Günlük alışkanlaıklarımızı ve günlük yaptığımız yani geçmişte yaptığımız, şu an devam eden ve ileride deyapacağımız alışkanlıklarımız için.

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1 THE ENGLISH VERB TENSES "Be" fiilini asıl fiil olarak kullanabileceğimiz başlıca üç kalıp vardır: a) be + noun b) be + adjective c) be + prepositional phrase I am a teacher. They are students. She is a Turk. Today is Tuesday. He is tall. The world is round. They are intelligent. It's very hot today. They are at home. Jane is from England. She is at the bus-stop. We are in the classroom. The Simple Present Tense FORM Affirmative Negative Interrogative I get up early. I don't get up early Do I get up early? You go on holiday every year. You don't go on holiday every year. Does he study hard? He studies hard. He doesn't study hard. Do you go on holiday every year? Bu tense in kullanım alanları ; Genelde yaptığımız işleri, alışkanlıklarımızı anlatırız ve always, sometimes, never, often vb. sıklık bildiren zarfların yanı sıra, every day, every month, every year, every summer gibi zaman zarflarını sıkça kullanırız. Günlük alışkanlaıklarımızı ve günlük yaptığımız yani geçmişte yaptığımız, şu an devam eden ve ileride deyapacağımız alışkanlıklarımız için. What time do you usually get up? I usually get up at seven o'clock. Does she always get up early? Not always. She sometimes gets up very late. Frequency Adverbs (Sıklık bildiren zaman zarfları) always... all the time (hep, her zaman) almost always/nearly always... almost/nearly all the time, (hemen her zaman) very often... (çok sık) usually/generally... (genellikle) often/frequently... (sık sık) sometimes/occasionally... from lime to time (bazen, ara sıra) rarely/seldom... (ender, nadiren, seyrek) hardly ever/scarcely ever/almost never... (hemen hemen hiç) never... (hiç, hiç bir zaman, asla) Genel doğrulardan ve bilimsel gerçeklerden söz ederken kullanırız. İn the tropic region, winds generally blow at a severe speed. Sürekli ve kalıcı eylemlerden ya da durumlardan bahsederken. Many people in Turkey live in poor conditions. Non- progressive dediğimiz fiziki olarak herhangi bir eylem içermeyen fiiller bu tense ile kullanılır ama mana şimdiki zamandır genelde. Ör. Fiiller: like, want, think, remember He wants a piece of cake and some orange juice. Gazetede, dergide veya internette haber niteliği taşıyan cümleler geniş zamanla kullanılır ama mana gelecek zamana işaret eder. The local fair opens in a weekand closes three months later in September. Film, roman ve hikaye gibi edebi yönlü yazılarda da genel itibariyle geniş zaman kullanılır. When we first meet the characters, they find themselves trapped in an abondoned mine in the hills above the ghost town. rarely, seldom, hardly ever, almost never ve never olumsuz cümlede kullanılmaz. Bu zarflar sadece olumlu cümlede kullanılır, ancak olumsuz bir anlam taşır. I hardly ever go to the theatre. (Tiyatroya hemen hemen hiç gitmem.) I'm hardly ever nervous before an exam. (Bir sınav öncesinde neredeyse hiç heyecanlanmam.) She never comes to her classes on time. 1

2 She is never on time for her classes. (Derslerine asla/hiç vaktinde gelmez. PROGRESSIVE (CONTINUOUS) TENSE'LERLE KULLANILMAYAN FİİLLER 1. DÜŞÜNMEYE İLİŞKİN FULLER (MENTAL STATE) think realize understand suppose notice feel believe recognize doubt know remember 2. DUYGU BELİKTEN FULLER (EMOTIONAL STATE) love dislike loathe hate appreciate fear like detest envy forget want prefer mind care desire 3. SAHİPLİK BİLDİREN FiiLLER (POSSESSION) possess have own belong mean need imagine wish forgive 4. DUYU FİİLLERİ (SENSE PERCEPTIONS) see hear smell taste feel 5. DİĞER DURUM BİLDİREN FİİLLER look owe be seem cost exist appear weigh advise promise refuse contain consist of include sound The Present Continuous Tense FORM Affirmative Negative Interrogative I am writing now. I am not writing now. Am I writing now? He/She/It is eating lunch. You are not reading a book. Are you reading a book? We are listening to music. He/She/It is not eating lunch. Is he/she/it eating lunch? You are working hard. We are not listening to music. Are we listening to music? They are discussing their You are not working hard. Are you working hard? financial problems. They are not discussing their Are they discussing their financial problems. financial problems? USE OF THE PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE Bu tense ile genelde kullanılan zaman zarfları; Now right now just now at present at the moment these days still nowadays presently currently a) Bu tense ile temel olarak içinde bulunduğumuz anda yapmakta olduğumuz eylemleri anlatırız. Zamanı pekiştirmek için ise now, right now, at the moment, at present, still gibi zaman zarflan kullanırız. * Bu tense İngilizce de Türkçe de kullanıldığı kadar sık kullanılmaz Türkçe de biz şimdiki zamanı genelde geniş zaman yerine kullanmamıza rağmen Present Continous Tense i İngilizce de SADECE ŞİMDİKİ ZAMANI ve GELECEK ZAMANI anlatmak istediğimizde kullanabiliriz. Yani Bu zaman İngilizce de Türkçe de kullanıldığı kadar yaygın bir şekilde kullanılmaz. - Mother is in the kitchen now. She is cooking dinner. - Where is your sister? - I think she is writing a letter in her room. b) Konuşmanın geçtiği sırada eylemi yapıyor olmasak bile, o sıralarda yapmakta olduğumuz işleri de bu tense ile anlatırız ve nowadays, these days, this term, this year, this month, this semester, at the moment ("şu sıralar" anlamında) gibi zaman zarfları kullanırız. - How many courses are you taking this term? - I'm taking five courses. 2

