autumn, however, after the Charter had been ratified by China, France, the U.S.S.R., the UK. and the UN and by a majority of the other participants that the UN officially came into existence. The date was 24 October, now universally celebrated as United Nations day. The essential functions of the UN are to maintain peace and security, to develop friendly relations among nations, to co-operate internationally economic, social, cultural and human problems, promoting respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms and to be centre for co-ordinating the actions of nations in attaining these common ends. No country takes precedence over another in the UN Each member's rights and obligations are the same. All must contribute to the peaceful settlement of international disputes, and members have pledged to refrain from the threat or use of force against other states. Though the UN has no right to intervene any state's internal affairs, it tries to ensure that non-member states act according to its principles of international peace and security. UN members must offer every assistance in an approved UN action and in no way assist states against which the UN is taking preventive or enforcement action. 508 sözcük 129

136 A. SÖZCÜK Sözlük çalışması Değinme sözcükleri Metin içinde Yalın hali Sözcük türü Anlamı Charter succeeding scourge untold suffering reaffirm faith fundamental dignity obligations treaties maintained 5. Metin'de farklı anlamı işlendi. promote ensure machinery resolved accomplish accredited intent proposals deliberation ratified participants precedence contribute settlement disputes pledged refrain threat intervene approved preventive enforcement B. DİLBİLGİSİ As, for, since, yet That, gerund, past participle Basit-Bileşik Tümce Clause Marker Ana-Yan Tümce Ö+Y+N İkinci paragrafı bir tek tümce oluşturmakta. Bu tümcenin esas yüklemini saptayın. Bunu yaparken, ikinci paragrafın bir özeti niteliğinde olan dördüncü paragrafı incelemeniz yararlı olabilir. 130

137 The essential functions of the UN are to maintain peace and security, to develop friendly relations among nations, to co-operate internationally economic, social, cultural and human problems, promoting respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms and to be centre for co-ordinating the actions of nations in attaining these common ends. C. ANLAM Bağlam Taslak çeviri Metni Türkçeye aktarın. İkinci paragrafı Türkçeye aktarırken, aşağıda verilen şemadan yararlanabilirsiniz. We the peoples of the UN (who are) determined... [A] to, and [B] to [a] in, [b] in, [c] in [1] of and [2] of, and [C] to, and [D] to, and for these ends, [E] to and [F] (to), and [G] to, and [H] to,,,, and [I] to,... have resolved to combine our efforts to accomplish these aims (A-I). D. BÜTÜNLÜK Türkçe Çevirinizin Türkçesini kontrol edin. 131

138 18. The Fountain and The Water-Jar He who can go to the fountain does not go to the water-jar. Leonardo da Vinci, Notebooks Leonardo da Vinci was talking, of course, of composition. His advice to painters was "go to the objects of nature rather than those which are imitated from nature": paint from life, not from a copy of life. those =? 5 10 The translator, if he is honest with himself, knows that his readers are those who cannot go to the fountain. Those who are free to choose, will prefer the original; those who are not, will "make do" with the translation. This is hard for the translator to admit, for it implies that translation is always second-best; but secondbest does not necessarily imply second-rate. Translation need not be a poor substitute for the original. those =? Those =? it =? Translation does, certainly, have a bad reputation with the general public: Torture and translation are, in fact, amongst the few fates that can be worse than death. Strictly speaking, translation is a subtle form of torture. (The Spectator, 24 September 1977) 15 even though the words above may be more extreme than most people would care to use. 20 It is unfortunate that translation is perhaps more often criticized for its defects than praised for its merits. The faults of a bad translation are immediately apparent, the virtues of a good one may easily pass unnoticed. The reader, generally, cannot compare: his "original" is the translation; this is what he judges. And in his judgement, he has only his own native ear to go by, for what he is reacting to is a piece of writing in his own language. It is not surprising, then, that one of the vaguest - but commonest - criticisms of translation should be "it sounds wrong". one =? this =? 25 What the reader means when he says "it sounds wrong" is that although the words may be familiar to him, they are combined in an unfamiliar way. He may understand the face value of these words, he may see no evident flaw in the structure of the sentence, he may find nothing wrong with the punctuation or wordorder, with the idioms or figures of speech - yet still he may feel uneasy. 355 sözcük they =? Translation 132

