1 Anatolia Antiqua XIX (2011), p Mihriban ÖZBA ARAN * RE-STARTING AT A IKLI INTRODUCTION This paper is a brief presentation of the actual state of work at A ıklı Höyük, the 9 th -8 th mill cal B.C. settlement of Cappadocia, in Central Anatolia. The site has been under excavation on behalf of the Istanbul University between 1989 and 2001 by U. Esin, and during the succeeding two seasons by N. Balkan Atlı. The fieldwork had a pause in 2004 and works in the following years focused basically on the study of the archaeological material. Meanwhile, a protection and preservation program was carried out under a heritage management project that included the re-construction of a part of the domestic quarter of the settlement next to the mound, as an archaeological park. The finalisation of site management activities (Özba aran et al. 2010) gave rise to the re-excavations in The results obtained from the first stage of excavations, when contextualized within the data of the Neolithic sites in Central Anatolia, underscored the importance of A ıklı in terms of chronology to better understand the neolithisation of the region. Radiocarbon samples dated the site to the late 9 th and early 8 th mill cal B.C. with an uninterrupted sequence of ca years. The data displayed a series of transitional characteristics of a forager/producer community. The transition was from wild to domestic in conceptual and practical terms as revealed by important data on subsistence, as well as in architectural features and settlement pattern. The A ıklı inhabitants founded the earliest settlement so far known in the region in one of the rich environmental micro-niches, the Melendiz valley, of the volcanic landscape of Cappadocia (Esin 1998a). The 1000 years of continuous occupation showed the diachronic evolution of the community. The data displayed some distinctive local features and regional characteristics 1. An overall assessment on the characteristics of the A ıklı culture was published recently by U. Esin and S. Harmankaya (2007), following annual reports and papers on the first results of the study of the archaeological material. The list of publications, including the unpublished MA and PhD theses, is given in the bibliography for the reader. These researches led to new fine-scaled and detailed questions. Further analyses of the material are needed as well as a re-evaluation of data in a wider context. Hence, a micro-scale and problem-oriented project started as the second stage of work at A ıklı. The methodology was revised, new analyses were included and new specialists joined the team. The aim of this paper is to present the preliminary observations of the recent excavation season outlining the questions put by the new project. A IKLI-THE STRATIGRAPHY A ıklı is one of the most extensively excavated sites in the Neolithic of Western Asia: the excavated area measures ca. 12% of the 4,5 ha site. The large exposures revealed basically the remains of the well-preserved settlement of the 8 th millenium (level 2). At present, there are four main levels identified, 1 to 4 from top to bottom (Esin 2007). The uppermost level 1 was almost totally destroyed prior to the excavations. Partial floors and walls were documented, however the building plans were incomplete and the settlement layout was unclear. Level 2, is the most widely known level with its 10 building phases. The latest three phases (2A-2C) were excavated on the top of the mound (Fig. 1) in an area of more than 4000 m 2, whereas the succeeding phases of level 2 (2D-2K) and the lower levels (3 and 4) were investigated in the deep trench 4GH on the northern side of the mound. Another area where the early phases of level 2 were also excavated was in the northwestern slope, trench 2-3 JK (Fig. 2). Two different methods of excavation were applied in each of these areas to reach the early levels and to *) Istanbul University. 1) For obsidian industry, see Balkan Atlı 1994; for settlement layout, see Esin 1996: 40.
