1 151-JOB CENTRE LEAFLET snapped leaflet Thousands of jobs come into our Job Centres and Employment Offices every week, but they get (1) up quickly. So,although we shall do all we can to help you, it's important for you to do all you can to help yourself. This (2) tells you how. claim rely on consider arc slick further suitability advice allowance 1. Registered for work Once you have registered for work, we will (3) you for the available jobs. You must also register for work at the Job Centre in order to (4) unemployment pay. But you actually apply for pay at the local Unemployment Office. 2. Getting a job Jobs that come in (5) noted on cards and displayed in the office window as soon as possible. You can call in at any time to look at the jobs displayed. Half the people who find jobs through Job Centres or Employment Offices find them in this way. The receptionist is here to help you, so if you see a job that boks right for you, tell the receptionist, giving the reference number on the card. 3. If you want (6) help with finding a job If you want more help or (7), don't forget that's what we're here for. Our Employment Advisers can help you with things like: - thinking about the different sorts of jobs you could do - and which are best for you -jobs available locally or elsewhere - training for a new job - your (8) for a training course, during which you get an (9) - loans to help you look for, and move to, work in other fields Even though you have a clear idea of the şort of job and pay you want, you may find that something different will suit you quite well. Keep this in mind when you're talking with the Employment Adviser and don't (10) to one job only. 4. If you don't find a job on your first visit Come into our office as often as you can to look at the jobs on display here. Good vacancies are coming in all the time, but they do go quickly. Don't (11) being told about them just because you've been registered for employment. If you can't get to the office every day easily, come in whenever you can - and enquire by telephone as often as you like. It'll help you to find a job faster if you keep in touch.
2 KELİME ANLAM EŞ ANLAM advice nasihat, öğüt, tavsiye, danışma, uyarı, akıl, counsel, guidance; information fikir allowance izin, müsaade; harçlık, ödenek; hoşgörü, stipend; grant; pocket money; discount, tolerans, indirim, iskonto, hesaba katma, göz deduction; acknowledgment önünde tutma, handikap [spor.], avans [spor.] arc yay, ark, elektrik atlaması, kavis curve, part of a circle claim istemek, talep etmek, hak iddia etmek, sahip çıkmak, iddia etmek, ısrar etmek, dava açmak demand; sue; plea; assert consider further leaflet rely on slick snapped suitability göz önüne almak, hesaba katmak, addetmek, göz önünde bulundurmak, düşünmek, göz önünde tutmak, dikkate almak; saygı göstermek, saymak; görmek; fikrinde olmak daha ileri, daha fazla, ileri, ileride, öte, ötede, öteye, ayrıca, bundan başka yaprakçık, bileşik yapraklardan biri, kitapçık, broşür, el ilanı güvenmek, itimat etmek, bel bağlamak, dayanmak düz, purüzsüz, düzgün, kaygan, becerikli, usta, kurnaz, şeytan gibi ısırmaya çalışmak, ısırmak, havada kapmak, kopmak, kırılmak, şaklamak, çatırdamak, çarparak kapamak, şipşak fotoğraf çekmek, kırmak, koparmak, şıklatmak, şaklatmak, patlamak, pat diye söylemek, terslemek, çıkışmak, içindekilerle satın almak uygunluk, elverişlilik, uygun olma, yerindelik, yakışırlık think over, think about carefully; believe; regard; take into account to a greater distance; more; in addition booklet, brochure, handbill, circular, flyer, handout, bulletin count on, lean on, depend on slippery; shiny, glossy, smooth; clever; sly; sophisticated and superficial; great, excellent (Slang) bark, snarl appositeness, appropriateness, aptness, expediency, fitness, meetness, propriety, rightness, suitableness
3 152-LANZAROTE located regard region shadows People usually (1) the presence of even a single volcano in their particular geographical (2) as a cause of great concern, but the inhabitants of the Island of Lanzarote live in the (3) of over two hundred volcanoes, most of which now lie sleeping. Lanzarote, one of the Canary Islands belonging to Spain, is (4) about eighty miles off the western coast of Morocco in Africa. proves dare courage obstacles cinder The inhabitants of Lanzarote are known for their (5) and adaptability. Their island is an arid, treeless land, but its agricultural output is impressive. Because there is very little rain, farmers use volcanic (6) to capture and retain wetness in the earth. They even (7) to plant crops in the desert sand that is a condition of their daily existence. An unusual land, Lanzarote (8) man's ability to overcome the (9) in his natural environment. KELİME ANLAM EŞ ANLAM cinder kül, kor ash, ember, small piece of burnt wood or coal courage cesaret, yüreklilik, yiğitlik, medeni cesaret bravery, ability to face danger without fear dare cüret etmek, cesaret etmek; kalkışmak; riske beard, brave, challenge, defy girmek; kafa tutmak (Argo); meydan okumak located yerleştirmek, yerini saptamak, yerleşmek, oturmak obstacles engel, ket, mani obstruction, impediment, hindrance proves göstermek, kanıtlamak, ispat etmek, demonstrate, test, try denemek, sınamak, ispatlamak, tecrübe etmek, çıkmak, ortaya koymak, sağlamasını yapmak, anlaşılmak situate, place; identify, find; establish oneself in a particular spot; settle regard bakış, anlamlı bakış, bakım, itibar, nazar, ilgi, esteem, respect; thought, consideration; look, ilişki, dikkat, önem, saygı, beğeni, takdir, glance; outward appearance; reference, hürmet relation; care, attention region bölge, iklim, nahiye, yöre, alan, çevre area, territory, domain; field, area of activity shadows gölge, karanlık, karartı, siluet, hayal, hayalet, zerre, iz, can yoldaşı, peşinden ayrılmayan hayvan, hüzün, keder, rahatsız eden duygu, koruma, kayırma or interest, sphere shade, cast a shadow; dim, darken; follow, pursue, trail (especially in a stealthy way