139 A. SÖZCÜK Sözlük çalışması Değinme sözcükleri a) Sözcükleri inceleyin Metin içinde Yalın hali Sözcük türü Anlamı Fountain Water-jar imitated make do second-best substitute reputation Torture fates subtle defects praised merits virtues vaguest evident flaw punctuation b) Metnin sağ kenarında verilen sözcükleri inceleyin. c) Koyu verilen yapıların nasıl aktarılacağını inceleyin. Leonardo da Vinci was talking, of course, of composition The translator, if he is honest with himself, knows that his readers are those who cannot go to the fountain. Those who are free to choose, will prefer the original; those who are not, will "make do" with the translation. This is hard for the translator to admit, for it implies that translation is always second-best; but second-best does not necessarily imply second-rate. And in his judgement, he has only his own native ear to go by, for what he is reacting to is a piece of writing in his own language. It is not surprising, then, that one of the vaguest - but commonest - criticisms of translation should be "it sounds wrong". He may understand the face value of these words, he may see no evident flaw in the structure of the sentence, he may find nothing wrong with the punctuation or word-order, with the idioms or figures of speech - yet still he may feel uneasy. 133

140 B. DİLBİLGİSİ As, for, since, yet That, gerund, past participle Basit-Bileşik Tümce Clause Marker Ana-Yan Tümce Ö+Y+N Tümcelerin dilbilgisi açısından analizini yapın. 6. tümcedeki ve 12. tümcedeki for sözcüklerine ve 15. tümcedeki yet sözcüğüne dikkat edin. C. ANLAM Bağlam Taslak çeviri Tümceleri Türkçeye aktarın. D. BÜTÜNLÜK Türkçe İngilizce metne bakmadan çevirinizi okuyun ve Türkçesini düzeltin. 134

141 19. Lightning The phenomenon of lightning has been a source of danger and mystery through the centuries, and only recently have scientists begun to understand its true nature. We know now that lightning is a huge electrical spark caused by the interaction of electrically charged particles in the atmosphere. During a thunderstorm, heavy particles holding a positive charge rise to the top. Lightning results when energy flows between the two types of charges. What is still not understood is the process by which particles become electrically charged. Most scientists believe that a cloud's light, rising moisture and tiny pieces of ice collide with hail and other heavy, falling particles. The collision may cause these elements to take on either a positive or negative charge. The most feared form of lightning is that which strikes the ground in one or more electrical discharges called strokes. Any one of these strokes is capable of causing death, destroying property, or igniting fires. It is interesting to note that the bright flash of light produced by a stroke actually occurs as the discharge returns to the sky and not as it descends towards the ground. This return stroke heats surrounding air and causes it to expand, thus producing a wave of pressure called thunder. 208 sözcük A. SÖZCÜK Sözlük çalışması Değinme sözcükleri Metin içinde Yalın hali Sözcük türü Anlamı Lightning phenomenon source mystery spark interaction charged particles thunderstorm flows process 12. Metin'de işlendi. moisture tiny collide collision feared strikes discharges strokes 135

142 property igniting flash occurs descends surrounding expand wave pressure thunder B. DİLBİLGİSİ As, for, since, yet That, gerund, past participle Basit-Bileşik Tümce Clause Marker Ana-Yan Tümce Ö+Y+N a) Metinden alınan aşağıdaki tümcelerin her birinde birer -ing relative clause ya da past participle relative clause yapı bulunmakta. Bu yapıları saptayın. (Her iki yapı da Genel Çeviri 1 kitabının 8. konusunda ele alınmakta: I like the girl sitting over there. [= who is sitting] I like macaroni flavoured with Italian sauce. [=which is flavoured]) We know now that lightning is a huge electrical spark caused by the interaction of electrically charged particles in the atmosphere. During a thunderstorm, heavy particles holding a positive charge rise to the top. The most feared form of lightning is that which strikes the ground in one or more electrical discharges called strokes. It is interesting to note that the bright flash of light produced by a stroke actually occurs as the discharge returns to the sky and not as it descends towards the ground. This return stroke heats surrounding air and causes it to expand, thus producing a wave of pressure called thunder. b) Aşağıdaki tümcede, and sözcüğünden sonra gelen tümcenin yapısını inceleyin ve öznesini bulun. The phenomenon of lightning has been a source of danger and mystery through the centuries, and only recently have scientists begun to understand its true nature. 136