2 28 M HR BAN ÖZBA ARAN Fig. 1 : The architectural remains of the 8th mill cal B.C. settlement exposed on top of the mound. Level 2, building phases 2A-C. fully understand the stratigraphy. In the deep trench 4GH, the architectural remains in each level were totally removed after they had been excavated and documented. This operation resulted in obtaining conspicuous sections of more than 10 m in height on the southern, eastern and western side of the excavated area (Fig. 3). They provided a highly readable picture of the evolution through time of the area, displaying changes in the use of space between levels 3-4 and 2, and/or a strict building continuity through level 2. On the northwestern slope, a different strategy was applied. The architectural remains of each level and building phase were excavated without being removed, taking advantage from the slope (Fig. 4). So far, the earliest building phases of level 2 have been exposed here, while the lower levels have not yet been excavated. A IKLI 2010 With the re-start of the excavations in 2010, fieldworks focused basically on level 4, in the deep trench 4GH. The objective is to fully understand the characteristics of the early occupation. The existence of more archaeological deposits under level 4 is known from the test sounding in trench 4 F, carried out during the first two seasons in 1989 and The sounding documented the presence of minimum 2.0 additional meters of archaeological fill (Esin Harmankaya 1999a: 118). Levels 3 and 4 are radiocarbon dated to the end of the 9th millenium cal B.C.2 (see Table 1, below) and level 2 is dated to the first half of the 8th millenium cal B.C. The dates obtained from level 2 were published by Esin (1995a: 75-76; 1998b: 103; 1999b: 21) whereas a compilation of them, in com- 2) A ıklı team is thankful to the C14 Lab at Gröningen State University for the dating. In 2009 and 2010, further sampling was done; samples were charcoal, endocarps of Celtis, animal bones and seeds from each level/building phase, which are under process at present at the Arizona University, USA.
3 RE-STARTING AT A IKLI 29 Fig. 2 : The topographical plan of A ıklı showing the excavated areas (re-drawn by G. Duru) (each grid measures 10x10 m).
4 30 M HR BAN ÖZBA ARAN Fig. 3 : The deep trench of 4GH, levels 1-3. Fig. 4 : The slope trench on the northwest of the mound, level 2 with its building phases.
5 RE-STARTING AT A IKLI 31 Lab. No. Level BP cal B.C. GrN C/3D 8760 ± GrN C 8860 ± GrN D 8940 ± GrN E/ ± GrN ± GrN ± GrN ± GrN ± Table 1 : The recently dated samples of levels 3 and 4. All are charcoal samples. parison with the dates of the other Neolithic sites in Central Anatolia, was published in Thissen 2002b: The results of the 2010 season presented below are preliminary. Additional data will come in future both from the deep trench 4 GH and from the slope trench in grids 2-3JK with further investigations. The present-day excavation area of level 4 in 4 GH, measures 150 m 2. Although they were named separately, levels 3 and 4 can be considered together in terms of chronology and in use of space. Both are distinct in some aspects from the 8 th mill cal B.C. settlement of level No real stratigraphical gap existed between levels 2. 3 and 2, but a thick sediment (an average of 0,20 m) found in the entire area in 4 GH, defined the change in the arbitrary levels. The macroscopic observations during the fieldwork led to the hypothesis that this sediment was formed as a result of a flood or the washing of building materials after heavy rain (Esin - Harmankaya 2007: 257). Further remarks on soil micromorphology also suggested water stagnation and/or moisture. This observation was supported by the poorly preserved state and melted down walls of the kerpiç buildings of level 3A. Micromorphological analyses are ongoing and results are awaited before any further interpretation. The heavy rain