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1 IIB INTERNATIONAL REFEREED ACADEMIC SOCIAL SCIENCES JOURNAL PRINT ISSN : ONLINE ISSN: X

2 GENERAL INFORMATION ABOUT IIB JOURNAL 1. Our journal is a refereed and internationally indexed journal. Each paper is evaluated by two referees who are field experts. The articles not reported as issuable positively by two field referees aren t published in our journal. None of the author(s) can lay a claim on our journal in this case. Data, concerning the ethics committe of the studies, approved to be published in our journal, having the Ethics Committee Report, should be submitted to the editors in written and uploaded to the system with the article. Author(s) should take the responsibility of their articles, having the Ethics Committee Report, which were not submitted to the editors in written and were not uploaded to the system. None of the committes and the authorities in our journal are responsible for financial and emotional damage. The committes and the authorities in our journal do not have any legal obligations. Author(s) have accepted this situation beforehand. 2. Author(s) cannot make a demand for the journal s procedure concerning the academicians in journal s referee board and other boards and other authorities. Even if so, they aren t given any information, system process cannot be changed. All kinds of information about our journal can be obtained from the website of the journal www. iibdergisi.com 3. Our journal publishes three times a year, all articles in the relevant volume of journal are uploaded to the web system of the journal in one volume on the last day of the months April August December. All readers can download the articles from the journal s web system and the relevant paper article can be used on condition that our journal is cited. Readers can download all volumes of our journal for free. 4. All articles published in our journal are assured with certificate of quality (ISO Doc. No: & ISO Doc. No: 12880) and trademark patent (2015/ GE-17301). Articles published provide their authors with all kinds of legal rights and international assurance regarding their articles with quality, trademark, patent and doi information. II

3 5. Our journal has both printed and online version. All kinds of information about our journal can be obtained from the T.R. Ministry of Culture with the number Print ISSN NO: and Online ISSN NO: X 6. APA system is used in our journal. Reference within the text should be (Yılmaz, 2015: 1) or (Yılmaz et al. 2015:1), in the reference part YILMAZ, M., (2015). It is indicated as Effect of Rewarding in Employees on Job and Performance, IIB International Refereed Academic Social Sciences Journal, Issue:17, Volume:5, pp.1-2. All authors must follow the latest volumes of our journal and apply the print format of the published articles in their own papers. It is an obligation to indicate the access date of the internet sources and the last accessed full internet link in the references and below the page by giving numbers. 7. References are arranged by the Turkish alphabet. The printing format in the last volume of the journal should be taken into account by all authors 8. Our journal is an internationally indexed journal, and all articles and papers published in our journal are sent to relevant indices via by the publication date of the journal. 9. Original research, analysis, compilation, case study, project and book introduction have to be in an article format and these publications are also included. 10. All papers sent to the journal and uploaded to the system shouldn t be previously published, not evaluated and not rejected. All articles uploaded to the system are acknowledged that author(s) conform to these rules. Otherwise, our journal keeps its legal rights reserved. All material and moral responsibility regarding a negative situation belong to author(s). Our journal acts in line with the T.R. Law. III

4 THE NUMBER OF ARTICLES EVALUATIONING LEADERSHIP STYLES WITHIN THE SCOPE OF RENSIS LIKERT S SYSTEM-4 MODEL BY USING FUZZY AHP APPROACH 1-23 Cem KAHYA, Hakan PABUÇCU CONSIDERING THE PHENOMENA OF COUNTRYSIDE CITY DISTINCTION IN THE CASE OF HAVSA Hakan YAŞ, Talat GÜLER THE EFFECTS OF HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES AND ORGANIZATIONAL CLIMATE ON TURNOVER INTENTION: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY IN TURKISH BANKING SECTOR Bülent AKYÜZ, Nihat KAYA, Mürşide ÖZGELDİ ANALYSIS OF INDIVIDUAL AND ORGANIZATIONAL FACTORS THAT HAVE INFLUENCE ON THE TACIT KNOWLEDGE SHARING BY FUZZY LOGIC METHOD Kürşad ZORLU THE PLACE OF RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES IN ENERGY SECTOR IN TURKEY: SWOT ANALYSIS Nilhun DOĞAN IV

5 CHIEF EDITOR Ayhan AYTAÇ ASSISTANT CHIEF EDITOR Gülten HERGÜNER Fatih ÇATIKKAŞ Fatma TEZEL ŞAHİN Adalet KANDIR Ali Serdar YÜCEL Yasemin KESKİN BENLİ EDITOR-IN-CHIEF Murat KORKMAZ ASSISTANTS OF EDITORS Nurgül ÖZDEMİR H.Arif TUNCEZ Yener ATASEVEN Gülten BULDUKER EDITOR Metin YAMAN Nezahat GÜÇLÜ Halil İbrahim BAHAR Murat ERCAN Işık BAYRAKTAR Erdal ZORBA Serdar TOK Mutlu TÜRKMEN Hülya Gülay OGELMAN Yener ÖZEN Çetin YAMAN Aylin ZEKİOĞLU Nurhayat ÇELEBİ Murat DELİCE Taner AKÇACI Cemal ZEHİR Hatice Nur GERMİR Ahmet Burçin YERELİ Mehmet YÜCE Faruk ANDAÇ Ramazan ERDEM Dilaver TENGİLİMLİOĞLU Nilgün SARP Kürşad ZORLU Nalan AKDOĞAN Sevinç ÜRETEN Hacı Arif TUNCEZ İlker PARASIZ Salih ÖZTÜRK Yener ATASEVEN Süleyman ÖZDEMİR Mevhibe ALBAYRAK Ahmet Faruk AYSAN Muzaffer AKSOY Sefer GÜMÜŞ Volkan ÖNGEL Timur Han GÜR Ayşen TOKOL Pınar TINAZ Suat UĞUR Gülsen KIRLA Besim AKIN Yakup HACI Ebru Özgül GÜREL SYSTEM EDITORS AND MANAGERS Serdar TOK CONTACT EDITOR Ali Murat KIRIK Michael KUYUCU ENGLISH LANGUAGE EDITOR Gökşen ARAS TURKISH LANGUAGE EDITOR Gülsemin HAZER FIELD EDITORS Ahmet AKŞİT Barış KARAELMA Barış KAYA Çiler HATİPOĞLU E. Görkem KAYAALP ERSOY Ebru ÖZGÜR GÜLER Esin ÖZKAN Eva ŞARLAK Hakan SARIBAŞ Hava ÖZKAN İbrahim YILMAZ Kerime ÜSTÜNOVA Nevin KOYUNCU Neylan ZİYALAR Özlem CANKURTARAN ÖNTAŞ Ruhet GENÇ Seda ŞENGÜL Serkan EKİZ Sevgi MORALI Siret HÜRSOY Solmaz ZELYUT Tuğçe TUNA Ülkü GÜNEY Valide PAŞAYEVA INTERNATIONAL BOARD OF EDITORS Daniel L. RUBINFELD Mark M. SPIEGEL Robert S. PINDYCK Vibha GABA Nur Adiana HİAU ABDULLAH Adigun AGBAJE Kwame GYEKYE Joshua ALABİ Rashid SUMAİLA John KUADA Bayo OKUNDE Mawutor AVOKE Valentina DELLA CORTE Mohsen ELHAFSI Richard F. GHISELLI Mai ISMANDAR DATTA Min YOUNG LEE Marco MAFFEI Javier LIORENS MONTES David W. STEWART Patrick VELTE Ruhei WU Alhassan BUNYAMİNU Vincent OMACHONU Fabio SABATINI Bruna ECCHIA Nazrul ISLAM Grigorios L. KYRIAKOPOULOS Fernando MATIAS RECHE TECHNICAL EDITOR Burhan MADEN V

6 DISCIPLINES ³ ³ Bankingand Risk Management ³ ³ Econometrics ³ ³ Education Management ³ ³ Health Management and Economics ³ ³ Labour Economics ³ ³ Political Science ³ ³ Statistics ³ ³ Business ³ ³ Economics ³ ³ Finance ³ ³ International Relations ³ ³ LabourEconomicsandIndustrialRelations ³ ³ Public Administration ³ ³ Tourism Economics ³ ³ Commercial Law ³ ³ Economy ³ ³ Financial Accounting ³ ³ International Trade ³ ³ Management and Organization ³ ³ Sports Economics VI

7 MAGAZINE INDEXES AS SCREENING VII

8 OUR OTHER MAGAZINES 1. International Peer-Reviewed Journal of Nutrition Research 2. International Refereed Journal of Gynaecology And Maternal Child Health 3. International Refereed Journal of Orthopaedic Traumatology and Sports Medicine 4. International Refereed Journal of Marketing and Market Researches International Refereed Journal of Engineering and Natural & Applied Sciences 6. International Refereed Journal of Humanities and Academic Sciences 7. International Refereed Academic Journal of Sports, Health and Medical Sciences 8. International peer-reviewed Journal of Communication and Humanities Research 9. International Refereed Journal of Family, Child and Education 10. International Refereed Journal of Nursing Research 11. International Refereed Journal Of Architecture and Design 12. International Journal Of Psychiatry and psychological Researches 13. International Refereed Journal of Music Researches 14. International Refereed Journal of Researches on Economy Management VIII

9 Distinguished Scientists., Ayhan AYTAÇ Chief Editör We have published a total of 5 papers in this volume. These articles in this volume prepared in various subjects and disciplines are highly valuable. The articles are research and literature studies. Our esteemed referees being expert in their fields worked hard and contributed to the preparation of this volume. I extend my thanks to them for their efforts. I would like to thank you to the whole team who conduct studies con cerning the international academic recognition of our journal. Dear author(s), we have started to give DOI numbers to all articles both the ones previously published and those that will be published as of this volume. All authors can learn the DOI numbers of their previously published articles from the web page where the relevant article s abstract is published; DOI number is just below the abstract. Our next volume that includes the months of April, May and June will be uploaded to the system. I hope this new volume will yield fruitful results for all our readers, authors and scientists taking place in the boards of our journal. Best regards (In any kind of study requiring ethical board report in our journal, author(s) is/are obliged to enter the data of necessary ethical board report while uploading their publication in editorship and journal system. Our journal, publication board, grant holder, editorial office, referee and science boards do not undertake any responsibility for a problem to occur under any circumstances and conditions. Author(s) is/are obliged to give this information to journal in written. All liability in this issue belongs to author(s)). As per the 5187 of Press Law, material and emotional damage arising from the actions via published works, the content and legal responsibility of the publications published in our journal within the scope of m unilaterally belong to author(s). Our journal, executive board, referees, editor, science board and publisher don t accept these obligations. The scientifically valuable papers with scientific content which contribute to literature are accepted and published in our journal. Apart from this, the papers with political, legal and commercial content which are against the intellectual property rights are not accepted. in case of a possible negative situation, author(s) is/are regarded as accepting and undertaking all kinds of possible material and emotional damage beforehand. Therefore, our journal s management and other boards don t accept any responsibility regarding the second, third and other persons and institutions under any condition. in this sense, a legal sanction on our journal and its boards is out of question. The content and the current status of the papers belong to author(s) and our journal only takes part in the publication of these papers and contribution to literature. Respectfully announced to all readers, public and followers by publication. IX

10 IIBINTERNATIONAL REFEREED ACADEMIC SOCIAL SCIENCES JOURNAL EVALUATIONING LEADERSHIP STYLES WITHIN THE SCOPE OF RENSIS LIKERT S SYSTEM-4 MODEL BY USING FUZZY AHP APPROACH 1 Cem KAHYA 1, Hakan PABUÇCU 2 1 University of Bayburt / Turkey 2 University of Bayburt / Turkey Abstract: The leadership and leadership process are very important factors for organizations in the way of achievement. Especially present organizations need for leaders more than ever, because the today s world are facing the amazing challenges among organizations of all areas. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to determine leadership styles within the scope of Rensis Likert s System-4 Model by using Fuzzy AHP Approach in a Turkish university. With this purpose, the survey study was conducted among total 12 academic managers, working at the University of Bayburt in Turkey. The leadership styles (exploitative authoritative, benevolent authoritative, consultative, and participative group) were weighted by using Fuzzy AHP Approach and it was reached that the insight of participative group was the most preferred leadership style by managers among the others. Key Words: Leadership, Rensis Likert s System-4 Model, Fuzzy AHP Approach Doi: /IIB (1) Corresponding Author: Cem KAHYA, University of Bayburt I.I.B.F. Faculty/ Turkey Received: Accepted: Type ofarticle (Research -Application) Conflict of Interest: None Noneof Ethics Committee 1

11 ID:431 K:475 JEL CODE: C38-C44-M10-M19 (Management and Organization) 1. INTRODUCTION Leadership has been a concept attracted great attention from far in the past. Many researchers and scholars brought different and various definitions about the leadership concept mostly used in the battlefields or political way. But nowadays the leadership concept is further important for organizations produced goods and services met the people s needs. Especially the competitive environment, bringing with globalization has obliged the organizations to adapt this change. Organizations as social systems gathered numerous beliefs and values; in short cultures differed from together needs leadership and leaders more than ever (Kahya, 2013:6). Some authors dealt with Rensis Likert System-4 Model for articles about leadership practices (Bakan & Bulut, 2004; Nassar et al., 2011; Gonos & Gallo, 2013). But until now, there is no study to determine Rensis Likert s Leadership Styles by using the Fuzzy AHP Approach. That is why this study is a very important one for both literature and academicians. 2. OBJECTIVE The present study examines the leadership style by Rensis Likert s System-4 Model for the University of Bayburt, which is one of the new Turkish universities. 3. SCOPE This study explains leadership and leadership approaches, such as trait, behavior and contingency (situational), and Rensis Likert s System-4 Model that is the main leadership approach in this study. Then, fuzzy AHP approach that is the statistical method is defined. Thus, the essential analysis is performed in order to achieve the purpose of this study. 4. METHOD This study is designed as an empirical research. To create the sample of the research, total 12 academicians are selected who are heads of their department. Their mean age and tenure are and 6.58 years, their titles are assistant professor, and they work in different departments of the university (Civil Engineering-2 persons, Mechanical Engineering-2 persons, Food Engineering-2 persons, Economics-3 persons and business administration-3 persons). Likert s exploitative authoritative (System-1), benevolent authoritative (System-2), consultative (System-3) and participative group (System-4) leadership styles are considered. As well as, the variables of the leadership process, motivator factors, communication process, decision making process, setting objectives, and control process are also considered for measuring these leadership styles in the questionnaire developed by Likert. At the same time, these measuring variables include various sub-variables based Likert s questionnaire. These variables are given in table 1. 2

12 ID:431 K:475 JEL CODE: C38-C44-M10-M19 (Management and Organization) Table 1. Measuring Variables and Sub-Variables Variables 1. Leadership Process 2. Motivators 3. Communication Process 4. Decision Making Process 5. Setting Objectives 6. Control Process Sub-Variables 1. Trust to subordinates 2. Subordinates freedom of speech 3. Referring to subordinates ideas 1. Threatening 2. Punishing 3. Rewarding 4. Participation (participate in decision-making) 5. Responsibility 6. Group work 1. Info flow-down 2. Info flow-up 3. Both info flow-down and up 4. Both info flow-down and up and sides 1. Top management decision 2. Subordinates participation in decision-making 1. Giving order 2. Giving order after receiving subordinates ideas 3. Giving order after making discussion 4. Group decision (except for crisis periods) 1. Top management control 2. Legal organization control 3. Illegal organization control 4. Performance evaluation 4.1. Fuzzy Sets and Fuzzy Numbers Fuzzy set theory is a mathematical theory pioneered by Zadeh (1965), which is designed to model the vagueness or imprecision of human cognitive processes (Büyüközkan & Çiftçi, 2012:2344). Fuzzy set theory provides a mathematical notation for the vagueness and ambiguity to produce decision by the decision makers (Chan et al., 2008: 3830). A fuzzy set is characterized by a membership function that is able to assign a membership value [0,1] to each of the fuzzy set elements (Chan & Kumar, 2007:423). The most popular fuzzy numbers are triangular and trapezoid. A triangular fuzzy numbers stated as has the following triangular membership function (Büyüközkan and Çiftçi, 2012:2344): 3

13 ID:431 K:475 JEL CODE: C38-C44-M10-M19 (Management and Organization) (1) 4.2. Fuzzy AHP Methodology The AHP is a mathematical technique to determine the relative importance of the variables with respect to the problem stated hierarchically and aims to choose the best alternative between multiple alternatives using quantitative and qualitative data procure by the experts (Li and Li, 2009:5556; Kahraman et al., 2004:173). Even though the purpose of the AHP reflects the human thinking and judgments, it cannot rule out to reflect the uncertainty of these while comparing the criteria (Huang at all., 2008:1041). Therefore, the Fuzzy AHP methodology benefits from the fuzzy sets and number theory, aims to choose the best alternative partaking the hierarchical structure (Lee, 2009:2882). The Fuzzy AHP methodology can be explained with five steps In the first step, the criteria in the same hierarchy are compared each other via linguistic term scale that indicates the relative strength. In the second step, fuzzy comparison matrices are constructed by using triangular fuzzy numbers. The fuzzy judgment matrix is constructed as below (Büyüközkan and Çiftçi, 2012:2345; Kahraman et al., 2004:176): (2) where if is equal to,, if is not equal to. In the third step, fuzzy synthetic extend values are calculated for th object as in the following: (3), where, to calculate for a specific matrix as follow:, perform the fuzzy addition operation of m extend analysis values (4), 4

14 ID:431 K:475 JEL CODE: C38-C44-M10-M19 (Management and Organization) where, to calculate values as follows:, perform fuzzy addition operation of (5), and then calculate the inverse of the vector in Eq. (4) as follows: (6). The next step is to calculate the extend of possibility of is defined as (7). The last step is to normalize the weight vectors. For weight vector is given by Then, the (8) for n elements. The normalized vectors W are as follows (9) where W is a nonfuzzy number 5

