1 The Effects of the Active Learning Model on Students Learning, Teaching and Communication Salih KALEM*, Seval FER ** Abstract The main purpose of this research was to determine the effects of the active learning model on students learning, teaching and communication processes. The research was carried out in a natural atmosphere employing both quantitative and qualitative research methods. The subjects were 34 teacher candidates from mathematics, physics and chemistry departments who were enrolled in the course of Instructional Planning and Evaluation as a part of Master of Science program at Y ld z Technical University in Turkey. Interviews, observations, and questionnaires were used to collect the data. The data was analyzed by using quantitative and qualitative research techniques. The findings revealed that there was a positive effect of active learning atmosphere on students learning, teaching, and communication processes. Key Words Active Learning, Teaching and Teacher Education, Higher Education, College Students. * Salih Kalem, English Teacher, Ataturk Elementary School. ** Correspondence: Seval Fer, Assis. Prof., Y ld z Technical University Faculty of Science and Literacy, Department of Educational Sciences Davutpafla Kampüsü stanbul. Kuram ve Uygulamada E itim Bilimleri / Educational Sciences: Theory & Practice 3 (2) Kas m / November
2 456 EDUCATIONAL SCIENCES: THEORY&PRACTICE Active learning usually refers to a learning situation in which students are in an active position. In this process, the first goal is to transform the role of the learner from passive observer to active participant. However, this is not simply a matter of participation in learning itself, but rather a learning process, which encourages the learner to take actions in various ways concerning how to learn, use mental abilities, think, and interpret the information which one has learned. In such kind of learning process, students actively direct their learning using high-level cognitive and decision-making skills and cooperate with other learners. The two fundamentals of active learning are ensuring that the actions carried out in the classroom correlate with the (a) concepts and (b) student s participation. The role of the teacher is merely being a facilitator of these processes. In this position, the teacher himself/herself learns together with the students (Aç kgöz, 2000; Johnson & Johnson, 1999; Karakaya, 1997; Keyser, 2000; Lowman, 2000; Pekin, 2000; Y lmaz, 1995). Setting out clear objectives in active learning means that the learner develops problem solving abilities by using high-level cognitive skills such as analysis, synthesis, and evaluation (Allen, 1995; Bonwell & Eison, 2001; Seeler, 2000). In fact, due to the eclectic nature of active learning, different techniques, strategies, and materials can be used (Aç kgöz, 2000; Karakaya, 1997; Keyser, 2000; Lowman, 2000; Y lmaz, 1995). The literature on active learning underlines the importance of active learning as part of the learning process (Bilha, 1989; Gür, 1998; Sökmen, 2000; Tombe, 1989; Y lmaz, 1995). However, there has been little research on active learning at the higher education institutions in Turkey. That is why the main purpose of this research was to determine the effects of the active learning model on students learning, teaching, and communication. Method Subjects Subjects of the present study comprised of 34 teacher candidates from mathematics, physics, and chemistry departments who were enrolled in the course of Instructional Planning and Evaluation, during the fall semester of the academic year, as a part of Master of Science program in the department of Secondary Education at Y ld z Technical University in Istanbul.
3 KALEM, FER / The Effects of the Active Learning Model on Students Materials and Procedures The instructional sessions were organized within an active learning atmosphere and active learning principles were applied together with some activities such as panel work, brainstorming, group work, and case studies. In an attempt to test the objectives of the study, data were collected from questionnaires, interviews, and observations. At the end of each lecture, the questionnaire entitled How did you feel in this lecture? was administered, and then, three focus group interviews were carried out with the students. All interviews were conducted by the principal researcher. Moreover, two observers observed the lectures and took notes. The data of the observations and interviews were analyzed using thematic techniques. The data of the questionnaires were analyzed using descriptive statistics such as frequencies and percents. Results When the data collected by questionnaires, interviews, and observations were investigated as a whole, it might be pointed out that the active learning model had a positive effect on students. According to opinions of the students, the results might be listed as follows: - Active learning principles were different and more entertaining for students than the traditional ones. - Students acquired the information and knowledge by themselves and oriented responsibility for their learning. - Active learning approach facilitated students understanding and comprehension and helped them develop productive and creative learning skills. - Communication and active participation were effective by making a democratic, enjoyable, and colorful atmosphere among students and between students and teacher. However, some students stated that they felt being passive in the class during the research, which may have been as a result of physical environment and the number of students enrolled in that particular course. Discussion When the findings of the present research is evaluated as a whole, based on the findings of questionnaires, interviews, and observations, it might be said that lectures using the active learning model had a positive effect on students learning and teaching. The findings of this research both support the result of previous studies and show similar conclusions (Boas, 1989; Demirci, 2000; Dolinsky, 2001; Lena et al., 2001; Lunenberg & Volman, 1997; McNeal, 2001; Parvin, 1989; Pekin, 2000; Sauricki, 1989; Sokmen, 1995; Uysal, 1996; Wenzel, 1995; Y lmaz, 1995).