3 c) Değişmekte olan durumları, olayları bu tense ile anlatırız. "Everything is expensive. (Her şey pahalı.)" cümlesi, fiyatların o anki durumunu anlatır. Fakat, "Everything is getting more and more expensive. (Her şey gittikçe pahalılaşıyor.)" ifadesi, fiyatların sürekli değiştiğini, yükseldiğini gösterir. - It is cold. (Hava soğuk.) - It is getting colder. (Hava gittikçe soğuyor.) Bu tense'i, "always" ve aynı anlamı veren benzer zarflarla (perpetually, repeatedly,continually, forever, constantly) kullanarak, tekrarlanan eylemleri vurgulayabilir You're constantly smoking at the dinner table. Can't you go somewhere else? d) Bu tense'i, tomorrow, next week, next year, next summer gibi gelecek zaman zarflarıyla, gelecekte yapmayı planladığımız eylemleri anlatmak için de kullanırız. - - I'm meeting Ann next Saturday. - They are giving a party next month. - She is leaving Istanbul in two days. THE SIMPLE PAST TENSE FORM Affirmative Negative Interrogative I studied English. I didn't study English. Did I study English? You worked hard. You didn't work hard. Did you work hard? He/She came lale. He/She didn't come late. Did he/she come late? It rained hard yesterday. It didn't rain hard yesterday. Did it rain hard yesterday? We enjoyed the party. We didn't enjoy the party. Did we enjoy the party? Bu zamanı ingilizce de geçmiş bir zaman içinde olmuş ve bitmiş kısaca etkisi şu an görülmeyen olaylar için kullanıırız. Bu tense in temel mantığı budur ve genellikle olayın olduğu zaman net bir zaman belirtgeçi ile blirtilir. Bu tense I İngilizce de doğru bir şekilde kullanabilmemiz için kurduğumuz cümledeki olayın şu anki zamandan daha once başlayıp nihayet bulduğunu bilmemiz yada göstermemiz gereklidir. Time expressions ; yesterday ago last week/month in 1999/ - Colombus discovered America in I stayed in the USA for two years when I was in the highschool. - He was just a moderate student when we were at secondary school. AN ALPHABETICAL LIST OF IRREGULAR VERBS SIMPLE SIMPLE PAST SIMPLE SIMPLE PAST FORM PAST PARTICIPLE FORM PAST PARTICIPLE arise arose arisen fling flung Flung be was, were been fly flew Flown bear bore borne /born forbid forbade/forbid forbidden beat beat beaten/beat forecast forecast forecast become became become forget forgot forgotten begin began begun forgive forgave Forgiven bend bent bent forsake forsook forsaken bet bet bet* freeze froze Frozen bid bid bid get got gotten * bind bound bound give gave Given bite bit bitten/bit go went Gone 3

4 bleed bled bled grind ground Ground blow blew blown grow grew Grown break broke broken hang hung Hung breed bred bred have had Had bring brought brought hear heard Heard broadcast broadcast broadcast hide hid Hidden build built built hit hit Hit burst burst burst hold held Held buy bought bought hurt hurt Hurt cast cast cast keep kept Kept catch caught caught know knew Known choose chose chosen lay laid Laid cling clung clung lead led Led come came come leave left Left cost cost cost lend lent Lent creep crept crept let let Let cut cut cut lie lay Lain deal dealt dealt light lit/lighted lit/lighted dig dug dug lose lost Lost do did done make made Made draw drew drawn mean meant Meant eat ate eaten meet met Met fall fell fallen mislay mislaid Mislaid feed fed fed mistake mistook mistaken feel felt felt pay paid Paid fight fought fought put put Put find found found quit quit quit * fit fit fit* read read Read flee fled fled rid rid Rid SIMPLE SIMPLE PAST SIMPLE SIMPLE PAST FORM PAST PARTICIPLE FORM PAST PARTICIPLE ride rode ridden stand stood Stood ring rang rung steal stole Stolen rise rose risen stick stuck Stuck run ran run sung stung Stung say said said stink stank/stunk Stunk see saw seen strive strove striven seek sought sought strike struck struck/ sell sold sold string strung stricken strung send sent sent swear swore sworn set set set sweep swept swept shake shook shaken swim swam swum shed shed shed swing swung swung shine shone /shined shone/shined take took taken shoot shot shot teach taught taught show showed shown/showe tear tore torn shrink shrank/shrunk d shrunk tell told told shut shut shut think thought thought sing sang sung throw threw thrown sit sat sat thrust thrust thrust sleep slept slept understand understood understood 4

5 slide slid slid undertake undertook undertaken slit slit slit upset upset upset speak spoke spoken wear wore worn speed sped /speeded sped/speede weave wove woven spend spent d spent weep wept wept spin spun/span spun win won won spit spit/ spat spit/ spat wind wound wound split split split withdraw withdrew withdrawn spread spread spread wring wrung wrung spring sprang/sprung sprung write wrote written Freeze fight ride bind throw 1. My brother and I... like cat and dog when we were children, but now we get on quite well. 2. The children are upset because they accidentally their ball over the neighbour's wall and they won't be able to get it back until he comes home. 3. I can't believe that the first time you... a bike was when you were twenty! 4. The kidnappers... his arms and legs to a chair so that he couldn't move. 5. It was so cold last night that the locks on my car literally... Broadcast Mislay fly light 1. He. his key, so he had to break a window to get in. 2. We... to Antalya because it was faster, but came back by bus because of the price 3. Because he didn't have any matches, he... his cigarette using the electric stove. 4. Television companies from all around the world... the unique event. THE PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE FORM Affirmative Negative Interrogative I was working. I wasn't working. Was I working? You were studying. You weren't studying. Were you studying? He/She/It was eating He/She/It wasn't eating Was he/she/it eating lunch lunch. lunch? We were laughing. We weren't laughing. Were we laughing? You were talking. You weren't talking. Were you talking? They were arguing. They weren't arguing. Were they arguing? a) Bu tense'i, geçmişte belli bir noktada yapmakta olduğumuz eylemleri anlatırken kullanırız. This time last year, this time last winter, at this hour yesterday, yesterday at 3 o'clock etc. bu tense ile sık kullanılan zarflardır. * Bu tense in kullanım alanı çoğunlukla When, while, as gibi zaman bağlaçlı cümleleri kapsar ve cümlelerin biri Simple past diğeri ise Past Cont. tense dir. Bu cümlelerde past continuous tense olan eylem diger cümledeki eylemden once başlamış ve o eylem bittikten sonra da devam etmektedir. book. - This time last summer, I was lying on the beach in Göcek, but now I'm working hard to finish this - What were you doing at around noon last Saturday? - I was playing football with friends. - When I entered to the class, everybody was talking eachother in a loud way. b) Geçmişte bir eylemi, başlangıç ve bitiş zamanını belirterek anlatıyorsak, Past Continuous Tense kullanırız. (Bu tür cümlelerde Simple Past Tense kullanmak da mümkündür.) - I was watching a film on television from nine until eleven last night. - He was working as an accountant from 1985 to

