1 21- SPACE TOURISM regular pleasure guidance sightseers proposal possibility Japan's Shimizu Corporation is making plans for the day that there are (1) flights into space, not by astronauts, but by tourists and (2). Shimizu's space project office prepared the plan for a $28 billion space hotel with the technical (3) of Bell & Trotti of the United States, it is not the first (4) of its kind. Since the first days of space exploration, people have speculated about the (5) of cosmic (6) trips. In 1967, the founder of the Hilton Hotel chain, Barron Hilton, told the American Astronautical Society that he hoped to see the first orbital Hilton in his lifetime. doubtful commercial optimistic In spite of the advances in technology, Japan's National Space Development Agency is (7) about the future of space travel. Shimizu, however, is (8) and is even planning to put a new generation of space planes into operation around the year 2010 to start (9) space travel and tourism. replace take of current altogether. Space planes will (1= the (11) generation of spacecraft. Not only will they be able to (12) and land like jets, but thev will also have the power to leave the atmosphere (13). The United States, France, Britain, Germany, Japan and the Soviet Union are all planning hedesignsof space planes ; revolutionary on-board propelled booster common take in burden rare vast There are (14) features to the designs of space planes; they will use a single (15) stage to reach their orbit. They will be totally re-usable and will be (16) to hypersonic speeds by (17) engines that can take in oxygen from the atmosphere or (18) supplies. Current generation spacecraft are limited by the (19) amount of fuel. It takes about five tonnes of fuel to put a spacecraft into orbit. But by using a rocket motor that can (20) oxygen from the atmosphere, the (21) of liquid oxygen can be cut down to the amount that is required when the air becomes too (22). fashionable effective destination witness odd-shaped piece assembling A cost (23) and safe aero-spaceplane will mark a major turning point for the space industry and the birth of space-tourism. Then the first (24) for the rich, the (25) and the adventurous will be the space hotel, a space station in low earth orbit. As the aero-spaceplane closes in on Tokyo Orbital International, passengers will (26) a hotel that looks quite unlike any on Earth because the need to build it (27) by piece - by (28) a series of prefabricated modules - makes it an (29) structure. consultant tens estimates, timescale fall from shuttle Space tourism will not be cheap (30) of the cost range from (31) of thousands to millions of dollars, depending on the trip, (32) and available technology. For instance, technical (33) David Ashford and Dr. Patrick Collins of Imperial College estimate that the cost per seat could (34) $4 million in the space (35) to $10,000 in a'spacebus'. handful occur prospect inevitable As for whether space-tourism will (36) at all, we can draw from the example of air travel. In the past 60 years, the number of people who crossed the Atlantic has grown from a (37) of people to some 25 million. Once the new generation of space vehicles under development take to the skies, the (38) of commercial space flights within the next 60 years seems (39).
2 KELİME ANLAM EŞ ANLAM altogether. tamamen, bütün bütün, büsbütün, hepten, completely, entirely, perfectly, baştan sona, genelde assembling birleştirme call, convene, summon booster yükseltici; destek, yardım, yardımcı; blind, bonnet, capper, shill, shillaber, stick propagandacı, amplifikatör, hız kazandırıcı (roket) burden yüklemek, sırtına yüklemek cargo, freight, haul, lading, payload commercial ticari, mesleki, ticaret yapan; kârlı; reklâm yayını yapan common ortak, müşterek, genel, yaygın; kaba saba, kaba, adi; sıradan, bilinen; bayağı, olağan, alışılagelmiş, alelâde communal, conjoint, conjunct, intermutual, joint, mutual, public, shared consultant current destination doubtful danışman, mütehassıs, uzman doktor cari, bugünkü, geçer, geçerli, şimdiki, tedavüldeki contemporary, existent, extant, instant, present-day, todayish şüpheli, kuşkulu, kararsız, tedirgin, sonucu kuşkulu contemporary, existent, extant, instant, present-day, todayish ambiguous, borderline, clouded, doubtable, dubious, dubitable, equivocal, fishy, impugnable, effectual, efficacious, efficient, virtuous effective etkili, etkileyici, tesirli, etkin, etken; geçerli, verimli, yürürlükte olan, efektif estimates tahmin etmek, kestirmek, değer biçmek, approximate, call, judge, place, put, reckon takdir etmek; hüküm vermek; biçmek fall from düşmek, devrilmek, yoldan çıkmak descend, drop, lower fashionable modaya uygun, şık, kibar, moda chic, dashing, exclusive, modish, smart, swank, swish guidance handful inevitable occur rehberlik, kılavuzluk, yol gösterme, sevketme, yönlendirme, idare etme avuç dolusu, avuç, ele avuca sığmayan tip, başa çıkılması zor kimse kaçınılmaz, çaresiz, beklenen, malum, umulan cereyan etmek, çıkmak, ortaya çıkmak, oluşmak, olmak, görülmek, akla gelmek, meydana gelmek sıra dışı şekilde scattering, smatch, smatter, smattering, spatter, spattering, sprinkling certain, ineluctable, ineludible, inescapable, inevasible, necessary, returnless, unavoidable, unescapable, unevadable happen, hit, strike odd shaped on-board gemide, gemiye, uçağa embark optimistic iyimser fond, Pollyannaish, sanguine, upbeat piece parça, tane, bir parça, eser, kırıntı, piyes, iş, part, snack tüfek, kısa mesafe, kısa süre, taş (dama), piyondan büyük taş, madeni para pleasure zevk, haz, sevinç, keyif, memnuniyet, istek, irade delectation, delight, enjoyment, fruition, joy, joyance possibility olasılık, ihtimal, olanak, imkân propelled ileriye itmek, itmek, sevketmek push, move, urge proposal öneri, teklif, evlenme teklifi, önerge, plan, invitation, proffer, proposition, suggestion tasavvur, tasarı, öneri prospect manzara, görünüm, beklenti, olasılık, umut, ihtimal, maden damarı belirtisi, muhtemel müşteri lookout, outlook, perspective, scape rare regular bulunmaz, nadir, ender, az bulunur, seyrek, olağanüstü, az pişmiş, seyreltik olağan, sıradan, herzamanki, kurallı, normal, düzenli, düzgün, muntazam, devamlı, değişmez, inişleri ve çıkışları olmayan, mazbut, dürüst, güvenilir, kadrolu, meslekten, uzman attenuate, attenuated, rarefied, subtile, subtle, tenuous common, commonplace, natural, normal, prevalent, run-of-the-mill, typic, typical, usual
3 replace yerine koymak, değiştirmek, yenisiyle değiştirmek, yerine geçmek, yerini almak, yerini tutmak, geri ödemek, yerine bakmak, vekâlet etmek, ahizeyi yerine koymak revolutionary devrimci, devrim, devrimlerle ilgili extremist, fanatic, rabid, radical, revolutional, revolutionist, ultra, ultraist shuttle mekik, karşılıklı sefer, gidiş geliş seferi shunt sightseers turist tourist, rubberneck, tripper take in almak, geçirmek, sızdırmak, içeri almak, admit, receive abone olmak, aldatmak, dolandırmak, kandırmak, cebe atmak, kiracı almak, anlamak take off çıkarmak, götürmek, alıp götürmek, take away, take out, withdraw havalanmak, kaldırmak, öldürmek, inmek, ameliyatla almak, indirmek, taklidini yapmak, sıçramak, kalkmak, hareket etmek, yola çıkmak tens onlu, onluk vast büyük boşluk witness şahit, tanık, tanıklık testimony, spectator
