THE AFFECT OF SPORT ACTIVITIES ON PROBLEM SOLVING SKILLS (SAMPLE OF BURSA PROVINCE)


 Yeter Şeker
 1 yıl önce
 İzleme sayısı:
Transkript
1 European Journal of Educational Studies 2(2), 2010 ISSN Ozean Publication THE AFFECT OF SPORT ACTIVITIES ON PROBLEM SOLVING SKILLS (SAMPLE OF BURSA PROVINCE) Mehmet GÖRAL, Dumlupınar University, College of Physical Education & Sports, Deparment of Teaching of Physical Education & Sports, Germiyan Campus, 43020, Kutahya,Turkey address for correspondence: Abstract: The aim of this research is explaining the effect of sport on solving problems. 211 women and 389 men, in total 600 people, took part in this research. While gathering information, experts opinions are taken into consideration and the questionnaire, prepared after the scanning of literature is completed, is used for this research. Questionnaire is applied to volunteer applicants.during the analysis of the information, the test of descriptive statistics, the significance test (TTest) of the difference between two percentages in independent groups and one way variance analysis test (Anova) are applied to the applicants. According to research result, it is concluded that taking part in sportive activities have positive effect on problem solving and level of income plays an important role on problem solving as well. Keywords: Sport, problem solving. INTRODUCTION People always face to face with problems in various situations and they need to consider some solutions in order to solve these problems. This is a complex process which requires cognitive, affective and psychomotor skills. Problem solving requires some effort in order to remove the obstacles we encounter from our way (Açıkgöz, 2006; Çubukçu, 2004; Baysan, 2005; Ford, 1994; Güzel, 2004; Tay, 2002). Heppner (1982) uses the expression problem solving in the same meaning as coping with problems (Heppner, and Petersen, 1982). In real life, personal problem solving is described as directing cognitive and affective processes like displaying behavioral reactions respectively in order to comply with the internal or external desires or appeals (Koray, and Azar, 2008; Balay, 2004; Çelik, 2004; Custer, 1999; Higgins, 1997). On the other hand, problem solving is the systematic process of intervening in undesired situations. Saygılı(2000) describes problem solving as the process of defeating the difficulties encountered while people are trying to achieving their goal and states the factors which have influence on problem solving as that: individual factors (intelligence, motivation, foreknowledgeconfiguration, functional fixedness) and social factors (socioeconomic level and child s social development, families child careeducation methods and their attitudes, physical condition of the school and class size) (Saygılı, 2000). Charles and Lester classify the factors in three groups that affect the problem solving skills as cognitive, affective factors and experience. All the factors such as willingness for problem solving, selfconfidence, stress and anxiety, ambiguity, patience and ambition, interest in problem solving skills or problem cases, motivation, being eager to be successful, desire to please their teachers etc. constitute the group of affective factors (Durualp, Arslan, Çayıroğlu, Özkan, and Semerci, 2009; Israel, 2003). After the acceptance of problem solving skill as a 101
2 social skill in our society in which everything changes rapidly and gets more complicated, bringing individuals with balanced personality up primarily depends on identifying individuals problems and the support that will be given to them. Everybody confronts continuously with various problems throughout their lives (Çağlayan, 2008; Güzel, 2004; Çağlayan, Sezen, ve Fidan, 2007). Individuals can maintain a healthy, peaceful and happy life as long as they solve these problems. In this context, being successful and enjoying life depends on people s having the skill of solving problems in the most appropriate manner (Çağlayan, Şirin, Çetin, and İnce, 1998; Ellis, and Robert,1994). Young adulthood can be generally accepted as a period when social activities increase and social environment expands. During young adulthood, social skills, communications and social interactions gradually get more complex. It begins to resemble the situations that adults encounter. Many problems encountered in this period may be encountered