143 c) Aşağıda verilen tümcede Most scientists believe that a cloud's light, rising moisture and tiny pieces of ice collide with hail and other heavy, falling particles. bir noun clause yer almakta. Most scientists believe that... Bu durumda da a cloud's light, rising moisture and tiny pieces of ice collide with hail and other heavy, falling particles. bölümü kendi içinde bir tümce özelliği taşımakta. Bu bölümün özne, yüklem ve nesnesini saptayın. C. ANLAM Bağlam Taslak çeviri Tümceleri Türkçeye aktarın. Özellikle Most scientists believe that a cloud's light, rising moisture and tiny pieces of ice collide with hail and other heavy, falling particles tümcesinde hem isim hem de sıfat olarak kullanılan bazı sözcükler yer aldığı için yanlış çeviri yapma olasılığınız bulunmakta. Bu tümceyi Türkçeye aktardıktan sonra Türkçe anlamın kendi içinde ve diğer tümcelerin anlamı ile tutarlı olup olmadığını inceleyin. D. BÜTÜNLÜK Türkçe İngilizce metne bakmadan çevirinizi okuyun. İngilizce metni hiç okumamış biri, çevirinizi kullanarak şimşek olgusunu, sizin "yani demek istiyorum ki..." şeklindeki sözlü açıklamalarınıza gerek olmadan, anlayabilir mi? 137

144 20. The Way Up To Heaven All her life, Mrs. Foster had had an almost pathological fear of missing a train, a plane, a boat, or even a theatre curtain. In other respects, she was not a particularly nervous woman, but the mere thought of being late on occasions like these would throw her into such a state of nerves that she would begin to twitch. It was nothing much - just a tiny vellicating muscle in the corner of the left eye, like a secret wink - but the annoying thing was that it refused to disappear until an hour or so after the train or plane or whatever it was had been safely caught. It was really extraordinary how in some people a simple apprehension about a thing like catching a train can grow into a serious obsession. At least half an hour before it was time to leave the house for the station, Mrs. Foster would step out of the elevator all ready to go, with hat and coat, gloves, and then, being quite unable to sit down, she would flutter and fidget about from room to room until her husband, who must have been well aware of her state, finally emerged from his privacy and suggested in a cool dry voice that perhaps they had better get going now, had they not? Mr. Foster may possibly have had a right to be irritated by this foolishness of his wife's, but he could have had no excuse for increasing her misery by keeping her waiting unnecessarily. Mind you, it is by no means certain that this is what he did, yet whenever they were to go somewhere, his timing was so accurate - just a minute or two late, you understand - and his manner so bland that it was hard to believe he wasn't purposefully inflicting a nasty little torture of his own on the unhappy woman. And one thing he must have known - that she would never dare to call out and tell him to hurry. He had disciplined her too well for that. He must also have known that if he was prepared to wait even beyond the last moment of safety, he could drive her nearly into hysterics. On one or two special occasions in the later years of their married life, it seemed almost as though he had wanted to miss the train simply in order to intensify the poor woman's suffering. these =? It =? this? yet? that =? 138

145 30 Assuming (though one cannot be sure) that the husband was guilty, what made his attitude doubly unreasonable was the fact that, with the exception of this one small irrepressible foible, Mrs. Foster was and always had been a good and loving wife. For over thirty years, she had served him loyally and well. There was no doubt about this. Even she, a very modest woman, was aware of it, and although she had for years refused to let herself believe that Mr. Foster would ever consciously torment her, there had been times recently when she had caught herself beginning to wonder. 501 sözcük it =? Roald Dahl: Kiss Kiss A. SÖZCÜK Sözlük çalışması Değinme sözcükleri Metin içinde Yalın hali Sözcük türü Anlamı mere nerves twitch vellicating wink apprehension obsession flutter fidget emerged bland inflicting torture 18. Metin'de işlendi. intensify doubly irrepressible foible loyally torment B. DİLBİLGİSİ As, for, since, yet That, gerund, past participle Basit-Bileşik Tümce Clause Marker Ana-Yan Tümce Ö+Y+N Metnin tümünü dilbilgisi açısından inceleyin. 139

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