4 22-ADVERTISING includes correctly efforts persuade activities reaches influencing sales relations influence communicate advertising promotion As a marketing term, 'promotion' is a company's (1) to (2) customers to buy. A company may have a fine product or service to offer and it may be priced (3), but these won't mean much unless it (4) its target market. Promotion, which aims to reach the customers in that market and (5) them to buy, includes the elements of giving information and (6) customer behaviour. In other words, it (7) all selling activities. The most important of these (8) are personal selling, (9) promotion, public (10) and advertising. Most companies combine these activities to (11) with their customers, but more money is spent on (12) than on other types of (13). techniques influenced situations universally conveys All of us have been (14) to buy certain products because of some form of advertising. it is (15) accepted that advertising (16) selling messages better than other (17) in certain (18). manufacturer s persuade purposes increase As a tool of marketing, advertising generally serves the following (19) : to (20) present customers to (21) their buying, to slow down the flow of present customers away from the product and to increase the flow of customers toward the advertised product. But the overall purpose of advertising is to influence the level of product sales and, as a result, to increase the (22) profits. measure evaluated campaign effectiveness To determine the effectiveness of advertising, its results should be (23). A practical way to (24) its (25) is through increased sales volume. Sales for a period of time following an advertising (26) can be compared with those for a previous period. describes institutional advertisement misleading quantity classified features rectify associated advertising distributed manufacturer quality purpose earlier corrective claims characteristics emphasize identified Advertising can be (27) into certain types, depending on its use and (28). The first type is product (29), which is designed to sell a definite and (30) product. It usually (31) the product's (32) and good qualities and it may even (33) its price. Product advertising is used to sell both consumer and industrial goods, which have different marketing (34). The second type is (35) advertising. This type tries to create a favourable attitude toward the company offering to sell a product. This type of advertising may not influence immediate sales but it tries to increase the sales in the long-run. For example, a (36) may run an institutional (37) to tell the public about the company's efforts to reduce air pollution. Big companies can afford to spend money on institutional advertising. Another type of advertising is national advertising, which is used to sell nationally (38) products by using a medium or nationwide circulation. It is generally (39) with advertising by the manufacturer rather than by a retailer or local advertiser. The fourth type is local advertising. It is placed by a local merchant and differs from national advertising by being more specific in terms of price, (40) and (41). In national advertising, the purpose is to build a general demand for a product that may be sold in many stores. In local advertising, the stress is on the store where the product is sold. Finally, there is (42) advertising, which takes place to correct specific false or (43) (44) that might have been made in previous advertising. These corrective advertisements are generally ordered by courts to (45) (46) misleading advertisements. demonstration viewers leading audience combining unique costs chosen expenditures For an advertising message to reach its (47), some type of carrier must be (48). In the field of advertising, these carriers are called 'media'. The success of advertising depends both on the message and the medium selected. The media most commonly used for advertising purposes are newspapers, magazines, direct mail, radio and television. Television is a very popular medium because it has the advantage of (49) sight, sound, motion and (50). And for most (51), it does all this in colour, which is a (52) combination for advertising. Another advantage of TV is that it appeals to all age groups. On the other hand, its message is short-lived and production (53) are high. (54) for TV advertising are the second largest after the newspaper, which is the (55) medium.
5 KELİME ANLAM EŞ ANLAM activities etkinlikler, faaliyetler pursuit, undertaking; action, bustle; spryness, liveliness advertising reklâmcılık, ilan, duyurma advertisement, advertizement, advertizing, advert associated birleşmiş share company; connect; unite; be a partner audience dinleyiciler, izleyiciler, seyirci, seyirciler, viewers; interview izleyici, okuyucu kitlesi; resmi görüşme; huzura kabul; huzur campaign sefer; kampanya; seferberlik, mücâdele, cause, crusade, drive, movement, effort savaş characteristics özellik, nitelik, vasıf distinguishing quality; trait, attribute chosen seçilmiş, seçilmiş olan; cennetlik selected, picked out, preferred claims istemek, talep etmek, hak iddia etmek, sahip demand; sue; plea; assert çıkmak, iddia etmek, ısrar etmek, dava açmak classified sınıflandırılmış, derecelendirilmiş, gizli grouped, sorted, systematically arranged; secret, confidential combining birleştirme unite, join; come together; become one communicate haberleşmek, iletişim kurmak, temasa transfer, pass along, transmit, convey geçmek, bildirmek, anlatmak, nakletmek, geçirmek, bulaştırmak, bağlantılı olmak, birbirine açılmak; dertleşmek; içini dökmek conveys taşımak, nakletmek, iletmek, yollamak, getirmek; yaymak; devretmek carry, transport; bear, transmit; impart, disclose corrective düzeltici, ıslah edici, yatıştırıcı remedial, rectifying, improving costs tutmak; neden olmak, mal olmak, etmek have a price, require payment; set a price demonstration have a price, require payment; set a price exhibition, showing, explanation describes tanımlamak, tarif etmek, tasvir etmek, depict, draw, give an account of anlatmak; betimlemek; ifade etmek; çizmek distributed dağıtmak, vermek, paylaştırmak, yaymak, saçmak; sürmek (boya) allocated, scattered, dispersed, divided, circulated earlier daha evvel before, sooner effectiveness etkileyicilik, etki; geçerlilik, itibar, geçerlik efficiency, productivity; impressiveness efforts çaba, gayret, girişim, deneme, çabalama, labor; attempt, endeavor, endeavour, try