4 153-SPEED LIMIT retention imposed retaining older According to a recent survey, a large majority of Americans are in favor of (1) the present 55-mile-anhour speed limit. This speed limit was (2) in 1973 when fuel shortages became (3). Seventyfive per cent of the persons surveyed think that the law is a good one. They point to the decrease in the highway death rate or to the saving of fuel as reasons for their opinion. Easterners and (4) people, rather than young adults, are more likely to argue for (5) of the law. polled contends view disproportionate Only twenty-three per cent of the people surveyed favor a higher speed limit for trucks. Their (6) is supported by the trucking industry, which (7) that truck engines work more efficiently at higher speeds, and that trucks traveling at higher speeds reach markets more quickly, thereby saving consumers money. However, some of the persons (8) argue that trucks on certain highways are already involved in a (9) number of fatal accidents. KELİME ANLAM EŞ ANLAM contends uğraşmak, savaşmak, çekişmek, tartışmak, maintain, assert; compete; struggle, strive yarışmak, rekabet etmek, iddia etmek, ileri sürmek disproportionate aşırı, fazlasıyla, oransız unequal, unbalanced, out of proportion, extreme imposed yüklemek, uygulmaya koymak, zorlamak, require, compel, force upon; enforce, etkilenmek, yük olmak, yararlanmak, kötüye institute; force oneself on others kullanmak older daha yaşlı, büyük aged; elderly; not new; veteran; former; of polled kesmek, boynuzunu kesmek, tepesini kesmek, budamak, oy vermek, oy toplamak, kamuoyu yoklaması yapmak, halkın nabzını yoklamak, anket yapmak retaining alıkoymak, tutmak, elinden kaçırmamak, unutmamak, kaybetmemek, parayla tutmak retention tutma, alıkoyma, kaybetmeme, koruma, çişini tutma, akılda tutma, hafıza, bellek, durdurma view bakış, görüş, görüş alanı, manzara, panaroma, görünüm, görüntü, beklenti, amaç, fikir, kanı, gösterme, yayınlama the age receive votes; vote, elect; count votes, make a survey detain, hold, hold back, keep back, keep out, reserve, withhold act of keeping possession; maintenance, act of holding; memory, capacity to remember vista, scenery, sight; opinion, outlook; gaze, look; field of vision
5 154-THE TORNADO funnel occurrences Prior to encircles retreats violent obvious One of the most feared (1) in nature is the tornado. The area most frequently the target of this violent windstorm is the Great Plains, the region extending from the Rockies to the Mississippi, and from Canada down through Texas. When warm, moist air meets with cooler, drier air at low levels, a tornado often occurs. (2) the formation of the familiar funnel-shaped cloud, the sky is very clear. Then, a black line suddenly appears. As this black area moves in, the fast wind becomes hot and moist and a deep stillness (3) the landscape. Because the air pressure drops steadily during a tornado, breathing becomes difficult. Insects fail to the ground, unable to balance themselves in flight. Suddenly, a black (4) resembling a giant whip dips down out of the sky, destroying whatever it touches, and then (5). Although a tornado usually destroys property rather than lives, an average of 120 people die yearly as a result of these (6) storms. it is (7) why the tornado is feared throughout the Great Plains. KELİME ANLAM EŞ ANLAM encircles çevrelemek, kuşatmak, çembere almak, surround, enclose, hem in, circumscribe, etrafını çevirmek, sarmak; kucaklamak; make a circle around çevirmek funnel huni, baca, havalandırma deliği, yanardağ tube, pipe, channel, conduit. bacası obvious açık, besbelli, apaçık, ortada clear; unmistakable; apparent, evident; plain occurrences oluş, olma, çıkma, olay happening, event, incident prior to önce, den önce before retreats yeniden işlemek, geri çekilmek, gerilemek, yeniden bakım yapmak, inzivaya çekilmek, draw back, withdraw, pull back, depart köşesine çekilmek, geri hamle yapmak, violent kaçmak şiddetli, sert, saldırı sonucu olan, aşırı, berbat, çok kötü concentrated, desperate, exquisite, fierce, furious, terrible, vehement, vicious
6 155-TRAVEL INSURANCE smashed bothered pleasant dawned recalls appalling On their way to southern Spain last summer, George and Jean Glover stopped outside the city of Seville for a lunch-time picnic. They left their car by the road and walked down to the cool waters of a river for a very (1) meal. When they returned to their car, they were horrified to discover that the back window had been forced and (2). It took a while to sort out what had gone, mostly small things like their camera, tape player and tapes, a few clothes lying on the back seat - fortunately, they hadn't (3) with the suitcases. It suddenly (4) on Jean that she had left her handbag in the car, contaning their passports, travellers' cheques, cash, ferry tickets, car keys and front-door keys. "It was (5). How could I have been so stupid? in London, I d never have left my handbag in the car," (6) Jean. replacement arrange ferry insurance theft insurance Initially, they both felt like driving back to the (7) and going home. But they knew they had to report the (8) to the police. And they had to call their motor (9) company to arrange for a new back window. The travel insurance company, which ran a 24-hour emergency assistance service, advised them to call a neighbour, who had a key for their house, to ask her to get the locks changed. They were also advised to speak to the local Consular Office to (10) emergency passports. The travellers cheque company arranged an immediate (11) of their holiday money. Bit by bit, they realised that all was not lost, and they managed to continue with what turned out to be a very enjoyable holiday. "But if we hadn't had the help and advice available through our travel (12) company, we'd have been totally lost." uninsured independently obliged abroad appreciate Incredibly, there are many people like the Glovers who run into trouble (13), yet have no travel insurance. That's why these days people taking a package holiday are normally (14) by the tour operators to have travel insurance; if they don't take the policy offered in the brochure, then they have to show that they have made alternative arrangements. There is no such safety net for people travelling (15), but, thanks largely to newspaper horror stories of (16) tourists having to sell their houses in order to meet 100,000 bills for medical treatment in the States, most travellers abroad (17) the need to take out insurance.