4 458 EDUCATIONAL SCIENCES: THEORY&PRACTICE It can be also noted that the atmosphere of active learning had a positive effect on communication and active participation of students. But the physical conditions of the classroom cannot be ignored. The present research shows parallel findings with the other studies (Boas, 1989; DeWayne, 1990; Dolinsky, 2001; Harton, Richardson, Barreras, Rockloff., & Latane, 2002; Lena et al., 2001; Lunenberg & Volman, 1997). The findings of this study offer some implications for students learning, teaching. and communication. These implications should be seriously paid attention in order to increase students learning and happiness. Moreover, the creation of an active learning environment which in turn results more enjoyable, attractive, comfortable, participative, and dynamic learning atmosphere might be perceived as a viable alternative to the traditional teaching approach. This inclusion would provide a more specific area for teachers to use of the ways in which students and teachers shape learning atmosphere together. More in-depth studies are needed to get a complete picture of active learning. Studies that use different samples and conducted in different educational settings such other universities or secondary school settings are necessary for a more thorough examination in terms of active learning approach. New research would also show how and why active learning has an impact on the learning, teaching and communication processes of students and focus on demonstrable effectiveness as measured by the learning gains of students.
5 KALEM, FER / The Effects of the Active Learning Model on Students Kaynakça/References Aç kgöz, K.Ü. (1999). Etkili ö renme ve ö retme. zmir: Kany lmaz Matbaas. Aç kgöz, K.Ü. (2000). Aktif ö renme notlar. web adresinden, 19 Temmuz 2001 tarihinde edinilmifltir. Aç kgöz, K.Ü. (2002). Aktif ö renme. zmir: E itim Dünyas Yay nlar. Allen, E. E. (1995). Active learning and teaching: Improving postsecondary library instruction. ERIC Digest, ED web adresinden 17 Ocak 2001 tarihinde edinilmifltir. Avc, S. (2001). Aktif ö renme. web adresinden 11 Temmuz 2001 tarihinde edinilmifltir. Bayrak, S. (2000). Yüksek ö retimde aktif e itim. Kuram ve Uygulamada E itim Yönetimi, 6 (21), Bilha, K. K. (1989). The relationship between attitude toward mathematics and active participation in the mathematics class. Dissertation Abstract International, 50 (1), 92-A. Boas, H. D. (1989). Implementing a school-based staff development project designed to promote active learning and increase student interest in elementary social studies: A case study. Dissertation Abstract International, 49 (7), 1682-A, (DA ). Bonwell, C. & Eison, A. J. (2001). Active learning: Creating excitement in the classroom. web adresinden 19 Temmuz 2001 tarihinde edinilmifltir. Busbridge, J., & Özçelik, D. A. (1997). lkö retimde matematik ö retimi: YÖK Milli E itimi Gelifltirme Projesi. Ankara: Yüksek Ö retim Kurulu. Demirci, C. (2000). Etkin ö renme modelinin ilkö retimde uygulanmas. eleman/cavide.html web adresinden 15 Haziran 2000 tarihinde edinilmifltir. Demirel, Ö. (1999). Kuramdan uygulamaya e itimde program gelifltirme. Ankara: Pegem Yay nc l k. Demirtafl, A. (1991). E itimde nitelik: Bugünü ve gelece i: E itimde nitelik gelifltirme. Yaflad kça E itim, 42, DeWayne, M. (1991). The effect of two small-group models of active learning on sixthgrade mathematics achievement. Dissertation Abstract International, 51 (8), 249, A. Dolinsky, B. (2001). An active approach to teaching statistics. Teaching of Psychology, 28 (1), Erden, M. & Akman, Y. (1998). Geliflim ö renme ö retme: E itim psikolojisi. Ankara: Arkadafl Yay nevi. Farris, P. J. (1996). Teaching bearing the torch. Madison: Brown & Benchmark. Gür, H. (1998). Matematik ö retmen aday n n aktif ö renme metodunu kullanarak matemati i ö retmeyi ö renmesi. web adresinden 05 Ocak 