6 Use either the Simple Past or the Past Continuous of the verbs In parentheses. 1. When I (leave) work yesterday, it (rain) heavily. 2. It (continue) to rain while 1 (drive) home. 3. When I (arrive) home, it (still, rain) 4. When I (go) round the bend, I (see) a van in my lane. It (overtake) another van and (come) right at my car. I (step) on the brakes heavily and (swerve) to the right. I (barely, avoid).. the accident. 5. I (have) breakfast when she (phone) me. 6. While I (have) breakfast, she (phone) me. 7. When my sister (be) a child, she (have) poor eyesight, so she (wear) glasses. 8. While I (try) to concentrate on my studies, my friend (play) her music very loudly in the next room. 9. He (jog) regularly every day until he (get) too old. 10. He (jog) vigorously when I (meet) him the other day. THE PRESENT PERFECT TENSE FORM Affirmative Negative Interrogative I have watched that film I have not watched that film. Have I watched that film? You have seen him twice We have not invited her Have you seen him twice? We have invited her They have not visited us. Have we invited her? * İngilizce de iki tür geçmiş zaman bulunmaktadır ve bu yönüyle Türkçe ye benzemektedir. Türkçe de nasıl ki biz geçmiş zamanı duyulan ve görülen diye iki farklı yapı ile ayırıyorsak İngilizce de de geçmiş zamanı Simple past Tense ve Present Perfect Tense olarak ayırmaktayız. Ancak İngilizce deki iki zaman arasındaki fark Türkçe deki ayrım mantığından farklıdır. İngilizce bu zamanları etkisi süren (yakın geçmiş) Present Perfect Tense- ve etkisi sürmeyen Simple Past Tense- mantığı ile ayırıyoruz. Time expressions : For Since how long just yet already ever never still recently lately so far until now up till now up to now in the last month in the past years today,this week/. For the last days / years over the past years/ days once/ twice /three times a) Geçmişte yaptığımız eylemleri zaman vermeden anlatıyorsak, bu tense'i kullanırız. - She has removed all the furniture in the house. They have painted their house. Ancak, aynı eylemleri zamanı belirterek ifade edersek, Simple Past kullanmamız gerekir. - She removed all the furniture in the house last weekend. They painted their house a few weeks ago. b) Yakın geçmişte olup sonuçlan ya da etkileri içinde bulunduğumuz anda devam eden eylemler için bu tense'i kullanırız. - I have burnt myself. (I'm in pain now. - Şu anda acı çekiyorum.) I've cleaned the house. (It's clean now. ) - You've cut your hair! - Yes, I went to the barber's last week. c) Today, this morning, this week, this month, this year, this century vb., henüz. tamamlanmamış bir dönem ifade eden zarflarla bu tense kullanılır. - I've been to the cinema twice this week. I havent been able to go on holiday this year. - Technology has advanced greatly this century. 6

7 d) Lately, recently ile kullanımı: e) Already, Just ve yet ile kullanımı f) Ever, never, all my life, in his life, always, occasionally, often, several times, once, twice, etc. gibi zarflarla kullanımı: g) So far (up to now, until now] ile kullanımı: h) For ve Since ile kullanımı: * Since ile kullanımda since den sonra net bir tarih gelmelidir yani nokta bir tarih ve bu tarihden günümüze kadar da olay devam etmektedir. Since sonra gelen nokta zaman bir cümle halide geliyorsa o cümlenin zamanı genellikle Simple Past tens dir * For ile kullanımda ise for dan sonra bir zaman periyodu gelmelidir ve bu zaman periyodu içinde bulunduğumuz zamanı da kapsamalıdır. - Her English has improve d a lot since she started taking private lessons. - We have lived in Isparta for 8 years. j) This is the first/second, etc. time (that) + Present Perfect - I'm very excited now, because this is the first time (that) I've driven a car. - This is the second time (that) he has played tennis, so he isn't good at it. - This is the third exam (that) we have taken so far this term. - You shouldn't drink so much coffee. It's bad for you. - This is the fifth cup of coffee (that) you have drunk in the last two hours. k) This is + Superlative (that) + Present"Perfect - This is the most boring book (that) I have ever read. (Bu hayatımda okuduğum en sıkıcı kitap.) Use the Present Perfect Simple or Simple Past 1. I don't know why he's offering to drive some of the way. He (not, pass)... his driving test yet. 2. She (follow)... him to work this morning because she (not, believe)... that was where he was actually going. 3. He (speak)... several times to the manager about moving to another branch, but he (not, have)... an answer yet. 4. Before she (start)... university, I (worry)...a lot about her living away from home, but she (make)... so many new friends that now my fears (subside) The weather (be)... glorious so far this summer, unlike last year, when it (rain)... every day. 6. He (not, get)... used to living in Britain yet. He can never remember from which side of the road the cars will come and he (not, start)... drinking tea with milk yet. 7. I (read)... most of his novels when I (be)... at school; however, as they (be)... compulsory books, I (never, take)... much interest in them and (not, really, appreciate)... what a wonderful writer he is. 8. Oh no! I (break)... a glass - can you pass me the broom please? 9. I'm sorry, I know we (meet)... two days ago but I (forget)... your name already! 10. I (learn)... how to windsurf on holiday last year, but I (not, have) the opportunity to do it since. 7