7 KELİME ANLAM EŞ ANLAM abroad yurt dışında, dışarıda, gurbette, yurt dışına; her tarafa; etrafa overseas, out of the country, to/in foreign parts, to/in a foreign country/land. appalling korkunç, dehşet verici, berbat, müthiş shocking, terrible, frightening, horrifying appreciate değer vermek, değerini bilmek, minnettar esteem, regard highly; raise the value, olmak, teşekkür borçlu olmak, become more valuable değerlendirmek, takdir etmek, değer biçmek, değerlendirmek; değerini artırmak, fiyatını yükseltmek; beğenmek, zevk almak; anlamak, kavramak, değer kazanmak, değerlenmek arrange düzenlemek, ayarlamak, yoluna koymak, organize; settle hazırlamak, düzeltmek, halletmek; planlamak, kararlaştırmak, sıralamak, sıraya bothered koymak, aranje etmek sıkmak, can sıkmak, sinir bozmak, canını sıkmak, dert vermek, baş belâsı olmak, rahat vermemek, üzülmek, takmak, sinir etmek, rahatsız etmek; daraltmak; musallat olmak, annoy, harass; make an effort; worry, be concerned dawned gün ağarmak, şafak sökmek, aydınlanmak; belirmek become light; begin, start; become clear; start to understand ferry feribot, araba vapuru, vapur iskelesi ferryboat, boat for crossing a body of water, shuttle independently bağımsız olarak, birbirini etkilemeden. ferryboat, boat for crossing a body of water, shuttle insurance sigorta, sigortalama indemnity, indemnification, assurance, (financial) protection, security, cover. obliged zorunda bırakmak, mecbur etmek, bağlamak (anlaşma vb.), minnettar kılmak, minnettar bırakmak, iyilik etmek, lütfetmek, memnun etmek obligate, compel; do something as a favor, accommodate pleasant hoş, güzel, keyifli, tatlı, şirin, sevimli genial, nice, agreeable; kind, amiable, friendly recalls geri çağırmak, geri istemek, hatırlamak, remember, recollect; call back, bring back; anımsamak, hatırlatmak, uyandırmak revoke, annul, cancel (duygu), dönmek, geri almak, geri çekmek replacement yedek, değiştirme, yerine koyma, yerine geçen kimse, protez substitute, alternate, backup, fill-in, locum tenens, pinch hitter, stand-in, sub, succedaneum, surrogate smashed sarhoş, fitil gibi sarhoş, uçmuş, uyuşturucunun etkisi altında theft hırsızlık, çalma, aşırma robbery, burglary uninsured sigortasız, sigorta edilmemiş not covered by insurance shattered, broken to pieces; crushed; demolished; defeated utterly; drunk (Slang)
8 156-MEETING THE CAPTAIN (adapted from "The Captain and The Enemy" by Graham Greene) recklessly damp distinguish formidable slithered courtyard slope I am now in my twenty-second year and yet the only birthday which I can clearly (1) among all the rest is my twelfth, for it was on that (2) and misty day in September I met the Captain for the first time. I can still remember the wetness of the ground under my gym shoes and how the blown leaves made the (3) slippery as I ran (4) to escape from my enemies between one class and the next. I (5) and stopped abruptly while my pursuers went whistling away, because there, in the middle of the courtyard, stood our (6) headmaster talking to a tall man in a bowler hat, a rare sight already at that date, so that he looked a little like an actor in costume. He carried a walking-stick over his shoulder at the (7), like a soldier with a rifle. I had no idea who he might be, nor, of course, did I know that he had won me the previous night, in a backgammon game with my father. glaring slid indicate quandary I (8) so far that I landed on my knees at the two men's feet, and when I picked myself up the headmaster was (9) at me from under his heavy eyebrows. I heard him say, "I think this is the one you want - Baxter Three. Are you Baxter Three?" "Yes, sir," I said. The man, whom I would never come to know by any more permanent name than the Captain, said, "What does Three (10)?" "He is the youngest of three Baxters," the headmaster said, "but not one of them is related by blood." "That puts me in a bit of a (11)." the Captain said. "For which of them is the Baxter I want? The first name, unlikely as it may sound, is Victor. Victor Baxter - the names don't pair very well." stern obscure inquired splashed "We have little occasion here for first names. Are you called Victor Baxter?" the headmaster (12) of me sharply. "Yes, sir," I said after some hesitation, for I was unwilling to admit to a name which I had tried unsuccessfully to hide from my friends. I knew very well that Victor - for some (13) reason - was one of the unacceptable names, like Vincent or Marmaduke. "Well then, I suppose that this is the Baxter you want, sir. Your face needs washing, boy." The (14) morality of the school prevented me from telling the headmaster that it had been quite clean until my enemies had (15) it with ink.