for the first time in their lives. Problems such as smoking, consuming alcohol and harmful substance, eating disorder, decrease in selfrespect, deterioration in social support systems, decline in academic achievement, and deterioration in social adaptation can begin to be observed. Especially, it is known that the university students having low or high social skills and problem solving skills have a significant impact on their school achievement and their success in real life. Because of that, in order to prevent the potential problems that can be encountered problem solving skills should be taught to the individuals in addition to basic social skills (Çam, 1995; Mayer, 1992; Üstün, and Bozkurt,2003). Since 1960s, various researches are made to investigate the relationship between personality and sportive performance and it is observed that sportsman has different characteristics in comparison to people who are not engage in sports (Çilingir, 2006; Şah, 2005). It is also accepted that people who do sports are more independent, more objective and less apprehensive etc. than who are not engage in any sports and they have different characteristics (Ellis, and Robert,1994; Kolb,1984; Koray, and Azar, 2008; Prawat, 2000). It is a fact that people doing sport encounter with more problems (Dee, Nauman, Livesay, and Rice, 2002; Saracoğlu, Serin,and Bozkurt, 2001). On the other hand, it is thought that distinct sport branches have different effect on problem solving skills (Bilge, and Aslan, 1999; Ferah, 2000; Türkçapar, 2009; Jones, Reichard, and Mokhtarı, 2003; Pehlivan, and Konukman, 2004). METHOD 211 female and 389 male, in total 600 students from public schools in Bursa, took part in this research. In order to carry out the aim of this research, two methods are used in gathering data for it. First of all, the scanning of literature on this theme is completed, and later on, the questionnaire, which was prepared after experts opinions were taken, was conducted to the students in order to take their opinion about the sports effect on problem solving skills. In data analysis process, significance test (TTest) of two percentages and variance analysis test (Anova) are applied to the applicants in addition to simple statistical techniques such as frequency and percentage distribution. During the analysis of the tests,.05 significance level is used for their statistical acceptance. 102
3 RESULTS Table 1: Range of Participants Demographic Information FACTOR Variant F % Gender Age Place of Birth Education Level of Mothers Education Level of Fathers Monthly income Accommodation Doing Sports Male Female country 42 7 village county city metropolis Postgraduate   Graduate 30 5 Higher Education Elementary Education Literate Postgraduate Graduate 18 3 Higher Education Elementary Education Literate and over Other Flat of relatives Public housing 30 5 Own flat Rental flat Yes No Considering the demographic information of the participants, it is evident that 64.8% (N=389) of them are women,27.8% (N=167) of them are at the age of 16, 46.8% were born in a county, the mothers of 68% (N=408) are the graduates of elementary education, the fathers of 62.2% (N=373) are the graduates of elementary education, average monthly income of 35% (N=210) is about , 42.3% (N=254) live in rental flats and 50% do sport regularly. 103
4 Table 2: TTest Results of Participants Opinion on Problem Solving Skills in Terms of Doing Sport VARIENTS Factor N S T p I keep my composure when I encounter a Yes problem. No I Give immediate responses. Yes No Behave reasonably when I encounter a propblem. Yes No I like struggling against complex situations. Yes No I m compatible in groups works. Yes No I put the reasons of a problem in a logical order. Yes No I enjoy solving unprecedented problems. Yes No I am not afraid of unprecedented problems. Yes No External factors do not have an affect on my Yes motivation in the presence of problems. No I help my friends to solve their problems. Yes No My friends say that I can find practical solutions Yes to the problems. No I do not panic in extraordinary cases, I create a Yes solution. No I approach the problem in different ways when I Yes enconter a problem. No I enjoy the positive atmosphere when I solve the Yes problem. No Positive reactions I get solving a problem Yes motivate me. No My friends ask my help to solve a problem. Yes