15 ID:431 K:475 JEL CODE: C38-C44-M10-M19 (Management and Organization) 4.3. Research Model Following the essential information is explained, the research model, which is proposed in the direction of the variables as seen in table 1 presented as below: Figure1. Research Model 4.4. PROBLEM The leadership and leadership process are very important factors for organizations in the way of achievement. Especially present organizations need for leaders more than ever, because the today s world are facing the amazing challenges among organizations of all areas. One of these organizations is a university. Universities are very important organizations in all countries, because they shapes the future of the their countries. Therefore, there is a need for researching leadership in the universities. From this viewpoint, the question of this research is to reveal which leadership style is the most preferred by managers of the universities according to the Rensis Likert s System-4 Model 5. LIMITATIONS This study has some limitations. It practiced on academicians working at the University of Bayburt. That is why the results obtained here are only valid for this sample, and cannot be generalized for other occupations and institutions. In future research, it is believed that more useful results 6

16 ID:431 K:475 JEL CODE: C38-C44-M10-M19 (Management and Organization) may be obtained by extending the sample of research and selected different occupational groups. 6. LITERATURE REVIEW 6.1. Leadership There are many different definitions of leadership made by researchers who tried to explain it (Stogdill, 1974:259). Yukl (2002) stated that researchers considered leadership from their own perspectives and defined the leadership in attributes of phenomenon who attracted the attention to them while they tried to define leadership. Some definitions related to leadership were made by focusing on characteristics of leaders, some by focusing on behaviors of leaders, and some by focusing on outputs and results (Ivancevich & Matteson, 2002). According to Gary Yukl (2006) defines leadership as the process of affecting other people to understand and agree about what needs to be done and how to do it, and the process of facilitating individual and collective efforts to succeed shared goals. Peter Northouse (2010) defines leadership as a process through a individual affects a group of individuals to accomplish a common goal. These definitions propose several components central to the concept of leadership. Some of them are as belows: (a) Leadership is a process, (b) leadership includes affecting others, (c) leadership happens as part of a group, (d) leadership includes goal achievement, and (e) these goals are shared by leaders and their followers. Leadership is a process through a individual affects a group of individuals to accomplish a common goal. Leadership includes affect. It is concerned with how the leader affects followers. Affect is the sine qua non of leadership. Unless there is no affect, leadership does not exist. Leadership happens in groups. Groups are the context in which leadership occurs. Leadership includes affecting a group of individuals who have a common place. Leadership contains taking into account common goals. Leaders direct their energies toward individuals who are trying to accomplish something together. In other words, the leaders and followers have a mutual purpose (Rowe & Guerrero, 2012:1-2). On the whole, in recent years, the management and leadership are discussed together due to importance and needs of the management increase in organizations which operate in both public and private sectors. Nowadays, a manager must have the leadership characteristics in order to be good and successful manager who can meet demands of the top management. However, it is hard to say that every manager have the leadership characteristics. Therefore, there is needed the leader managers who contain the meanings of these concepts within himself (Özgen et al., 2001:109). On the other words, there is a positive correlation between the successful organizations and the leader managers (Bakan & Bulut, 2004:153). 7

17 ID:431 K:475 JEL CODE: C38-C44-M10-M19 (Management and Organization) 6.2. Leadership Approaches The leadership classification was done by various authors who have studied about the leadership. In these studies, it was emphasized on the three major variables: (1) characteristics of the leader (traits, skills, behavior, influence tactics, attributions about followers, etc.), (2) characteristics of the followers (traits, skills, attributions about the leader, trust in the leader, task commitment, satisfaction, etc.), and (3) characteristics of the situation (type or size of organizational unit, position power, task structure, environmental uncertainty, external dependencies, etc.). As the result of these studies, the three leadership classifications were suggested as shown in table 1 Table 1. The Leadership Classifications Leadership Approaches Trait Approach Behavior approach Contingency Approach Main Idea of Approaches Leadership is an inborn feature. Leadership effectiveness is concerned with how the leader behaves. Effective leader is influenced by the situation. Kaynak: Kahya, 2013: Trait Approach The Trait Approach originated in the Great Man Approach as a way of describing the key characteristics of successful leaders. It was believed that through this approach critical leadership traits could be isolated and that people with such traits could then be employed, chosen, and positioned into leadership status. This approach was common in the military and is still used as a set of criteria to choose candidates for commissions. The main problem in this leadership approach is consintency of leadership traits. In other words, it could not be identified consistent traits following researches about leadersip (Bolden et al., 2003:6). 8

18 ID:431 K:475 JEL CODE: C38-C44-M10-M19 (Management and Organization) Table 2. Leadership Traits Traits - Adaptable to situations - Alert to social environment - Ambitious and achievement-orientated - Assertive - Cooperative - Decisive - Dependable - Dominant (desire to influence others) - Energetic (high activity level) - Persistent - Self-confident - Tolerant of stress - Willing to assume responsibility Skills - Clever (intelligent) - Conceptually skilled - Creative - Diplomatic and tactful - Fluent in speaking - Knowledgeable about group task - Organised (administrative ability) - Persuasive - Socially skilled Kaynak: Bolden et al., 2003: Behavior Approach Following the researches about leadership traits, it was focused on leader behaviors in the leadership process. Researchers interested in identifying leader behaviors that improved the effectiveness of followers. In this approach, the main question was what behaviors were that enhanced the effectiveness of leaders. In this period, many leadership behavior approaches were suggested: The University of Ohio Leadership Approach; Stogdill and his friends tried to identify effective leadership behavior styles by developing a scale, which known as the Leader Behavior Description Questionnaire (LBDQ). This scale had 150 examples of definitive leader behaviors that narrowed down from 1800 leadership functions. According to respondents perceptions, two main dimensions or leadership styles that named task behavior and relationship behavior. Task behavior leadership style is the job-centered leadership style in which it focuses on getting the task done. Relationship behavior leadership style is the employee-centered leadership style in which it focuses on meeting people s needs and developing relationships. The University of Ohio State Leadership Approach stated that a leader can have the insights of task behavior leadership and relationship behavior together. Ohio suggested four leadership styles: High task behavior/low relationship behavior, High task behavior/high relationship behavior, Low task behavior/high relationship behavior, Low task behavior/low relationship behavior (Lussier & Achua, 2012:73-74) 9

19 ID:431 K:475 JEL CODE: C38-C44-M10-M19 (Management and Organization) The University of Michigan Leadership Approach; Likert and his friends conducted studies to determine leadership effectiveness by developing a questionnaire, as known survey of organizations. The researchers identified two leadership behavior styles as job-centered and employee-centered. Jobcentered behavior refers to the extent to which the leader takes charge to get the job done. The leader closely directs subordinates with clear roles and goals, while the manager tells them what to do and how to do it as they work toward goal achievement. Employee-centered behavior refers to the extent to which the leader focuses on meeting the human needs of employees while developing relationships. The leader is sensitive to subordinates and communicates to develop trust, support, and respect while looking out for their welfare The University of Michigan model stated that a leader is either more job-centered or more employee-centered (Lussier & Achua, 2012:72-73) Blake and Mouton s Managerial Grid Approach; Blake and Mouton developed a managerial grid and this model is used extensively in organizational training and development. Also known as Leadership Grid was designed to explain how leaders help organizations to achieve their goals through two factors: concern for production and concern for people. These factors closely parallel the task and relationship leadership behaviors. The leadership (Managerial) Grid joins concern for production and concern for people in a model that has two intersecting axes. The horizontal axis represents the leader s concern for results, and the vertical axis represents the leader s concern for people. Each of the axes is drawn as a 9-point scale on which a score of 1 represents minimum concern and 9 reresents maximum concern. By plotting scores from each of the axe, various leadership styles can be illustrated. The Leadership Grid portrays five major leadership styles: authority-compliance (9,1), country-club management (1,9), impoverished management (1,1), middle-of-the-road management (5,5), and team management (9,9) (Northouse, 2012:78-79). McGregor s X and Y Approaches; McGregor proposed two approaches as X and Y that are widespread in organizations. X and Y approaches attempt to describe how people relate to some organizations today. According to X approach, people are directed and will not produce unless coerced or made to produce in an organization, whereas Y approach is based on an assumption that followers will fulfill the needs of the organization because they are already motivated to do so (Landis et al., 2014:99) Contingency Approach Behavior approaches may help managers in certain situations. However, it is hard to say that these leadership behaviors bring managers to success in different situations, in other words, the leadership effectiveness may not be ensured. Contingency or Situational Approaches were 10

20 ID:431 K:475 JEL CODE: C38-C44-M10-M19 (Management and Organization) suggested, because there is no better leadership behavior that is successful in every situation. Fiedler s Leadership Effectiveness Approach; Fiedler and his colleagues proposed a contingency model by developed a questionnaire that called as Least Preferred Co-Worker (LPC). He claimed that if the leaders were different in their degree of orientation towards either the task or the people, the better fit among the leader, the situation and the leadership effectiveness would be ensured. There are three situational factors in Fiedler s model that they influence how favourable the leader would be in a given situation. Leader-member relations is how much support a leader has from group members. This is assessed by asking, Will the group members do what I tell them, are they reliable, and do they support me?. Task structure is how clearly task goals, methods and performance standards are specified. It is hard to assess progress and know what should be done if the assignment is vague. Low task structure lowers a leader s favourableness, or situational control, while high task structure raises it. This is assessed by asking, Do I know what I am supposed to do and how the job is to be done?. Position power is the amount of power in the organization that it is given to the leader to accomplish a task. It is related to the ability to reward and punish. To evaluate this, a leader asks, Do I have the support and backing of the big boss and the organization in dealing with subordinates? (Bartol et al., 2008:307). House and Evans Path and Goal Aproach; this approach shows that the leader s main objective is to ensure guidance, support, and help necessary for followers to accomplish their own goals effectively as well as the organization goals. The Path and Goal Approach involves two situational contingencies. Group member s personal characteristics, and the environment of work. This approach argued four leadership styles. These are participative, supportive, directive, and achievement-oriented leadership styles. A good manager should know which leadership style to practice and when. The participative leader encourages the followers participation in the decision making process. The supportive leader pays high attention to the followers needs and well being. The directive leader explains to the followers what is expected from them, provides guidance, and ensures procedures and rules implementation. Finally, the achievement-oriented leader attempts to improve the performance, determines the standards, and ensures achievement of these standards by the followers (Alanazi & Rasli, 2013:2). Vroom, Yetton and Jago s Decision Tree Approach; this model represents an important improvement over rational decision-making approach with implications to shared decision making. The authors have determined major decision strategies that are commonly used in making decisions, and they have established criteria for assessing the achievement of the various strategies under 11

21 ID:431 K:475 JEL CODE: C38-C44-M10-M19 (Management and Organization) a variety of situations. In addition, they have developed an applied model for school leaders to use in choosing decision strategies that enhances the quality of decisions, acceptance of the decisions by others, and reduces the time consumed in decision making (Lunenburg, 2010:4). Tannenbaum and Schmidt s Leadership Continuum Approach; Tannenbaum and Schmidt were among the pioneers to describe various factors (within the manager, the subordinates and the situation). They put the factors in a continuum varying from leader-centered/boss centered (autocratic) to subordinate-centered (democratic). The authors stated that a leader should not choose a strict autocratic or democratic style, but should be flexible enough to be able to choose a style to overcome different situations. They expressed that as subordinates develop their maturity/capability, the leader who begins with most of the control should now gradually pass this over to the subordinates. The figure 1 is a vivid illustration of the assumed flexibility of leadership style to move front and back on a continuum in order to be successful or effective (Peretomode, 2012:15) Hersey and Blanchard s Situational Leadership Aproach; this model also takes a situational viewpoint of leadership, and assumes that the developmental levels of a leader s followers play the crucial role in determining which leadership styles (leader behaviors) are most suitable. Their approach is based on the amount of direction (task behavior) and socio-emotional support (relationship behavior) a leader must ensure given the situation and the level of maturity of the followers. Task behavior is the extent to which the leader engages in spelling out the duties and responsibilities to an individual or group. This behavior involves telling people what to do, how to do it, when to do it, where to do it, and who s to do it. In task behavior the leader engages in one-way communication. Relationship behavior is the extent to which the leader engages in twoway or multi-way communications. This involves listening, facilitating, and supportive behaviors. In relationship behavior the leader engages in two-way communication by providing socioemotional support. Maturity is the willingness and ability of an individual to take responsibility for directing his or her own behavior. People tend to have varying degrees of maturity, depending on the specific task, function, or objective that a leader is attempting to achieve through their efforts (Bolden et al., 2003:9) Modern Leadership Approaches In today s World, there are many contemporary leadership approaches, but some of them are referred in this study. Charismatic Leadership Approach is generally associated with social change and renewal. Based on Weber s original formulation, pure charismatic authority typically shows itself in the crisis periods, which disrupt both tradition and rational rule. In this approach, the charismatic leader changes his 12

22 ID:431 K:475 JEL CODE: C38-C44-M10-M19 (Management and Organization) followers through shaping their attitudes according to his own ideas, and actually it is the specifically creative revolutionary force of history. Moreover, charismatic leaders lead to organizational change as superior agents of it (Levay, 2010:127). Visionary Leadership Approach Approach is described that the leaders should have the visionary leadership behaviors and personal characteristics. These are essential factors for the leaders which needs to prove in order to have a positive effect on an organization. According to this approach, leadership effectiveness depends on having a vision of the leaders. Such leaders consider not only the now, but also the future in the decisionmaking process (Mora-Whitehurst, 2013:318). Strategic Leadership Approach focuses on top management who have overall responsibility for an organization, their characteristics, what they do, how they do it, and particularly, how they impact organizational results. Strategic leadership involves CEOs who are the heads of organizational departments as the members of the board of directors (Carter & Greer, 2013:2). Strategic leadership is the key because of its impact the whole of the organization. Strategic leaders do not exercise effect in the same way as managers who operate at lower levels of the organization. Because of the scope of their effect, their decisions can have vital important consequences for the organization (Phipps, 2012:180). Servant Leadership Approach is defined the servant leadership as going beyond one s self-interest. The Servant Leader initially thinks to serve his followers with the sincere feelings and behaves according to this perspective. This approach makes way for safe and strong relationships within the organization as an individual-oriented attitude. As well as, such leaders are greatly supported by their followers because they fully trust their leaders (Van Dierendonck, 2011: ). Authentic Leadership Approach is a positive approach to organizational leadership. It is characterized by a leader s self-awareness, openness, and clarity behaviors. Authentic leaders consider their followers ideas because they prefer the participation in their actions, and they reveal their personal values, motives, and sentiments clearly. Such leaders enable followers to accurately evaluate the competence and morality of their actions (Wang et al., 2014:5). Transactional Leadership Approach occurs when leaders and followers that meet their own self-benefits. Transactional leaders reward their followers based on exchange for work or service, in other words, such leaders benefit from awards that attracted the attention of the followers. In this approach, four leadership dimensions were suggested: contingent reward, active and passive management by exception and laissez-faire leadership. In contingent reward, the leader makes clear to the followers by self-participation or direction what the followers should do to be compensated for their services. In active management by exception, the follower s performance is 13

23 ID:431 K:475 JEL CODE: C38-C44-M10-M19 (Management and Organization) monitored and corrective actions are taken when the followers fail to meet standards. In passive management by exception, the leader does not take any corrective action unless the problem arises. In laissez-faire, the leader shuns taking any action (Ali et al., 2014:48-49). Transformational Leadership Approach is defined as the leaders have the transformational leadership behaviors that include the innovation and creativity in the workplace, vision, autonomy, encouragement, recognition, and challenge. In this approach, four leadership dimensions suggested: charismatic role modeling, individualized consideration, inspirational motivation, and intellectual stimulation. By using charisma, the leader inspires admiration, respect, and loyalty, and emphasizes the importance of having a collective sense of mission. By individualized consideration, the leader builds a one-to-one relationship with his or her followers, and understands and considers their differing needs, skills, and aspirations. By inspirational motivation, the leader articulates an exciting vision of the future, shows the followers how to achieve the goals, and expresses his or her belief that they can do it. By intellectual stimulation, the leader broadens and elevates the interests of his or her employees, and stimulates followers to think about old problems in new ways (Gümüşlüoğlu & İlsev, 2009:462). 7. RENSIS LIKERT S SYSTEM-4 MODEL As a main leadership approach of our current study, Likert s management systems (Modaff et al., 2008) are management styles developed by Rensis Likert in the 1960s. Rensis Likert assumed that there are four styles of leadership, developed on the basis of a three-decade research on management styles (Gonos & Gallo, 2013:163). These are exploitative/authoritative management style, benevolent/authoritative management style, consultative management style, and participative management style. Exploitative/authoritative management style means that the manager has no trust in subordinates. All the decisions are being made at the top. Benevolent/authoritative management style indicates that the manager has some trust in subordinates. Some routine decisions are delegated down the hierarchy. Consultative management style describes that the managers have substantial confidence, but not complete confidence in subordinates, and they are allowed to make less important decisions on the lower hierarchy levels. Lastly, participative management style identifies that the manager has complete confidence in the subordinates. All hierarchical levels are included in the decision making process (Nassar et al., 2011:244). Antasova (2011) emmhasized that during his research, Likert concluded that managers, who are using the system-4, are the most successful ones, while organizations applying this system are most effective and achieve high productivity. Its success is based on maintaining a high-level of the employee s participation in management (Gonos & Gallo, 2013:163) 14