9 KELİME ANLAM EŞ ANLAM courtyard avlu close, curtilage, enclosure, quad, quadrangle, yard damp nem, rutubet, su buharı; üzüntü, keder; moisture, wetness aksatma; cesaretini kırma; grizu distinguish ayırt etmek, ayırmak, ayrım yapmak; seçmek; farketmek, anlamak; sivriltmek formidable dişli, korkunç, tüyler ürpertici, müthiş, heybetli, zorlu, zor difference, differentiate, discern, discrepate, discriminate, extricate, separate, sever, severalize frightening, causing fear; difficult, discouraging, intimidating; awesome; powerful shine, flash; dazzle, blind; stare in an angry manner, stare at piercingly glaring parlamak, göz kamaştırmak, göze batmak, dik dik bakmak, kötü kötü bakmak quandary kararsızlık, ikilem, tereddüd, kuşku predicament, plight, difficult situation, awkward situation; trouble, muddle, mess, confusion, difficulty, mare's nest indicate göstermek, belirtmek, işaret etmek, bildirmek, çıtlatmak, gerektirmek inquired sormak, soru sormak, soruşturmak, araştırmak obscure karanlık, loş, belirsiz, karışık, anlaşılmaz, telâffuzu zor, kuytu, ücra, gözlerden uzak, bilinmeyen show; point out; mark, signify; imply; exhibit, reveal; suggest ask, question, interrogate; investigate, look into; conduct an inquiry vague, hazy; dark, dim; unknown, concealed, mysterious; not clear; hard to understand; not noticeable; of little importance recklessly düşünmeden, sakınmadan, çekinmeden, in a rash manner, heedlessly, impulsively, umursamazca, lakaytca, dikkatsizce hastily slid kaymak, kötü yola düşmek, kaydırmak, akıp glide, glissade, slick, slip, slither gitmek, sıvışmak, kaybolup gitmek slithered kayarak gitmek, kaymak, sürünerek ilerlemek slip and slide; glide or slide in the manner of a snake, move smoothly and silently slope yokuş, bayır, eğimli yer, yamaç, eğim, meyil, şev grade, gradient, inclination, incline, lean, leaning, slant, tilt splashed cup diye düşmek, suya çarpmak, sıçramak, yıkanmak, sıçratmak, serpiştirmek, serpmek, douse, plash, slop, slosh, spatter, splatter, splosh, splurge, spurtle, swash yağmak, yıkamak, sürmek (boya vb.), reklâmını yapmak stern arka, sert, katı, şiddetli, inatçı, acımasız, haşin, amansız, kıç strict, uncompromising, firm; grim, harsh, austere
10 157-SHOPLIFTING escape shoplifters desirable court talent In the past, most (1) agreed that the January sales offered wonderful opportunities for the hard-working thief. With the shops so crowded and the staff so busy, it did not require any extraordinary (2) to steal one or two little things and (3) unnoticed. It was known, in the business, as 'hoisting'. But the hoisting game is not what it used to be. Even at the height of the sales, shoplifters today never know if they are being watched by one of those mechanical balls (with small cameras hidden inside) hanging from the ceilings of so many department stores, above the most (4) goods. As if that was not trouble enough for them, they can now be filmed at work and obliged to attend a showing of their performance in (5). suitable ridiculous sputniks Selfridges was the first big London store to install videotape equipment to watch its sales floors. In October last year, the store won its first court case for shoplifting using as evidence a videotape clearly showing a couple stealing dresses. It was an important test case which encouraged other stores to install similar equipment. When the balls, called (6), first made an appearance in shops, it was widely believed that their only function was to frighten shoplifters. Their somewhat (7) appearance, the curious holes and red lights going on and off, certainly made the theory believable. It did not take long, however, for serious shoplifters to start showing (8) respect. Soon after the equipment was in operation at Selfridges, store detective Brian Chadwick was sitting in the control room, watching a woman secretly putting bottles of perfume into her bag. regret sputnik counter "As she turned to go," Chadwick recalled, "she suddenly looked up at the (9) and stopped. She could not possibly see that the camera was filming her because it is completely hidden, but she probably had a feeling that I was looking at her. For a moment she paused, then she returned to the (10) and started putting everything back. When she had finished, she opened her bag towards the sputnik to show it was empty and hurried out of the store without a sign of (11) on her face."
11 KELİME ANLAM EŞ ANLAM counter sayaç; tezgâh; gişe; fiş; karşılık, karşı şey; çene altı ile omuz arası; kontuar bar, long flat surface (in a restaurant, kitchen, etc.); counting device court mahkeme; avlu, dar sokak; kort, oyun alanı; saray, konak, saray halkı; oturum, celse; close, courtyard, curtilage, enclosure, quad, quadrangle, yard, bar, lawcourt, tribunal hükümdarlık, saltanat, kur, toplantı desirable çekici, beğenilen; hoş worthwhile, worth having escape kaçış, kaçma, firar, kaçış yolu; kurtuluş, breakout, escapement, escaping, flight, kurtulma; sızıntı, kaçak; dinlendirici şey getaway, lam regret teessüf, üzüntü, pişmanlık, vicdan azabı, sorrow, remorse, anguish esef ridiculous gülünç, komik, anlamsız, rezalet worthy of ridicule, absurd, ludicrous, preposterous shoplifters hırsız (dükkân), mağaza hırsızı booster, lifter sputnik sputnik any one of a series of Russian satellites launched into orbit around the Earth suitable uyan, uygun, münasip, yerinde, elverişli appropriate, fitting, becoming talent marifet, yetenek, kabiliyet, yetenekli kimse, eski para ve tartı sistemi aptness, bent, bump, faculty, flair, genius, nose, set, turn
12 158-ILLEGAL TAPES profits exploiting famine starving relief illicit British pop stars Phil Collins and Duran Duran are to join an international campaign in London this week to stop the production of illegal tapes of the Live Aid concert for (1) relief, held last July in London and Philadelphia. Members of Duran Duran told The Sunday Times, "Producing illegal tapes of something like Live Aid is criminal. These people are (2) the means that should help feed (3) Africans." The illegal tapes, manufactured by several different companies in Indonesia, have become best-sellers in the Far and Middle East, making (4) estimated at millions of dollars. Now IFPVP, the International Federation of Phonogram and Videogram Producers, which represents more than 600 record companies worldwide, is asking the British government to bring economic pressure on the Indonesian government to stop the (5) trade. The packaging of the unlawful tapes is produced to a high professional Standard, bearing the Live Aid logo, a guitar in the shape of Africa, and the words "For Africa famine (6)." denied conventions manufacture shameful determined "Their packaging makes people believe that the