2001 tarihinde edinilmifltir. Harste, J., & Short, K. (1988). What educational difference does your theory of language make? Queensland, Australia: University of Queensland Publication. Harton, H. C., Richardson, D. S., Barreras, R. E., Rocloff, M. J., & Latane, B. (2002). Focused interactive learning: A tool for active class discussion. Teaching of Psychology, 29 (1), Houston, J. E. (1995). Thesaurus of ERIC descriptions. Phoneix AZ: Dry & Press. Johnson, D.W., Johnson, T. R., & Smith, K. A. (1991). Active learning: Cooperation in the college classroom. Edina, MN: Interaction Book Company.
6 460 EDUCATIONAL SCIENCES: THEORY&PRACTICE Johnson, D.W., & Johnson, R. T. (1999). Making cooperative learning work. Theory into Practice, 38 (2), Karakaya, fi. (1997). Esnek ö renme yaklafl mlar. Erzurum: Atatürk Üniversitesi Kaz m Karabekir E itim Fakültesi Yay nlar. Keyser, M.W. (2000). Active learning and cooperative learning: Understanding the difference and using both styles effectively. Research Strategies, 17, Lena, A. N., Bergendahl, C., Stenlund, P., & Tibell, T. (2001). An open laboratory experiment, a method for active learning: Biochemistry education for millennium. Dissertation Abstract International, 53 (7), 846-A, (E29-E34). Lowman, H. (2000). Active learning beyond the classroom. depts/ ctl/ fyc3. web adresinden 07 Eylül 2000 tarihinde edinilmifltir. Lunenberg, M. L., & Volman, M. (1999). Active learning: Views and actions of student and teacher in basic education. Teacher and Teacher Education, 15, McNeal, A. P. (2001). Student active learning in the psychology classroom. Teaching and Educational Innovation, 14, Milli E itim Bakanl (1998). Milli E itim Temel Yasas. Ankara: Milli E itim Bas mevi. Parvin, F. N. (1989). Integration of communication skills with active learning techniques in science. Dissertation Abstract International, 45 (3), 746-A. Pekin, H. (2000). lkö retim 5. s n f matematik ö retiminde aktif etkileflimli ö renme modelinin ö renci baflar s na etkisi. Yay mlanmam fl yüksek lisans tezi, Uluda Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, Bursa. Saban, A. (2000). Ö renme ve ö retme süreci. Ankara: Nobel Yay n Da t m. Salemi, M. K. (2002). An illustrated case for active learning. Southern Economic Journal, 68, Sauricki, J. L. (1989). Shall women vote? An active-learning curriculum unit for college student. Dissertation Abstract International, 50 (9), 139, 1416-A, (DA ). Seeler, D. C. (2000). From teaching to learning: Lectures and approaches to active learning. web adresinden 23 fiubat 2000 tarihinde edinilmifltir. Silberman, M. (1996). Active learning: 100 strategies to teach any subject. Boston: Allyn & Bacon. Slavin, R. E. (1997). Cooperative learning: Theory, research and practice. Boston: Allyn & Bacon. Sökmen, N. (2000). Önlisans ö rencilerinin kimya dersinde uygulanan aktif e itim yöntemleri. E itim ve Bilim, 25 (117), Standford University. (1993). Active learning: Getting students to work and think in the classroom. Speaking and Teaching, 5 (1), 1-3. Suter, E. A. (2000). Focus group in ethnography of communication: Expanding topics of inquiry beyond participant observation. The Qualitative Report, 5, 1-2). The University of North Carolina. (2001). Classroom activities for active learning. web adresinden 14 fiubat 2001 tarihinde edinilmifltir. Tombe, V. K. (1989). Selected community staff development programs in Maryland and Virginia. Dissertation Abstract International, 51 (6), 979-A. Uysal, Ö. F. (1996). Ö renme sürecinde etkin ö renci kat l m n n ö renme sonuçlar na etkisi. Yay nlanmam fl doktora tezi, Dokuz Eylül Üniversitesi, zmir. Y ld r m, A. & fiimflek, H. (1999). Sosyal bilimlerde nitel araflt rma yöntemleri. Ankara: Seçkin Yay nevi. Y lmaz, A. (1995). Lise 2. s n f fizik dersinde aktif yöntemin ö renci baflar s na etkisi. Yay mlanmam fl yüksek lisans tezi, Dokuz Eylül Üniversitesi, zmir.