24 ID:431 K:475 JEL CODE: C38-C44-M10-M19 (Management and Organization) 8. FINDINGS Table 4. Comparison Matrix With Respect to the Goal Matrix in fuzzy terms Criteria C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 C6 1. Leadership process 2. Motivators 3. Communication process 4. Decision-making process 5. Setting objectives 6. Control process 1,1,1 2,3,4 1,2,3 1,2,3 ¼,1/3,1/2 3,4,5 ¼,1/3,1/2 1,1,1 3,4,5 3,4,5 3,4,5 ¼,1/3,1/2 1/3,1/2,1 1/5,1/4,1/3 1,1,1 1,2,3 1/5,1/4,1/3 1/5,1/4,1/3 1/3,1/2,1 1/5,1/4,1/3 1/3,1/2,1 1,1,1 ¼,1/3,1/2 1,2,3 2,3,4 1/5,1/4,1/3 3,4,5 2,3,4 1,1,1 1/3,1/2,1 1/5,1/4,1/3 2,3,4 3,4,5 1/3,1/2,1 1,2,3 1,1,1 The weight vector is calculated as below: For the purpose of the study, the Fuzzy AHP analysis is performed and the findings obtained are given in the following tables. As shown in table 4, the most significant components are communication (0.215) and decision-making (0.215) processes equally among the components of leadership. Also, the others are control process (0.174), setting objectives (0.166), motivators (0.161) and leadership process (0.070) respectively Table 5. Sub-Criteria Comparison Matrix With Respect to Leadership Process. Matrix in fuzzy terms Sub-Criteria SC11 SC12 SC13 1. Trust to subordinates 2. Freedom of subordinates 3. Referring to the subordinates ideas The weight vector is calculated as 1,1,1 1/8,1/7,1/6 6,7,8 6,7,8 1,1,1 1/8,1/7,1/6 1/8,1/7,1/6 6,7,8 1,1,1 15

25 ID:431 K:475 JEL CODE: C38-C44-M10-M19 (Management and Organization) Table 6. Alternative Comparison Matrix With Respect to Sub Criteria Trust to Subordinates Matrix in fuzzy terms Criteria A1 A2 A3 A4 1. Exploitative authoritative 2. Benevolent authoritative 3. Consultative 4. Participative group The weight vector is calculated as 1,1,1 ¼,1/3,1/2 1/6,1/5,1/4 1,1,1 2,3,4 1,1,1 ¼,1/3,1/2 2,3,4 4,5,6 2,3,4 1,1,1 4,5,6 1,1,1 ¼,1/3,1/2 1/6,1/5,1/4 1,1,1 16

26 ID:431 K:475 JEL CODE: C38-C44-M10-M19 (Management and Organization) Table 7. Summary of the Criteria and Sub Criteria Weights Criteria Sub-criteria Local importance Global importance 1. Leadership process - (0.070) 2. Motivators - (0.161) 3. Communication process - (0.215) 4. Decision-making process - (0.215) 5. Setting objectives - (0.166) 6. Control process - (0.174) Trust to subordinates Subordinates freedom of speech Referring to subordinates ideas Threatening Punishing Rewarding Participation Responsibility Group work Info flow-down Info flow-up Both Info flow-down and up Both info flow-down and up and sides Top management decision Subordinates participation in decision-making Giving order Giving order after receiving subordinates ideas Giving order after making discussion Group decision (except in crisis periods) Top management control Legal organization control Illegal organization control Performance evaluation

27 ID:431 K:475 JEL CODE: C38-C44-M10-M19 (Management and Organization) As seen in table 7, the sub-criteria forming leadership process are calculated as (0.33). Thus, it could be stated that managers give equal importance these criteria in the leadership process. The most significant motivators are punishing (0.262), rewarding (0.262) and responsibility (0.262). The second is group work (0.206) and the last is participation (0.010). Threatening (0.00) is not a preferred motivator by managers. The most significant criteria in communication process are info flow-down (0.459) and both info flow-down and up (0.459), and info flow-up (0.082). However, both info flow-down and up and sides (0.00) are not preferred communication style by managers. Two criteria forming decision-making process are calculated as (0.50). Thus, it could be said that decisions about the organization are made by top managers and subordinates collectively. The most significant criteria in setting objectives are giving order after receiving subordinates ideas (0.412) and group decision (0.412). The other criteria are giving order (0.099) and giving order after making discussion (0.076). With this result, it could be said that when managers set objectives about the organization, they are not only giving orders, but also they consider group decision at certain times. The most significant criteria in control process are top management control (0.459) and illegal organization control (0.459). Legal organization control (0.082) for performance evaluation is not preferred control style by managers. Table 8. Alternative Strategies Weights Alternatives 1. Exploitative authoritative 2. Benevolent authoritative 3. Consultants 4. Participative group Weights Finally, as shown in Table 8, the most preferred leadership styles by managers working at the University of Bayburt is participative group (0.4619). This followed by consultative (0.3496), exploitative authoritative (0.1058) and benevolent authoritative (0.0789) styles respectively The final weights calculated for the alternative leadership types as given in table 8. In accordance with the fuzzy AHP application, the most common leadership style is Participative group with the weight , followed by consultative with the weight at the University of Bayburt 9. CONCLUSION In this study, it is aimed at determining the leadership styles to Rensis Likert s System-4 Model by using the Fuzzy AHP Approach. According to the results, the most preferred leadership style by managers who work at the University of Bayburt, is a participative group (0.4619). It is followed by consultative (0.3496), exploitative authoritative (0.1058) and benevolent authoritative (0.0789) styles, respectively Generally considering the results of the research, it could be reached that managers participated 18

28 ID:431 K:475 JEL CODE: C38-C44-M10-M19 (Management and Organization) in our research focused on the different criteria forming leadership style. Since managers have not only a single management approach in every subject, they displayed different behaviors in different subjects and conditions. However, when the managers prefer participative group leadership style, it is very easy to reach the organizational objectives more effective and productive. REFERENCES ALANAZI, T. R., & RASLI, A. M., (2013). Overview of path-goal leadership theory. Comprehensive Research Journal of Management and Business Studies, 1(1), 1-6 ALI, N., JAN, S., & ALI, A., (2014). Transformational and Transactional Leadership as Predictors of Job Satisfaction, Commitment, Perceived Performance and Turnover Intention (Empirical Evidence from Malakand Division, Pakistan). Life Science Journal, 11(5), BAKAN, İ., & BULUT, Y., (2011). Yöneticilerin uyguladıkları liderlik yaklaşımlarına yönelik algılamaları: Likert in yönetim sistemleri yaklaşımı na dayalı bir alan çalışması. İstanbul Üniversitesi Siyasal Bilgiler Fakültesi Dergisi, (31), BARTOL, K., TEIN, M., MATTHEWS, G., SHARMA, B., RITSON, P., & SCOTT- LADD, B., (2008). Management Foundations - A Pacific Rim Focus (Second Edition). Sydney: McGraw-Hill BOLDEN, R., GOSLING, J., MARTURANO, A., & DENNISON, P., (2003). A review of leadership theory and competency frameworks. Centre for Leadership Studies, 1-42 BÜYÜKÖZKAN, G., & ÇİFTÇİ, G., (2012). A combined fuzzy AHP and fuzzy TOPSIS based strategic analysis of electronic service quality in healthcare industry. Expert Systems with Applications, 39(3), DOI: /j.eswa CARTER, S. M., & GREER, C. R., (2013). Strategic Leadership: Values, Styles, and Organizational Performance. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, 1-19, DOI: / CHAN, F. T., & KUMAR, N., (2007). Global supplier development considering risk factors using fuzzy extended AHP-based approach. Omega, 35(4), , DOI: /j. omega CHAN, F. T., KUMAR, N., TİWARİ, M. K., LAU, H. C. W., & CHOY, K. L., (2008). Global supplier selection: a fuzzy-ahp approach. International Journal of Production Research, 46(14), , DOI: / GONOS, J., & GALLO, P., (2013). Model for leadership style evaluation. Management: 19

29 ID:431 K:475 JEL CODE: C38-C44-M10-M19 (Management and Organization) Journal of Contemporary Management Issues, 18(2), GÜMÜŞLÜOĞLU, L., & İLSEV, A., (2009). Transformational leadership, creativity, and organizational innovation. Journal of Business Research, 62(4), , DOI: /j. jbusres HEIFETZ, R. A., & LAURIE, D. L., (1997). The work of leadership. Harvard Business Review, 75, s_management_systems, Erişim Tarihi: HUANG, C. C., CHU, P. Y., & CHİANG, Y. H., (2008). A fuzzy AHP application in government-sponsored R&D project selection. Omega, 36(6), , DOI: /j. omega IVANCEVICH, J. M. & Matteson, M. T., (2002). Organizational behavior and management, New York: McGraw-Hill Irvin KAHRAMAN, C., CEBECİ, U., & RUAN, D., (2004). Multi-attribute comparison of catering service companies using fuzzy AHP: the case of Turkey. International Journal of Production Economics, 87(2), , DOI: /S (03) KAHYA, C., (2013). Dönüştürücü ve etkileşimci liderlik anlayışları ile örgütsel sessizlik arasındaki ilişkide örgütsel güvenin rolü. Yayınlanmamış Doktora Tezi, Atatürk Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, Erzurum KE, W., & WEİ, K. K., (2008). Organizational culture and leadership in ERP implementation. Decision Support Systems, 45(2), , DOI: /j.dss KOH, S. E., (2008). Leadership and management skills of preservice teachers, Unpublished Ph. D. Thesis, Graduate University, California. LANDIS, E. A., HILL, D., & HARVEY, M. R., (2014). A Synthesis of Leadership Theories and Styles. Journal of Management, 15(2), LEE, A. H., (2009). A fuzzy supplier selection model with the consideration of benefits, opportunities, costs and risks. Expert Systems with Applications, 36(2), , DOI: /j.eswa LEVAY, C., (2010). Charismatic leadership in resistance to change. The Leadership Quarterly, 21(1), , DOI: /j. leaqua Lİ, S. & Lİ, J. Z., (2009). Hybridizing human judgment, AHP, simulation and a fuzzy expert system for strategy formulation under uncertainty. Expert Systems with Applications, 36(3), , DOI: /j. eswa

30 ID:431 K:475 JEL CODE: C38-C44-M10-M19 (Management and Organization) LUNENBURG, F. C., (2010). The decision making process. National forum of educational administration and supervision journal. 27(4), 1-9 LUSSIER, R., & ACHUA, C. (2012). Leadership: Theory, application, & skill development. South-Western: Cengage Learning MODAFF, D. P., BUTLER, J. A., & DEWINE, S., (2008). Organizational communication: Foundations, challenges, and misunderstandings (Third Edition). Glenview: Pearson Education MODAFF, D. P., BUTLER, J. A., & DEWINE, S., (2008). Organizational communication: Foundations, challenges, and misunderstandings (Third Edition). Glenview: Pearson Education MORA-WHITEHURST, R., (2013). The Relationship Between Elementary Principals Visionary Leadership and Students Reading Performance. The Educational Forum, 77(3), NASSAR, M. E., ABDOU, H. A., & MOHM- OUD, N. A., (2011). Relationship between Management Styles and Nurses Retention at Private Hospitals. Alexandria Journal of Medicine, 47(3), , DOI: /j. ajme NORTHOUSE, P., (2012). Leadership: Theory and Practice (Sixth Edition). California: Sage Publications ÖZGEN, H., ÖZTÜRK, A. & YALÇIN, A., (2001). Temel İşletmecilik Bilgisi. Adana: Bobel Kitabevi PERETOMODE, O., (2012). Situational And Contingency Theories Of Leadership: Are They The Same?. IOSR Journal of Business and Management, 4(3), PHIPPS, K. A., (2012). Spirituality and strategic leadership: the influence of spiritual beliefs on strategic decision making. Journal of Business Ethics, 106(2), , DOI / s ROWE, W. G., & GUERRERO, L., (2012). Cases in Leadership (Second Edition). California: Sage Publications STOGDILL, R. M., (1974). Handbook of Leadership: A Survey of Literature. New York: Free Press VAN DIEREDONCK, D., (2011). Servant leadership: A review and synthesis. Journal of Management, 37(4), , DOI: / WANG, H., SUI, Y., LUTHANS, F., WANG, D., & WU, Y. (2014). Impact of authentic leadership on performance: Role of followers positive psychological capital and relational processes. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 35(1), 5-21, DOI: /job

31 ID:431 K:475 JEL CODE: C38-C44-M10-M19 (Management and Organization) LIKERT İN SİSTEM-4 MODELİ KAPSAMINDA LİDERLİK TARZLARININ BULANIK AHP YAKLAŞIMI KULLANILARAK DEĞERLENDİRİLMESİ Öz: Liderlik ve liderlik süreci, başarıya giden yolda örgütler için çok önemli faktörlerdir. Özellikle günümüz dünyası, tüm alanlardaki örgütler arasında şaşırtıcı mücadelelerle karşı karşıya kaldığından, şimdiki örgütler her zamankinden daha fazla liderlere ihtiyaç duymaktadırlar. Bundan dolayı, bu çalışmanın amacı, Likert in Sistem-4 Modeli kapsamında liderlik tarzlarının bulanık AHP Yaklaşımı kullanılmak suretiyle belirlenmesidir. Çalışmada Bu amaçla, Bayburt Üniversitesi nde çalışan toplam 12 akademik yönetici arasında ankete dayalı bir alan araştırması yürütülmüştür. Böyle bir çalışmanın bir üniversite örgütünde yapılmasının nedeni ise, üniversitelerin, ülkelerin geleceklerini şekillendiren yerler olmaları nedeniyle tüm ülkeler için çok önemli örgütler olmalarıdır. Bu çalışma, giriş, amaç, kapsam, metod, problem, kısıtlar, literatür taraması, bulgular ve sonuç olmak üzere çeşitli kısımları içermektedir. Çalışma ile ilgili olarak daha detaylı bilgiler vermek gerekirse; bu çalışmada Rensis Likert in Sistem-4 Modeli dikkate alınmıştır. Söz konusu bu model, dört adet liderlik tarzı içermektedir. Bunlar: İstismarcı Otokratik Lidelik Tarzı, Yardımsever Otokratik Liderlik Tarzı, Danışmacı Yönetim Liderlik Tarzı ve Katılımcı Grup Liderlik Tarzı dır. İstismarcı otokratik liderlik tarzında yönetici, astlarına hiç güvenmez ve örgüt ile ilgili tüm kararlar, üst yönetim tarafından alınır. Yardımsever otokratik liderlik tarzında yönetici, astlarına biraz güvenir ve bazı rutin karakterli örgütsel konular ile ilgili kararlar, hiyerarşinin alt kısımları tarafından alınabilir. Danışmacı yönetim liderlik tarzında yönetici, astlarına karşı kabul edilebilir bir güven sahibidir, ancak tam olarak astlarına güvenmez. Bu tarz bir liderlik anlayışına sahip olan yönetici, önem derecesi düşük olan örgütsel konular ile ilgili kararların, hiyerarşinin alt basamaklarında alınmasına izin vermektedirler. Son olarak, katılımcı grup tarzı bir liderlik anlayışına sahip olan yönetici, astlarına tamamıyla güvenmekte ve tüm hiyerarşik düzeylerde yer alan astlarını, örgütsel konular ile ilgili karar alma sürecine dahil etmektedir. Söz konusu bu liderlik tarzlarının etkinliği ve başarısı, 1 den 4 e kadar düşmektedir. Diğer bir ifadeyle, örgütsel süreçlerde en etkisiz ve başarısız liderlik tarzı, istismarcı otokratik liderlik tarzı iken, aksine en etkili ve başarılı olan liderlik tarzı ise, katılımcı grup liderlik tarzı olarak karşımıza çıkmaktadır. Bu bağlamda, araştırmanın evreni olarak seçilen Bayburt Üniversitesi nde farklı bölümlerin başkanlık görevini yapan 12 akademik yöneticinin hangi liderlik tarzını sergiledikleri belirlenmeye çalışılmıştır. Bu akademik yöneticilere, Rensis Likert tarafından geliştirilen anket formunda yer alan Liderlik Süreci, Motive Ediciler, İletişim Süreci, Karar Alma Süreci, Amaçları Belirleme ve Kontrol Süreci 22

32 ID:431 K:475 JEL CODE: C38-C44-M10-M19 (Management and Organization) değişkenleri kapsayan ifadelerden oluşan sorular yöneltilmiştir. Aynı zamanda, bu değişkenler, çeşitli alt değişkenleri de içermektedir. Bunlar: Liderlik Sürecinin alt değişkenleri olan Astlara Güven, Astların Konuşma Özgürlüğü, Astların Fikirlerine Danışma değişkenleri; Motive Edicilerin alt değişkenleri olan Tehdit, Cezalandırma, Ödüllendirme, Katılımcılık (Karar Almada Katılım), Sorumluluk, Grup Çalışması değişkenleri; İletişim Sürecinin alt değişkenleri olan Aşağıya Bilgi Akışı, Yukarıya Bilgi Akışı, Hem Aşağıya, Hem de Yukarıya Bilgi Akışı, Hem Aşağıya, Hem Yukarıya, Hem de Yanlara Bilgi Akışı değişkenleri; Karar Alma Sürecinin alt değişkenleri olan Üst Yönetim Kararı ve Astların Karar Almaya Katılımı değişkenleri, Amaçları Belirlemenin alt değişkenleri olan Emir Verme, Astların Fikirlerini Aldıktan Sonra Emir Verme, Tartıştıktan Sonra Emir Verme ve Grup Kararı (Kriz Dönemleri Hariç) değişkenleri ve son olarak Kontrol Sürecinin alt değişkenleri olan Üst Yönetim Kontrolü, Yasal Örgüt Kontrolü, Yasal Olmayan Örgüt Kontrolü ve Performans Değerlendirme değişkenleridir. Söz konusu bu temel ve alt değişkenlerden yararlanılmak suretiyle Rensis Likert in liderlik tarzları (istismarcı otokratik, yardımsever otokratik, danışmacı ve katılımcı grup), Bulanık AHP Yaklaşımı kullanılarak ağırlıklandırılmış ve yöneticiler arasında en çok tercih edilen liderlik tarzının katılımcı grup tarzı liderlik anlayışı olduğu sonucuna varılmıştır. Anahtar Kelimeler: Liderlik, Rensis Likert s System-4 Model, Bulanık AHP Yaklaşımı 23