money is going to Africa," says Dave Laing of IFPVP. The federation received reports of at least 30 illegal versions of the tapes sold in many countries such as Singapore, Malaysia and Portugal, where you can, in fact, easily get the real ones. Indonesia has not signed international copyright (7), and the federation says no legal action can be taken against the people in that country. "It's big business," says Laing. "The people who (8) these tapes have large factories and their own relationships with the authorities." A spokesman for the Indonesian government in London last week (9) any knowledge of the tapes being manufactured or sold in his country although he acknowledged that production of illegal tapes in southeast Asia in general was a major problem, "it is (10) that this is happening in our country," he said. "And our government will take action once the facts have been (11)." KELİME ANLAM EŞ ANLAM conventions toplantı, kongre, toplama, toplanma, düzen, conference; treaty; agreement; routine, adet custom denied reddetmek, inkâr etmek, yalanlamak, disclaim, disacknowledge, disallow, disavow, yadsımak; mahrum etmek, yoksun bırakmak disown, repudiate determined kararlaştırmak, karara bağlanmak, karara decide, settle; conclude; cause, affect varmak; belirlemek; neden olmak; sabitleştirmek; saptamak exploiting kullanmak, faydalanmak, işletmek; adventure, emprise, enterprise, feat, gest, sömürmek, kötüye kullanmak, istismar etmek venture famine açlık, kıtlık, sıkıntı, yokluk starvation, great hunger; severe food shortage illicit illegal, haram, yasadışı, kanunsuz, yasak forbidden, against the rules, unlawful manufacture yapım, imal, üretim fabricate, fashion, forge, form, frame, mold, produce, put together, shape profits yaramak, yararı olmak, yararlanmak, kâr getirmek, kâr etmek earn income, make financial gains; be of service, be beneficial, be advantageous relief rahatlama, sıkıntıdan kurtulma, kurtarma, alleviation, easement, mitigation rahatlatma, çare, yardım, destek, ara verme, nöbet değiştirme, nöbeti alan kimse, hafifletme, kabartma, rölyef shameful utandırıcı, utanç verici, yüz kızartıcı, ayıp, disgraceful, dishonorable, indecent, rezil, kepaze infamous starving açlıktan kıvranmak, açlıktan ölmek, çok hungry, famished, acıkmak, midesi kazınmak, sefalet çekmek, aç olmak, aç bırakmak, açlıktan öldürmek,
13 159-JORVIK - THE LOST VIKING CAPITAL trading described prosperity A thousand years- ago, York was one of the largest, richest and most famous cities in the whole of Britain. In the 10th century, it was (1) as being packed with a huge population, and traders from all parts, especially Danes. People called it Jorvik, and knew it as the capital of the North of England, and one of Europe's greatest (2) ports. It owed its (3) to the hard work of Viking settlers from Scandinavia, who had captured it in 866. rotted demolished wooden survive rubbish Most of the city's buildings were made of wood, and have long since been (4), or have burnt down or (5) away. In some parts of modern York, however, near the rivers of Ouse and Foss, which run through the centre of the city, archaeologists have found that remains of Jorvik do still (6). They are buried deep below the streets and buildings of the 20th century city. Here the damp soils have preserved the (7) buildings. Whole streets of houses, shops and workshops are found although not in very good condition. All the (8) left by the people of Jorvik in and around their homes is still there as well. lain reconstructed dug aspect beams silently Between 1976 and 1981, archaeologists from the York Archaeological Trust (9) up a part of this lost and forgotten city and found four rows of buildings. Some of the remains were so well preserved - even down to boots and shoes, pins and needles, plants and insects - that every (10) of life at the time could be reconstructed. The York Archaeological Trust decided to convert the place into a museum and try to tell the story of Jorvik as it was a thousand years ago. To do so, it built the Jorvik Viking Centre in the huge hole created by the archaeologists. Two of the rows of buildings were (11) as we think they were. A further two were preserved just as the archaeological team discovered them, the ancient (12) set out as they were found in the late 1970's, deep below the new shopping centre, where they have (13) for centuries. In the Jorvik Viking Centre, people from the 20th century journey back in time to the 10th century in cars, which (14) move through the place. Meanwhile, modern time travellers watch the townspeople buying and selling, working and playing, in an atmosphere full of the sights, sounds and smells of 10th century Jorvik.
14 KELİME ANLAM EŞ ANLAM aspect görünüş, görünüm, görüş, bakım; hal, tavır, çehre, yön; cephe point of view, facet; appearance, outlook; direction beams ışın; radyo sinyalleri; tatlı bakış; kiriş, direk; ray of light; radio wave; broad smile; terazi kolu; huzme; kemere, kalça genişliği, saban oku, çulha silindiri horizontal support or joist used in building frames demolished yıkmak, tahrip etmek, imha etmek; yiyip destroy, ruin, tear down bitirmek described tanımlamak, tarif etmek, tasvir etmek, depict, give an account of anlatmak; betimlemek; ifade etmek; çizmek dug meme breast, nipple lain yalan söylemek, kandırmak, yatmak, bouncer, canard, cock-and-bull story, uzanmak, mideye oturmak, yasal olmak falsehood, falsity, fib, inveracity, misrepresentation, misstatement, prevarication prosperity başarı, gönenç, zenginlik, refah, bolluk abundance, ease, easy street, prosperousness, thriving, well-being reconstructed yeniden inşa etmek, yeniden kurmak, yeni baştan yapmak, bozup yapmak, imar etmek, kalkındırmak rebuild, construct again, recreate, make again rotted çürümek, bozulmak, kokuşmak, terbiyesi bozulmak, çürütmek, bozmak, alay etmek, takılmak, saçmalamak, zırvalamak rubbish süprüntü, çöp, döküntü, saçmalık, zırva, anlamsız söz, enkaz, moloz, ıvır zıvır, işe yaramaz şey decay, break down, crumble, decompose, disintegrate, molder, putrefy, spoil, taint, turn refuse, debris, garbage, junk, kelter, litter, offal, sweepings, trash, waste silently sessizce quietly, inaudibly, noiselessly, soundlessly, in silence. survive hayatta kalmak, sağ kalmak, kalmak, geriye outlive, outlast, outwear, come through, pull kalmak, daha uzun yaşamak, yadigâr through, ride (out) kalmak, dayanmak, göğüs germek trading ticaret yapmak, iş yapmak, takas etmek deal, transact, buy and sell; barter, exchange; purchase wooden ağaçlı, ahşap, tahta, kalın kafalı, ruhsuz, alık, kazık gibi made from wood; of wood; hard, coarse; expressionless; stupid; blunt; stiff, inflexible