sediment lies between the earliest building phase of level 2 (2K) and the latest building phase of level 3 (3A). Level 3 showed similarities in building plans to the 8 th millenium settlement (level 2) and in use of space to the 9 th millenium (level 4). The characteristics of the buildings, the building layouts and the archaeological material exposed in five building phases of level 3 (3A-3E) were summarised by U. Esin and S. Harmankaya (1999a: 119 and 2007: ). The rectangular buildings were all built with kerpiç walls. Hearths found in these structures showed similarities in the location and plan to level 2 (Özba aran 1998). The buildings were located in an open space that was used as an activity area. This area would later be used basically as a midden in level 2. Excavations in 2010 evidenced a similar picture in level 4, as regards the continuity in the use of space as an activity area, however with a significant difference in plans of the buildings. Three sub-oval kerpiç buildings were exposed in level 4 (Fig. 5-6). They stood separately from each other in a wide, open space used as an external activity area. A rectangular building, similar in plan to the buildings of level 2 or 3, was located in the same area, west of the open space. The sub-oval buildings were seemingly semi-subterranean: this statement stays open and has to be confirmed by further excavation. Buildings so far excavated in level 4 did not have any indoor hearths. Fire installations were located in external areas. Another interesting feature was the methods of construction of the kerpiç walls. The long blocks that were used in the walls of two of the sub-oval buildings were shaped by hand after they have been placed on the wall (Fig. 7). Contrarily, the walls of the third sub-oval structure in the same level, and of the rectangular building, had regular moulded kerpiç blocks. The third documented wall type was made by pressing kerpiç soil in between two (probable wooden?) plaques that defined the width of the wall. The technique is known as dökme kerpiç 3, a technique also used even if rarely in level 2. The open space surrounded by buildings covered a large area and evidenced a variety of daily activities. A shallow depression (Space 1), measuring ca. 2,5 m in diameter, located northwest of the open space, was one of the well-defined activity areas (Fig. 8). Its floor was earth plastered and renewed. On its latest floor there were two pairs of post bases. Preliminary study of the material from the floor showed in situ manufacture and use of obsidian tools, as well as use of bone tools. As working hypotheses the following technical operations could be represented: harvesting of cereals (sickle brought back to the area), cutting and scraping soft material meat/fresh hide, siliceous vegetal and fresh soft wood, piercing of soft material and cutting soft/middle-soft worked material. The open space could therefore be defined as a working area, with a light 3) This technique is known as pisé; however, pisé is also used to define hand-shaped kerpiç blocks. In order to avoid confusion, we use the Turkish expression dökme kerpiç, a technique which is similar to the one described by Aurenche (1977: 138; fig. 371).
6 Fig. 6 : The sub-oval building 3, Fig. 7 : Hand-shaped kerpiç blocks of the west wall of building 3, Fig. 5 : The 9th mill settlement, excavations in M HR BAN ÖZBA ARAN