33 IIBINTERNATIONAL REFEREED ACADEMIC SOCIAL SCIENCES JOURNAL CONSIDERING THE PHENOMENA OF COUNTRYSIDE CITY DISTINCTION IN THE CASE OF HAVSA 1 Hakan YA޹, Talat GÜLER² ¹ Trakya University, Havsa Vocational School, Department of Finance, Banking and Insurance Edirne / Turkey ² Trakya University Havsa Vocational School, Department of Management and Organization Edirne / Turkey Abstract: There are certain phenomena put forth that urban life is distinct from rural life. Some of these distinctions are disparities in income level, household population, status of ownership and vocation professed. The distinctions between countryside and city has become more apparent in historical process. In this paper, the rural and urban area of the Havsa District of Edirne are contrasted. Center of Havsa District is taken as the city, whereas the villages are taken as countryside. The commonly held features of the distinction between countryside and city have been dealt by taking the historical process into consideration initially. Then, these features have been compared with the results of survey study conducted. In this context, the aim of this paper is to examine the determiners of the distinction between countryside and city in the case of Havsa. Through the comparison, it is tried to figure out whether the phenomena of the distinctions between countryside and city is observed in Havsa. Separate from the most studies in the literature, in this study, the distinction is also compared in terms of the expectations of the public. Key Words: Rural Life, Urban Life, Urbanization, Havsa, Expectation Doi: /IIB (1) Corresponding Author: Hakan YAŞ, Trakya University, Havsa Vocational School, Department of Finance, Banking and Insurance Edirne / Turkey Received: Accepted: Typeofarticle (Research -Application) Conflict of Interest: None NoneofEthicsCommittee 24

34 ID:427 K:413 JEL CODE: H1-H7-M10-M19-Z17 (Local Government) INTRODUCTION The two main types of settlements that human being lives in earth are either countryside or city. It is known that one of these spatial forms has been preferred to the other in different societies and in different historical periods. Nature events and economic and social revolutions carried out by human being have been the facts triggering the changes in preferences. Rural area is the first space in earth that human exercised land use and settled.as rural area couches not only a certain location but also a life style, the notions rural life and rural settlement refers, however, to the rural area as well.urry offers that the conception of the rural refers to three different expressions: all those areas in which agricultural production dominates the local economy, a particular structuring of local civil societies in which the patterns of social reproduction and social struggle are structured by the class relations engendered by ownership and control of the agricultural means of production, and those areas that population have rather to be located in urban areas as the means of collective consumption cannot be provided economically (Urry, 1995: 79-80). Kıray used the term peasant as the people living in rural. She, however, emphasized that peasantry could not be defined as the people only living in agricultural areas. Peasantry is an isolated, closed and self-sufficient community that keeps the traditions, values and faiths alive, and produces surplus with limited means. Their relation with cities mostly have remained merely limited to tax or military duty (Kıray, 2003: 184). Contemporarily, rural life is described as a more homogenous settlement compared to cities, where the people living have different vocations, different life styles and different possibilities for obtaining goods and services, the main activities are related to local issues and there is a limited interaction between urban and rural population (OECD, 2010: 14). Briefly, the needs of the population living in rural area are considerably primary. Nonetheless, city represents a more complex structure. Wirth, sociologically, defines the city as a relatively large, dense, and permanent settlement of heterogeneous individuals (Wirth, 1938: 1). In his opinion, large accounts for individual variability, the relative absence of intimate personal acquaintanceship and the segmentation of human relations. On the other hand he uses the term density so as to involve diversification and specialization, the coincidence of close physical contact and distant social relations, glaring contrasts, a complex pattern of segregation, the predominance of formal social control and the accentuated friction. These conceptions explained 25

35 ID:427 K:413 JEL CODE: H1-H7-M10-M19-Z17 (Local Government) by Wirth sum up the complexity of social urban relations as well. Flanagan claims that while studying the concept of city it is referred to a matrix of activities that together comprise one of the largest and most complex forms of social organization. He also argues that city has no certain cultural, politic and economic dimensions over a community (Flanagan, 1990: 7-9). Giving a similar description to Flanagan, Friedman claims that the new dimensions of the city are ultimately determined by big gains made by economic activities, and seem to be unlimited. Social organization pursues the private gain as well (Friedmann, 1979: 30-36). The urban space, defined as built environment by Harvey (Harvey, 1982: 232), is a man-made structure and has distinguishing features. Harvey argues that the built environment is made from an endless list comprising factories, dams, offices, shops, roads, power stations, schools, hospitals, parks, cinemas etc. (Harvey, 1982: ). Contrast to the built environment of city, rural area is a noncomplex and neutral space. Wirth points out that the cities remove the human being from organic nature, and claims that the characteristic settlement forms of countryside are the farm, the manor and the village(wirth, 1938: 3). Since the initiations of defining the concepts of the city and countryside tend to refer to the different features of urban and rural area, we should, therefore, have a detailed look to explicit differences between city and countryside. DISTINGUISHING FEATURES OF COUNTRYSIDE AND CITY As both city and countryside have distinguishing features, people should have diverse arguments to live either in urban or rural areas. So, it can be set forth that it is an option to move from rural life to urban life. Movement from rural area to urban space not only coexists all around the world concurrently but also it is not an indispensable process. The presence of people still living in rural area demonstrates the situation. According to OECD data, the ratio of people living in rural area to total population in 30 OECD countries is 32% in 2012 (OECD, 2013: 27).As of 2012, all the rural population in the world is approximately 47% of the total population. In 1960s, 66% of total population has been living rural area, it has been observed that 28% of this population has begun to prefer urban areas to rural areas in the last five decades (The World Bank, 2014). After the World War II, rural areas have been increasingly exposed to emigration, while the population of urban areas have begun to increase in number on the contrary. 26

36 ID:427 K:413 JEL CODE: H1-H7-M10-M19-Z17 (Local Government) People get used to natural environment and systems surrounding themselves, and have close relations to natural factors in the rural area. Countryside is also the space in which production initially began. Since it is the first space that agricultural production achieved, Mesopotamia is accepted to be the origin of the civilizations (Güvenç, 1999: 176)(Huot, Thalmann, & Valbelle, 2000: 13)(Flanagan, 1990: 9). The primitive footprints of the effects of natural conditions on agricultural activities have concretized in this territory. The idea of the ability to control agricultural production by the help of determining arid and pluvial periods gave rise to evoke of the calendar, astronomy and geometry sciences(güvenç, 1999: 176).As each department of science refers to different area of specialization, increasing division of labor brought out the first cities in this territory. Evaluating from this perspective, city is one of the results of the agricultural activities. Natural conditions are not the basic determiners of the life in the city, in contrast to the countryside.agricultural fields are the heritage of the ancient people. As being the shaped landscapes, city and -but especiallycountryside are the result of human activity which is formed on the basis of needs and experiences of working on the ground(saeedi & Mighani, 2013: 57). There is, by Harvey s conceptualization, a built environment in the urban life, by contrast with the rural life in which a human being meets his basic needs by processing the nature. The basic needs of a human being can be met by various means of production and consumption in this built environment. Countryside is, at least in practice, an areawhich is under control of the nature, whereas city is almost a manageable application area. This, however, does not mean that human being has a direct control over city, and that nature events do not affect city as it is independent of the nature. Mumford claims that the primitive body of city exists in countryside. In his view, the spaces most of which are public such as house, sacred space, public roads, cistern and square also exist in countryside (Mumford, 2007: 29-32). Aristotle argues that city comes out when several villages are united in a single complete community, large enough to be nearly or quite self-sufficing (Aristotle, 2001: 2). It keeps on existing by originating in the bare needs of life, and for the sake of a good life. And therefore, if the earlier forms of society are natural, so is the city (Aristotle, 2001: 2). Before the existence of city, there were cottages and hamlets cultivating the surrounding lands, besides villages(pounds, 2005: xxiii). However, some part of these settlements changed into cities over time. According to Mumford, countryside spread to a wider area than the city did as it also increased 27

37 ID:427 K:413 JEL CODE: H1-H7-M10-M19-Z17 (Local Government) in number more rapidly and effectively than city, although cities began to shape with the help of the efforts of replacement from countryside to city. Therefore Mumford says countryside existed when city not, whereas countryside is going to be existing ever so city not. (Mumford, 2007: 42-43). Karl Marx is another scholar noting the importance of countryside. He argues that the time based on rural life and agricultural labor is a golden age (Shipside, 2009: 107). According to him, the position of the English agricultural laborer from 1770 to 1780, with regard to his food and dwelling, as well as to his self-respect, amusements and etc, is an ideal never lived again since that time(marx, 1995: 463). In this period, the greater part ofagricultural land in England was owned by landowners who leased itout to tenant farmers for a fixed annual rent. The fixed rent tenant agreed to pay a certain money rentto the landlord irrespective of the profitability of the harvest, ensuring thatthe landowner s income, at least in contract, was insulated from the risksof an unprofitable year(stead, 2004: 334). The average wage of agricultural laborer shrunk in 1797 and 1808 as 28% and 30% respectively, in comparison the wage in 1770 (Marx, Capital, 1995: 463). This period was, as known well, one in which industrialization and urbanizm grew rapidly in England. In another formerly study of Marx and Engels in which they searched the labor wages, they also present an assumption that industrial cities would have been in short time losing their population of workers if they had been not all time receiving from the neighboring rural areas constant recruitments of healthy men(marx & Engels, 2012: 26). In sum, the disparity in wages which is one of the phenomena between city and countryside is that the wages in rural area have begun to shrink as a result of urbanization. The wages of laborers working in, and the gains in agriculture have increasingly declined whereas the wages of some professions such as commercial man, producer and banker have increased rapidly. The type of mode of production is another most apparent phenomenon of the distinction between city and countryside. It is assumed that human being was keeping his life up as a hunter and/or a gatherer throughout Ice Age (Childe, 2010: 42-53). In this kind of access to food, it is possible for human to integrate into their settlements fully.vital activities in this given space is limited to some materials that are worthy of hunting and gathering, and also the dominance of natural space is determiner. The spaces in which reproductional relations intensify come up in conjunction with agricultural production. The spatial mobility of human were inhibited by the Neolithic Period. This most comprehensive division of la- 28

38 ID:427 K:413 JEL CODE: H1-H7-M10-M19-Z17 (Local Government) bor formed by the arising of surplus product manifests itself as spatial differentiation (Ercan, 2004: 151).The spatial differentiation, however, is the separation of countryside and city. Besides, Khorev takes the rural and urban area as traditional partners in exchanging production.he argues that exchange between specific assets of urban and rural areas occurs through mutual urban and rural investment flows of several kinds of capital. Flows between urban and rural area caused to built up not only economical linkage but also the superstructure in which the city steers the countryside (Küle, 2014: 762). The first change of the economy based on agriculture got started in the Neolithic Age, the period when the climate warmed and biodiversity got vary. In this age, which is called as Neolithic revolution by Childe, man began to cultivate and to grow plants (Childe, 2010: 54-58).As agricultural activities settled man at a certain space, it points at primitive settlements.middle East, even more specifically Nile River Valley and Mesopotamia, are known to be the primitive settlements where the civilization arouse and spread(huot, Thalmann, & Valbelle, 2000: 13)(Flanagan, 1990: 16). As the movements of the Earth around the Sun had begun to be observed, agricultural activities were set up controlledly. Furthermore, this advance led certain sciences such as astronomy, mathematics, accounting to develop. As the result of controlled and irrigated farming, surplus which would bring about a major social organization was discovered, and it, then, triggered the process of the transformation of countries to cities(childe, 2010: 79-82)(Güvenç, 1999: 176). Cities as the settlements where the handling of surpluses engaged in, began to get apart from countries, whereas rural areas remained as the spaces in which agriculture held on. Formation of social organization and emergence of social stratification were occurred after some phases. As mentioned in the previous paragraph, human being began to observe the nature after the agricultural activities had launched. It was determined that certain periods and natural events caused productivity to either increase or decrease. As human being maintained to cultivate by adapting agriculture to these conditions, it made to control surplus possible. This development inevitably initiated the increase in productivity per capita.it should be noted that the primary social stratification occurred in Middle East where the civilization originated in, thanks to some developments such as militia system which came up in order to guard surplus, assigning a commander for each of them, electing managers and preserving surplus under the control of pontiffs (Kayıkçı, 2007). Because countries produced more than they could consume, cities that did not require 29

39 ID:427 K:413 JEL CODE: H1-H7-M10-M19-Z17 (Local Government) production to survive began to occur. The population of these cities, however, remained subject to surplus (Güvenç, 1999: 175). The increase in population led to jump in demand of goods and services resulted from common life. The issue of catering to demand of different goods and services was solved as the people in city undertook different functions. Marx clarifies this solution by the help of the concept of division of labour which is a necessary condition for the production of commodities(marx, 1995: 30). According to Marx, firstly, workers, from the moment they are taken from the rural environment of growing food, are alienated from the product of their labor, and then they are alienated from the labor process itself because the division of labor reduced the craft involved(shipside, 2009: 158). That is a real possibility that the individual producers formed by division of labor made several inventions because they increasingly specialized in their production and achieved new experiments between each other. Max Weber considers the rationalization of the process by producers and entrepreneurs.weber relays an incident that a citizen changes the manufacturing system in the process(weber, 2005): A young man from one of the putting-out families went out into the country, carefully chose weavers for his employ, greatly increased the rigor of his supervision of their work, and thus turned them from peasants into laborers. Weber terms the process which denatures the system of production and trade as rationalization.the said process increased the competition and the wealth the capital did not lend out at interest, but always reinvested in the business (Weber, 2005). Thus, social stratification in the social system was intensified with the help of the accumulation of the capital in certain hands and the turn of the peasants into laborers.the samples mentioned above indicate that the social stratification is parallel to the rise of cities, the growth of cities, and the accumulation of capital in cities. The exchange of goods produced had been the first step of trade. This mode of production based on agriculture has been transformed in Medieval Age. Feudalism, in this Age, is the determiner of relations between city and countryside, of social, political and economical relations, and of urban or local governments in today s context. The increase in trade paved the way for bourgeoisie by the help of the feudal system based on both class and suzerain vassal dependence (Pirenne, 2014: )(Göze, 2005: 73-76). Trade meant the crucial element of city in Medieval Age. Trade was the root cause underlying the presence of the most important political, economical and social fact of city in 30

40 ID:427 K:413 JEL CODE: H1-H7-M10-M19-Z17 (Local Government) this Age. This, however, does not mean that there was only trade in city and agricultural activities did not engage in city. Pirenneexplains this fact as following(pirenne, 2014: 74): If by the word city is meant a locality the population of which, instead of living by cultivating the soil, devotes itself to commercial activity, the answer will have to be No. The answer will also be in the negative if we understand by city a community endowed with legal entity and possessing laws and institutions peculiar to itself. (25-47) From Pirenne s point of view, it is understood that there cannot be certain boundaries between countryside and urban areas from the beginning of Medieval Ages. Agricultural economy was the productive unit in Middle Ages, which promotes city and meets consumption. The fertility of the soil made possible for them not only an unlimited expansion, but also the ease of obtaining markets favored both the importation of raw materials and the exportation of manufactured products (Pirenne, 2014: 98). Thus, it can be presumed that the interaction between countryside and city was existing. Middle Age is the period that trade improved. Commercial activities existed in the years before Middle Age, as did in Mesopotamia civilizations. But the leading features that distinguish Medieval Ages Commerce from the ages before these are overseas and long distance commercial relations (Pounds, 2005: 6). Some kind of changes, as mentioned above, have been occurred in the mode of production in Middle Age, as a result of the interaction between these commercial relations and feudal structure. This process of rationalization played a role in the evolution of feudal system and of commercial relations to Industrial Revolution. Marx states that the capitalist mode of production presents itself as an immense accumulation of commodities (Marx, 1995: 26). According to him, The mode of production in which the product takes the form of a commodity, or is produced directly for exchange, is the most general and most embryonic form of bourgeois production. (Marx, 1995: 51). One of the most distinguishing features of the capitalist mode of production is ownership. Ownership and capital belongs to feudal lords in the feudal system which is the dominant social and economical structure in the Middle Age. The feudal lord (suzerain) had a protectorate mission, whereas the peasants who had no property (vassal) had an obligation to cultivate the lands of feudal lords.lands and capital accumulation were under the domination of feudal lords. From the point of Pirenne s views, city, capital and liberty were inseparable parts (Pirenne, 2014). This relation, at the same time, was providing the stiffening 31

41 ID:427 K:413 JEL CODE: H1-H7-M10-M19-Z17 (Local Government) of social stratification.especially the transformation in the order of Medieval Cities, and the Industrial Revolution as the second revolution of mankind, happened after a couple of centuries, had notably stepped up the distinction between countryside and city. The Industrial Revolution has increased the world population quite rapidly in the leadership of urban population.how could agricultural machines cause a decrease in the rural population of some regions of United States in the 19th century, (Marx, 1995: 325)today, also, it is observed that using machines in agricultural production invite decreases in rural population in the other countries. New products, a new technology leading by tractor and huge surplus labor made by market-oriented production has pushed the rural residents to leave their lands (Kıray, 2003: 184). Society becoming increasingly urbanized by force of migration from country to city, however, includes the following elements: erosion of intimacy, growth of relations involving collisions, decline in family domination, increase in relations based on contracting, and using solidarity based on varied individual differences instead of solidarity based on common life and identity (Flanagan, 1990: 47). These elements also imply that city has a more complicated structure than country has. OECD data on years among 2000 and 2012 indicate that urban population including its hinterland increased in the cities by population size as following; 1.06% between and , 0.93% between and , 1.07% between and 1.5 million and 1.56% above 1.5 million. According to same data, in 2012, urbanization ratio is above 70% in developed countries such as Canada, United Kingdom, Japan, Netherland and USA, whereas urbanization ratio of OECD countries is 68%. The same ration, however, is under 50% in developing countries such as Eastern Bloc countries (OECD, 2013: 27).Employment data based on industries indicates a contradiction to urbanization data. The ratio of employment in agricultural sector to total employment in developed countries is not above 10%, whereas it is over 20% in developing countries(oecd, 2013: 73). METHOD The results of the survey study conducted in the center of Havsa District and the 22 villages of Havsa in 2012 used in the field research part of the study. 775 people in the center of Havsa District and people in the villages of Havsa involved this survey. The survey form comprises two parts, demographic and economic data and socioeconomic expectations. There are 53 questions of the survey form in total, but only some particular questions of it included in this study. For instance, detailed ownership questions put in the de- 32