uğraşma, başarı, eser emphasize vurgulamak, üzerinde durmak, önemini stress, punctuate, accent, accentuate belirtmek evaluated değerlendirmek, değer biçmek, paha biçmek; appraise, measure, valuate, assess, value ölçmek expenditures harcama, masraf, gider; tüketme spending, disbursement, outlay features karakterize etmek, belirtmek, önem vermek, yayınlamak, başrolde oynatmak characterize; depict, describe; present; emphasize, imagine (Slang) identified tanımak, kimliğini saptamak, belirlemek, aynı recognize, sympathize, relate saymak, bir tutmak, desteklemek, destek vermek includes içermek, kapsamak, içine almak, katmak, comprise, contain, embrace dahil etmek increase artmak, çoğalmak, çoğaltmak, büyümek, artırmak, üremek, yükseltmek, zam yapmak enlarge, add to, augment; multiply; raise, heighten, intensify influence etkilemek, tesir etmek, söz geçirmek, etkili affect, impact; impel, control olmak, ikna etmek institutional kurumsal, geleneksel pertaining to an institution; characteristic of an institution, bland, drab, uniform leading önde olan, başlıca, ana, önemli, ileri gelen main, principal, head; first; directing, guiding
6 manufacturer imalatçı, üretici, fabrikatör maker, producer measure ölçmek, tartmak, ölçüsünü almak, süzmek, dikkatle bakmak, ayarlamak weigh, gauge, quantify; assess, evaluate, estimate; allot in measured amounts, allocate misleading yanıltıcı, göz boyayıcı lead astray, misguide, misdirect, misinform, deceive, delude persuade kandırmak, inandırmak, aklını çelmek, ikna convince, induce, sway promotion purpose quality etmek, razı etmek reklâm, tanıtım, yükseltme, yükselme, terfi, artırma, kurma, sınıf geçme, piyonun vezir olması, mevki, rütbe, tanıtma amaç, maksat, niyet, gaye, kasıt, azim, mesaj (hikâye), verilmek istenen mesaj kalite, nitelik, vasıf, özellik, yapı, mizaç, bünye, yetenek, kabiliyet, cins, ses kalitesi, ses rengi, önermenin niteliği, soyluluk, asalet advancement, furthering, encouragement; initiative, enterprise; aid, assistance; queening, goal, aim; intention, objective characteristic, attribute; nature, character; excellence quantity nicelik, miktar, sayı amount, extent; measure, degree; large amount; size, magnitude reaches uzatmak, uzanmak, bulmak, yetişmek, iletişim sağlamak, ulaşmak, varmak, çarpmak, geçirmek (yumruk), idrak etmek, uzanıp vermek, vermek, etkilemek, isabet ettirmek, erişmek arrive; obtain, procure; rectify düzeltmek, doğrultmak, doğru akıma çevirmek, damıtarak arıtmak, taşlamak, uzunluğunu ölçmek (eğri) fix, repair, correct; calibrate, adjust relations bağıntı, ilgi, bağlantı, nispet, bağ, alâka, ilişki, ilişik, oran, akrabalık, anlatma, söyleme relative, connections between people or groups, associations; sexual intercourse sales satış, satım, indirimli satış, ucuzluk, mezat, marketing açık artırma ile satış, talep, sürüm situations durum, hal, şartlar, konum, yer, mevki, görev condition, circumstance; location, place, position; post, job, place of employment techniques teknik, yöntem, usul method of performance, technical skill unique tek, benzersiz, biricik, rakipsiz, yegâne, eşsiz, singular, matchless, unequaled, rare mükemmel, bir değerli [mat.], özgün universally evrensel olarak comprehensively, generally, inclusively viewers izleyici, seyirci spectator; displayer, audience
7 23 WINDS across replaces gases constantly mass Like all (1), air (2) moves. Masses of air, warm or cool, wet or dry, move (3) land and sea and bring about weather changes. During this process, one air (4) (5) another. pressure heavily density expands When air is heated, it (6). Hot air is less dense than cold air. For this reason, it rises and leaves behind an area of low (7). Unlike hot air, cold air has a large (8). Instead of rising, it presses (9) on the earth's surface. Therefore, it produces an area of high pressure. Since gases always try to move from high to low pressure, winds are caused by the flow of cold air which tries to replace the rising hot air. poles rotation temperature equator similarly equatorial diverted regions Why is there such a difference in the (10) of the air at various places on earth? There are two major global air patterns on Earth. One is from the poles towards the equator and the other is from the (11) towards the poles. On the earth's surface, the (12) are always cold and the equator hot. Cold air comes down from the polar (13). Since the distance from the poles to the equator is so great, the cold air from the poles warms up on the way. (14), the hot (15) air becomes cooler on its way to the poles and this is what causes the difference in temperature. These winds do not blow in the north-south direction, but they are (16). The (17) of the earth is the cause of this change in direction. These two major global air patterns cover thousands of kilometres. sea breeze heated besides cycles (18) these air patterns, there are smaller (19) which cover hundreds of kilometres. These smaller air patterns form because of smaller changes in temperature. For example, the air above the ground is (20) by the ground whereas the air above the sea is colder. As a result, the cool air moves from the sea to the land, forming a '(21) '. During the night, the land is cooler than the sea (since water heats up and cools down more slowly) and the breeze blows from the land to the sea. This wind is called a 'land breeze'. reaches originate diminishes powerfully hurricanes diameter Winds that blow very (22) can develop into storms, which can turn into hurricanes. Actually, no one knows why some of the storms become (23) and others do not. A hurricane forms over tropical seas, it moves, and when it (24) the land or a colder part of the sea, it slowly (25), dies out. A hurricane can be 1000 kilometres in (26). The centre of the hurricane is called the 'eye'. The speed of the wind in a hurricane can range from 150 kph. (kilometres per hour) to 300 kph. Ali hurricanes (27) close to the equator. Hurricanes in the Pacific and Indian Oceans are known a 'typhoons'. vacuum tornadoes spinning observed hurricane partial Sometimes storms can also develop into (28). These resemble hurricanes but form over land. Tornadoes can occur anywhere on Earth but are mostly (29) over the central United States. A tornado, like a (30), is a strong wind (31) and turning around a core. Unlike a hurricane, it contains a (32) (33). storms up rush exactly explodes pressure suddenly The wind speed of a tornado is about 300 kph., but sometimes it can reach 800 kph. Scientists do not know (34) how tornadoes form. it is thought that when warm moist air meets the cold air from the north, it causes clouds to form and (35) to develop. This brings about an (36) of warm air, which is known as a tornado. When a tornado passes over a house, for example, the low (37) at the centre causes the air in the house to expand (38) and, as a result, the building (39).