7 RE-STARTING AT A IKLI 33 structure shelter, where a variety of activities was conducted. The rest of the open area did not show such well-defined structures, but the fill and the concentration of the archaeological material on specific patched areas (Fig. 8) allowed figuring out a preliminary interpretation of the different uses of the space. In a burnt area dense remains of calcified stones of Celtis (Fig. 9) were found. In another area, a small pit full of burnt deposits (Fig. 10), and in another different area a concentration of phytoliths, most probably remains of grass were identified. The animal bones exposed in the area had a quiet rich composition, Ovis/Capra being the most common, followed by small game including birds, turtles, fish and aurochs and equids. The archaeobotanical remains of the same level suggested harvesting of a mixture of wild and domesticated emmer along with gathered fruits such as pistachio, almond and hackberry. This pattern is similar to the 8 th mill settlement (van Zeist - de Roller 1995). FURTHER QUESTIONS Excavations of the early levels presented promising data about the changes in the sequence. The continuity in the settlement layout and in the life way was basically documented in level 2. The changes that recently came into view though were mainly between the 9 th and the 8 th mill, i.e. between level 4 and 2. Such changes were, a) transition from oval buildings to rectangular, b) transport of the external activity areas from the ground level to rooflevel, c) change in the layout, from isolated buildings to clustered neighbourhood (cf. the actual data with that of level 2 in Esin 1998a: 92; Esin - Harmankaya 1999a: 125). These revealed important data not only on how the 8 th millennium settlement evolved but also on some debatable social and behavioural aspects of the community. The characteristics of the settlement, especially the strict building continuity, the fixed location of the middens, the gradual change in lithic industry at first sight had led previously to consider the A ıklı community as traditional (Thissen 2002a: 14, 24) and conservative (Esin - Harmankaya 1999a: 130 and the discussions in p. 98, in Gérard - Thissen 2002). Yet the 2010 data signaled shifts. The changes remarked between levels versus the steady state through the building phases in level 2 require further study and new readings on social rules of the community. Changes in other aspects of the culture, such as in the obsidian industry, were also recognized, however they were slight and gradual and happened at different times. A general look to the technological characteristics (Abbes et al. 1999; Balkan-Atlı 1994; Yıldırım - Balcı 2007) indicated dominance of unidirectional knapping in levels 3 and 4 and bidirectional knapping in level 2, although both were present through the sequence. As for tool types, scrapers were the most common through the whole sequence. Yet, scrapers on blade/bladelets were dominant in the early levels whereas scrapers on flakes replaced them towards the end of the 8 th mill (level 2B). Truncated blades were common in the early levels of 3 and 4 and they continued up to the early phases of the 8 th mill (2G). Microliths also existed all through the sequence and displayed a variety of forms, including geometrics. The change was in size and in quantity. In early levels up to 2G, they were smaller and numerous (Yıldırım - Balcı 2007: ). The lithic studies of levels 3-4 are ongoing, accompanied by use wear analysis that recently started in The preliminary investigations on the botanical samples showed a mixture of wild and domestic cereals (mainly emmer) in the 9 th mill settlement (level 4) that need to be tested with much larger samples in the coming years. Domesticated cereals were in cultivation in the 8 th mill, although they were rare in relation to the wild plants (van Zeist - de Roller 2003). Changes in subsistence, the scale of food production, the importance of gathering plant resources and the hypothesis of proto-domestication (of sheep and goat, Buitenhuis 1997) are some of the basic research questions that are currently under study. The faunal composition of the early levels was consistent with that of the late levels, with sheep being dominant, but smaller animals were considerably more diverse specifically in level 4. Small animals included hare and game birds such as bustard and