15 160-CHILDREN AND LEARNING pointed out dependent on difference comparing mistakes A child learning to talk notices a thousand times a day the (1) between the language he uses and the language those around him use. Bit by bit, he makes the necessary changes to make his language like other people's. In the same way, children learn to do all the other things without being taught - to walk, run, climb, whistle, ride a bicycle - by (2) their own performances with those of more skilled people, and slowly making the needed changes. Yet, at school we never give a child a chance to find out his (3) for himself, let alone correct them. We do it all for him. We act as if we think that he will never notice a mistake unless it is (4) to him, or correct it unless he is made to. Soon, he becomes (5) the teacher. anxious nonsense measure Let him work out, with other children if he wants, what this word means, whether this is a good way of saying or doing this or not. In mathematics or science, give him the answer book. Let him correct his own papers. Our job should be to show only the way to get the right answer when the child tells us he can't find a way himself. Let's end all this (6) of grades, exams, marks. Let us throw them all out, and let the children learn what all educated persons must some day learn, how to (7) their own understanding, how to know what they know or do not know. The idea that there is a body of knowledge to be learnt at school and used for the rest of one's life is nonsense in a world as complicated and rapidly changing as ours. (8) parents and teachers say, "But suppose they fail to learn something essential, something they will need to get on in the world?" Don't worry! If it is essential, they will go out into the world and learn it. KELİME ANLAM EŞ ANLAM anxious endişeli, kaygılı, huzursuz; istekli, hevesli, fearful, worried; worrisome; craving, can atan yearning; eager comparing karşılaştırmak, kıyaslamak, benzetmek, equate, assimilate, liken, match, paragon, karşılaştırılmak, benzemek, üstünlük parallel derecesini göstermek dependent on -e bagli relying on, needing (the help or support of difference fark, ihtilaf, ayrım; benzememe; olağandışılık; fikir ayrılığı, ayrılık another); conditional, contingent dissimilarity, alterity, discrepancy, dissemblance, dissimilitude, distinction, divergence, divergency, otherness, unlikeness measure ölçmek, tartmak, ölçüsünü almak, süzmek, demarcate, bound, delimit, delimitate, dikkatle bakmak, ayarlamak determine, limit, mark (out) mistakes yanlış, hata, yanlışlık, yanılgı blunder, fault; error nonsense saçma, saçmalık, safsata, zırva, fasa fiso gibberish, babble, drivel, Greek, jabber, jabberwocky, skimble-skamble pointed out belirtmek, dikkatini çekmek, işaret etmek, göstermek indicate, draw attention to
16 Preventing Accidents 161-MAKING YOUR WORKPLACE SAFER hazards inspection representative Clearly a major way to prevent accidents before they occur is for the trade union safety (1) to carry out regular and effective inspections of the workplace. Recognised safety representatives have the following legal rights: *To carry out a formal (2) every three months. *To carry out an immediate additional inspection - when an accident has occurred, - when a disease has been contracted, - when there has been a change in working conditions, - when new information becomes available concerning (3). * To investigate members complaints. guards prevent injured Near Misses All union members should be encouraged to report 'near misses' that happen to themselves or others. Near misses are events such as slipping on wet floors, items falling off shelves and just missing people, loose (5) on machinery, and fires that are quickly put out, that could have (4) people but which, by luck, did not. Reporting such events to the safety representative may (6) a serious accident in the future. possible condition Insist approach victim witnesses carried out When An Accident Happens Union safety representatives should have an agreement with management on being informed as soon as (7) of all accidents. Only under that (8) will it be possible to reach the scene of the accident immediately to follow these procedures: *Make sure it is safe to (9). *Make sure anyone injured is receiving attention. *(10) that nothing is removed or altered until inquiries are complete. *Check the accident is recorded in the accident book and that the record is not concerned with blaming the (11), but is an accurate description. *Take statements from the injured person(s), if possible, and other (12). Remind witnesses they do not have to give statements to the management by law. *Check that the factory inspector has been informed, if required by law. *Sketch accident area, take photographs, if possible, and samples of defective equipment or chemicals. Only if these procedures are (12) properly will it be possible for safety representatives to find out the real cause of the accident.
17 KELİME ANLAM EŞ ANLAM approach yaklaşma, yanaşma, yaklaşım, benzerlik, ilk attempt, endeavor, essay, try; call, invitation adım, teşebbüs, girişim, başlangıç, yol carried out uygulamak, gerçekleştirmek, başarmak put into practice, accomplish, perform condition koşul, şart, durum, hal, alem, kondisyon, prerequisite, requirement, requisite; form, mevki, kayıt, medeni durum, ikmal, exception, exemption, limitation, bütünleme modification, qualification, restriction, saving clause guards korumak, gözetmek, himaye etmek, preserve, watch over, keep, protect korunmak, tutmak (dil), nöbet tutmak hazards risk, tehlike, şans, kumar, topu deliğe sokan endanger, imperil; endanger oneself; dare, vuruş Insist dayatmak, ısrar etmek, tutturmak, ayak diremek, diretmek, üzerinde durmak, kararlı olmak venture persist, persevere; firmly emphasize, assert; demand emphatically, firmly request, require injured incitmek, yaralamak, sakatlamak, blemish, damage, harm, hurt, impair, mar, zedelemek, zarar vermek, kötülük etmek prejudice, spoil, tarnish, vitiate inspection denetleme, teftiş, kontrol, yoklama, muayene examination, analysis, check-over, checkup, perlustration, review, scan, scrutiny, survey, view possible olası, mümkün, olanaklı, akla uygun, makul advisable, expedient; achievable, attainable, available prevent önüne geçmek, menetmek, önlemek, engel anticipate, forestall olmak, önden gitmek, yol göstermek representative acenta, temsilci, mümessil, vekil, milletvekili, örnek, tipik örnek delegate, agent, one who acts on behalf of another person or organization victim kurban, mağdur kimse offering, sacrifice witnesses şahit, tanık, tanıklık testifier; onlooker, bystander; eye-witness; testimony