42 ID:427 K:413 JEL CODE: H1-H7-M10-M19-Z17 (Local Government) mographic and economic data part and detailed expectation questions put in the socioeconomic expectations excluded as they are not within the scope of the research. Demographic data were also reinforced with Turkish Statistical Institute (TUİK) data besides survey study. Data on the population and gender of district center, the villages and district overall provided from Address Based Population Registration System (ADNKS) Database registered by TUİK. Descriptive statistics were used in interpreting the results of survey data initially. Chi- Square hypothesis test was also used in order to identify certain distinctions such as identifying income disparities by vocation, ownership status by vocation and etc. It is encountered that some studies in the literature based on the leading distinctions of city and countryside. For instance, Singh vesiahpush(2014)used some demographic data such as age groups, gender and total population, income level data and health data. Pocol(2012) crosschecked the population of urban and rural area with some demographic data such as age and gender. Similar to Pocol, Küle (2014) considered demographic data with immigration data. SaeediveMighani(2013)studied the interaction between city and countryside based on observations, starting from the rural mode of production. ChunmeiveGuiting(2014)associated the income disparity between urban and rural area to level of education and the population working in agriculture. In this study, in parallel with the studies searched, demographic and economic data considered together. Furthermore, separate from the others, the expectations of the public also involved in the scope of the study. DATA AND FINDINGS The population of Havsa District decreased from people to people between the years 2009 and 2013, it means approximately 4% fall. If the results of the countryside and the city is evaluated separately, it shows a different aspect. Figure1: Rural population of Havsa Figure2: Urban population of Havsa The population of rural area of Havsa was people in 2013, whereas it was people as of The population of urban area, however, was and people in the same years, respectively. These figures indicating that there is a movement from rural to urban area in Havsa, also indicate that the movement in male is more than in the female, within a gender based separation.nevertheless, the decrease in the total population of Havsa District indicates that there is also a movement towards out of Havsa. 33

43 ID:427 K:413 JEL CODE: H1-H7-M10-M19-Z17 (Local Government) Table 1: Hometown of Participants Valid Percent Countryside Cumulative Percent Valid Percent City Cumulative Percent HAVSA 89,3 89,3 70,2 70,2 EDİRNE 3,7 93,0 7,1 77,4 KIRKLARELİ 1,2 94,1 5,3 82,7 TEKİRDAĞ,3 94,4 1,9 84,6 DİĞER 5,6 100,0 15,4 100,0 Total 100,0 100,0 Table 1 shows the settlement of birth of people participated in the survey. Havsa is the hometown of the nearly 90% of people living in rural area. Looking through a narrow perspective, the settlement of these people is the village in which they settle. But the urban area is more heterogeneous, in the same perspective. The homeland of birth of the 30% of residents, their hometown, is not Havsa. In other words, Havsa let immigrants in not only from its villages but also from out of the District. Both it is limited to let in immigration to rural area and there is a sense of belonging to the agriculture. The Table below indicates the distribution of the percentage of the participants by the sectors that they work, as of both in rural and urban area. Table 2: Sectors That Participants Work Countryside City Farmer ,94% 61 10,82% Laborer ,31% ,72% Civil Servant 26 3,96% 84 14,89% Freelancer 97 14,79% ,57% Three quarters of the participants working in the city is either laborer or freelancer, whereas the most of the participants working in rural area engage in agriculture. 10% of the people working in any sector is the farmers engaging in urban area. According to the survey results, it is also confronted with the people who engage in more than one sector. The percentage 34

44 ID:427 K:413 JEL CODE: H1-H7-M10-M19-Z17 (Local Government) of the participants engaging in another sector as well as agriculture is approximately 5% of the total number of observation, whereas it is 1,5% in urban area. Providing a comparison between the levels of income, an explicit disparity does also appear between the countryside and the city. Table 3. Income Level (TL) Countryside City Incomeless ,67% ,75% ,04% ,74% ,20% ,67% ,33% 51 6,66% ,76% 32 4,18% According to Table 3, nearly 80% of the residents of rural area has an income less than TL. 50% of the total urban population comprises of the people having less than TL in urban area. As for a different view, the percentage of the people in urban area having income more than TL is just above 30% of the total population, whereas the percentage of the people having more than TL does not exceed 20% of the total rural population. There is a more meaningful countryside-city disparity in terms of the comparison of income level and the vocation professed. 35

45 ID:427 K:413 JEL CODE: H1-H7-M10-M19-Z17 (Local Government) Table 4. One-way Analysis of Variance of the Relation Between Income Level and Sector Tukey HSD SECTOR INCOME LEVEL - Countryside NONWORKER 325 1,42 N Subset for alpha = FARMER 424 2,26 LABORER 107 2,30 FREELANCER 97 2,53 CIVIL SERVANT 26 3,15 Sig. 1,000,082 1,000 Tukey HSD SECTOR INCOME LEVEL - City N NONWORKER 200 1,49 LABORER 224 2,33 Subset for alpha = FARMER 61 2,48 2,48 FREELANCER 194 2,71 CIVIL SERVANT 84 3,33 Sig. 1,000,628,170 1,000 The levels of income of farmer, laborer and freelancer are close to each other because of the lower level of income in rural area. It is observed that the level of income in urban area seems to be separated a bit more with regard to vocation. A statistically significant relation between the level of income and vocation professed in both urban and rural area has been obtained.it is also determined that this percentage is higher in urban area than in the rural. So this result shows that there is a more variation of vocation and of distribution of income in urban area. 36

46 ID:427 K:413 JEL CODE: H1-H7-M10-M19-Z17 (Local Government) Table 5. Satisfaction of Income Level Valid Percent Countryside Cumulative Percent Valid Percent City Cumulative Percent Don t agree at all 39,3 39,3 24,2 24,2 Don t agree 21,8 61,1 25,2 49,4 Neither agree nor disagree 7,6 68,7 5,9 55,4 Agree 22,9 91,5 33,0 88,4 Fully agree 8,5 100,0 11,6 100,0 Total 100,0 100,0 The percentage of the participants who don t satisfy their income is slightly below 50% in urban area, whereas it is above 60% in rural area. In Table 6, the percentage of the participants who can save money is figured. Table 6. Percentage of Participants Who Save Money from Income Countryside City Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Don t agree at all 60,9 60,9 38,2 38,2 Don t agree 23,8 84,7 33,3 71,5 Neither agree nor disagree 4,4 89,1 5,2 76,7 Agree 8,1 97,2 18,9 95,6 Fully agree 2,8 100,0 4,4 100,0 Total 100,0 100,0 The total percentage of the participants that can t save money from income is around 85% of the rural population, whereas it is below 72% in urban area. So, the percentage of the ability of saving money from income is higher in the urban area than in the rural area. The participants are asked whether they are thinking of buying either movable or real estate in or out of Havsa within the next year, in order to examine capital accumulation with a different view. According to the results in the urban area, the percentage of the people who do not think of buying real estate either in or 37

47 ID:427 K:413 JEL CODE: H1-H7-M10-M19-Z17 (Local Government) out of Havsa is less than 80% of the total. The same result in the rural area is around 92%. However, the percentage of the people who do not think of buying movable estate is less than 83% of the total in urban area, whereas it is about 95% in rural area. Table 7. I m Thinking of Moving out of Havsa Within the Next Year in Order to Reside Countryside City Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Don t agree at all 78,8 78,8 65,2 65,2 Don t agree 11,9 90,7 19,3 84,6 Neither agree nor disagree 1,2 91,9 4,5 89,1 Agree 4,8 96,7 8,2 97,3 Fully agree 3,3 100,0 2,7 100,0 Table 8. I m Thinking of Moving Out of Havsa Within the Next Year in Order to Work Countryside City Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Don t agree at all 80,5 80,5 65,3 65,3 Don t agree 11,1 91,6 19,0 84,3 Neither agree nor disagree 1,2 92,8 5,0 89,4 Agree 5,0 97,8 8,2 97,5 Fully agree 2,2 100,0 2,5 100,0 It is figured in Table 7 and 8 that whether the participants think of moving out of Havsa within the next year for two different reasons. The 85% percentage of the participants living in urban area do not think of moving out of Havsa neither to reside nor to work. However, the total number of participants do not think of moving out of Havsa is more than 91% of the total participants in the rural area. It is analyzed in Table 9 that whether or not the income level has an effect on the decision of the participants to move out of Havsa. 38

48 ID:427 K:413 JEL CODE: H1-H7-M10-M19-Z17 (Local Government) Table 9. Relation Between the Income Level and the Decision on Moving out of Residence df Chi-Square Tests Value (countryside) Asymp. Sig. (2-sided) Value (city) Asymp. Sig. (2-sided) Pearson Chi-Square 16 22,048 a,142 13,363 a,646 Likelihood Ratio 16 18,735,283 13,919,605 Linear-by-Linear Association 1 6,344,012 0,026,873 N of Valid Cases As shown in Table 9, there is no statistically significant relationship between the income level and the decision of moving out of the residence of the participants both in the urban and in the rural area. Thus, a distinction between the urban and the rural area is not in question. Considering the tendency of moving from another point of view, it is regarded as there is a distinction between the urban and the rural area. Table 10 figures the relation between the hometown of the participants and their decision on moving out of their residence. Table 10. Relation Between Hometown and the Decision on Moving out of Residence df Chi-Square Tests Value (countryside) Asymp. Sig. (2-sided) Value (city) Asymp. Sig. (2-sided) Pearson Chi-Square 16 73,144a,000 22,692a,122 Likelihood Ratio 16 27,046 23,113 Linear-by-Linear Association 1 1,471 4,051 N of Valid Cases There is not a statistically significant relationship between the hometown of the participants and their decision on moving out of their residence in the urban area. There is, however, a direct affect of the hometown on the decision of moving out of residence in the rural area. As shown in Table 10, an individual whose place of birth is a village 39

49 ID:427 K:413 JEL CODE: H1-H7-M10-M19-Z17 (Local Government) in Havsa does not have a decision relating to moving out of this place. On the other hand, an individual in the urban area which is more heterogeneous than the rural, is more able to make a decision on moving out of Havsa than the one living in the rural area. There is a distinction between the urban and the rural area with regard to the expectations relating to the potential recovery of employment opportunities. Table 11. Expectation Relating to Recovery of Employment Opportunities Countryside City Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Don t agree at all 49,5 49,5 36,4 36,4 Don t agree 21,6 71,1 29,4 65,8 Neither agree nor disagree 16,8 88,0 15,9 81,7 Agree 8,5 96,5 11,7 93,4 Fully agree 3,5 100,0 6,6 100,0 Total 100,0 100,0 The participants are also asked about their expectations relating to investment. There is no significant distinction among the participants thinking that there should be more investment to Havsa, in terms of their unit of residence. The need to invest in Havsa is reacted positively not only in the urban area but also in the rural area, with a percentage of 90% of total participants. The last phenomenon considered for the distinction between city and countryside is the overall satisfaction of living in Havsa. 40

50 ID:427 K:413 JEL CODE: H1-H7-M10-M19-Z17 (Local Government) Table 12. Overall Satisfaction of Living in Havsa Countryside City Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Don t agree at all 9,0 9,0 13,1 13,1 Don t agree 5,3 14,3 15,6 28,6 Neither agree nor disagree 5,8 20,0 9,2 37,8 Agree 37,4 57,5 38,8 76,6 Fully agree 42,5 100,0 23,4 100,0 Total 100,0 100,0 As shown in Table 12, the rural area participant satisfaction of living in Havsa is higher than the same satisfaction in the urban area. The other determinants and the heterogeneity in the city makes the urban area distinct from the rural. CONCLUSION Havsawhere the phenomenon of rural area dominates nestles both rural and urban area in terms of its key features. The disparities between both area seem to be parallel with the literature. The income level in the rural area in where a part of the farmers also work in another sector, is lower than in the urban area. In other words, the total number of the participants in the rural area working in at least two sectors is three times higher than the ones in the urban area. Besides, there is a significant relation between the sector that the participants engaged in and the income earned, as well. In addition to this relation, its level is more intense in the urban area. Given the fact that the decline in the income level increases the loyalty to the place resided in, as well as there is no significant relation between the participants deciding to move out of their residence and the income level, it is assumed that the low income level restrains the potential movement of migration. The loyalty to the place resided in is, however, relatively weak in the urban area. In Havsa, the property or the capital accumulates more in the city than in the countryside. Havsa also seems to be parallel with the fact that cities are becoming an accumulation unit with the help of the expansion of commerce. In the same manner, the percentage of the people having an expectation that more investment could be done in Havsa is 41

51 ID:427 K:413 JEL CODE: H1-H7-M10-M19-Z17 (Local Government) about 94% of the total participants, both in the city and the countryside. Having regard to its historical evolution, the capital is going to be tend to accumulate in the city, not in the countryside. In order to try to contribute to the literature, the expectations of the participants also considered in the study. It can be briefly said that the expectations in the rural area remained lower than in the urban area. The questions on different satisfaction items except the income level in the rural area is more positive in the urban area, whereas the new property acquisition in the rural area has a lower level than in the urban area. But some of the expectations did not indicate a certain distinction between the city and the countryside. The percentage of the participants taking new investments positive, for instance, is convergent both in the city and in the countryside. The expectation of the participants thinking that there would be a recovery in employment opportunities, can not be separated explicitly neither in the rural area nor in the urban area. It is clearly understood that rural area is more optimistic than the urban with regard to the overall satisfaction of living in Havsa. It may be assessed as a contradiction that the overall satisfaction in the urban area is lower than in the rural area; whereas, in the urban area, the income level is higher, the living conditions are better, and people have more property ownership than the rural area. Furthermore, supporting the satisfaction results, people living in the countryside even do not have a tendency to move out of their residence. This contradiction can be explained as the loyalty of the people to land. The average of the ages of the participants, which is 45, also limits their ability to move. Further specific studies, however, must be made in order to make a certain determination. Havsa is a settlement where the key distinctions between city and countryside can be observed. The phenomena such as the tendency of decline in rural population, agriculture as the dominant mode of production, having a cohesion in contrast to the social stratification in the rural area, and the accumulation of capital in the city reinforce this situation. Notwithstanding the presence of these distinctions, it can t be asserted that there is a disparity if the expectations are taken into account. To sum up, the most of the expectations are parallel both in the city and the countryside. In consideration of the entire information and data, it can be suggested that Havsa is a rural-intensive settlement where a dense immigration from rural to urban area exists, whereas the features of both city and countryside can be beholden. 42

52 ID:427 K:413 JEL CODE: H1-H7-M10-M19-Z17 (Local Government) REFERENCES ARISTOTLE., (2001). Politics. (B. Jowett, Trans.) South Bend: Infomotions Inc. CHILDE, G., (2010). Kendini Yaratan İnsan (insanın çağlar boyu gelişimi) (11. ed.). (F. Ofluoğlu, Trans.) İstanbul: Varlık Yayınları CHUNMEI, L., & GUITING, Z., (2014). Research on Relationship between Level of Rural Human Capital and Urban-Rural Income Gap. International Journal of u- and e-service and Technology, 7(2), ERCAN, F., (2004). Toplumlar ve Ekonomiler. İstanbul: Bağlam Yayıncılık FLANAGAN, W. G., (1990). Urban Sociology: Images and Structure. Massachusetts: Allyn and Bacon FREDMANN, J., (1979). On The Contradictions Between City and Countryside. In H. Folmer, Spatial Inequalities and Regional Development (pp ). Massachusetts: Kluwer Boston, Inc GÖZE, A., (2005). Siyasal Düşünceler ve Yönetimler (10. ed.). İstanbul: Beta Basım GÜVENÇ, B., (1999). İnsan ve Kültür (8. ed.). İstanbul: Remzi Kitabevi HARVEY, D., (1982). The Limits to Capital. Oxford, England: Basil Blackwell Publisher Limited HUOT, J.-L., THALMANN, J.-P., &VAL- BELLE, D., (2000). Kentlerin Doğuşu. Ankara: İmge Kitabevi KAYIÇI, M., (2007). Düşünce-Mekân İlişkisi Bağlamında Eski Yunan da Kent. In A. Mengi, Kent ve Politika: Antik Kentten Dünya Kentine (pp ). İstanbul: İmge Kitabevi KIRAY, M. B., (2003). Topraktan Kopan Köylülerin Kentlerde Yaşama Stratejisi. In M. B. Kıray, Kentleşme Yazıları (pp ). İstanbul: Bağlam Yayıncılık KÜLE, L., (2014). Urban - Rural Interactions in Latvian Changing Policy and Practice Context. European Planning Studies, 22(4), MARX, K., (1995). Capital (Vol. I). (S. Moore, & E. Aveling, Trans.) Moscow: Progress Publishers MARX, K., & ENGELS, F., (2012). Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts of USA: Start Publishing LLC MUMFORD, L., (2007). Tarih Boyunca Kent: Kökenleri, Geçirdiği Dönüşümler ve Geleceği. İstanbul: Ayrıntı Yayınları OECD. (2010). Strategies to Improve Rural Services Delivery. OECD Rural Policy Reviews. Retrieved Haziran 15, 2014, from 43