duck, hedgehog, and small fish. Domestication of sheep/goat indicated a transitional stage in level 2. The studies on age, sex and size (of Ovis/Capra) suggested a high degree of control over these animals. Dung remnants observed by means of micromorphological analysis strengthened the suggestion of animal captivity on the site, although the wild morphometric characters do not seem to have changed. The questions focus on how widely the A ıklı community depended on domestic food supply and what the motivation was for the change. Hence, the diachronic evolution in conceptual, technological and social manner through the 1000 years of occupation was designated as one of the research priorities of the new project. Taking advantage from the wide exposures of the 8 th mill settlement, discussions on horizontal levels focus on the social characteristics of the com-
8 Fig. 8 : An activity area with three post holes, 4GH, Fig. 10 : A pit with burnt deposit in the external open space in 4GH, Fig. 9 : Concentration of Celtis remains in the external open space, 4GH, M HR BAN ÖZBA ARAN
9 RE-STARTING AT A IKLI 35 munity. The uniform and repetitive data, the lack of distinguished features and finds, the public character of the special-function quarter had suggested to define a community-level cooperative way of life at A ıklı. Whether it is communality or cohesion, the social mechanism that maintained to hold the community together and live together for hundreds of years, is another important research question under study. Population analysis has not yet been done, and the early occupation is known only from a limited area. Nevertheless there are indications of an increase in population with the start of the 8 th millennium. A rough estimation (depending basically on architecture) indicates hundreds of people that lived at the same time. This brings back the problem of the social organisation of the community and the way they managed to live together. Evidence on conflict, stress and/or risk did not show up at A ıklı. The general picture presents a peaceful, site-inverted way of living in direct reciprocity with the nature through the entire sequence. The site was abandoned around 7400/7000 cal B.C. 4. The current data do not have any indication about why they left the site. The future work at A ıklı aims to focus on these wide ranges of questions about one of the most remarkable periods in human history. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The new participants of the Project, to whom I am thankful for their participation and their preliminary results on the 2010 work, are as follows: L. Astruc, CNRS, IFEA; R. Christidou, Wiener Institute, American School of Athens; D. Friesem, Bar Ilan University; M. Grenet UMR 5608, Toulouse Le Mirail University; D. Grimstead and S. Mentzer, University of Arizona; J. Pelegrin UMR 7055, Paris X University; J. Peters and N. Pöllath, Ludwig-Maximilians Universitaet; J. Quade, University of Arizona; R. Shahack Gross, Bar Ilan University; M. Stiner, University of Arizona, M. Tengberg, MNHN, Paris I University; G. Willcox, CNRS 5133, Lyon 2 University. I am also deeply thankful to all of the old members with whom we work since The A ıklı Project 2010 was carried out with the permission of Kültür ve Turizm Bakanlı ı, Kültür Varlıkları ve Müzeler Genel Müdürlü ü and supported by Scientific Research Projects Coordination Unit of Istanbul University, Project number Last not least, I am thankful to I. Caneva, L. Astruc and G. Arsebük who kindly accepted to review the text. M.Ö. 4) Cf. the sattelite sites around A ıklı dating to the end of its occupation; specifically Musular. Excavation results of Musular allowed to interpret the site as one of the sattelite sites (Duru - Özba aran 2005; Özba aran 2003) that emerged during the latest occupational phases of A ıklı. Further research on the other sattelites will test the present hypothesis as well as extending the abandonment date of A ıklı to 7000 cal B.C.