18 162-FUTURE OF RAIL TRANSPORT scenic railway rotting unloads unmanned bridge route worn out Unfortunately, England's highest main-line (1) station hangs on to life by a thread. Deserted and (2) since it was officially closed in 1970, Dent, situated high in the hills of Yorkshire, wakes up on six summer weekends each year, when a special charter train (3) walkers, sightseers and people who simply want to catch a train from the highest station, onto its platforms. However, even this limited existence may soon be brought to an end. Dent station, situated on the Carlisle railway line, is said to be the most scenic in the country, but no amount of (4) beauty can save the line from British Rail's financial problems. This year, for the sake of economy, the express trains which used to pass through Dent station have been put onto another (5). It is now an open secret that British Rail sees no future for this railway line. Most of its trains disappeared some time ago. The stations on it, besides its (6), built on a grand scale a century ago, are falling down. It is not alone. Half a dozen railway routes in the north of England are facing a similar threat. The problem is a (7) system and an almost total lack of means to repair it. Bridges and tunnels are showing their age, the wooden supports for the tracks are (8) and engines and coaches are getting old. delighted branch discouraging solution On major lines between large cities, there is no problem. These lines still make a profit and money can be found to maintain them, but on the country (9) line the story is rather sad. As a track wears out, it is not replaced. Instead, speed limits are introduced, making journeys longer than necessary and (10) customers who live in the country and who travel only from time to time. If a bridge is dangerous, there is often only one thing for British Rail to do: go out and find money from another source. This is exactly what it did a few months ago, when a bridge at Bridlington station was threatening to fall down. Repairs were estimated at 200,000 and British Rail was (11), and rather surprised, when the local authorities of two nearby towns offered half that amount between them. This was a good (12), which the British Rail can always make use of. KELİME ANLAM EŞ ANLAM branch dal; şube, kol, kol (bitki); sınıf; branş; dere, bough; affiliate; limb çay, göbek, soy ağacındaki yer bridge köprü, briç viaduct, flyover, overpass, aqueduct delighted hoşnut etmek, sevindirmek, hoşlanmak, amuse, divert, entertain; allure, attract, hoşuna gitmek; zevk almak charm, enchant, fascinate; enrapture, entrance, transport discouraging yıldırmak, hevesini kırmak, cesaretini kırmak, chill, deject, demoralize, dishearten, vazgeçirmek, hayal kırıklığına uğratmak disparage, dispirit railway demiryolu [brit.], demiryolu, tren yolu, banliyö hattı railroad, train track, path for a train made of parallel metal tracks rotting çürümek, bozulmak, kokuşmak, terbiyesi decay, break down, crumble, decompose, bozulmak, çürütmek, bozmak, alay etmek, disintegrate, molder, putrefy, spoil, taint, turn route rota, yol, hat, güzergâh, herzamanki yol, way, course, line, passage, path, road yürüyüş emri scenic manzara, sahne, manzaralı, sahne ile ilgili picturesque, pretty, pleasing, attractive, lovely, beautiful, charming, pretty as a picture, easy on the eye; impressive, striking, solution çözelti, solüsyon, çıkar yol, eriyik, çözüm, çare, halletme, çözünme, ara verme answer, result, resolution, way out, panacea; key, formula, explanation, interpretation. unloads boşaltmak, satmak, elden çıkarmak, disburden, discharge, off-load, unlade, unmanned worn out anlatmak, açılmak cesaretini kırmak, sinirini bozmak, kadın gibi ağlatmak, yumuşatmak, hadım etmek, kısırlaştırmak (erkek), adamsız bırakmak eskimiş, eski püskü, yıpranmış, işi bitmiş, bayat (espri), yorgun, bitkin, bitap unship, unstow deplete, drain, exhaust, impoverish; abase, degrade; disqualify, paralyze, prostrate, unfit tattered, frayed, worn thin; exhausted, used up
19 163-GLOBAL WARMING hottest completed warmest refrigerators predictions warming up According to scientists at the Meteorological Office and the University of East Anglia, who have recently (1) their analysis of global temperatures, the eighties were the earth's (2) decade since records began. Their findings show that six of the ten warmest years so far have occurred during the 1980's, with 1988 the (3) of all. Since 1900, average temperatures have risen by about 0.5 C, which fits in well with (4) from climatologists about how human activities should have warmed the planet. The factors that contribute to the (5) of the atmosphere are mainly carbon dioxide gas, produced by the burning of fossil fuels and forests, pollutants, such as chlorofluorocarbons, used in (6), and methane. damage severe reduce continent tendency Climatologists predict that by midway through the next century, temperatures may have risen by as much as 4 C. Happening so quickly, that could catastrophically (7) mankind's ability to grow food, destroy or severely (8) what wildlife and wildernesses remained and raise sea levels, flooding coastal cities and farmland. Phil Jones, senior researcher at the University of East Anglia, said: "If we are changing the climate, we should do something now rather than wait until the warming is more (9)." Dr. Paul Heaton and Dr. David Parker of the Meteorological Office gathered together temperature records from about 1000 different locations spread across every (10) and compared them with the average for those places from 1951 to The research also included temperatures measured on ships. The scientists found 1989 was 0.23 C above the average, and 1988 was 0.31 above. They agree with American researchers that the warmest years during this century were the eighties, and the (11) may be for the nineties to be even hotter! KELİME ANLAM EŞ ANLAM completed doldurmak, tamamlamak, bitirmek, yerine make whole, perfect; finish getirmek, uygulamak continent kıta, anakara, avrupa kıtası; britanya ve landmass İrlanda haricindeki avrupa kıtası damage zarar, hasar; masraf, maliyet injury, harm hottest sıcak, acı, acılı, seksi, ateşli, şehvetli, ardent, baking, blistering, boiling, broiling, şiddetli, sert, kızgın, heyecanlı, taze, yeni, rahatsız edici, iletken, radyoaktif, çalıntı, burning, fiery, heated, red-hot, scalding, scorching, sizzling, sultry, sweltering, predictions kehanet, önceden haber verme, tahmin cast, forecast, foretelling, prevision, reduce düşürmek, alçaltmak, azaltmak, eksiltmek, küçültmek, indirmek, kısmak, sarsmak, haline getirmek, dönüştürmek, indirgemek, kırmak (fiyat), bölmek, ayırmak, ergitmek, prognosis, prognostication, prophecy, weird lessen, diminish, decrease refrigerators buzdolabı, soğutucu icebox severe sert, haşin, ağır, acı, şiddetli, keskin, sade, yalın serious, grave; acute, critical; difficult, rigorous; simple, plain; harsh, strict tendency eğilin, meyil, yüz tutma, çalma (yeşile vb.), inclination, leaning, partiality eğilim warmest sıcak, ılık, samimi, canlı, hararetli, heyecanlı, sıcak tutan, sıcacık, taze warming up heyecanlandırmak, coşturmak, kızıştırmak, heating; process of warming or being kışkırtmak, ısınmak, kızışmak, warmed up hararetlenmek, kurcalamak, ısıtmak