8 USE OF THE PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE a) Present Perfect Continuous Tense, geçmişte başlayıp, içinde bulunduğumuz anda hala devam etmekte olan eylemleri anlatır ve for, since, all day, all week, all year gibi zaman zarflarıyla çok sık kullanılır. - I started to read this book two hours ago, and I'm still reading it. I have been reading this book for two hours. - It started to rain yesterday morning, and it is still raining. It has been raining since yesterday morning. - You have been working very hard all week. You should take some time to relax at the weekend. b) Present Perfect Continuous Tense, geçmişte başlamış, içinde bulunduğumuz anda henüz bitmiş, ancak belirtileri devam eden eylemler için, ya da özellikle, yakınma, hoşnutsuzluk ve kuşku gibi duygulan ifade ederken de kullanılır. - Is that child crying? - No, but his eyes are watery. He has been crying. - Your hands are covered in oil. What have you been doing? I have been fixing the car. You look very tired Yes, I have been working hard today THE PAST PERFECT TENSE FORM Affirmative Negative Interrogative I had finished my work. I had not finished my work. Had I finished my work? We had seen the film. We had not seen the film. Had we seen the film? You had studied hard * Bu tense de genellikle kendi başına cümlelerde değil When, Before ve After gibi bağlaçlı cümlelerle kullanıımaktadır. Bu tense in mantığında bu tip bağlaçlarla birleştirilen cümlelerdeki olayların oluş sırası yatmaktadır. Bu tense ile kullanılan fiil digger cümledeki fiilden yani hareketten daha once gerçekleşmiştir demektir. a) Past Perfect Tense, Present Perfect Tense'in past biçimidir. Present: Past: I am not hungry. I have Just eaten. When I went home, I wasn't hungry, because I had just eaten. b) Since, for, always, etc. gibi zarflarla kullanımı: Since, for, always gibi zarfların, Present Perfect Tense (/ have done) ile kullanıldığını ve geçmişte başlayıp içinde bulunduğumuz ana kadar devam eden ya da içinde bulunduğumuz anda da devam etmekte olan eylemleri ifade ettiğini görmüştük. Since, for, always gibi zarflar, Past Perfect Tense (I had done) ile de kullanılır. Ancak bu kez, geçmişte başlayıp yine geçmişte bir noktaya kadar devam etmiş olan eylemleri anlatır. He has been our assistant manager for three months. Before that, he had worked for us as a clerk for a month With after After + Past Perfect, Simple Past After she had graduated from university, she went to England. After we had travelled on a coach for ten straight hours, we continued our journey by horse to get to the mountain village. 8

9 With before: Before + Simple Past, Past Perfect Simple Past Before she came to live in this city, she had lived in İzmir. Before she came to live in this city, she lived in İzmir. Before she came to live in this city, she lived in İzmir I had finished my exam paper before the bell rang. I finished my exam paper before the bell rang. Past Perfect Tense, geçmişte belli bir noktada olmuş olaylardan söz ederken, daha geçmişte olmuş eylemi vurgulamak için de kullanılır. When I saw her again ten years later, I found her greatly changed, both physically and mentally. She had dyed her hair blond and had got thinner. She had left her parents and had started to earn her own living. 1. By the time the authorities (warn) the people against the dangers of drinking the water without boiling it, many children (already, get infected] 2. He (take) his family abroad last year. The children (be) really excited, because they (never, be) abroad before. 3. There was a bad smell when I (get) home, so I (open) the windows at once to let it out. 4. When a tourist (ask) the way to the nearest post office in good English, we (give) her the directions rather excitedly, because we (never, have) the opportunity to use our English so freely before. 5. When they (offer) her a minor role in a play, she (accept) it without thinking much, because she (consider] it to be a stepping stone toward much better ones. THE PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE FORM Affirmative Negative Interrogative I had been working. I had not been working. Had I been working? You had been sleeping. You had not been sleeping. Had you been sleeping? He/She/It had been eating. He/She/It had not been eating. Had he/she/it been We had been waiting. We had not been waiting. eating? You had been dancing. You had not been dancing. Had we been waiting? They had been talking. They had not been talking. Had you been dancing? Had they been talking? Örneklerde de görüldüğü gibi, Past Perfect Continuous Tense, tam olarak Present Perfect Continuous Tense'in past biçimidir. Hatırlayacağınız gibi. Present Perfect Continuous, geçmişte başlayıp içinde bulunduğumuz anda da devam eden, ya da içinde bulunduğumuz anda henüz bitmiş ama belirtileri devam eden eylemleri ifade ediyordu. Past Perfect Continuous ise, geçmişte başlayıp yine geçmişte bir noktaya kadar devam eden eylemleri ifade eder. They had been fighting for f our years when the war ended in since 1990 PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS or PAST CONTINUOUS 1. When I went home, he was studying. (Past Cont.) (Ben eve gittiğimde o ders çalışıyordu.) 2. When I went home, he had been studying for two hours. (Past Perfect Cont.) (Ben eve gittiğimde o iki saattir ders çalışıyordu.) Birinci cümledeki "was studying', sadece "Ben gittiğim anda ne yapıyordu?" sorusuna yanıt olabilir. İkinci cümledeki "had been studying' ise, "Ben gittiğimde yapmakta olduğu işi ne zamandan beri yapıyordu?" sorusunu yanıtlar. - The other members were discussing the agenda when I got to the meeting. - The other members had been discussing the agenda for the last half hour when I got to the meeting. - They were staying at a hotel near the sea when I met them in Bodrum. 9