53 ID:427 K:413 JEL CODE: H1-H7-M10-M19-Z17 (Local Government) growth/strategies%20to%20improve%20 Rural%20service%20delivery.pdf OECD. (2013). OECD Regions at a Glance. OECD Publishing. Retrieved from dx.doi.org/ /reg_glance-2013-en PIRENNE, H., (2014). Medieval Cities, Their Origins and The Revival of Trade (First Classic ed.). (M. McCormick, Trans.) Oxfordshire: Princeton University Press POCOL, C. B., (2012). Rural-Urban Disparities in The North West Region of Romania. Lucrari Ştiintifice, Seria A, XIV(1), POUNDS, N., (2005). The Medieval City. Connecticut: Greenwood Press SAEEDI, S., & MIGHANI, M., (2013). Interaction of Urban Life and Rural Life. International Journal of Engineering, 3, SHIPSIDE, S., (2009). Karl Marx s Das Kapital (1. ed.). Oxford: Infinite Ideas Limited SINGH, G. K., & Siahpush, M. (2014). Widening Rural-Urban Disparities in Life Expectancy, U.S., American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 46(2), e19-e29 STEAD, D. R., (2004). Risk and risk management in English agriculture, c Economic History Review, LVII(2), The World Bank. (2014, Haziran 30). Rural population. Retrieved from The World Bank Data: zs?downloadformat=excel Türkiye İstatistik Kurumu. (2014). Adrese Dayalı Nüfus Kayıt Sistemi Veri Tabanı. Retrieved 1 29, 2013, from tuik.gov.tr/adnksdagitapp/adnks.zul URRY, J., (1995). Consuming Places. London: Routledge WEBER, M., (2005). The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism. London, Boston: Unwin Hyman. Retrieved Haziran 7, 2014, from org/reference/archive/weber/protestantethic/index.htm WIRTH, L., (1938, July). Urbanism As a Way of Life. The American Journal of Sociology, XLIV(1), pp Author s Note:This studytrakya UniversityScientific Research ProjectsCoordination Unitis supported. Project Number:2012/87 44

54 ID:427 K:413 JEL CODE: H1-H7-M10-M19-Z17 (Local Government) KIR KENT AYRIMI GÖRÜNGÜLERİNİN HAVSA ÖRNEĞİNDE İNCELENMESİ Öz: Kır ile kent yaşamının birbirinden ayrı olduğunu gösteren bazı görüngüler bulunmaktadır. Bu görüngülerden bazıları gelir düzeyi farklılığı, hanede yaşayan kişi sayısı, mülkiyet durumu ve icra edilen meslektir. Kır ile kent arasındaki bu farklılıklar tarihsel süreç içerisinde giderek daha belirgin duruma gelmiştir. Bu çalışmada Edirne İline bağlı Havsa İlçesi nin kırsal ve kentsel alanları karşılaştırılmıştır. Havsa ilçe merkezi kent, İlçeye bağlı köyler ise kırsal yerleşim olarak ele alınmıştır. Çalışmada öncelikle kır kent ayrımının genel kabul gören özellikleri tarihsel süreç irdelenerek ele alınacaktır. Ardından, yapılan anket çalışmasının sonuçlarıyla bu özellikler karşılaştırılacaktır. Bu bağlamda çalışmanın amacı, kır kent ayrımının belirleyicilerini Havsa örneğinde incelemektir. Yapılacak karşılaştırma sonucunda, Havsa örneğinde kır ile kent ayrımının görüngülerinin gözlemlenip gözlemlenmediği ortaya konmaya çalışılacaktır. Literatürdeki çoğu örnekten farklı olarak, kır kent ayrımı katılımcıların beklentileri açısından da karşılaştırılacaktır. Yöntem:Çalışmanın alan araştırması kısmında Havsa ilçe merkezi ve bağlı 22 köyünde 2012 yılında gerçekleştirilen anket verileri kullanılmıştır. Havsa ilçe merkezinde 775 ve bağlı köylerde 1027 olmak üzere toplam kişi ile gerçekleştirilen bu araştırmanın anket formu demografik ve ekonomik veriler kısmıyla sosyoekonomik beklentiler kısmından oluşmaktadır. Ankette toplam 53 soru yer almakla birlikte bunlardan yalnızca bir kısmı bu çalışma kapsamına dâhil edilmiştir. Demografik ve ekonomik veriler kısmında yöneltilen ayrıntılı mülkiyet sorularıyla sosyoekonomik beklentiler kısmındaki detaylı beklenti sorularına araştırmanın kapsamında yer verilmemiştir. Anket çalışmasının yanı sıra, demografik bilgiler Türkiye İstatistik Kurumu (TÜİK) verileriyle de desteklenmiştir. Kent merkezi, bağlı köyler ve toplam nüfus ile cinsiyete ilişkin bilgiler TÜİK tarafından kaydı tutulan Adrese Dayalı Nüfus Kayıt Sistemi verilerinden temin edilmiştir. Anket verileri yorumlanırken öncelikli olarak betimleyici istatistik uygulanmıştır. Bazı ayrımların tespit edilebilmesi için kikare hipotez testi de uygulanmıştır; örneğin, mesleğe göre gelir farklılıklarının tespiti, mesleğe göre mülkiyet durumu ve benzeri durumlar. İncelenen bazı çalışmalarda kır kent ayrımının yaş grubu, cinsiyet, toplam nüfus, gelir düzeyi, sağlık verileri, göç verileri, üretim yapısı, eğitim düzeyi ve tarımda çalışan nüfus gibi belli başlı noktaları temel aldığı tespit edilmiştir. Bu çalışmada, incelenen çalışmalarla paralel olarak, demografik ve ekonomik veriler birlikte ele alınmış; bununla birlikte, diğerlerinden farklı olarak kişilerin beklentileri de çalışmanın 45

55 ID:427 K:413 JEL CODE: H1-H7-M10-M19-Z17 (Local Government) kapsamına dâhil edilmiştir.bulgular:havsa İlçe nüfusu yılları arasında %4 düşmüş olmakla birlikte; kırsal alan nüfusu giderek düşmekte iken kentsel alan nüfusunda artış gözlemlenmiştir. Ankete katılanların gelir düzeyi kırsal alanda %58,04 ile TL arası iken kentsel alanda %46,74 ile yine TL arasındadır. Kırsal alanda gelir düzeyinin düşüklüğü nedeniyle çiftçi, işçi ve serbest mesleğin gelir düzeyi birbirine yakındır. Kentsel alanda gelir düzeyinin mesleğe göre biraz daha ayrıştığı gözlemlenmiştir. Hem kent hem de kırda, gelir düzeyi ile icra edilen meslek arasında istatistiki açıdan anlamlı bir ilişki elde edilmiştir. Kentsel alanda bu oranın kırsal alana göre daha yüksek çıktığı tespit edilmiştir; kentteki meslek ve gelir dağılımı daha çeşitlidir.kentsel alanda, gelir düzeyinden memnun olmayan kişiler %50 inin biraz altındadır. Kırsal alanda gelir düzeyinden memnun olmayanlar ise %60 ın üzerindedir. Gelirlerinden tasarruf edemediklerini ifade eden kişilerin kırsal alandaki toplam oranı %85 e yakınken, kentsel alanda %72 nin altındadır. Kentsel alanda, elde edilen gelirden tasarruf edebilme kırsal alanla karşılaştırıldığında daha yüksek çıkmıştır. Gerek kırsal alanda gerekse kentsel alanda, gelir düzeyi ile yaşanılan yerden ayrılma kararı arasında istatistiksel olarak anlamlı bir ilişki bulunmamaktadır. Kentsel alanda, kişilerin nereli olduklarıyla yaşadıkları yerden ayrılma kararları arasında istatistiksel olarak anlamlı bir ilişki bulunmamaktadır. Kırsal alanda ise kişilerin doğum yerlerinin yaşadıkları yerden ayrılma kararları üzerinde doğrudan bir etkisi bulunmaktadır. Elde edilen diğer önemli bulgu ise kırsal alanda yaşayanların, Havsa da yaşamaktan duydukları memnuniyetin kente göre daha yüksektir olmasıdır. Sonuç:Havsa nın temel özellikleri bakımından kırsal alan görüngüleri ağır basmaktadır. Havsa hem kırsal hem de kentsel yerleşimi barındırmaktadır. Her iki alan arasındaki farklar literatüre paralel bir görünüm sunmaktadır. Kırsal alanda gelir düzeyi kente göre düşük olup, kırsal alanda çiftçilik yapanların bir kısmı başka bir mesleği de icra etmektedirler. Farklı bir ifadeyle, kırsal alanda birden fazla işte çalışanlar kentteki aynı durumdaki kişilerin üç katından daha fazladır. Ayrıca, kırsal alanda icra edilen meslekle elde edilen gelir arasında bir ilişki bulunmaktadır. Kentsel alanda ise bu ilişkinin derecesi daha güçlüdür. Gelir düzeyi ile kır veya kentten ayrılmayı düşünenler arasında anlamlı bir ilişki olmadığı gibi gelir düzeyinin düşmesi yaşanılan yere bağlılığı daha da artırmaktadır. Bu durum, kişilerin, gelir düzeylerinin düşüklüğünün olası göç hareketini olumsuz engellediği tahmin edilmektedir. Kentsel alana bakıldığında yaşanılan yere bağlılığın nispeten zayıf olduğu görülmektedir. Çalışma, literatüre katkı bakımından beklentileri de irdelemiş olup, gelir düzeyinin etkisi sınırlı kalırken, kırsal alandaki beklentilerin kente göre daha düşük olduğunu ortaya koymuştur. Kırsal alanın beklentilerinde yeni bir servet alımı kente göre az iken, gelir dışındaki tüm memnuniyet soruları da kırsalda daha olumlu bir görünüm arz etmiştir. 46

56 ID:427 K:413 JEL CODE: H1-H7-M10-M19-Z17 (Local Government) Ancak, beklentilerin bir kısmı da kent veya kır arasında kesin bir fark ortaya koymamıştır.özetle, beklentilerin çoğu kırsal alan ile kentsel alanda paralel özellikler göstermektedir. İrdeleme kapsamına alınan tüm bilgi ve veriler ışığında Havsa nın kırsaldan kente geçişin yoğun olarak yaşandığı; ancak, bünyesinde hem kırın hem de kentin özelliklerinin gözlemlenebildiği, kırsal ağırlıklı bir yerleşim olduğu söylenebilir Anahtar Kelimeler: Kırsal Yaşam, Kentsel Yaşam, Kentleşme, Havsa, Beklenti 47

57 IIBINTERNATIONAL REFEREED ACADEMIC SOCIAL SCIENCES JOURNAL THE EFFECTS OF HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES AND ORGANIZATIONAL CLIMATE ON TURNOVER INTENTION: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY IN TURKISH BANKING SECTOR 1 Bülent AKYÜZ 1, Nihat KAYA 2, Mürşide ÖZGELDİ 3 1 Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences, Department of Business Administration Çanakkale / Turkey 2 Gebze Institute of Technology, Faculty of Business Administration Kocaeli / Turkey 3 Maltepe University, Faculty of Economics and Administrative İstanbul / Turkey Abstract: This study aims to explore the effect of human resource management (HRM) practices and organizational climate on turnover intention in Turkish banks. The study first examines the relative influence of eight HRM practices of: (i) behavior and attitudes (in recruitment and selection); (ii) teamwork; (iii) extensive training; (iv) written policies; (v) training in multiple functions;(vi) incentives; (vii) performance appraisal; and (viii) feedback on performance on turnover. Then, the effect of organizational climate on turnover is examined. The organizational climate factors expected to affect turnover are: i) support for innovation, ii) managerial competence and consistency, iii) workload pressure, iv) cohesion, v) organizational boundaries, vi) coordination and vii) organizational ethics. The data collected through face-to-face interviews from 391 bank employees show that behavior and attitudes, extensive training and giving feedback, as the component of HRM activities, and organizational boundaries and organizational ethics, as the component of organizational climate, directly or indirectly affect turnover. The paper presents the effect of the two groups of factors on turnover intention and the mechanisms through which of these factors cause turnover. This study gives hints to managers and practitioners to cope with turnover problems. Key Words: Human Resource Activities, Organizational Climate, Turnover Intention, Organizational Ethics, Turkish Banks Doi: /IIB (1) Corresponding Author: Bülent AKYÜZ, Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences, Department of Business Administration Çanakkale / Turkey Received: Accepted: Type ofarticle (Research -Application) Conflict of Interest: None Noneof Ethics Committee 48

58 ID:429 K:461 JEL CODE: M12-G21 (Management and Organization) INTRODUCTION According to Guthrie (2001), human resources are the most important determinants of setting competitive advantage, and the overall success or failure in organizations. Especially in service sector, human resources bear a key role by performing operational management and marketing activities (Koc, 2006). With its dynamic and consumer focused activities, banking sector should be more sensible and show professional attitude in order not to come across with human resources related troubles (Berger and Humphrey, 1991). Having glanced to the current profile of Turkish banks, comparing with the other countries, it is obvious that the profit and the growth rate of the sector and its employee figures have drawn a rising graph (Banks Association of Turkey, 2012). Some studies (Aycan, 2001 and Yilmaz et al., 2005) try to explain this constant alteration with the structure and value change differing from past collectivist and hierarchical insights and make national comparisons from performance and future orientation perspectives and bridge the gap with their impact on the practices of human resource management. Consequently, to fulfill the missing parts of the previous researches, our study aims to identify the effects of human resource management practices and organizational climate on turnover intention.firstly, we tried to point out the notions of human resource management activities, organizational climate and turnover intention by using the extant literature. Subsequently, the research methodology, analysis and interpretation of the findings were conducted. Human Resource Management Activities Human resource practices are said to be the group of related activities which enable the development of organizational human resources by giving important support in terms of fulfilling the company s and customers goals (Lado and Wilson, 1994: 701). HRM is the compositions of the implementations related with acquiring, retaining, empowering and motivating of employees (Kaya, 2010: 2033). Huselid (1995), identified eight HRM dimensions affecting turnover intention as; behavior and attitudes, teamwork, extensive training, written policies, training in multiple functions, incentives, performance appraisal and feedback on performance. According to Huselid (1995), recruitment and selection enable companies employ the most proper human resources cohesive with its goals and purposes. An effective hiring also allows business firms to respond to market opportunities and threats in a proactive manner in dynamic markets and service businesses where banks operate (Kaya, 2010: 2033). Aycan (2001) points out within Turkey s con- 49

59 ID:429 K:461 JEL CODE: M12-G21 (Management and Organization) text that although objective and standard tests are on the rise, one-to-one interview is seen to be well-known and mostly used technique along with the other popular recruitment types in order to acquire employees. Therefore, it is hypothesized that: H1a: Behavior and Attitude Will be Negatively Related to Turnover Intention It has been seen in the research made by Lau and Ngo (2004) that teamwork is crucial for the success of an organization. Teamwork activities not only increase the problem solving abilities, improve cooperation and communication among employees but also help form an appropriate work culture in the organization. In addition, it is thought to enhance the job satisfaction degree employees might face in an organization (Lau and Ngo, 2004). Kaya (2010) also draws attention to the absence of studies on effective team working in Turkey. Therefore, it is hypothesized that: H1b: Team Working Activities Will be Negatively Related to Turnover Intention As stated by Xiao (1996), the elements which make the workers unsatisfied with their job and organization may easily be invalidated by training. According to Gutteridge et al. (1993), with the help of training programs, employees can easily gain the knowledge, skills and abilities they need and give their best so as to sustain and improve their present work activities. From this perspective, it is hypothesized that: H1c: Extensive Training Programs Will be Negatively Related to Turnover Intention It is important that the written documentation is integrated into decision systems in order to refer to the texts to explain decisions, to update the systems when the policy evolves or, conversely, to amend the source documents if some of the rules happen to be inconsistent (L evy et al., 2010). So, it is hypothesized that: H1d: Written Policies Will be Negatively Related to Turnover Intention In addition to training, Lawler (2000) imposes that, rewards and favorable incentives strike a strong impact on the employee satisfaction in order to obtain desired job performance levels. Apart from this, with appropriate incentive motivations, employees would give the best support for the sustainment and the development of their organization (Milkovich and Boudreau, 1998). Because of this, it is hypothesized that: H1e: Incentives Will be Negatively Related to Turnover Intention The HR departments in Turkey tend to view the training and development efforts as their one of the most important tasks. To do this, employees may be provided with extensive 50

60 ID:429 K:461 JEL CODE: M12-G21 (Management and Organization) training programs in multiple functions and training on job skills (Ahmad and Schroeder, 2003). Therefore, it is hypothesized that: H1f: Training in Multiple Functions Will be Negatively Related to Turnover Intention As Werther and Davis (1996) suggest, performance evaluation has a leading role in job oriented attitudes and behaviors of the employees in the organization by displaying an effective human resource policies. Aycan (2001) also points out the tenure reality in Turkey which is seen as one of the most popular way of rewarding and mentions the lack of development in terms of performance systems. Therefore, it is hypothesized that: H1g: Performance evaluation will be negatively related to turnover intention. From the point view of Kaya (2010: 2034), feedback on performance is an implementation which is necessary for supervisors and employees to increase efficiency and sustain communication between each other. Information share on individual performance of the workers makes contribution to organizational openness, increased loyalty and trust employees have towards their organizations. Thus; it is considered to increase motivation and cooperation. In Turkey, where the rate of performance feedback is thought to be very low, numerous firms are not willing to provide open feedback on the performance of employees. For instance, when feedback is given, they mostly turn out to be negative feedback (Aycan, 2001). Hence, performance management activities focus mainly on documentation rather than providing feedback and enabling development. Therefore, it is hypothesized that: H1h: Feedback on Performance Will be Negatively Related to Turnover Intention Organizational Climate Organizational climate is the set of measurable properties of the work environment perceived directly or indirectly by the people who live and work in this environment and assumed to influence their motivation and behavior (Litwin and Stringer, 1968: 1). In addition, Moran and Volkwein (1992: 20) characterized the term within followers considerations in terms of justice, autonomy, trust, cohesiveness, support, recognition and innovation; employee interaction; ground for situation interpretation; symbol of the values of the organization culture and an inspirational factor for model behavior. Regarding our study, we benefited from the dimensions of support for innovation, managerial competence and consistency, workload pressure, cohesion, organizational boundaries, coordination and organizational ethics to explain organizational climate. 51