8 KELİME ANLAM EŞ ANLAM across karşısında, içinden, ortasından, üstünden; öbür tarafında from side to side; beyond; transversely; on the other side; to the other side besides ayrıca, bundan başka, üstelik, bir de, except, in addition to hem de, zaten constantly sıkça, sık sık continuously; firmly, in a steadfast manner; faithfully cycles dolaşım, dönme; devre, aşama, zaman; devir; dizi, seri; bisiklet; oscillation, bicycle, bike, wheel, Hertz, Hz, cycle per second, cycles/second, cps motosiklet density yoğunluk, sıkışıklık; kalınlık; sıklık; ahmaklık, kalın kafalılık compactness, closeness, concentration diameter diminishes diverted equator exactly expands explodes gas çap, en, kalınlık azaltmak, eksiltmek, azalmak; küçültmek; inceltmek; sivriltmek; kısmak çevirmek, yönlendirmek, başka yöne çekmek, ayırmak; bir köşeye koymak; eğlendirmek, oyalamak; dağıtmak ekvator tamı tamına, aynen, tamamen, tam olarak, kesin olarak, tam, titizlikle; tamam şişirmek, büyütmek, yayılmak, şişmek, büyümek; genişletmek, genişlemek; açılmak; gelişmek; dönüşmek; açmak patlatmak, havaya uçurmak, infilak etmek, patlamak; bozmak, yıkmak, kırılmak, çürütmek; aksini ispatlamak; köpürmek; patlak vermek gaz, havagazı, benzin, grizu, gaz pedalı, boş lâf, övünme, atıp tutma, hava civa, matrak şey, eğlenceli şey make smaller, reduce; become smaller distract; entertain; turn in a different direction, deflect precisely, in an accurate manner; in every way; indeed, correct spread out, grow larger; broaden blow up; be blown up; shatter fill with gas, supply with gas; poison with gas or fumes; talk idly or falsely (Slang) heated hararetli, öfkeli, tepesi atmış, warmed, made hot; raging, angry; stormy, excited heyecanlı heavily ağır şekilde, aşırı derecede, çok, intemperately, hard ağır, şiddetle hurricane kasırga, fırtına strong tropical storm mass yığmak, toplamak, kümelemek amass, collect; condense; observed dikkatle bakmak, görmek, gözetlemek, gözlemek, izlemek, incelemek, riayet etmek, uymak, yerine getirmek, kutlamak, farketmek, söylemek, demek, görüşünü bildirmek watch, study; monitor, supervise; discern; keep, honour; fulfill religious commandments; follow, abide by; remark, comment originate kaynaklanmak, meydana gelmek, çıkmak, esinlenmek, örnek alınmak, icat etmek, yaratmak, neden olmak begin; be created; result from; develop; be born; be produced partial kısmi, tam olmayan, taraflı, düşkün fractional, fragmentary, incomplete; biased, prejudiced poles polonyalı, kutup, gönder, uç, karşıt uç, zıt karekterli kimse, sırık, direk, bayrak direği, yelken direği, beş metrelik uzunluk, leh perch, rod powerfully güçlü, etkili forcefully, intensely; mightily, with great strength;
9 authoritatively, influentially; potently, effectively pressure basınç, tazyik, baskı, pres, zorlama, sıkıntı, sıkışma, darlık exertion of force, compression, application of weight; weight, burden, encumbrance reaches uzatmak, uzanmak, bulmak, arrive; obtain, procure; extend the arm outward yetişmek, iletişim sağlamak, ulaşmak, varmak, çarpmak, geçirmek (yumruk), idrak etmek, uzanıp vermek, vermek, etkilemek, isabet ettirmek, erişmek regions bölge, iklim, nahiye, yöre, alan, çevre area, territory, domain; field, area of activity or interest, sphere replaces yerine koymak, değiştirmek, substitute, put back yenisiyle değiştirmek, yerine geçmek, yerini almak, yerini tutmak, geri ödemek, yerine bakmak, vekâlet etmek, ahizeyi yerine koymak rotation rotasyon, çevirme, devir, dönme, dönüş, sıra ile yapma, nöbetleşe revolution, one full turn; one full spin, gyration, rotary motion yapma, deveran, nöbetleşme sea breeze denizden esen rüzgâr, imbat. similarly benzer bir şekilde, bunun gibi, aynı in a similar manner, with common qualities, correspondingly spinning döndürme whirling storms suddenly temperature tornadoes rush şiddetli esmek, fırtına gibi esmek, kıyameti koparmak, öfkelenmek, hücum etmek, saldırmak, zorla girmek, taarruz etmek birdenbire, pat diye, aniden, ansızın, birden sıcaklık, ateş, hararet kasırgalar acele etmek, koşmak, şiddetli esmek, hızlı akmak, atılmak, düşünmeden girişmek, aceleye getirmek, acele ettirmek, sıkboğaz etmek, sıkıştırmak, koşturmak, acele ile göndermek, yetiştirmek, çabucak halletmek, hücum etmek, saldırmak, üstüne atılmak, blow with great force (of wind); fall heavily, come down with great force (of precipitation); rage; charge, forcefully assault unexpectedly; abruptly, rapidly hurry, make haste; act or move quickly; cause to hurry vacuum vakum, emme, boşluk void, emptiness, vacuity, soak
10 24-DYNAMITE scientific releasable mines increasing explosives enough gas experts environment annually construction demolish quarries efficiently blasting sunken The use of dynamite has become as much an art as a science. Sixty years ago, dynamiters placed (1) around a building which they wanted to (2), or destroy. When they blew it up, the (3) was covered with pieces of bricks and rocks. This doesn't happen anymore. Today we can control (4) because (5) blasting techniques (new methods of causing an explosion) have been developed in recent years. Nowadays, holes are made in the base of a building and these are filled with (6) dynamite to knock out - destroy - the building's supports and make it fail down. Dynamite has become the most (7) controlled source of (8) energy available. Therefore, it is the most often used explosive. More than a billion pounds of dynamite is exploded by (9) (10) (11) in the United States, most of it in (12) and (13). i.e. places where stone for building purposes is taken from the ground. Other (14) important areas in which this explosive is used are (15) work (roads, bridges, buildings, ete), (16) and oil-well drilling, recovering iron from (17) ships, and fire-fighting. subway crews aware mostly Controlled explosions are (18) used in areas of dense population. For example, (19) construction (20) in New York often use dynamite underground without the people above being (21) of it. gases particles nearby powerfully In an explosion, the solid (22) inside a dynamite stick are immediately transformed into hot expanding (23), which force and (24) push aside rocks, steel or anything (25). middle joined faces precision tunnel accuracy One of the examples of blasting with (26) occurred in 1944, when engineers built a 13-mile (27) through a Colorado mountain. Starting on opposite sides of the mountain, they met in the (28) with great (29) only a one centimeter error at the point where the two parts of the tunnel (30). Another example is Gutzon Borglum's use of dynamite to form the (31) of Washington, Jefferson, Lincoln, and Theodore Roosevelt in the rocks at Mount Rushmore, in South Dakota. cement holes heard calmly precision brilliant detonated blasting Many dynamiters claim that (32) (33) became an art in July of 1930 at the Saguenay River Power Project, Quebec. A power station had been built, but to provide water for it, they needed to turn the water from the river into another channel. Ordinary methods had failed so Sam Russell, a blasting expert, was asked for advice. He had a (34) idea. He built a (35) block weighing 11,000 tons. He said that he was going to drop u into the river and thus block, or stop, the flowing water. Many people thought he was mad, but Russell (36) put 1,000 pounds of dynamite into (37) under the cement block. When the dynamite (38), the block moved into the right place with a roar that could be (39) miles away.