10 - They had been staying at a hotel for five days when I met them in Bodrum Use the Past Continuous or Past Perfect Continuous of the verbs In parentheses. 1. They (drive)... for over five hours when they reached the hotel. 2. While they (travel)... they passed through several historic towns. 3. I (hang)... some pictures on the wall when I hit my thumb with the hammer. 4. While we (chat)... we realized that she (work)... for the same company as me last year, but at a different branch. 5. Rumours of a large pay-rise (go)... round the office for weeks, so, when it was announced to be only three percent, everyone was very disappointed. Use the Present Perfect Simple or the Present Perfect Continuous, the Past Perfect Simple or the Past Perfect Continuous. 1. You really deserve to have a promotion, Mr. Johnson. You (work)... successfully for us for ten years, and you (produce)... lots of remarkable projects, especially in the past five years. 2. They gave him a promotion last year, because he (work)... for them successfully for ten years, and he (produce)... lots of remarkable projects, especially in the past five years. 3. A: Hello, Pam. We (just, arrange)... to have a picnic next Saturday. Would you like to come with us? B: Sorry, Sally. I (already, make)... some other arrangements with my folks. They'll be sorry if I change my mind. 4. He (be)... out of work for the last two years. He (try)... to find a new job ever since he was dismissed from his job, but without success so far. 5. I (look)... for a job for a very long time when I finally found this one two months ago. I (be)... better off financially since then, but I still have some debts to pay off. FUTURE TIME (will/shall or be going to) FORM Affirmative Negative Interrogative I will help you. I will not help you. Will I help you? I am going to help you I am not going to help you Are you going to come early? "When, after, before, as soon as, etc." gibi zaman bağlaçlarının Past Tense ile kullanımını daha önce görmüştük. Şimdi bu bağlaçların Future Tense ile kullanımlarını inceleyelim. First: I will do some shopping tomorrow. Then: I will go to the cinema., After I do some shopping tomorrow, I will go to the cinema First: She will talk to the teacher...., Then: She will leave school. Before she leaves school tomorrow, she will talk to the teacher. When she comes home, we will study together. - I will wait at home until my mother comes back from shopping. - We'II leave home as soon as we finish our work. - I'll decide what to do after I receive their letter. - She is going to phone us before she comes here. - Once you.know the details of this software, you'll find it easy to use. Yukarıdaki örneklerde gördüğünüz gibi, her iki eylem de gelecekte gerçekleşecek olmasına rağmen, yan cümlede "will" ya da "going to" kullanılmaz. Yan cümlede Simple Present Tense, temel cümlede ise "'will" ya da "going to" kullanılır. 10

11 Complete the sentences with the Simple Present and/or Present Perfect and Simple Future (will) of the verbs in parentheses. 1. The conference (not, commence)...until all the delegates (arrive) 2. While the delegates are arriving, the authorities (close)... the area to the public. 3. We (not, reserve)... the tickets until we (be)... certain how many people are coming. 4. While you're fetching her from the station, I (check)... that her room is prepared. 5. After she (settle)... in, we (take)... her on a tour of the city. 6. They (not, be)... very happy when they (see)... what a mess we've made. THE FUTURE CONTINUOUS TENSE FORM Affirmative Negative Interrogative I will be studying. I won't be studying. Will I be studying? You will be working. You won't be working. Will you be working? He/She/It will be He/She/It won't be eating. Will he/she/it be eating. We won't be talking. eating? We will be talking. You won't be sleeping. Will we be talking? You will be sleeping. They won't be shopping. Will you be sleeping? They will be shopping. Will they be shopping? Bu tense, gelecekte bir noktada yapıyor olacağımız eylemleri ifade etmek için kullanırız. - Don't call me tomorrow between ten and eleven. I'll be having an interview then. - At this time next year, you'll probably be attending university. - My plane departs at nine, so I'll be Qying to New York at this hour tomorrow. Complete the sentences with the Simple Future (will do), Future Continuous (will be doing) or Simple Present (do/does) and/or Present Perfect Simple (have/has done) of the verbs In parentheses. 1. At the rate he's improving, he (play)... football for the national team by the time he's sixteen! 2. At the end of next week, you (drive)... round Europe, Jane (sail)... across the Mediterranean and I (fee]}... very jealous of you both! 3. Until your grades (improve)... you (have to)... stay at home every evening. 4. At the moment, you think you (never, learn)... to ski, but this time next week you (whiz)... down the slopes like a professional! THE FUTURE PERFECT TENSE FORM Affirmative Negative Interrogative I will have finished. I won't have finished. Will I have finished? You will have left home. You won't have left home. Will you have left home? He/She/It will have eaten. He/She/It won't have eaten. Will he/she/it have eaten? They will have gone out. We won't have left work. Will we have left work? USE OF THE FUTURE PERFECT TENSE a) Gelecekte bir noktada yapmış, tamamlamış olacağımız eylemleri bu tense ile ifade ederiz. By, before, in a week (or in a week's time), in ten days (or in ten days' time), in three years (or in three years' time) gibi zarflar, bu tense ile çok sık kullanılan zarflardır. She will have graduated from university in two years. She promises that she will have finished her report by tomorrow. They will have completed the new school building by next year"by the time", "when" ve "before", bu tense ile sık kullanılan zaman bağlaçlarıdır. - I will have finished my homework by the time mother comes back. - Before this term is finished, we will have studied half of the units. - The children will have gone to bed when the guests arrive. 11

12 We will already have eaten dinner when he comes. 0 geldiğinde biz yemeğimizi yemiş olacağız. "By" ile "by the time" arasındaki farka dikkat ediniz. "By" bir preposition olduğu için kendinden sonra bir isim gelir, (by two o'clock, by next month, by tomorrow, by then, etc.) "By the time" ise bir bağlaçtır. Kendinden sonra bir cümle gelir. "By the time" dan sonra "that" kullanılabilir. - I will have finished my work by 5 o'clock. - I will have finished my work by the time (that) you come back. Complete the sentences with the Simple Future (will do), Future Perfect (will have done) or Simple Present (do/does) of the verbs In parentheses. 1. Don't spend too much at the Grand Bazaar, or you (regret)... it when you (run out)... of money before the end of your holiday. 2. By the time the credit card statement with this purchase on it (arrive)... I (receive)... my wages. So don't worry 3. We (find)... Jenny either happy or very sad when we (return)... because she (receive)... her exam results by then. 4. The police anticipate that the thieves (somehow, manage)... to send a message to their accomplices and, by the time they (reach)... their hideout, their accomplices (remove)... all traces of their criminal activity. 5. About fifty years from now, the Pacific Ocean (rise)... to a level dangerous to the very existence of some inhabited islands. 6. At last I've found two tickets for the concert, but I (pretend)... that I couldn't, when my sister (ask). me THE FUTURE PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE FORM Affirmative: Negative: Interrogative: Subject Subject Will + will have been doing, + will not have been doing, + subject + have been doing? Gelecekte bir eylemi ne kadar zamandır yapıyor olacağımızı bu tense ile ifade ederiz. Yani gelecekte süreç bildiririz. - By next year, I will have been teaching English for nine years. - Tomorrow, I will start work at 9 and finish at 12, so I will have been working for three hours by the time my last lesson is over - By the time her mother comes home at 5 o'clock, she will have been studying for three hours. - The meeting will start at ten, and I will arrive there at eleven. - By the time I arrive there, the meeting will have been going on for an hour. - By the next elections, this government will have been running the country for four years. Bu tense ile kullanacağımız fiilleri seçerken dikkatli olmamız gerekir. Ancak work, write, travel, watch, listen, go on, study gibi sürerlik bildiren fiilleri bu tense ile kullanabiliriz. Finish, complete, arrive gibi bir anda olup biten eylemleri ifade eden fiilleri kullanamayız 12