10 36 M HR BAN ÖZBA ARAN BIBLIOGRAPHY The sign * indicates additional publications of A ıklı, which are not referred in the text. Abbes, F., Balkan Atlı, N., Binder, D. and Cauvin, M.C., 1999 : Etude Téchnologique Préliminaire de I Industrie Lithique d A ıklı Höyük, TÜBA-AR II : Aurenche, O., 1977 : Dictionnaire Illustré Multilingue de L architecture du Proche Orient Ancien. Maison de L Orient Méditerranaéen Ancien. Lyon. Balkan Atlı, N., 1992 * : A ıklı Höyük : un Asentamiento en Anatolia Central, Arquelogia Prehistórica del Próximo Oriente, U.A.B. 1989, 1990, 1991 (eds. M. E. Aubet-M Molist) : * : A ıklı Höyük (Aksaray) Yontma Ta Endüstrisinin Teknolojik ve Tipolojik Açıdan ncelenmesi, VIII. Arkeometri Sonuçları Toplantısı : : The Typological Characteristics of A ıklı Höyük Chipped Stone Industry, Neolithic Chipped Stone Industries of the Fertile Cresent (eds. H. G. Gebel-S. K. Kozlowski), Proceedings of the First Workshop on PPN Chipped Lithic Industries (1993) : Bıçakçı, E. and Özba aran, M., 1991 * : A ıklı Höyük 1989, 1990 : Building Activities, Anatolica XVII : Buitenhuis, H., 1996 * : Archaeozoology of Holocene inanatolia : A Review, Archaeometry 94, (eds.. Demirci, A. M. Özer, G. D. Summers) : Tübitak, Ankara : A ıklı Höyük : a protodomestication site, Anthropozoologica : Bulur, E., Wieser, A., Özer, A. and Göksu, H.Y., 1996 * : Electron Spin Resonance and Thermoluminescence Studies of Tooth Enamels and Obsidians from A ıklı Höyük, Turkey, Archaeometry 94 (eds.. Demirci, A. M. Özer, G. D. Summers) : Tübitak, Ankara. Büyükarakaya, A.M. and Erdal, Y.S., 2006 * : Çayönü ve A ıklı Neolitik Toplumlarında Büyüme Bozuklukları, 21. Arkeometri Sonuçları Toplantısı : Dede, Y., 1997 * : A ıklı Höyük Kerpiç Yapılarının Korunması Üzerine Çalı malar. stanbul Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, Yayımlanmamı Yüksek Lisans Tezi. Duru, G., 2002 * : Some architectural indications for the origins of Central Anatolia, The Neolithic of Central Anatolia (eds. F. Gérard - L. Thissen) : * : Yakındo u Neoliti inde Orta Anadolu Bölgesi Neolitik Dönem Mimarlı ının Yeri. stanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Yayımlanmamı Yüksek Lisans Tezi. Duru, G. and Özba aran, M., 2005 : A non-domestic site in Central Anatolia, Anatolia Antiqua XIII : Ertu, F., 1997 * : An Ethnoarchaeological Study of Subsistence and Plant-Gathering in Central Anatolia. Washington University, Unpublished PhD thesis. Esin, U., 1991 * : A ıklı Höyük (Kızılkaya-Aksaray) Kurtarma Kazısı 1989, Türk Arkeoloji Dergisi XXIX : * : 1990 A ıklı Höyük Kazısı (Kızılkaya Köyü-Aksaray li), XIII. Kazı Sonuçları Toplantısı I : a * : Zum Ursprung der Kastenbauweise in Anatolien, Istanbuler Mittelungen 43 : b * : Copper Beads of A ıklı, Aspects of Art and Iconography : Anatolia and Its Neighbors. 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Sözen) : Ayhan ahenk Vakfı, stanbul. 1998b : The Aceramic Site of A ıklı and its Ecological Conditions Based on its Floral and Faunal Remains, TÜBA-AR 1 : c * : Hunted animals at A ıklı and the environment, Man and the Animal World. Studies in Archaeozoology, Archaeology, Antropology and Paleolinguistics in memoriam Sándor Bökönyi (eds. P. Anreiter, L. Bartosiewicz, E. Jerem, W. Meid) : a * : Die Akeramischen Siedlungen von A ıklı Höyük in Zentralanatolien, Ça lar Boyunca Anadolu da Yerle im ve Konut Uluslararası Sempozyumu 5-7 Haziran 1996 : Ege Yayınları, stanbul. 1999b : Some Archaeological Evidence from the A ıklı Excavations for Climatic Fluctuations in Central Anatolia During the early Holocene 10./9.Mill. BP, Anadolu Ara tırmaları XV : c * : Copper Objects from the Pre-Pottery Neolithic site of A ıklı (Kızılkaya Village, Province of Aksaray, Turkey), The Beginnings of Metallurgy (eds. A. Hauptmann, E. Pernicka, T. Rehen, Ü. 