7 KALEM, FER / The Effects of the Active Learning Model on Students EK-1 Aktif Ö renme Anket Formu (Bugün S n f Senin çin Nas ld?) Biliflsel Fark ndal k Ders süresince çevremde olup bitenlerin tamamen fark ndayd m. Ders süresince çevremde olup bitenlerin epeyce fark ndayd m. Çevremde olup bitenlerin çok az fark ndayd m. Kendimi s k lm fl hissettim. Sayg nl k Ders süresince kendimi çok olumlu ve rahat hissettim. Ders süresince kendimi oldukça olumlu ve rahat hissettim. Ders süresince kendimi iyi hissetmedim. Ders süresince kendimi kötü oldu unu düflündüm. Bireysel Sorumluluk Ders süresince tercihler yapma f rsat buldum. Ders süresince kendimi sorumlu hissettim. rade gücümü fazla kullanmadan yaln z bafl ma sürüklendim durdum. Sorumluluk almad m, sadece yönetildim ve kontrol edildim. fl Birli i Bir gruba ait oldu umu ve grup taraf ndan kabul edildi imi hissettim. S n ftaki üyeler hakk nda genellikle olumlu duygulara sahiptim. Kendimin grup taraf ndan kabul edildi imi hissetmedim. Kendimi bencil ve di erleri taraf ndan d fllanm fl hissettim. Aktif Kat l m Ders süresince aktif kat l mc yd m. Kendimi enerji dolu, canl hissettim. Çal flmalar m için fazla enerji harcamad m. Kendimi hareketsiz-pasif hissettim.
AN EXPLORATORY STUDY OF ENGLISH LANGUAGE TEACHERS BELIEFS, ASSUMPTIONS, AND KNOWLEDGE ABOUT LEARNER-CENTEREDNESS Suzan HATİPOĞLU KAVANOZ Öğr. Gör. Dr. Yıldız Teknik Üniversitesi, Eğitim Fakültesi, Yabancı
Eurasian Journal of Educational Research, Issue 53, Fall 2013, 1-20 Education Supervisors Views on the New Curriculum and Its Implementation in Primary Schools Suggested Citation: Semiha ŞAHİN Şahin, S.