13 Complete the sentences using an appropriate Future tense: will do, will be doing, will have done or will have been doing. 1. You can almost guarantee that by the time we get to the box-office, they (se/7)... out of tickets. 2. I (drive)'... past your house at about 8 o'clock tomorrow morning, as that's the way I always go, so if you're ready, wait outside and I [give)... you a lift. 3. Agent A: How... I (recognize)... him? Agent B: Well, he (wear)... grey trousers, a green jacket and a yellow tie! 4. If you arrive at 6 o'clock, we (wait)... outside the cinema, but by quarter past, we (probably, go)... inside. 5. Probably, for the first few days in your new job, you (experience)... one or two problems, but by the end of the week you (settle)... in. TENSE AGREEMENT in TIME CLAUSES Zaman bağlaçları temel cümle ile yan cümle arasında "tense" uyuşması gerektirir. İngilizce de zaman bağlaçları kesinlikle cümlenin zamanı belirlemede yetkiye sahip değillerdir. Örneğin cümlemizde after var When bağlacı var diye o cümle Simple Past Tense olmalı diye bir yargıya gidemeyiz. Cümlenin zamanını belirleyecek olan zaman zarfları (time expressions) yada cümlenin temel mantığıdır. PAST TIME: "When I got home... " cümlesini tamamlarken getireceğimiz yapılar mutlaka Past Time' a ait bir tense olmalıdır. - When I got home, I had a bath and then ate my dinner. I slept for three hours and then studied until midnight. my son was sleeping. my parents had eaten their dinner. my son had been sleeping for two hours. PRESENT TIME: "When I get home after work,... " ifadesini, eğer genelde yaptığımız bir işi anlatmak üzere kullanıyorsak, Present Time'a ait bir yapı ile tamamlayabiliriz. - When I get home after work, I usually take a rest for a while. first of all, I play with my son for a while. FUTURE TIME: "When I get home after work tomorrow,... " ifadesi ise temel cümlede mutlaka Future bir yapı gerektirmektedir. (Yan cümlede Future tense kullanılmadığına dikkat ediniz.) 1. The government (just, take)... a number of measures to bring inflation down and to improve the economic situation. There (be)... a public outcry when they (announce)... the new tax system and other economic decisions two weeks ago. There (be)... several protest demonstrations in many parts of the country since then, and I think they (increase)... in the future if the economy doesn't improve soon. 2. Two weeks ago, we (intend]... to spend a quiet weekend at home, without hurrying to have breakfast or without worrying about the heavy traffic on the roads, but nothing (go)... as we (arrange)... it before. First, I (cut)... myself badly while I (do)... the dishes after breakfast. We (try)... hard to stop the bleeding and then we (put)... a bandage on the cut. In the meantime, our son (play)... with his friend in his room. Because they (both, be)... very naughty children, they (usually, hurt)... each other while they (play)... 13!

14 together, and it happened so that day. Just as we (sit)... down to watch a good movie on television, after my unfortunate accident, we (hear)... our son crying. We (hurry)... to his room to see what (happen)... What we saw was terrible. The other boy (throw}... a metal toy car at our son's face, and it (hit)... him just above his right eye. It was badly bruised, and a line of blood (trickle)... down his cheek. I (nearly, faint)... when I (see)... this scene. Anyway, we (take)... him to the nearest hospital without delay, and our quiet weekend was spent at the hospital. CAN / COULD Abiliity Can you drive? She can speak four languages. Can you read that sign from this distance? The doctors are doing all that they can, but she's still not breathing properly. Yeteneklerimizi ifade ederken "can" ya da "be able to" kullanırız. He can speak two foreign languages fluently. He is able to speak two foreign languages fluently. My son doesn't attend school yet, but he can/ is able to read and write already. "Be able to" diğer tense'lere göre çekimlenebilir. Permission He Is able to speak very good English. (Present) He has been able to speak English for ten years. (Present Perfect) He was able to speak good English when he was a child. (Simple Past) He will be able to speak English even better when he stays in England for some time. (Future) He should be able to speak English well, because he has been living in England for six years. (With other modals) He had been able to speak English for five years when he went to England. (Past Perfect) Can I use your bike, John? You can park over there. Could I speak to Mr Davis, please? Excuse me, could I just say something? Request If you see Adrian, can you tell him I'm in London next weekend? Can you make a little less noise, please? I'm trying to work. Could you lend me 5? Could you possibly turn that music down a little, please? MAY I COULD I May I (please) borrow your book? Could I borrow your book (please)? CAN I Can I borrow your book? TYPICAL RESPONSES : Certainly. Yes, certainly. Of course/of course, you may./sure. (Informal} "May I" ve "Could I" nazik bir isteme ifadesidir, (formal) "Can I" daha samimi ortamlarda izin isterken kullanılır. (informal) 14