No Looking into the participants opinion on the problem solving effect of sport in terms of participation rate in sport activities, no meaninful difference is found between their opinion and participation rate for some entries such as; I m compatible in groups works. t(600)=.08; p>0.05, I put the reasons of a problem in a logical order. t(600)=.85; p>0.05, I am not afraid of unprecedented problems. t(600)=.54; p>0.05, I help my friends to solve their problems. t(600)=.15; p>0.05, My friends say that I can find practical solutions to the problems. t(600)=.16; p>0.05, I do not panic in extraordinary cases, I create a solution t(600)=.18; p>0.05, I enjoy the positive atmosphere when I solve the problem.. t(600)=.83; p>0.05. On the other hand, other variants meaningfully change according to their participation rate in sport activities. 104
5 Tablo 3: ANOVA Results of Participants Opinion on Problem Solving Skills and Their Answers Considering Income Level VARIANCE I keep my composure when I encounter a problem. I give immediate responses. I behave reasonably when I encounter a problem. I like struggling against complex situations. I am compatible in group works.. I put the reasons of a problem in a logical order. I enjoy solving unprecedented problems. ORDER INCOME LEVEL Total Total Total Total Total Total N S F p
6 I am not afraid of unprecedented problems. External factors do not have an affect on my motivation in the presence of problems Total Total Total
7 Table 4: ANOVA Results of Participants Opinion on Problem Solving Skills and Their Answers Considering Income Level (Continued) VARIANCE I help my friends to solve their problems. ORDER INCOME LEVEL Total N S F p My friends say that I can find practical solutions to the problems Total I do not panic in extraordinary cases, I create solutions I approach the problem in different ways when I encounter a problem. I enjoy the positive atmosphere when I solve the problem. Positive reactions I get solving a problem motivate me. My friends ask my help to solve a problem Total Total Total Total Total Regarding the participants opinion on the problem solving effect of sport in terms of anova results of the level of income, no meaninful difference is found only for one entry, which is I do not panic in extraordinary cases, I create solutions [F(4595 ) =,503 ; p>0,05]. For the other entries, however, meaninful differences are confirmed with respect to their opinion and the level of income. 107
8 DISCUSSION AND SUGGESTIONS Of all 600 High School students who participated in this research which aims to search the effect of the participation rate of high school students in sport activities on problem solving strategies, 64.8% of them are women, 43.5% are at the age of 14, 46.8% were born in county,, the mothers of 68% are the graduates of elementary education, the fathers of 62.2% are the graduates of elementary education, average monthly income of 35% is about , 42.3% live in rental flats and 50% do sport regularly. Meaningful variances are found out after the statistical analysis of the problem solving skills of high school students who participate in sport activities and who do not. It can be claimed that such variances which come to light looking into the rate of participation result from the participants of the sport activities. In accordance with the findings of this research, Şah (2005) retained a meaninful varience considering the problem solving skills of disabled people who do sport regularly and who do not, and claimed that such a variance stems from the disabled who regularly do sport which means that doing sport probably plays a crucial role in improving the problem solving skills of disabled (Şah, 2005). Another finding of this research highlights that the level of income can be a significant factor on problem solving skills of the students which emphasizes that problem solving skills of the students with a higher level of income can be more efficient. According to Çağlayan, Taşğın, and Yıldız s article (2008) on the problem solving skills of high school students, it is also apparent that the students with a high level of income do not act immediately, but consider the different factors compiling the necessary information beforehand contrary to the students with lower level of income (Çağlayan, Taşğın, and Yıldız, 2008). In addition, the former do not begin to suspect if