61 ID:429 K:461 JEL CODE: M12-G21 (Management and Organization) According to Montes et al. (2004), support for innovation is attached to the high executive support endowed to the follower for enhancing dynamism in the work place. This might come into prominence with financial, expert or flexible images of support within the frame of rules, procedures and innovative climate. When we take account of the innovation ability among the establishments in Turkey, notably poor and dependant side of it can easily be witnessed in terms of external sources for new technology and ideas (Koc and Ceylan, 2007). Therefore, it is hypothesized that: H2a: Support for Innovation Will be Negatively Related to Turnover Intention Rogg et al. (2001) suggest that managerial competence and consistency consist of managerial manners displayed to the employees, promise fulfillment bias managers, communication with employees, manager s equitable task distribution among employees and manager s steadiness in decision making. As a consequence: H2b: Managerial Competence and Consistency Will be Negatively Related to Turnover Intention As Koys and Decotiis (1991) define; workload pressure, postulated as primary stress factors, is connected with sufficient time and performance standards assigned for the employees. Eventually; it is hypothesized that: H2c: Workload Pressure Will be Negatively Related to Turnover Intention Cohesion refers to the degree of reciprocal trust and courtesy happening between the executives and the employees. To reach the target objectives of a firm, it can be constituted and be ended up in harmony providing that mutual understanding and support between the employees and the manager is realized (Koys and Decotiis, 1991). As a result: H2d: Cohesion Will be Negatively Related to Turnover Intention Organizational boundaries are the demarcation of the social structure that constitutes an organization. Activities operate under a specific logic of identity that shapes how things are done in the organization and set the rules for inclusion (Kogut, 2000). Approaches to studying or dealing with organizational boundaries can vary in focus. They can examine the actors or people involved with the organization that are affected by the boundary; the relations, what patterns of behavior are caused by the boundaries; and activities, what events are happening around or because of the organizational boundaries. Here, it is hypothesized that: H2e: Organizational Boundaries Will be Negatively Related to Turnover Intention Coordination is necessary to manage dependencies among task activities carried out by 52

62 ID:429 K:461 JEL CODE: M12-G21 (Management and Organization) various actors to integrate the work (Malone and Crowston, 1994). The coordination of human resources in a firm is expected to affect morale of all personnel in the positive way. And this situation in turn helps them work with the organization for a long time. So the hypothesis will be: H2f: Coordination Will be Negatively Related to Turnover Intention Organizational climate is a guidance of individual-prone values embodied by the behavioral norms and the expectations so as to form an ethical nature in the organization (Van Vianen and Prins, 1997). Dicson et al. (2001) assert that organizations have a type of climate depending on ethical issues. It has also been found by Valentine and Fleischman (2008) that ethical climate is significantly related to job satisfaction as an antecedent of intention to leave. Therefore, the relationships between organizational ethics and organizational outcomes have been fundamental issues in HR studies. So, it is hypothesized that: H2g: Organizational Ethics Will be Negatively Related to Turnover Intention Various research studies show that there is a strong relationship between HR activities and organizational climate (Schneider and Reichers 1983; Rogg et al., 2001). According to Schneider and Reichers (1983), the organizational climate determines the structural characteristics of an organization. Organizational selection, attraction and attrition practices form homogenous organizational membership which may have similar climate perceptions. Turnover Intention According to Weisberg (1994), workforce turnover is an unavoidable matter of fact in an organization s life cycle which is realized by redundant monetary and non-monetary costs, particularly when efficient and experienced employees quit voluntarily. On the other hand Shaw et al., (1998) point out that HR practices including investments in human capital, pay and benefits systems are intended to develop commitment dimensions that would decrease leaving amounts. There is limited evidence linking these types of HR practices to individual turnover decisions. As Griffeth et al. (2000) indicate in their meta-analysis, the causes of turnover stem mainly from negative effects of reward justice, participation, and perceptions of growth opportunities. Some researchers also discussed that a high turnover rate clearly has a negative impact on an organization (Phillips, 1996; Pfeffer, 2005). For example, Phillips (1996: 180) remarks the centrality of voluntary turnover by claiming that human resource programs con- 53

63 ID:429 K:461 JEL CODE: M12-G21 (Management and Organization) stituted to lower turnover may result in enormous developments. Some scholars like Wright et al. (2001) underline the prominence of employee recruitment from the perspective of an organization s human capital that brings an advantage in the competition with the rivals in terms of productivity, employee performance and organizational financial performance. Also, by being capable of predicting the employee reduction with the help of effective human resource management implications, the rates of intention to quit will decrease (Lepak and Snell, 2002). In addition, regarding the psychological impact of labor turnover development process, managers should be more aware of taking the precautions on time in order to block the undesirable effects of turnover (Mitchell et al., 2001b). Pare and Tremblay (2007), in their study on information technology professionals in Canada, found that nonmonetary recognition; competency development, fair rewards and information-sharing practices are negatively and directly related to turnover intentions. The authors also observed that procedural justice, effective and continuance commitment and citizenship behavior partially mediate the effects of high involvement HR practices on turnover intentions of highly skilled professionals. Similarly, Guthrie (2001) examined the impact of HR practices on turnover and firm productivity among a sample of firms in New Zealand. He noted that HR practices had an impact on turnover and that the relationship between retention and productivity was positive when firms implemented high involvement HR practices but negative when they did not. According to Bowen and Ostroff (2004) and Burton et al. (2004), the effects of HR practices on individual outcomes mainly depend on organizational climate factors such as support, recognition, trust, fairness, morale, rewards equity and leader credibility. Relatedly, as a result of homogeneity statistics consisting of the aggregation of members perceptions, standard deviation and withingroup correlations; Luria (2008), Sanders et al. (2008) and Schneider et al. (2002) point out the notion of climate strength meaning agreement about the climate with referring to work situation facets of safety and service. Bowen and Ostroff (2004) argued that organizational climate is a significant mediating variable in HRM-firm performance relationship. According to their framework, strong climate may be seen as strong situation in which employees share a common interpretation of what is important and what behaviors are expected and rewarded. Building on this premise, Bowen and Ostroff (2004) emphasized that strength of HRM policies impacts organizational climate and shared perceptions, which in turn forms strong situations 54

64 ID:429 K:461 JEL CODE: M12-G21 (Management and Organization) and desired outcomes like high commitment and low turnover intent. Some researchers like Allen et al. (2003) focus on the use of HR practices and organizational climate as signals of the organization s intention to initiate positive exchange relationships with employees by implying that organizations are prepared to invest in workers, show recognition of their individual contributions and reward them accordingly. As Emberland and Rundmo (2010) and Mishra and Bhatnagar (2010) stated, organizational climate and job insecurity perceptions are the negative work factors connected with intention to quit. They put a discussion that high turnover intentions among recruitment consultants may turn into actual turnover with task performance motivation. Accordingly, Carmeli and Vinarski- Peretz (2010) suggest that managers in recruitment agencies may control turnover intentions among employees and foster covetable organizational climate by conducting intention to leave survey and getting in touch with the employees so as to notice their intention to leave perceptions in the short and long terms. In addition, study by Ohly and Fritz (2010) explains that the work environment performs a crucial role in impressing individual behavior by encouraging or discouraging from work-based outcomes. Apart from these, while Russel et al. (2010) make connection between organizational climate and turnover intention, Donoghue (2010) correlates organizational climate with employee satisfaction, employee performance, organizational commitment and low intent to leave. By drawing attention on incentives; Changa and Huang (2010) and Colley and Price (2010) touch on the significance of promotion on merit and rewarding systems in order to decrease turnover intention and motivate for better performance. Besides, Hughes et al. (2010) and Estryn- Behah et al. (2010) handle the results of turnover intention issue with push factors; organizational climate, lack of job interest, bad working climate and pull factors; availability of opportunities in the market to make suggestions for recruitment agencies. Consistent with previous studies (Liou and Cheng 2010; Ohly and Fritz 2010); the findings of Saungweme and Gwandure s study (2011) conducted among recruitment consultants reveal a negative relationship between organizational climate and turnover intention. It has also been set forth by Donoghue (2010) and Russel et al. (2010) that intention to leave behavior is significantly affected by the organizational climate. 55

65 ID:429 K:461 JEL CODE: M12-G21 (Management and Organization) METHOD Data Collection and Measurement of Constructs The data were collected through face-to-face interviews with employees of the private banks in the Turkish banking sector. This study has been carried out with 5 private banks operating in Turkey. The data from 391 bank employees have been collected through faceto-face interviews. In the research 90 of employees are between the ages of years old while 186 of them are between the ages of The remaining 106 of the employees are between the ages of years old, and 9 of employees are between the ages of for 46 years old. 107 of employees are males and 282 of employees are females. 12 of employees are with high school education, 337 are university graduates and 42 employees have postgraduate qualifications. 286 employees have a work experience of between 0-5 years, 75 of employees have a work experience of between 6-10 years, 25 have worked a work experience of between years and 5 employees have a work experience of more than 20 years. 131 employees are officers, 130 employees are first line managers, 92 of the employees are middle level managers and 38 employees are top-level managers. The constructs in this study are measured by using measurement scales adopted from prior studies. All constructs are measured using five-point Likert scale with anchors strongly disagree (=1) and strongly agree (=5). Items for measuring HRM Activities have been developed based on Rogg et al. (2001) and Ahmad and Schroeder s (2003) studies. Items for organizational climate have been adopted from Montes et al. (2004), Rogg et al. (2001) and Schwepker and Charles (2001). Items for turnover intention have been adopted from Kelloway et al. (1999). Measure of Validation In this study, traditional techniques of exploratory factor analyses, item-total correlations, and coefficient alpha have been used to assess the psychometric properties of the measurement scales. Firstly, an exploratory factor analysis of the Human Resource Management activities scale has been conducted by using a Varimax Rotation procedure. As shown in Table 1, each item has a factor loading well above 0.40, a common threshold for acceptance (Basilevsky, 1994). In line with expectations, a eight-factor solution (behavior and attitudes- recruitment and selection, team work, extensive training, written policies, training in multiple functions, incentives, performance appraisal, feedback on performance) was extracted (using eigenvalue = 1 as the cutoff point). 56

66 ID:429 K:461 JEL CODE: M12-G21 (Management and Organization) 1. Behavior and attitudes We use attitude/desire to work in a team as a criterion in employee. We use problem solving aptitude as a criterion in employee selection. We use work values and behavioral attitudes as a criterion in employee selection. We select employees who can provide ideas to improve the service process. 2. Teamworking Table 1. Factor Analysis for HRM Activities ,154,15,030,095,084,729,059,036,138,101,062,012,042,847 -,011,103,131,212,126,061,026,786,101,059,165,259,199,149 -,039,626,139 -,043 Our firm forms teams to solve problems.,145,658,176,086,185 -,004,159,139 In the past three years, many problems have been solved through small group sessions. Problem solving teams have helped improve service processes at this firm. Employee teams are encouraged to try to solve their problems as much as possible. Managers encourage the persons who work for them to work as a team. Managers encourage the persons who work for them to work as a team. Supervisors frequently hold group meetings where the people who work for them can really discuss things together. 3. Extensive Training,219,717,171,094,153,101 -,008,132,197,752,147,002,133,112 -,025,133,166,796,119,067,109,184,076,034,177,757,069,075,032,225,110,073,258,714,105,046,014,212,121,023,281,509,098,123,119,083,197,028 Sufficient time is allocated for training.,615,245,105,134,031,095,338,027 Sufficient money is allocated for training. Training currently provided is leading to satisfactory results.,685,242,098,141 -,039,126,221,004,781,197,075,076,058,132,045,064 57

67 ID:429 K:461 JEL CODE: M12-G21 (Management and Organization) Training plans are developed and monitored for all employees. Training programs are consistently evaluated.,801,195,133,067,135,107 -,049,090,825,148,096 -,011,118,140 -,050,091 Employees have significant skills.,789,167,140,081,120,103 -,056 -,024 Employees are trained and their capabilities are developed regularly. 4. Written policy Employees are required to sign a form indicating they have reviewed employee handbook. This firm has a formal and written discipline policy. In this firm, the written procedures and instructions has given a special importance. 5. Training in multiple functions The longer an employee has been at this firm, the more tasks or jobs that employee learns to perform. Employees are cross trained at this firm so that they can fill in for others if necessary. Employees receive training to perform multiple tasks. 6. Incentives to meet objectives Our incentive system encourages us to vigorously pursue firm objectives. The incentive system at this firm is fair at rewarding people who accomplish firm objectives. Our reward system really recognizes the people who contribute the most to our firm. Our incentive system at this firm encourages us to reach firm goals.,531,203,214,016,083,052,211 -,069,058,098,133,169,195,017,347,708 -,004,116,132,155,102,000,160,887,071,192,135,081,086,156,124,768,089,136,212,074,236,141,759,261,091,123,209,091,216,122,799,179,153,19,24,08,10,03,63,26,013,189,178,232,774,001,186,071,069,187,205,241,806,031,156,103,187,128,217,157,771,041,088,116,191,109,184,169,712,077,114,117 58

68 ID:429 K:461 JEL CODE: M12-G21 (Management and Organization) 7. Performance appraisal This bank has an effective performance review system. The performance review process is standardized and documented. Promotions and pay increases are based on achieving documented performance objectives. Managers inform employees about standards that develop job performance. Our performance review system contributes increasing of employees competences. Our performance review system focus on job results of employees. 8. Feedback on performance Charts showing defect rates are posted on the shop floor. Charts showing schedule compliance are posted on the shop floor. Charts plotting the frequency of machine breakdowns are posted on the shop floor. Information on productivity is readily available to employees.,052,155,712,202,196,017,230,107,044,180,719,215,178,038,217,101,094,122,750,240,136,135,228 -,009,156,143,788,168,120,083,095,056,285,155,749,096,118,142,010,141,245,119,681,103,166,106,018,159,081,046,219,822,174,105,034,094,100,087,201,874,176,061,060,084,140,139,202,807,181,082,082,101,066,085,190,773,198,074,093,131 Eigenvalues 12,40 3,75 2,26 1,95 1,81 1,68 1,38 1,11 % of Variances 32,64 9,88 5,97 5,13 4,77 4,43 3,64 2,93 All items are loaded (i) with high coefficients onto their respective factors and (ii) with substantially lower coefficients onto other dimensions of HRM activities. Next a second exploratory factor analysis has been conducted by using organizational climate items, a seven-factor solution (support for innovation, managerial competence, workload pressure, organizational boundaries, cohesion, coordination, organizational ethics) was extracted; and items within each scale displayed high loadings onto their respective factor (Table 2). 59

69 ID:429 K:461 JEL CODE: M12-G21 (Management and Organization) 1. Support for innovation Managers encourage innovators to bend rules and rigid procedures in order to keep promising ideas on track. There are several options within the organization for individuals to get financial support for their innovative projects and ideas. A worker with a good idea is often given free time to develop that idea. Employees are encouraged to talk to workers in other departments of this organization about ideas for new projects. Managers encourage innovators to bend rules and rigid procedures in order to keep promising ideas on track. There are several options within the organization for individuals to get financial support for their innovative projects and ideas. 2. Managerial competence and consistency My manager is easy to talk to about job related problems. My manager backs me up and lets me learn from my mistakes. Table 2. Factor Analysis for Organizational Climate ,111,254,612,384 -,007,094,094,121,158,631,304,027,099,023,126,169,711,180,083,150,084,082,103,821,144,106,080,102,042,132,787,012,129,140,118,055,165,751 -,035,057,088,191,112,740,196,388,054,178,055,144,767,081,265,091,137,079 Managers follow through on commitment.,210,757,158,197,115,098,137 Managers clearly communicate work objectives and responsibilities. Managers take action on new ideas provided by employees.,080,744,217,182,179,142,178,094,720,240,082,268,118,212 Work is fairly distributed to employee.,128,671,252 -,010,212,166, Workload pressure I always seem to have plenty of time to get everything done.,066,229,152,826,160,128,152 60

70 ID:429 K:461 JEL CODE: M12-G21 (Management and Organization) I have just the right amount of time and work load to do everything well. I do not feel that I am always working with time constraints on my job. My co-workers and I always find time for long-term problem solving. 4. Organizational boundaries On my job I have no doubt of what is expected of me. There is no any uncertainty in my job.,003,214,145,845,150,183,134,041,177,195,759,198,113,187,048,224,215,585,243,151,212,106,254,158,244,078,121,772,103,235,135,245,088,167,797 I clearly know what level of work performance is expected from me in terms of amount, quality and timeliness of output. This bank always provides necessary resources to be successful of employees. 5. Cohesion,163,083,130,108,203,195,783,127,165,198,083,262,215,661 Employees pitch in to help each other out.,125,193,095,290,762,159,120 Employees tend to get along with each other.,175,167,076,215,806,131,111 Employees take a personal interest in one another.,200,193,109,119,791,127,142 There is a lot of team sprit among employees.,252,142,101,069,755,085,196 6.Coordination The units cooperate with each other to perform the job effectively and efficiently. The units transmit key information in accordance with each other. Employees establish good working relationships with managers.,081,148,116,184,117,830,218,045,165,113,215,126,841,178,230,175,151,076,104,767,140 There is an effective communication between units,193,167,258,088,161,655, Organizational ethics Our bank has formal, written code of ethics.,790,161,013,072,148,101 -,006 Our bank enforces a code of ethics.,822,158,021,107,182,113,039 Our bank has policies regarding ethical behavior.,848,094,091,043,161,072,079 61