15 Possibility You can get stamps from the local newsagents. You can get very nasty skin diseases from bathing in dirty water. Smoking can cause cancer. A lot of crime could be prevented. She could arrive anytime. This new drug could be an important step in the fight against cancer. Suggestion We could go for a drink after work tomorrow, if you like. You could always call Susie and see if she might babysit. Offer We could go for a drink after work tomorrow, if you like. You could always call Susie and see if she might babysit. Polite Requests COULD YOU Could you give me some information, please? "could" ve "would" WOULD YOU Would you open the door for me, please? Could you please tell me the way to the station? resmiyet /nezaket gerektiren ortamlarda kullanabileceğimiz yapılardır WILL YOU Will you lend me your book (please)? Will you (please) lend me your book? Will you be quiet, please? "will" de resmi ortamlarda kullanılır ancak diğerlerine gore doğrudan bir ifade biçimidir. CAN YOU Can you lend me your dictionary? can daha samimi bir kullanımdır. POLITE REQUESTS with "WOULD YOU MIND" ASKING PERMISSION -Would you mind if I smoked here? -Would you mind if I came a bit late tomorrow? - Would you mind if I opened the window? 'Would you mind If I + Simple Past Tense" Burada Past Tense kullanılmasına ragmen, anlam Present ya da Future'dur. TYPICAL RESPONSES -No. - Not at all. - Please do. - No. - Of course not. - Go ahead. - No, that would be fine. ASKING SOMEONE ELSE TO DO SOMETHING - Would you mind opening the window? - Would you mind speaking a bit more quietly? - Would you mind posting these letters for me "Would you mind + doing" TYPICAL RESPONSES No, of course not. I'd be happy to. Not at all. I'd be glad to. 15

16 SHOULD - OUGHT TO - HAD BETTER Duty (görev) If you're annoyed with him, you should tell him. You should change trains at Peterborough if you're going to Newcastle. "Should I apologize to him?" "Yes, I think you should." You ought to be kinder to him. We ought not/oughtn't to have agreed without knowing what it would cost. I'd better leave a note so they'll know I'll be late. Probable ( muhtemel) My dry cleaning should be ready this afternoon. You should find this guidebook helpful. He ought to be home by seven o'clock. They ought to have arrived at lunchtime but the flight was delayed. MAY - MIGHT Possibility There may be other problems that we don't know about. I may see you tomorrow before I leave. I might come and visit you in America next year, if I can save enough money. Don't go any closer - it might be dangerous/it mightn't be safe. Permission Might I ask a question? I wonder if I might have a quick look at your newspaper? A reader may borrow up to six books at any one time. *might extra olarak should gibi öneri de sunabilir. You might like to try a little more basil in the sauce next time. MUST - HAVE / HAS TO Necessity Meat must be cooked thoroughly. I must get some sleep. You mustn't show this letter to anyone else. I have to go to Manchester tomorrow on business.what time have you got to be there? "Must" ve "have to" nun olumsuz biçimi, "don't have to", "don't need to" ya da "needn't" dır. - Do you have to get up early tomorrow? - No, it is my day off. I don't have to/don't need to/needn't get up early. - Does your brother have to get up early tomorrow? - No, it is his day off. He doesn't have to/doesn't need to/needn't get up early. - Must a student study four hours a day? - It depends on the student. Some students don't have to/don't need to/needn't study so much. - Must you get a tutor? - No, I can understand by myself. I dont have to/don't need to/neednt get a tutor. Logical Out Come For Must - Your brother isn't eating his lunch. ; - Well, he must not be hungry. (Aç olmamalı. Herhalde aç değil.) (Normally, he eats everything on his plate. If he isn't eating now, I'm almost sure that he isn't hungry. I can't think of any other reasons.) - Look! Peter is eating only salad. He hasn't even touched his fish. - Well, he must not like fish. (Balığı sevmiyor olmalı. Herhalde balığı sevmiyor.) - Jane always gets low grades in history. - She must not study hard enough. (Yeterince çalışmıyor olmalı. Herhalde yeterince çalışmıyor.) 16

17 PRESENT PROGRESSIVE FORMS OF MODALS Tahminde bulunurken kullandığımız modal yardımcı fiillerini, içinde bulunduğumuz anda devam etmekte olduğunu düşündüğümüz eylemleri ifade etmek için de kullanırız. - Where is your brother? - He is studying in his room. (/ know that he is studying in his room.) - Where is your brother? - I'm not sure, but he must be studying in his room. He has an exam tomorrow. (I'm almost sure that he is studying in his room.) (Odasında ders çalışıyor olmalı.) - Look! Isn't that Elif going up Bahariye Street? Where may/might/could she be going? -I don't know. She may/might/could be going to the cinema, or she might/may/could be going shopping. (/ think she is going shopping or to the cinema.) (Sinemaya ya da alışverişe gidiyor olabilir.) - Don't make so much noise. Your brother is studying in the next room. - No, he can't/couldn't be studying in the next room. I saw him in the street playing with other children just a quarter of an hour ago. (It's impossible that he is studying in his room.) (Odasında ders çalışıyor olamaz. Ders çalışıyor olması imkansız.) - Do you hear some noise from the baby's room? - Yes, I do. She must not be sleeping. (I'm almost sure that she isn't sleeping.) (Uyumuyor olmalı.) -I think your brother is studying in his room. - Well, I don't know. He may not/might not be studying. There is music coming from his room. (Perhaps/Maybe he isn't studying.) (Ders çalışmıyor olabilir.) must may/might/could can't/couldn't must not may not/might not be doing PAST TIME in MODALS Geçmişe ilişkin tahminlerimizi ifade ederken, aynı modal yardımcı fiillerinin "perfect" biçimlerini kullanırız. must may/might/could can't/couldn't must not may not/might not have done - I can't find my grammar book. - Well, you must have left it in the classroom. (I'm almost sure that you left it in the classroom.) I can't find my grammar book. I don't know where I left it. I may/might/could have left it in the classroom or I may/might/could have left it on the bus. (It's possible that I left it in the classroom or on the bus.) - I think I saw Susan at a cafe the other day, but I didn't talk to her. She was in a crowded group. - No, you can't/couldn't have seen her there. She has been out of town for two weeks. She left for London two weeks ago. (It's impossible that you saw her there.) 17