11 KELİME ANLAM EŞ ANLAM annually her yıl; yılda bir once a year aware farkında, farkında olan, haberdar, uyanık, attentive; conscious of tetikte blasting patlatmak, yıkmak, havaya uçurmak; lanet explode, blow up; destroy, ruin etmek, beddua etmek, bangır bangır çalmak, bas bas bağırmak, kavurmak (bitki) brilliant parlak, keskin zekâlı, berrak, ışıl ışıl, zeki, parlak zekâlı, görkemli outstanding, splendid, shining; clever, very intelligent calmly sakince, heyecan göstermeden quietly, tranquilly cement çimento; zamk, tutkal, macun, dolgu maddesi (diş), diş kökünün dışındaki tabaka, concrete, mortar; bonding agent; filling (for teeth) dostluk bağı construction inşa etme, yapma, inşa, kurma, inşaat, yapı; building çizim; yorum, anlam crews ekip; izci grubu, sürü; tayfa, mürettebat crowd, gang, bunch demolish yıkmak, tahrip etmek, imha etmek; yiyip destroy, ruin, tear down bitirmek detonated patlatmak, patlamak; infilak etmek set off an explosive; blow up, explode efficiently yeterli olarak, etkili biçimde; verimli biçimde; expeditiously, with efficiency rasyonel olarak enough yeterli miktar, yeter adequate amount, sufficient degree environment etraf, ortam; çevre environs, surroundings, surround experts eksper, uzman, usta, bilirkişi, üstâd, erbap adept, good, practiced, proficient, skillful, skilful explosives patlayıcı madde volatile faces heard bakmak, göğüs germek, karşı olmak, yönelmek, dönmek, yüzünü dönmek, yüz yüze gelmek, kaplamak, karşı karşıya gelmek, karşı koymak, karşı çıkmak, göze almak, katlanmak, yüzleşmek, astarlamak, kaplama yapmak duymak, işitmek, dinlemek, kulak vermek, ifadesini almak, haber almak, mektup almak, öğrenmek, onaylamak stand opposite; stand face to face; turn toward; cover, coat; brave, defy holes delik, çukur, oyuk, boşluk, derin yer, in, kovuk, hücre, kodes, zor durum opening, gap; cavity, hollow; burrow, den; pothole; prison cell increasing çoğalan becoming greater, expanding, growing joined birleşmiş connected, combined, united middle orta, orta kısım, orta yer central; halfway; mean; mediocre mines lağım, maden, maden ocağı, torpil, mayın, diggings; treasure, abundant source memba mostly çoğunlukla, genelde, başlıca mainly; in most situations, usually nearby yanında, yakında, civarında next to, alongside particles tanecik, ilgeç, parçacık, molekül, zerre, edat, takı tiny portion, very small fragment; grain; preposition; conjunction powerfully güçlü forcefully, intensely; mightily, with great strength; authoritatively, influentially; precision kesinlik, tamlık, doğruluk, dakiklik, exactness, accuracy hassasiyet quarries taş ocağı, yontma yapı taşı, karo, baklava şeklinde cam, maden, av hew, chisel; dig, excavate, mine; look for, seek subway metro, alt geçit, tünel underground railway system sunken batan, batık, sualtındaki, batırılmış, çökük, çukurdaki, gömme, içine çökük submerged; below the level of that which surrounds it; hollow, depressed tunnel tünel açmak dig a tubular passage, create a tunnel
12 25-A LAND OF IMMIGRANTS peaceful disappointed immigrants migration The USA is a land of (1). Between 1815 and 1914, the world witnessed the greatest (2) (3) in its history: 35 million people, mostly Europeans, left their homelands to start new lives in America. Why did these people risk everything by leaving their homes and families to see what the New World had to offer? How had the Old World (4) them? taxation exodus refugees momentous nationalism First, what forced emigrants to make the (5) decision to leave? One major cause of the (6) among European people was the rise in population which led to 'land hunger'. Another was politics. (7) brought about increased (8) and the growth of armies, and many young men fled eastern Europe to avoid military service. Also, the failure of the liberal revolutions in Europe caused the departure of hundreds of thousands of (9). escape ended emigration potato Physical hunger provided another pressing reason. Between 1845 and 1848, the terrible (10) famine in Ireland (11) in the deaths of one million Irish people and the (12) of a further million who wished to (13) starvation. Following the collapse of the economy of southern Italy in the 1860s, hundreds of thousands decided to start afresh in America. social among chose religious In short, people (14) to leave their homes for (15), economic and (16) reasons. As a result, by 1890 (17) a total population of 63 million, there were about nine million foreign-born Americans. practice conditions better attractions railroads isolation But what were the (18)? First of all, there was the promise of land which was so scarce in Europe. Next, factories were calling out for workers, and pay and working (19) were much (20) than back home. Men were needed to build the long (21), and settlers were needed to populate new towns and develop commerce. There was the space for religious communities to (22) their faith in peace and comparative (23). tobacco extraction meant losers slaves outnumber awful equally This immigration (24) that by around the 1850's Americans of non-english origin had started to (25) those of English (26). As we know, there were (27). To start with, there were those immigrants who were brought to the land by force, the (28), to be used as a source of cheap labour for the (29) plantations of the South. Nor should we forget the (30) (31) fate of the American Indians. By1860, there were 27 million free whites, four million slaves and a mere 488,000 free blacks. strictly yet ready citizenship ambitious refugees Nowadays, the USA is still seen by millions as the Promised Land. Gone are the days when you could buy US (32) for one dollar. (33), even though entry is (34) limited, (35) continue to find 7 freedom and people from poorer countries a better way of life. As always, it remains a magnet to the (36) and the energetic who are (37) to commit themselves to the land that gives them a second chance.