Ö renme Stilleri ile Ö renci Baflar s Aras ndaki liflki Üzerine Karfl laflt rmal Bir Araflt rma brahim B LG N*, Soner DURMUfi* zet Bu çal flman n amac Bolu ve Mardin de bulunan iki farkl okulun ilkö retim
İlköğretim Fen Eğitiminde Probleme Dayalı Öğrenme Yaklaşımının Üst Düzey Düşünme Becerilerine Etkisi 1 Derya ÇINAR 2 & Aslan İLİK 3 ÖZET Bu çalışma, İlköğretim Fen eğitiminde probleme dayalı öğrenme yaklaşımının
iser 2015 World Conference on Education A framework and research agenda for 21st century education Istanbul Yeditepe University, Turkey Book of Abstracts iser 2015 is sponsored by iser 2015 World Conference
Educational Sciences: Theory & Practice - 12(3) Summer 1843-1852 2012 Educational Consultancy and Research Center www.edam.com.tr/estp Relationship between School Administrators Organizational Power Sources
Eurasian Journal of Educational Research, Issue 38, Winter 2010, 198-215 The Effectiveness of Instruction on Mand Model One of the Milieu Teaching Techniques Bülent Toğram * Dilek Erbaş ** Suggested Citation:
- - Konu Alan Bilgisinin Pedagojik Alan Bilgisi Üzerine Etkisi: Maddenin Fiziksel Hâllerinin Ö retilmesi Durumu Mustafa ÖZDEN* Özet Bu araflt rman n amac, konu alan bilgisinin miktar n n ve niteli inin
Hacettepe Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi (H. U. Journal of Education) 39: 57-68  THE EFFECT OF CONSTRUCTIVIST APPROACH IN CHEMISTRY EDUCATION ON STUDENTS' HIGHER ORDER COGNITIVE SKILLS Nuray
Hacettepe Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi (H. U. Journal of Education) 29(1), 61-73  Effects of Learning Objects on the Academic Achievement of Students in Web-Based Foreign Language Learning
Ahi Evran Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi,Cilt 11,Sayı 3,Aralık 2010,Sayfa 205-223 Öğretmen Adaylarının Grup Çalışmalarına İlişkin Algıları Gürcü KOÇ ERDAMAR 1 Hüsne DEMİREL 2 ÖZET Bu çalışmada öğretmen
Öğretmen Adaylarının Öğrenme Stilleri İle Çevre Eğitimi Öz Yeterlikleri Arasındaki İlişki Mustafa KAHYAOĞLU 1 ÖZET Bu çalışmanın amacı, öğretmen adaylarının öğrenme stilleri ile çevre eğitimine yönelik
Eurasian Journal of Educational Research, Issue 38, Winter 2010, 19-36 An Analysis of the Presentation of Women in 100 Basic Literary Works in Turkey Canan Aslan Suggested Citation: Aslan, C. (2010). An
Effect of Perceived Organizational Justice and Organizational Trust on Organizational Commitment Behavior 1 Yar Ali METE 2 & Hüseyin SERİN 3 ABSTRACT The aim of this study is to determine the effect of
European Journal of Educational Studies 2(2), 2010 ISSN 1946-6331 2010 Ozean Publication THE AFFECT OF SPORT ACTIVITIES ON PROBLEM SOLVING SKILLS (SAMPLE OF BURSA PROVINCE) Mehmet GÖRAL, Dumlupınar University,
Sakarya University Journal of Education, 2/3 (Aralık /December 2012) ss. 49-67. Üniversite Öğrencilerinin Sosyal Paylaşım Sitelerini Kullanma Amaçları ve Bu Sitelerin Eğitimlerinde Kullanılması ile İlgili
Kuram ve Uygulamada Eğitim Bilimleri Educational Sciences: Theory & Practice 14(3) 1075-1087 2014 Eğitim Danışmanlığı ve Araştırmaları İletişim Hizmetleri Tic. Ltd. Şti. www.edam.com.tr/kuyeb DOI: 10.12738/estp.2014.3.1984
Ahi Evran Üniversitesi Kırşehir Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi (KEFAD) Cilt 15, Sayı 2, Ağustos 2014, Sayfa 243-261 Çevrimiçi Öğrenme Ortamlarında Farklı Geribildirim Stratejilerinin Öğrencilerin Sosyal Bilişsel
Kuram ve Uygulamada Eğitim Yönetimi Yaz 2005, Sayı 43, ss. 379-400 Altı Düşünme Şapkası ve Nitelik Sıralama Tekniklerinin Fen Derslerinde Uygulanmasına Yönelik Öğrenci Görüşleri 1 Yrd. Doç. Dr. Özlem Koray
DURU / Uyum Zorluklarını Yordamada Yalnızlık, Sosyal Destek ve Sosyal Bağlılık Arasındaki... 833 Çoklu Zekâ Kuramı ile İlgili Türkçe Çalışmaların İçerik Analizi Ahmet SABAN* Öz Son yıllarda ülkemizde çoklu
LKOKUL MÜDÜRLER N ALGILANAN ÇATI MA YÖNET M ST LLER VE RETMENLERDE OLU TURDU U STRES DÜZEY - GAZ ANTEP AH NBEY LÇES ÖRNE PERCEIVED CONFLICT MANAGEMENT STYLES OF PRIMARY SCHOOL PRINCIPALS AND STRESS LEVEL