18 PAST PROGRESSIVE FORMS OF MODALS Geçmişte bir noktada devam etmekte olduğunu düşündüğümüz eylemleri ifade etmek istiyorsak, modal yardımcı fiillerinin "perfect progressive" biçimlerini kullanırız. must may/might/could can't/couldn't must not may not/might not have been doing - Peter had a car accident last Saturday. He said that a child had suddenly pushed himself in front of his car, and that he had swerved to the left so as not to hit the child, but he couldn't avoid running into another car. - Then, he must have been driving fast at the time of the accident. (Kaza sırasında hızlı sürüyordu herhalde.) - When I got home late last night, the light in my brother's room was still on. I didn't go to see what he was doing, but he may/might/could have been reading a book or listening to music. (Perhaps/Maybe he was reading a book or listening to music.} (Belki de kitap okuyor ya da müzik dinliyordu.) - He can't/couldn't have been driving very fast at the time of the accident, because I know that he doesn't like speeding. (It's impossible that he was driving fast at the time of the accident) PREFERENCE Tercihlerimizi ifade ederken, "would rather/would sooner", "prefer/would prefer" ve "like something better than something" kalıplarını kullanırız. a) would rather/would sooner "Would rather" ve "would sooner" dan sonra gelen fiil yalındır. "Bir şeyi bir şeye tercih ederim" demek için ise arada "than" kullanılır. "Would rather" ve "would sooner" aynı anlama gelir, ancak "would rather" daha sık kullanılır. I would rather read something than watch TV. Eğer iki taraftaki fiil aynı ise, fiili sadece birinci tarafta kullanmak yeterlidir. I'd rather/sooner drink coffee than (drink) tea. (Çay içmektense/çay içmek yerine, kahve içmeyi tercih ederim.) İki tarafta kullanılan preposition aynı ise, preposition'ı sadece birinci tarafta kullanmamız yeterlidir. b) prefer and would prefer prefer {doing) something to (doing) something else prefer to do something rather than (do) something else] "Prefer something to something" yapısıyla, fiil kullanmadan isim kullanabiliriz. I prefer coffee to tea. /She prefers vegetables to meat. Eğer fiil kullanırsak fiil "-Ing' takısı alır. I prefer drinking coffee to drinking tea. She prefers eating vegetables to eating meat. HABITUAL PAST: used to and would a) "Used to", geçmişte yaptığımız, ama artık yapmadığımız ya da geçmişte sık/seyrek yaptığımız ama şimdi az/sık yaptığımız eylemleri ifade ederken kullanılır. I used to like meat a lot when I was a child. (But now I don't like it much.) (Çocukken eti çok severdim.) 18

19 I used to go to the cinema very often when I was at university, but now I don't have time to go so often. (Üniversitedeyken, sinemaya çok sık giderdim.) "There was/were" yerine "there used to be" kullanabiliriz. There used to be a cinema in our village when I was a child, but it closed down when television became popular. There used to be a huge plane tree near the village train station, and we, the children of the village, used to play under its shade in the summer, but because it was very old, it was blown over during a strong storm. b) "Used to" nun olumsuz biçimi "used not to" ya da "didn't use to" dur. "Didn't use to" daha çok kullanılır ve "geçmişte yapmazdım ama şimdi yapıyorum" anlamını verir. I didn't use to/used not to eat fish when I was a child, but now I do. (Now I eat fish.) (Çocukken balık yemezdim.) FORMING THE PASSIVE Active fiilin nesnesi, passive cümlede özne durumuna geçer ve cümlenin tense'ine uygun olarak be + past participle (fiilin üçüncü hali] kullanılır. - He is washing the car. Object - The car Is being washed by him. subject - Mum cooked the dinner. Object - The dinner was cooked by Mum. subject ACTIVE PASSIVE Present Progressive He is washing the car. The car Is being washed by him. Simple Present He washes the car. The car Is washed by him. Simple Past He washed the car. The car was washed by him. Past Progressive He was washing the car. The car was being washed by him. Present Perfect He has washed the car. The car has been washed by him. Past Perfect He had washed the car. The car had been washed by him. Simple Future be going to He is going to wash the car. The car Is going to be washed by him. Future Will He will wash the car. The car will be washed by him. Future Perfect He will have washed the car. The car will have been washed by him USING "by phrase" Passive bir cümlede, eylemi yapan kişiyi "by phrase" ile belirtiriz. Active: My mother made this pullover. Active: The President will announce the date of the meeting. Passive: This pullover was made by my mother. Passive:The date of the meeting will be announced by the President IF CLAUSES If clause' lan, temel olarak üç bölümde inceleyebiliriz: a) Type 1: True In the present or future If the weather is nice, we usually sit in the garden, (presen ft If the weather is nice tomorrow, we will sit in the garden, (future) b) Type 2: Untrue (contrary to fact) In the present or future If it were our day off today, we would have a barbecue in the garden, (present) If it were our day off tomorrow, we would have a barbecue in the garden, (future) c) Type 3: Untrue (contrary to fact) in the past If the weather had been nice yesterday, we would have sat in the garden, (past) If it had been our day off yesterday, we would have had a barbecue in the garden, (past) 19

20 TYPE 1: TRUE IN THE PRESENT OR FUTURE They will come to the cinema with us if they leave work early enough. If she passes the university exam, her life will change a lot. TYPE 1 "IF" CLAUSE ile KULLANABİLECEĞİMİZ TENSE'LER ; TEMEL CÜMLEDE KULLANABİLECEĞİMİZ YAPILAR "Will in varyasyonları (will be doing, will have done, will have been doing) She applied to a computer firm last week, and she may get the job. If she is hired, she will be working there as a sales representative next month. - If I start studying right away, I will have finished my work by the time you come back from shopping. Then we can drink our afternoon tea together. May/Might/Could (Possibility] If the weather continues like this, we may/might/could cancel the garden party at the weekend. (Perhaps we will cancel the party.) Must, have to, have got to (necessity); should, ought to, had better (advisability) and any expression of command, request, suggestion or advice leave at once. (necessity) - If you don't want to be late for the beginning of the film, you have to/must/have got to (Advisability) - If you want to get rid of this cold, you should/ought to follow the doctor's instructions. The Simple Present Tense - If I get hungry before lunch time, I usually eat a few biscuits to satisfy my hunger. IF'li CÜMLEDE KULLANABİLECEĞİMİZ YAPILAR Can (permission or ability) If you can pass the university exam, you will be one of the lucky ones, (abilit If one can speak two or more foreign languages, it is easier to find a proper job. Have to (necessity) Normally, it is my off day tomorrow, but I may have to go to work to finish the project. Present Perfect Tense Should If you have finished reading that book, may I borrow it for a while? "If'li cümlede "should" kullanmamız, olasılığın biraz daha az olduğunu vurgular. If you need any help, I can help you. If you should need any help, I can help you. 20

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