13 KELİME ANLAM EŞ ANLAM ambitious hırslı, tutkulu, ihtiraslı, hevesli, istekli, arzulu, aspiring, desirous of success ; başarma isteği olan among arasına, arasında, içinde amid, in; between attractions çekim, cazibe, çekicilik, atraksiyon, eğlence drawing card, draw, attractor, attracter programı, alımlılık awful korkunç, berbat, çok kötü; oldukça büyük; müthiş dreadful, inspiring fear; impressive, inspiring awe better daha iyi şekilde, daha iyi, iyisi mi in a superior way; to a greater degree, more than - chose tercih etmek, seçmek; yeğlemek, ayırmak, select, prefer, pick, make a choice üstün tutmak, istemek citizenship vatandaşlık, yurttaşlık, hemşehrilik conditions şartlar, durum, koşullar situation; requirement, stipulation; state of health; rank, social position disappointed bozuk, hayal kırıklığına uğramış, kırgın, ümidi let down kırılmış emigration göç, göçme, hicret out-migration, expatriation ended bitirmek, sonuca ulaşmak, son vermek, complete, finish, conclude; cease bitmek, sona ermek; yok etmek,; sonuçlanmak; ölmek equally eşit olarak, eşit ölçüde, aynı derecede in an equal manner; in a uniform manner escape kaçmak, firar etmek, kurtulmak, paçayı sıyırmak (Argo), atlatmak, kaçıp kurtulmak; gözünden kaçmak, aklına gelmemek, hatırından çıkmak; sızmak, kaçak yapmak run away, flee; leak out; find shelter, find protection exodus göç, toplu göç, akın mass departure or emigration extraction çıkarma, ihraç, alma, çekme, sızdırma; asıl, soy, nesil, öz, köken; kare kök alma; özütünü alma removal, taking out, uprooting; origin, source, descent immigrants göçmen, muhacir, göçebe isolation ayırma, tecrit, izolasyon, karantina, separation, solitude, aloneness; quarantine soyutlanma, ayrı durma losers kaybeden kimse, başarısız kimse, mağlup failure, nonstarter, unsuccessful person meant niyet etmek, kastetmek, demek istemek, demek olmak, anlamına gelmek, demeye gelmek, ifade etmek, tasarlamak intend; indicate; signify; be significant momentous önemli, mühim, ciddi important, significant, of great consequence, weighty nationalism milliyetçilik patriotism outnumber sayıca üstün olmak, fazla gelmek exceed in number peaceful sakin, huzurlu, uysal, barışsever peace-loving, nonviolent; calm, tranquil; quiet potato patates, baş, kafa, dolar white potato, Irish potato, murphy, spud, tater practice yapmak, etmek, uygulmak, gerçekleştirmek, pratik yapmak, deneyim kazanmak, çalışmak, alıştırma yapmak, alışkanlık haline getirmek, adet edinmek, dolap çevirmek, entrika çevirmek exercise, train, drill railroads demiryolu, tren yolu railway, railroad line, railway line, railway system ready hazır, amade, hazırlıklı, istekli, gönüllü, razı, çabuk, hızlı, becerikli, eldeki, kolay, el altındaki prepare, make ready, get set refugees mülteci, muhacir, sığınan kimse religious dindar, inançlı, sofu, dinsel, dini, din, tarikata spiritual
14 ait, diyanet, derin slaves esir, köle, kul striver, hard worker social sosyal, toplumsal, toplu halde yaşayan, dance, party toplumcul strictly katı bir biçimde, sert bir biçimde, doğrusu, açıkçası, tam olarak, tam anlamıyla, severely, harshly; literally; explicitly, exactly; absolutely, completely kesinlikle taxation vergilendirme, mahkeme masrafı tax income, tax revenue, revenue tobacco tütün baccy yet hâlâ, henüz, daha, şimdiye kadar, şimdiye dek, sonunda, hatta, yine de still; already; in addition; nevertheless; but; in spite of; although
15 26-TERESINA From a radio programme. adapting regions sophisticated southern bauxite inhabitants hemisphere tremendous This week's programme of Facts and Opinions is about Teresina, one of the most rapidly developing cities in the (1) (2). Teresina was a small sleepy city of just over 500,000 people until the government discovered huge deposits of (3), tin and other mineral reserves in the mountainous (4) of the southeast. Within months this discovery had a (5) effect on the city and the life of its (6), who were soon having difficulty (7) themselves to the (8) demands of the late twentieth century. earned sewage released quadrupled incredible avenues surrounding extravagant spreading shanty People used to call Teresina the Garden of the. South because of its tree-lined (9) and 50 public parks. Anyone visiting the city today will find it difficult to understand how it (10) that name. Nowadays, the city is rapidly becoming a megapolis, not much different from many other great cities in the Third World. Since the discoveries in the south-east, thousands of people from all over the country have flooded into the city. The population, according to statistics (11) last year, has (12) in the last twenty years. Over half of these people live in the (13) towns on the hills (14) the city or in. the (15) suburbs, without electricity or a proper (16) system. But there is also (17) wealth in the city. Luxurious apartment blocks are springing up all over the city, as well as (18) houses with swimming pools. squares tranquil clumps intersections wildlife viaducts seen Nowhere can the effects of this sudden and rapid change be better (19) than in the transformation of the city's open public places. Nowadays, only five of the parks and (20) survive. In their place eight-lane highways, (21), tunnels and complex (22) have now invaded this formerly (23) city. And the green forests around the city that once were full of (24) of all kinds no longer exist except where a few small (25) of trees remind us of what it used to belike. herds prefer vehicles terrifying peacefully grazed plenty Due to the dramatic increase in population, over 700,000 (26) are on the streets of Teresina today. Accident rates are (27). The World Traffic Organization (WTO) believes that the city has one of the highest accident records in the world. The old people of Teresina do not want to think of what has happened to their once beautiful city but (28) to remember the days when there were (29) of fish in the rivers and streams, plenty of rice in the fields, and (30) of water-buffaloes that (31) (32) around.