20 164-COMETS from Illustrated London News,1985 launched streaks visibly comets There can be few people who have not heard of (1), but there are still a great many non-scientists who have no real idea of what a comet is. The most popular mistake is to assume that a comet (2) across the sky and disappears in a few seconds. in fact, all comets are very distant - far beyond the top of the earth's atmosphere - and you cannot see them moving. If you see an object moving (3), It certainly cannot be a comet. It will be either an artificial satellite, thousands of which have been (4) since the Space Age opened with Russia's Sputnik 1 in October, 1957, or else a meteor. Of course, it can also be a weather balloon or a high-flying aircraft. rocky tail thin unlike massive damage Comets belong to the Sun's family, or solar system, but they are quite (5) planets. They are not solid and (6) ; a comet consists of an icy central part (or nucleus), a head (or coma) and a (7) or tails made up of tiny particles of 'dust' together with extremely (8) gas. Comets may be enormous (the head of the Great Comet of 1843 was larger than the Sun), but they are very light since the nucleus, the only relatively (9) part of a comet, cannot be more than a few miles in diameter. If a comet fell to the earth, it would only cause local (10). rare paths predict elliptical naked unusual Comets move around the Sun. In almost all cases their (11) (or orbits) are (12), and except for Halley's Comet, all the really bright comets take thousands or even millions of years to complete one circuit. This means that we cannot (13) them. During the last century, several were seen but in our own time they have been extremely (14). The last really 'great' comet was that of 1910, though there have been others which have become bright enough to be seen with the (15) eye. Halley's Comet is unique because it appears every 76 years, and it has been seen regularly since well before the time of Christ; there is even a Chinese record of it dating back to 1059 B.C. However, it was only recently that astronomers realized that there was something (16) about it.
21 KELİME ANLAM EŞ ANLAM comets kuyrukluyıldız celestial body with a luminous tail damage zarar, hasar; masraf, maliyet injury, harm elliptical eliptik, elips şeklinde, oval; eksiltili, bazı oval, egg-shaped; containing ellipsis launched sözcükleri çıkarılmış denize indirmek, atmak, fırlatmak, girişmek, başlatmak, piyasaya sürmek, başlamak, çıkmak put a boat in the water; send forth; start; run, activate (Computers); inaugurate; throw; break into, burst into massive iri, ağır, som, yekpare, masif enormous, colossal, immense, heavy, solid naked çıplak, yalın, salt bare, bald, nude paths patika, yol, pist, yörünge, meslek pathway, track, predict önceden haber vermek, kehanette bulunmak prophesy, foretell, announce in advance rare bulunmaz, nadir, ender, az bulunur, seyrek, olağanüstü, az pişmiş, seyreltik uncommon, unusual; not thoroughly cooked (meat); sparse, thinly distributed; excellent, fine rocky kayalık, kayalı, taşlı, kaya gibi, taş gibi, stony; swaying; shaky sallanan, çürük, sarsak streaks ışın, şimşek, düzensiz çizgi, damar (ağaç vb.), iz, meç (saç), belirti, kısa süre hint, intimation, shade, strain, suggestion, suspicion, tincture, tinge, touch, trace tail kuyruk, kıç, uç, peşine takılan kimse, şartlı tasarruf (miras), sınırlı sahiplik (miras) buttocks, arse, ass, backside, butt, hind end, posterior, rear, rear end, tail end thin ince, zayıf, seyrek, verimsiz, sudan, boş attenuate, reedy, slender, slight, slim, squinny, stalky, tenuous, twiggy unlike yakışmayan, benzemez, farklı different, not typical, dissimilar unusual alışılmadık, nadir, ender, olağandışı, tuhaf, uncommon, irregular acayip visibly gözle görülür bir şekilde, farkedilir bir şekilde. in a visible manner; perceptibly, observably; apparently, evidently; obviously
22 165-EFFECTS OF SNOW arrival observe miracle unheard regarded It is interesting to (1) the effect that the arrival of snow has on people in different countries. There are those countries for whom the (2) of the first snow showers is an expected annual event. There are those countries for whom the arrival of snow at any time of the year would be almost (3) of, and would be (4) as a major climatic catastrophe, or even a (5). disrupted havoc quantities expect just in case But there are countries between these two 'extremes' that normally (6) snow some time over the winter months, but never receive it regularly or in the same (7) every year. For them (and Britain is a prime example of such a country), the arrival of snow quite simply creates (8). Within hours of the first snowfalls, however light, roads (including motorways) are blocked, train services are (9) and bus services to suburbs and country districts are withdrawn. Normal communications quickly begin to suffer as well; telephone calls become difficult and the post immediately takes twice as long as usual. And almost within hours there are also certain shortages -bread, vegetables and other essentials - not because all these things can no longer be produced or even delivered, although deliveries are disrupted, but mainly because people panic and go out and stock up with food and so on - (10). elderly snowploughs preparation blame grit But why does snow have this effect? After all, the Swiss, the Austrians and the Canadians don't have such problems. The answer is quite simply a lack of planning and (11) - and we can't (12) the weather forecasters for that. We have to remember, however, that equipment needed for dealing with snow and ice costs money. To keep the roads clear, for example, requires (13) and vehicles to spread (14) or salt. The argument against investing in snowploughs in a country like Britain is that they are only used for a few days in any one year, and that money could more usefully be put into other things such as the hospital system, social services, helping the (15), and so on.
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a lot of lots of a great deal of plenty of çok, bir çok many much çok, bir çok a little little az, biraz a few few az, birkaç 1. A lot of; lots of; plenty of a lot of ( en yaygın olanıdır ), lots of, plenty
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