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11 RE-STARTING AT A IKLI a : A ıklı, Neolithic in Turkey, The Cradle of Civilisation (eds. M. Özdo an-n. Ba gelen) : Arkeoloji ve Sanat, Istanbul. 1999b * : A ıklı Höyük Kazısı 1997, XX. Kazı Sonuçları Toplantısı I : : A ıklı Höyük, Türkiye de Neolitik Dönem (eds. M. Özdo an-n. Ba gelen) : Arkeoloji ve Sanat, Istanbul. Esin, U., Bıçakçı, E., Özba aran, M., Balkan Atlı, N., Berker, D., Ya mur,. and Atlı, A.K., 1991 * : Salvage Excavations at the Pre-Pottery Site of A ıklı Höyük of Central Anatolia, Anatolica XVII : Gérard, F. and Thissen, L., 2002 : The Neolithic of Central Anatolia. Ege Yayınları, Istanbul. Gülçur, S., 1994 * : A ıklı Höyük Çitlenbikleri, IX. Arkeometri Sonuçları Toplantısı : Güldo an, E., 2002 * : A ıklı Höyük Sürtme Ta Endüstrisi ve Sorunları. stanbul Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, Yayımlanmamı Yüksek Lisans Tezi. Kaya, M., 2002 * : A ıklı Höyük 4GH Derin Sondaj Açması Kemik Buluntuları. stanbul Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, Yayımlanmamı Yüksek Lisans Tezi. Özba aran, M., 1998 : The Heart of a House : The Hearth-A ıklı Höyük, a Pre-pottery Neolithic Site in Central Anatolia, Light on Top of the Black Hill. Studies Presented to Halet Çambel (eds. G. Arsebük-M. J. Mellink- W. Schirmer) : , stanbul : Musular-A ıklı li kisinde Kireç Tabanlı Yapılar, Ufuk Esin e Arma an, Köyden Kente, Yakındo u da lk Yerle imler, (eds. M. Özdo an, H. Hauptmann, N. Ba gelen) : 2. Cilt : Özba aran, M., Duru, G., Teksöz, D., Omacan, S., 2010 : Ya ayan Geçmi : A ıklı Höyük, TÜBA Kültür Envanteri Dergisi 8 : Özbek, M., 1992 * : A ıklı Höyük Neolitik nsanları, VII. Arkeometri Sonuçları Toplantısı : a * : A ıklı Höyük Neolitik Ça nsanları, VIII. Arkeometri Sonuçları Toplantısı : b * : Antropologia de les Poblacions Neolítiques de Çatal Höyük, d A ıklı ı de Çayönü (Turqia), Cota Zero 9 : 31-35, Barcelona * : A ıklı Höyük nsanları (1990 ve 1992 Buluntuları), IX. Arkeometri Sonuçları Toplantısı : * : A ıklı Neolitik Ça nsanlarında A ız Sa lı ı ve Beslenme, 1995 Yılı Anadolu Medeniyetleri Müzesi Konferansları : * : Human Skeletal Remains From A ıklı, a Neolithic Village Near Aksaray, Turkey, Light on Top the Black Hill. Studies Presented to Halet Çambel (eds. G. Arsebük, M. J. Mellink, W. Schirmer) : , Istanbul * : A ıklı (Aksaray) Neolitik Ça Erke inde Demir Eksikli inden Kaynaklanan Rahatsızlık, Belleten LXX/234 : Thissen, L., 2002a : Time trajectories for the Neolithic of Central Anatolia, The Neolithic of Central Anatolia (eds. F. Gérard - L. Thissen) : Ege Yayınları, Istanbul. 2002b : Appendix I. CANeW 14 C databases and 14 C charts, Anatolia, 10, cal B.C., The Neolithic of Central Anatolia (eds. F. Gérard - L. Thissen) : Ege Yayınları, Istanbul. Yalçın, Ü. and Pernicka, E., 1999 * : Frühneolithische Metallurgie von A ıklı Höyük, The Beginnings of Metallurgy. Der Anschnitt 9 (eds. A. Hauptmann, E. Pernicka, T. Rehen, Ü. Yalçın ) : Bochum. Yıldırım, B.S., 2007 : Orta Anadolu Obsidyen Teknolojisi : A ıklı Höyük Modeli, Tekno-Kültürel Kökeni ve Evrimi. stanbul Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü. Yayımlanmamı Doktora Tezi. Yıldırım, S., 1999 * : Çanak Çömleksiz Neolitik Dönemde Ok ve Mızrak Uçlarının Geli imi, A ıklı Höyük Örne i. stanbul Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, Yayımlanmamı Yüksek Lisans Tezi. Yılmaz, Y., 2002 * : A ıklı Höyük skeletlerinin Morfolojik Olarak Kar ıla tırmalı ncelenmesi. stanbul Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, Yayımlanmamı Yüksek Lisans Tezi. van Zeist, W. and Jan de Roller, G., 1995 : Plant Remains from A ıklı Höyük, A Pre-Pottery Neolithic Site in Central Anatolia, Vegetation History and Archaebotany 4 : : Some Notes on the Plant Husbandary of A ıklı Höyük, Reports on Archaeobotabical Studies in the Old World (ed. W. Van Zeist) : Gröningen.
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