16 KELİME ANLAM EŞ ANLAM adapting adapte etmek, uydurmak, uyarlamak, uymak conform; change, make suitable; match, fit alıntı yapmak, aktarmak regions bölge, iklim, nahiye, yöre, alan, çevre area, territory, domain; field, area of activity or interest, sphere sophisticated sofistike, bilgili, içerikli, bilge, entellektüel, kültürlü, tecrübeli, çok yönlü, gelişmiş, ileri, seasoned, worldly-wise; refined, cultured; complex, intricate, complicated komplike, kaşarlanmış, pişkin, çokbilmiş, southern güney, güneyli southerly bauxite boksit inhabitants oturan kimse, oturan, sakin, yerli resident, tenant, occupant, hemisphere yarıküre, yarımküre tremendous kocaman, koskocaman, çok büyük, muazzam, huge, enormous, powerful heybetli earned kazanmak, para kazanmak; hak etmek gain, take in, clear, make, realize, realise, pull in, bring in sewage lağım suyu, lağım pisliği, kanalizasyon sewerage released serbest bırakmak, salıvermek, koyvermek, discharged salmak, muaf tutmak, affetmek, gösterime sokmak, yayın izni vermek, bırakmak, gevşetmek, deklanşöre basmak quadrupled dört katına çıkarmak, dört misli artmak quadruplicate, quadruplex, fourfold incredible inanılmaz, akıl almaz, şaşırtıcı, olağanüstü unbelievable, inconceivable; improbable, unlikely; fabulous, great, amazing avenues bulvar, ağaçlı yol, iki yanı ağaçlıklı yol; cadde, road, street, boulevard yol surrounding çevreleyen, kuşatan, etrafını saran encircling, inclosing extravagant aşırı, ölçüsüz, savurgan, müsrif, fahiş lavish, profligate; costly; excessive spreading yayma, serpme, açma, açılma, germe expansion; distribution shanty baraka, gecekondu, kulübe, heyamola, gemici shack, crude hut; sailor's song, chantey şarkısı squares kare, dörtgen, kare şeklinde şey, satranç tahtası, meydan, gönye, standart kural, sütun kaidesi, eski kafalı kimse foursquare tranquil sakin, huzurlu, durgun quiet, calm seen görmek, seyretmek, bakmak, görüp geçirmek; görüşmek; anlamak; sezmek, farketmek; göz önüne almak; uğurlamak, yolcu etmek view, watch, observe; comprehend, understand; ensure, take care of; undergo, experience; accompany; meet with; date, clumps yığın; küme; ayakkabı pençesi (kalın); grup, sert adım sesi cluster of trees or plants; lump or mass; thumping sound intersections kesişme, kesişim, kavşak junction; crossing, convergence viaducts viyadük, karayolu köprüsü wildlife vahşi hayvanlar. yabanıl hayat; herds sürü, topluluk ruck prefer tercih etmek, yeğlemek, öncelik tanımak, atamak, tayin etmek, sunmak, arzetmek, hold superior; appoint, nominate; like better; promote, advance; bring before plenty çokluk, bolluk, bereket abundance; large quantity; wealth; sufficient quantity; much vehicles araç, taşıt, vasıta, taşıyıcı bumper car, Dodgem grazed otlatmak, otlamak, sıyırmak, sıyırıp geçmek, crop, browse, range, pasture sıyrılmak terrifying korkunç, dehşetli, çok korkutucu scare, frighten greatly, intimidate peacefully calmly, tranquilly; quietly; nonviolently, without hostility, peaceably
17 27 THE WHALE blooded length ashore mammals crushed nourish catecea accidentally breathing Whales belong to a group of (1) called (2). Unlike fish, they are mammals; that is, they are air- (3), warm-(4) animals which (5) (feed) their young with milk. Their sizes vary from the small porpoise whale - less than 15 metres long - to the largest animal that has ever lived on earth - the blue whale. it can exceed 30 metres in (6) and 150 tonnes in weight. If such a whale (7) swam (8) and were unable to get back to the sea, it would be (9) to death by its own weight. breathe moisture external exception paddles horizontal spout vertical dissolved The whale looks like a fish but there are important differences in its (10) structure. Its tail consists of a pair of large, flat, (11) (12), whereas the tail of a fish is (13). Fish (14) the oxygen (15) in water through their gills. Gills are found on both sides of the head and contain blood vessels which pick up oxygen as water passes through them. Unlike fish, whales have lungs and, for this reason, have to come to the surface to breathe in or release air. Most large whales can stay underwater for up to 20 minutes. The sperm whale, however, is an (16). It can dive to 3000 metres and stay below for more than an hour. Unlike fish, whales have blow holes, or nostrils, on top of their large heads. A whale breathes out through this blow hole. When the breath is released, it condenses in the air making a cloud of (17) or a (18). fluids smooth thick external excellent yet The whale's skin is almost hairless, (19) and shiny and it covers a (20) layer of fat called 'blubber'. This is up to 30 cm in thickness and serves to conserve heat and body (21). The eyes seem very small compared to its huge body. Nevertheless, whales have very good vision. They have no (22) l ears, (23) their hearing is (24). killer octopuses squids grasp toothed There are two main groups of whale: (25) and toothless. The former includes the dolphin, the porpoise, the killer whale and the sperm whale. Some examples of the latter are the grey, the humpback, the right and the blue whales. Toothed whales have rows of carved teeth which they use to (26) their food. Some large toothed species, like the (27), feed on other large mammals such as the porpoise while others- e.g. the sperm whale - eat smaller forms of marine life like (28) and (29). caught strain migrate functional whalebone The toothless whales, or 'baleen whales', have no (30) teeth. Instead, they have brushy plates of (31) called 'baleen' hanging from the upper jaw. These (32) small fishes from the water. in other words, these whales feed on marine animals that are (33) by a filtering process. Their diet consists mainly of 'krill', which can be found in masses in the oceans of the world. Whales live in oceans throughout the world, they travel in schools-, that is, in groups, and often (34) thousands of miles. softening mainly ambergris spermaceti intestine The whale has been hunted by man for many centuries (35) for its blubber. This substance is used in cosmetics, the manufacture of margarine and the (36) of leather. The waxy substance called (37), which is found in the head of a sperm whale, for instance, is used to make soap. (38), another waxy substance found in every whale's (39), is used in the manufacture of perfume, where it serves to improve the scent. extinction source inevitable whales unfortunate led The whale has also been hunted for its meat, which is eaten by both humans and animals. In fact, in Japan it has been a major (40) of protein for many centuries. The commercial value of the whale has (41) to a serious decrease in the whale population and it is (42) that in the near future, (43) of some types of (44) seems (45).