their first solution to the problem is useless, but try to find alternative ways to solve the problem, and they analyse the process at the end in order to find what serves their purpose and in which ways (Hasırcı, and Bulut, 2006; Heppner, P. P. and Krauskopf, C. J.,1987; Yıldırım,and Çirkinoğlu,2005; ). The results of Çağlayan, Taşğın, and Yıldız s article are in parallel to the findings of this research. Morever, it is claimed in İsrael (2003) and Terzi (2000) s research that the students of different groups of the top socioeconomic class consider themselves as more efficient in problem solving strategies, as well (Israel, 2003; Terzi, 2000; Altun.and Arslan. 2006; Zaroiıadou, and Tsaparlis, 2000). In conclusion, it can be claimed that participating sport activities and having a high level of income are important factors that effect the problem solving skills of the high school students. REFERENCES Açıkgöz, Ö. (2006). Öğrenme stilleri ile ilgili elektronik ortamda yayımlanan çalışmaların incelenmesi, Yayınlanmamış Yüksek Lisans Tezi, Ankara: Ankara Üniversitesi Eğitim Bilimleri Enstitüsü. Altun, M. and Arslan. Ç. (2006). İlköğretim öğrencilerinin problem çözme stratejilerini öğrenmeleri üzerine bir çalışma, Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi XIX, 1, 21. Balay, R. (2004). Küreselleşme, bilgi toplumu ve eğitim, Ankara Üniversitesi Eğitim Bilimleri Fakültesi Dergisi, 37 (2), Baysan, S. (2005). Öğrenme Stilleri (Kanalları) Kullanılarak Coğrafya Öğretimi Üzerine Bir Model Önerisi: ADÜ Eğitim Fakültesi Sınıf Öğretmenliği Öğrencileri Örneği, XIV. Ulusal Eğitim Bilimleri Kongresi, Denizli: Pamukkale Üniversitesi. Bilge, J.and Aslan,A.(1999)Akılcı olmayan düşünce düzeyleri farklı üniversite öğrencilerinin problem çözme becerilerini değerlendirmeleri. Psikolojik Danışma ve Rehberlik Dergisi. Sayı 13, pp. 18. Custer, R. L. (1999). Design and Problem Solving in Technology Education, NASSP Bulletin, Vol. 83(608), Çağlayan, H. Şirin, E., F. Çetin, Ç. and İnce, A. (1998). Spor yapan ve yapmayan lise öğrencilerinin problem çözme becerilerinin incelenmesi. XVI. Ulusal Eğitim Bilimleri Kongresi, Konya. Çağlayan, S., H., Taşğın, Ö. and Yıldız, Ö. (2008). Spor yapan lise öğrencilerinin problem çözme becerilerinin çeşitli değişkenler açısından incelenmesi. Niğde Üniversitesi Beden Eğitimi ve Spor Yüksekokulu Dergisi, Cilt 2, Sayı
9 Çağlayan, H. S. (2008). Beden eğitimi ve spor yüksekokulu öğrencilerinin öğrenme Biçimleri ile problem çözme becerileri arasındaki ilişkinin incelenmesi, Millî Eğitim, Sayı. 178, Çağlayan, H. S., Sezen, M.and Fidan,E.F.(2007).Spor Yapan ve Spor Yapmayan Lise Öğrencilerinin Öğrenme Stillerinin İncelenmesi, XVI. Ulusal Eğitim Bilimleri Kongresi, Tokat: Gaziosmanpaşa Üniversitesi. Çam, S. (1995). Öğretmen adaylarının ego durumları ile problem çözme becerisi algısı ilişkisinin incelenmesi, Psikolojik Danışmanlık ve Rehberlik Dergisi, 6 (2), Çelik, L. (2004). Teknoloji yoğun ortamların öğrencilerin öğrenme stil tercihlerine uygunluğu, Yayınlanmamış Doktora Tezi, Ankara: Ankara Üniversitesi Eğitim Bilimleri Enstitüsü. Çilingir, N. (2006). Sosyal beceri eğitiminin ilköğretim öğrencilerinin sosyal uyum düzeylerine etkisi, Yayınlanmamış Yüksek Lisans Tezi, Erzurum: Atatürk Üniversitesi. Çubukçu, Z. (2004). Öğretmen Adaylarının Düşünme Stillerinin Öğrenme Biçimlerini Tercih Etmelerindeki Etkisi, XIII. Ulusal Eğitim Bilimleri Kurultayı, Malatya: İnönü Üniversitesi Dee, K.C., Nauman, E.A., Livesay, G.A. and Rice, J. (2002). Learning styles of biomedical engineering students, Ann Biomed Eng, Vol. 30 (8), Durualp, E., Arslan, D., Çayıroğlu, E., Özkan, S. and Semerci, A. (2009). Sağlık yüksekokulu öğrencilerinin sosyal becerilerinin problem çözme becerileri üzerine etkisinin araştırılması, I. Uluslararası Eğitim Bilimleri Kongresi, Türkiye: Çanakkale. Ellis, S. and Robert S. S. (1994) Chapter 11: Development of Problem Solving Thinking and Problem Solving Handbook of perception and cognition In Robert J. S. (Ed.), Academic Press, USA, Ferah, D. (2000). Kara harp okulu öğrencilerinin problem çözme becerilerini algılamalarının ve problem çözme yaklaşım biçimlerinin cinsiyet, sınıf, akademik başarı ve liderlik yapma açısından incelenmesi, Yayınlanmamış Yüksek Lisans Tezi, Ankara: Hacettepe Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimleri Enstitüsü. Ford, M. I. (1994). Teachers beliefs about mathematical