18 KELİME ANLAM EŞ ANLAM accidentally kazara ;tesadüfen, rastlantı sonucu incidentally, by chance ambergris amber, esmeramber ashore karaya, kıyıya, karada, kıyıda to the shore, on the shore blooded safkan, cins, kanlı breathe nefes alıp vermek, nefes almak; esmek, respire; exhale; whisper; blow solumak, fısıldamak, ifade etmek catecea balina caught yakalamak, tutmak, yetişmek, basmak, baskın yapmak, kapmak, gafil avlamak, edinmek capture; trap; understand; stick; be held, be involved (alışkanlık), cezbetmek, çekmek, enselemek, anlamak, kavramak, tutunmak, yakalanmak, tutuşmak, maruz kalmak, takılmak, vurmak, tokat atmak, çalışmak (mekanizma), sıkışmak, geçmek, bulaşmak crushed sıkılmış, öğütülmüş, ezilmiş, ezik smashed, ground, pulverized; downfallen, dissolved eritmek, erimek; yok etmek, yok olmak, sona erdirmek; kontrolunü kaybetmek, feshetmek, dağıtmak, dağılmak; bozmak; halletmek, aydınlatmak disappointed melt; be melted; change into a liquid; disappear; separate into parts; break apart, disperse; annul excellent mükemmel, kusursuz, nefis, üstün, seçkin superior, extraordinary, outstanding exception istisna, sıradışı durum, hariç tutma, kuraldışılık, ayrım yapma out of the ordinary, anomaly; objection, opposition external dış, harici; dışarıdan gelen, yabancı ülkelerle exterior, outer; outside olan extinction sönme, söndürme; nesli tükenme, yok olma, extinguishment; annihilation, total destruction imha, yok etme, feshetme fluids sıvı, akıcı madde liquids, grasp kapmak, tutmak, yakalamak, kavramak, anlamak hold tight, grip; grab hold; understand, comprehend horizontal ufka ait, yatay, düz parallel to the horizon, flat, level inevitable kaçınılmaz, çaresiz, beklenen, malum, umulan unavoidable, inescapable, certain; sure to happen intestine bağırsak, iç, ülke içi bowel, gut killer led katil, öldürücü darbe, öldürücü hastalık, çekici kadın, delikanlı, kasap kurşun, iskandil, kurşun levha, rehberlik, öncülük, önderlik, önde olma, ilk oynama hakkı (iskambil), örnek, kılavuz, kablo murderer, one who kills, butcher most important, main; leading; first, opening, beginning length uzunluk, boy, süre mammals memeli moisture ıslaklık, nem, rutubet n. dampness, humidity; wetness nourish beslemek, büyütmek, desteklemek, gütmek feed; support; nurture octopuses ahtapot, yaygın ve yıkıcı örgüt paddles kürek çekmek, kano kullanmak (kısa kürekle), ayaklarını suda oynatmak, badi badi yürümek, kıça şaplak atmak dabble, splash around softening source spermaceti spout squids strain yumuşama, beyin sulanması, beyin zarının yumuşaması kaynak, kaynakça, memba, yararlanılan kaynak, menşe ispermeçet, balina yağı fışkırtmak, püskürtmek, ezbere okumak, heyecanla okumak, yüksek sesle okumak, fışkırmak, püskürmek, tumturaklı konuşmak mürekkepbalığı, kalamar germek, kasmak, zorlamak, burkmak, incitmek, yormak, AKIN çarpıtmak, EĞİTİM ve YAYINCILIK saptırmak, HİZMETLERİ süzmek, make soft; become soft; alleviate, soothe, calm origin; starting point; source code discharge liquid in a stream, gush, spurt, flow; recite pompously, give a speech; talk excitedly pull taut, stretch; injure a body part through overuse (especially a muscle); work very hard,
19 thick süzgeçten geçirmek, filtre etmek, gerilmek, kasılmak, eğilmek, gayret etmek, çabalamak, didinmek kalın, yoğun, koyu, boğuk, sık, dumanlı, sisli, kalın kafalı, belirgin, yakın (arkadaş), aşırı, fazla toothed dişli, tırtıllı having teeth unfortunate şanssız, mutsuz, tâlihsiz, bahtsız, başarısız, aksi exert oneself; filter through a sieve; deform, cause a change in shape or size densely; abundantly; with thick layers unlucky, hapless, ill-fated, experiencing misfortune; not suitable, regrettable, not favorable, unsuccessful; pitiable vertical dikey, düşey, dik, tepede olan upright line; upright position whalebone balina kemiği whale balina giant, hulk, heavyweight yet hâlâ, henüz, daha, şimdiye kadar, şimdiye dek, sonunda, hatta, yine de still; already; in addition; nevertheless; but; in spite of; although
20 28 DISTRIBUTION OF NUTRIENTS IN PLANTS sunlight molecules gradually necessary sequoia distribute giant liquid leaves substances originated efficient nutrients interchange It is generally believed by scientists that millions of years ago plant life (1) in the water, and that new forms of plant life that could live on land developed (2). This would not have been possible if an effective transport system had not evolved inside the plant to (3) food, water, and minerals. Plants use both their (4) and roots to obtain food. The leaves, for example, capture the energy from the (5) and hold it for future use in (6) of sugar. This sugar is later transported to the various other growing parts - the young branches, the growing fruit, the stem, and the roots. The roots, on the other hand, pick up water and minerals from the soil. The sap, the (7) in a plant, transports them to the leaves and the other growing parts. Since (8) often have to be distributed over long distances, an (9) transport system is (10). One of the best examples of this transport system can be seen in the (11) (12) tree, in California. This tree sends down to the ends of its roots sugars that are made in the leaves hundreds of feet up in the air. And the ends of the roots may be a hundred feet away from the base of the tree. Plants have three systems that make possible the (13) of (14) among various parts of the plant body. These are the food transport system, the water transport system and the air transport system. alive easily exposure functioning chemicals The food transport system is the most delicate of the three. It can be (15) damaged because it is alive. Wounds, heat and (16) of the plant to toxic (17) all damage the system that transports food. If you cut a branch and put it in water, it may seem (18) for many days or even weeks; yet the food transport system stops (19) soon after the branch is cut from the tree. picric acid poisonous cells consist The water transport system is much less delicate than the food transport system. Water transport takes place in long strong tubes called capillaries. These (20) of dead (21). A German scientist once cut down a tree and then placed the base in a tub containing (22) (23). The yellow, (24) acid moved up to the top of the tree. There it killed the leaves, but the water transport system itself was not affected by the poison. cambium appear tissues necessary continually fresh located responsible rejuvenation When you cut through a tree trunk or branch, you notice two different tissues: the bark and the wood. The food transport system flows through the bark and the water transport system through the wood. These transport (25) wear out as the tree grows, so they are (26) replaced. Every year new water- transporting tubes (27) in new bark. The tissue (28) for this (29) is a very thin layer of cells. These cells form a tissue called the (30). Being conveniently (31) between the wood and the bark, the cambium can easily receive the water, minerals and food (32) for producing (33) bark and wood tissue. stomata organism function marsh between roots The air transport system consists of air spaces (34) cells. Unlike desert plants, (35) plants have especially well developed air transport systems. This is mainly because marsh plants live on soft, wet land. So their roots are not exposed to much oxygen. The leaves of marsh plants can transport oxygen from the (36), which are small openings on the surface of a leaf, through the stem to the (37). It is because of these transport systems that a plant can (38) as the whole (39) that it is.
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