problem solving in the elementary school, School Science and Mathematics, Vol. 94, 314. Güzel, A. (2004). Marmara üniversitesi öğrencilerinin öğrenme stilleri ile problem çözme becerileri arasındaki ilişkinin incelenmesi, Yayınlanmış Yüksek Lisans Tezi, İstanbul: Marmara Üniversitesi Eğitim Bilimleri Enstitüsü. Hasırcı, Ö. K. and Bulut, M. S. (2006). Öğretmen Adaylarının Öğrenme Stillerine Göre Düzenledikleri Öğretimin Belirlenmesi: Sınıf Yönetimi Açısından Bir Değerlendirme, 15. Ulusal Eğitim Bilimleri Kongresi, Muğla: Muğla Üniversitesi, Eğitim Fakültesi. Heppner, P.P. and C. H. Petersen (1982). The development anda implications of a personal problem solving inventory. Journal of Counseling Psychology. Vol. 29(1), Heppner, P. P. and Krauskopf, C. J. (1987). The integration of personal problem solvingprocesses within counseling. The Counseling Psychologist, 15, , Higgins, K. M. (1997). The effect of long instruction in mathematical problem solving on middle school students attitudes, beliefs and abilities, Journal of Experimental Education, Vol. 66, 5. Israel, E. (2003). Problem çözme becerileri, başarı düzeyi, sosyoekonomik düzey ve cinsiyet ilişkileri, Yayınlanmamış Yüksek Lisans Tezi, İzmir: Dokuz Eylül Üniversitesi. Jones, C., Reichard, C. and Mokhtarı, K. (2003). Are students learning styles discipline specific?, Community College Journal of Research and Practice, 27 (5), Kolb, D. A. (1984). Experiential Learning: Experience as The Source of Learning and Development, Prentice Hall, Inc., Engle Wood Cliffs: New Jersey 109
10 Koray, Ö. and Azar, A. (2008). Ortaöğretim öğrencilerinin problem çözme ve mantıksal düşünme becerilerinin cinsiyet ve seçilen alan açısından değerlendirilmesi. Kastamonu Eğitim Dergisi, Cilt:16, No:1, Mayer, R.E.(1992).Thinking Problem Solving Cognition, W.H. Freeman and Company (Second Edition), p , USA: New York. Pehlivan, Z. and Konukman, F. (2004). Beden eğitimi öğretmenleri ile diğer branş öğretmenlerinin problem çözme becerisi açısından karşılaştırılması. Spormetre, Beden Eğitimi ve Spor Bilimleri Dergisi, Vol. II (2), Prawat,R.S.(2000).The two faces of dewey an pragmatism: inductionism versus social constructivism, Teachers College Record, Vol. 102(4), Saracoğlu, S., Serin O. and Bozkurt,N.(2001).Dokuz eylül üniversitesi eğitim bilimleri enstitüsü öğrencilerinin problem çözme becerileri ile başarıları arasındaki ilişki. M. Ü. Atatürk Eğitim Fakültesi Eğitim Bilimleri Dergisi, Vol. 14, Saygılı, H. (2000). Problem çözme becerisi ile sosyal ve kişisel uyum arasındaki ilişkinin incelenmesi, Yayınlanmamış Yüksek Lisans Tezi, Erzurum: Atatürk Üniversitesi. Şah, H. (2005). Spor yapan ve yapmayan bedensel engellilerin problem çözme becerileri arasındaki farklılıkların incelenmesi, Yayınlanmamış Yüksek Lisans Tezi, Mersin: Mersin Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Enstitüsü. Şirin, A. and Güzel, A. (2006). Üniversite öğrencilerinin öğrenme stilleri ile problem çözme becerileri arasındaki ilişkinin incelenmesi, Kuram ve Uygulamada Eğitim Bilimleri, Vol. 6 (1), Tay, B. (2002). İlköğretim 4. ve 5. sınıf sosyal bilgiler dersinde öğrencilerin problem çözme becerilerini geliştirmede işbirliğine dayalı öğretmenin etkisi konusunda öğretmen, müfettiş ve uzman görüşleri, Yayınlanmamış Yüksek Lisans Tezi, Ankara: Hacettepe Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü. Terzi, Ş. (2000). İlköğretim okulu 6. sınıf öğrencilerinin kişiler arası problem çözme beceri algılarının bazı değişkenler açısından incelenmesi, Yayınlanmamış Yüksek Lisans Tezi, Ankara: Gazi Üniversitesi. Türkçapar. Ü. (2009) Beden eğitimi spor yüksekokulu öğrencilerinin farklı değişkenler açısından problem çözme becerileri, (KEFAD) Cilt 10, Sayı. 1, Üstün, A. and Bozkurt,A.(2003). İlköğretim okulu müdürlerinin kendilerini algılayışlarına göre problem çözme becerilerini etkileyen bazı mesleki faktörler. Kastamonu Eğitim Dergisi, Vol. 11(1), Yıldırım, B., Çirkinoğlu, A. G. (2005). Orta Öğretim 1. sınıf ve 2. Sınıf Öğrencilerinin Fizik Dersine Yönelik Tutumları İle Öğrenme Stilleri Arasındaki İlişki, XIV. Ulusal Eğitim Bilimleri Kongresi, Denizli: Pamukkale Üniversitesi, Eğitim Fakültesi, Zaroiıadou, E. and Tsaparlis, G.(2000) Teaching lowersecondary chemistry with a piagetian constructivist and an ausbelian meaningfulreceptive method: A longitudinal comparis, chemistry education: Research And Practice in Europe, Vol. 1( 1),