71 ID:429 K:461 JEL CODE: M12-G21 (Management and Organization) In our bank, unethical behavior not tolerated.,859,076,080,023,107,039,064 In our bank, reprimanded for behavior leading to personal gains. In our bank, reprimanded for behavior leading to bank gain.,809,084,114 -,025,057,066,154,747,041,154,002,063,128,138 Eigenvalues 12,23 3,52 2,25 1,89 1,64 1,52 1,42 % of Variances 35,97 10,37 6,64 5,58 4,83 4,49 4,17 Finally, third exploratory factor analysis is conducted using turnover intention items, a one-factor solution was extracted (Table 3). Construct means, standard deviations, coefficient alphas and correlations are presented in Table 4. Table 3. Factor Analysis for Turnover Intent Factor I think of leaving this company in the next three months.,880 I think of quitting this job in the next six months.,886 I think of quitting this job at any time in the next year.,910 I think about quitting this job at any time within the next two years,909 Sometimes I think to look for a new job.,904 I intend to work in a better organization.,892 If I find a better job, I would prefer to work in another job instead of working in this organization.,823 Eigenvalues 5,50 % of Variances 78,65 FINDINGS, ANALYSIS AND INTER- PRETATION For an understanding of nomological characteristics of relations among organizational climate, HRM activities and turnover, the correlation and regression analysis methods have been used. Table 4 shows the one-to-one relations among them via Pearson correlation coefficients. According to this analysis, all variables of organizational climate and HRM activities are negatively related to turnover. This means, as organizational climate factors improve and quality of HRM activities increase, rate of turnover intention of employees decreases. So, if the managers want to decrease turnover rate in their organizations, they should give importance to organizational climate and HRM activities. All variables ex- 62

72 ID:429 K:461 JEL CODE: M12-G21 (Management and Organization) cept feedback on performance have significant relationship with turnover. The variable that has strongest relationship with turnover, according to correlation analysis, is extensive training (-,29). Table 4. Variables Mean Std.D (1) Behavior and attitude (2) Team working and problem solving (3) Extensive training (4) Written policies and documentation 4,11 0, ,02 0,7,45**,88 3,93 0,76,40**,55**.89 (5) Training in multiple functions (6)incentives to meet objectives 4,31 0,68,21**,34**,21**.83 4,12 0,8,29**,41**,32**,52**.86 (7)performance appraisal (8)feedback on performance (9)support for innovation (10) Managerial competence andconsistency 4,14 0,75,20**,40**,33**,39**,46**.88 4,09 0,73,33**,44**,42**,38**,50**,51**.90 4,17 0,76,26**,30**,28**,34**,34**,50**,50**.91 4,39 0,6,26**,25**,22**,26**,27**,41**,37**,39**.87 (11)workload pressure (12)organizational boundaries (13)cohesion (14)coordination (15)organizational ethic (16)turnover intention 4,13 0,71,21**,31**,25**,28**,27**,35**,46**,43**,51**.91 4,06 0,83,16**,34**,26**,26**,29**,34**,42**,39**,45**,56**.90 4,1 0,75,25**,32**,25**,26**,28**,41**,40**,40**,43**,51**,48**.87 4,09 0,8,23**,26**,17**,26**,25**,26**,35**,25**,33**,49**,46**,47**.89 4,14 0,74,27**,29**,25**,30**,31**,42**,46**,41**,42**,48**,44**,50**,42**.87 4,11 0,75,24**,19**,16**,24**,20**,25**,28**,28**,26**,34**,19**,31**,40**,33** 91 ** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level 2,88 1,05 -,25** -,25** -,29** -,18** -,17** -,12* -,23** -0,09 -,16** -,22** -,21** -,25** -,20** -,21** -,24**.95 * Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level Coefficient alphas Three sequential regression models have been determined to test the relationships among the variables. In the first model, turnover is posited as the dependent variable and HRM activities are posited as the independent variables. According to Table 6, there are two 63

73 ID:429 K:461 JEL CODE: M12-G21 (Management and Organization) variables that have significant relationship with turnover. These variables are Behavior and attitudes (.018) and Extensive training (.004). This means behavior and attitudes of organization s stuff in recruitment and selection have a significant effect on turnover intention. Also, if the employees have been provided with extensive training programs, they will have higher morale and self-confidence therefore they will not have the intention to leave the organization. With these findings hypothesis H1a and H1c are supported. The variables Team working and problem solving, Written policies and documentation, Training in multiple functions, Incentives to meet objectives, Performance appraisal and Feedback on performance are not significantly related with turnover. Therefore H1b, H1d, H1e, H1f, H1g and H1h are rejected. However it does not mean that these variables never affect turnover intention. This result shows the tendency of the sample that is worked on in this study. Table 5. Effect of HRM Activities on Turnover Model 1 Dependent Variable: Turnover Related Hypothesis Independent variables Std.β t Sig. 1. Behavior and Attitudes * H1a Accept 2. Team working and problem solving H1b Reject 3. Extensive training ** H1c Accept 4. Written policies and documentation H1d Reject 5. Training in multiple functions H1e Reject 6. Incentives to meet objectives H1f Reject 7. Performance appraisal H1g Reject 8. Feedback on performance H1 h Reject Notes : N= 391 ** p<.01 ; *p<.05. R 2 =.130 F=7.150 As shown in Table 6, the results of Model 2 indicate that, among the variables of organizational climate, the variables Organizational boundaries (.059) and Organizational ethic (.004) have an important effect on turnover. Therefore hypothesis H2d and H2g are supported. Here, it can be said that, as stated before, organizational boundaries can be explained as the framework of the job that is perceived by the employee. This is 64

74 ID:429 K:461 JEL CODE: M12-G21 (Management and Organization) to say that employees know what to do during the job, they know their responsibilities and authorization. If they have no doubt of what performance is expected of them and if they are provided necessary resources to be successful, they generally tend to continue working in the same company, so they do not intent to quit job. Therefore, the more clear organizational boundaries, the less turnover rates. Furthermore, as the rate of ethical organizational activities in a work environment increase, employees tend to work in organization in the long-term and they do not leave the job. On the other hand, the organizational variables of Support for innovation, managerial competence and consistency, workload pressure, Cohesion and Coordination are not significantly related with turnover. So Hypothesis H2a, H2b, H2c, H2e and H2f are rejected. Table 6. Effect of Organizational Climate on Turnover Model 2 Dependent Variable: Turnover Independent variables Std.β t Sig. Related Hypothesis 1.Support for innovation H2 a Reject 2. Managerial competence and consistency H2 b Reject 3. Workload pressure H2 c Reject 4. Organizational boundaires * H2 d Accept 5. Cohesion H2 e Reject 6. Coordination H2 f Reject 7. Organizational ethic ** H2 g Accept R 2 =.107 F=6.556 Notes : N= 391 ** p<.01 ; *p<.05 In the third model, turnover is posited as the dependent variable and the organizational climate and HRM activities are posited as the independent variables. Namely, contrary to first two models that separately examines the effect of HRM activities and organizational climate on turnover, third model investigates the effect of HRM activities and organizational climate together on turnover. As shown in Table 7, the results indicate that extensive training (.004) and feedback on performance (.021), as the components of HRM activities and organizational ethics (.009), as the component of organizational climate, are related to turnover in a statistically significant manner. 65

75 ID:429 K:461 JEL CODE: M12-G21 (Management and Organization) When the contribution of an independent variable is replaced or reduced by a second independent variable, the second variable is a mediator (Baron and Kenny 1986). In such a model, the second independent variable has a mediating influence on the dependent variable. This implies the mediating influence of HRM activities on turnover. That is, organizational climate mediates the relationship between HRM activities and turnover. If the models are compared, while in the first model, the variable behavior and attitudes, as the component of HRM activities, has a significant effect, in the third model it has no significant effect on turnover. It is seen that significance and coefficient of behavior and attitudes decreases (from β=-.133, p<.05 to β=-.107). So it can be said that some of the variables of organizational climate has an influence on the HRM activity of behavior and attitudes. While feedback on performance, the variable of HRM activities, has no a significant effect on turnover in the first model (β=.074, p<.05), in the third model it has statistically significant importance (β=.141, p<.05) on turnover when it is evaluated with organizational climate factors. Extensive training, the variable of organizational climate, has a significant effect on turnover in both Model 1 and 3. Compared with both first and third models, it is seen that almost there is no change; β=-,173 p<.05 in the first and β=-,171 p<.05 in the second. So, organizational climate has almost no effect on extensive training in these analyses. The other variables of HRM activities; teamwork, written policies, training in multiple functions and incentives are not related to turnover in a statistically significant manner. It can be also observed that while organizational boundaries affect turnover in the second model, they don t affect turnover in the third model. The variable of organizational ethics has a significant impact on turnover in both models but there is a small decrease in statistical significance from β=-, 158 p<.01 to β=-, 143. The rest of the organizational climate variables are not meaningfully related to turnover in both second and third models. 66

76 ID:429 K:461 JEL CODE: M12-G21 (Management and Organization) Table 7. Effect of HRM Activities and Organizational Climate on Turnover Model 3 Dependent Variable: Turnover Independent variables Std.β t Sig. Related Hypothesis 1. Behavior and Attitudes H1a Reject 2. Teamworking and problem solving H1b Reject 3. Extensive training ** H1c Accept 4.Written policies and documentation H1d Reject 5.Training in multiple functions H1e Reject 6.Incentives to meet objectives H1f Reject 7. Performance appraisal H1g Reject 8. Feedback on performance * H1 h Accept 9.Support for innovation H2 a Reject 10. Managerial competence and consistency H2 b Reject 11. Workload pressure H2 c Reject 12. Organizational boundaires H2 d Reject 13. Cohesion H2 e Reject 14. Coordination H2 f Reject 15. Organizational ethic ** H2 g Accept R 2 =.179 F=5.464 Notes : N= 391 ** p<.01 ; *p<.05 The organizational climate variables solely explain 13% of total variance and HRM activities solely explain 10,7 % of total variance in turnover measurements. The organizational climate variables and HRM activities as a whole explain 17,9 % of total variance in turnover measurements. As it is seen, there is an increase from 13% and 10.7% to 17.9%. CONCLUSION This study has explored the relationships among HRM activities, organizational climate and turnover in the Turkish banking sector. Therefore, from an international perspective, this study has implications for a variety of practitioners including bank managers and human resources managers in general. In the study, some of the variables of HRM activities and organizational climate are sig- 67

77 ID:429 K:461 JEL CODE: M12-G21 (Management and Organization) nificantly related with turnover intention. However, as stated before, it does not mean that other than these variables never affect turnover intention. This is the characteristics of the sample that is worked on in this study. But these results may give us hints about the relation between these variables. When it is analyzed from the perspective of HRM activities; in the first regression model that takes turnover as dependent variable and HRM activities as independent variable, it is observed that extensive training and behavior and attitudes variables significantly affect turnover in the negative way. The reason for this may be that as the employees are trained extensively and as they improve themselves in their jobs, they have a higher morale and motivation therefore they don t want to quit job. These findings are congruent with the findings of Ahmad and Schroeder (2003). Through extensive training practices, employee skills, abilities and knowledge enhance the market value of employees and this in turn weakens employees turnover intentions. Extensive training provides retention of staff and as Conrade et al. (1994) s study demonstrated, the willingness to invest in an organization s people leads to an increase in their commitment and job satisfaction, leading to a reduction in staff turnover. As in many other industries, banking sector experiences fast changes in the operations of jobs by some factors especially by the advance of technology. Following the change is achieved through the use of extensive training and development where employees may be constantly informed and updated about, as well as strategically equipped for, the changing requirements of the banking sector. This may cause employees to trust organization and when they see their organization s investment on them, they generally show their loyalty against the organization so they think to continue their work life with the current organization. Along with extensive training, behavior and attitudes of organization s candidate stuff in recruitment and selection has an important effect on turnover intention and the way of this relation is negative. This recruitment and selection processes directed at employee fit create strong and enduring psychological contracts and then this in turn increases employee retention. Hiring and retaining the right kind of people who fits the organization begins primarily with the selection process. There is an increased emphasis placed on the behavioral aspects of a potential candidate, where selection tools are used to assist in determining a person s personality, attitude and character in relation to the specifications that a position may require. It is an undeniable fact that experience and expertise, although valuable, could be gained from training and development while attitude 68

78 ID:429 K:461 JEL CODE: M12-G21 (Management and Organization) and behavior are more important in new recruits in attempting to fit employees into a particular job environment. Recruiting and selection practices set employee expectations about the company s environment and provide the company with employees who have the ability to perform the job. This in turn will facilitate the adaptation of employees to job and its environment and therefore downfall of turnover rates will be inevitable. Managers of the firms should infer from these that recruiting and selecting is a crucial process for not to experience high turnover rates in the future. It can be said that, the personnel that fits job and job environment thinks of quitting the job less than the personnel who doesn t fit job. From the perspective of organizational climate, in the second regression model that takes turnover as dependent variable and takes organizational climate as independent variable, two variables that affect turnover are organizational boundaries and organizational ethics. Organizational boundaries help to enhance individual performance in addition to enhancing organizational performance by delimitation of the tasks. This limitation makes employee have a clear understanding of internal and external borders of the job. In our view, this clarity directly affects turnover intention negatively. From the organizational ethics perspective, this finding has important implications for managers. It must be known that organizational ethics directly affect turnover intentions. If managers ignore to behave ethically and don t create an ethical atmosphere in the organization, they may cause an increase in turnover rates. Organizations may be able to lower turnover and therefore achieve cost savings by creating an ethical climate throughout the organization. An ethical system leads to the development of moral values in the organization that fits to values of employees. As might be expected, this similarity does not create a conflict in employee s mind and this in turn will help the organization to work with the current personnel for a long time. According to third regression model that takes turnover as dependent variable and takes both HRM activities and organizational climate as independent variable, among the variables of HRM activities, feedback on performance and extensive training and among the variables of organizational climate, the organizational ethics, affect turnover in the negative way. Generally everyone is expected to be curious about his or her performance. People want to learn about their own strengths and weaknesses, but especially the strengths. Giving feedback aiming to improve employee with good wills will be very helpful in lowering turnover. So it may be asserted that if managers give feedback to employees about their 69

79 ID:429 K:461 JEL CODE: M12-G21 (Management and Organization) performance, employees learn about their competencies and effectiveness therefore they want to work in their organization in the long term. In other words, not to give feedback on performance will cause an increase in turnovers. Additionally, it is observed in this study with the regression models that the effect of giving feedback on turnover is appeared when it is applied with organizational climate factors. Besides, behaviors and attitudes and organizational boundaries variables effects on turnover disappear when HRM activities and organizational climate are applied together. To sum up, the findings of this study show that behavior and attitudes, extensive training and giving feedback, as the component of HRM activities, and organizational boundaries and organizational ethics, as the component of organizational climate, directly or indirectly affect turnover. REFERENCES AHMAD, S. and SCHROEDER, R.G., (2003). The Impact of Human Management Practices on Operational Performance: Recognizing Country and Industry Differences, Journal of Operations Management, 21, ALLEN, D.G., SHORE, L.M., and GRIF- FETH, R.W., (2003). The Role of Perceived Organizational Support and Supportive Human Resource Practices in the Turnover Process, Journal of Management, 29(1): AYCAN, Z., (2001). Human Resource Management in Turkey: Current Issues and Future Challenges, International Journal of Manpower, 22(3): BANKS ASSOCIATION of TURKEY (2012). Monthly reports, March. BARON, R.M., and KENNY, D.A., (1986). The Moderator-mediator Variable Distinction in Social Psychological Research: Conceptual, Strategies, and Statistical Considerations, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51: BASILEVSKY A., (1994). Statistical Factor Analysis and Related Methods, Theory and Applications, John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY BERGER, A.N., and HUMPHREY, D.B., (1991). The Dominance of Inefficiencies Over Scale and Product Mix Economies in Banking, Journal of Monetary Economics, 28, BOWEN, D.E., and OSTROFF, C., (2004). Understanding HRM-firm Performance Linkages: The Role of the Strength of the HRM System, Academy of Management Review, 29(2):

80 ID:429 K:461 JEL CODE: M12-G21 (Management and Organization) BURTON, R.M., LAURIDSEN, J., and OBEL, B., (2004). The Impact of Organizational Climate and Strategic Fit on Firm Performance, Human Resource Management, 43(1): CARMELI, A. and VINARSKI-PERETZ, H., (2010). Linking leader social skills and organizational health to positive work relationship in local government, Local Government Studies, 36: CHANGA, W.A., and HUANG, T.C., (2010). The impact of human resource capabilities on internal customer satisfaction and organizational effectiveness, Total Quality Management and Business Excellence, 21: COLLEY, L., and PRICE, R., (2010). Where have all the workers gone?: Exploring public sector workforce, Australian Journal of Public Administration, 69: CONRADE, G., WOODS, R. and NINE- MEIER, J., (1994). Training in the U.S. Lodging Industry: Perception and Reality, Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly, 35(5): DICSON, M.W., SIMITH, D.B., GROJEAN, M.W., and EHRHART, M., (2001). Ethical Climate: The Result of Interactions Between Leadership, Lader Values, and Follower Values, Leadership Quarterly, 12, 1 21 DONOGHUE, C., (2010). Nursing home staff turnover and retention: An analysis of national level data, Applied Gerontology, 29: EMBERLAND, J.S. and RUNDMO, T., (2010). Implications of job insecurity perceptions and job insecurity responses for psychological wellbeing, turnover intentions and reported risk behavior, Safety Science, 48: ESTRYN-BEHAH, M., VAN DER HEI- JDEN, B.I., FRY, C. and HASSEL- HORN, H.M., (2010). Longitudinal analysis of personal and work-related factors associated with turnover among nurses, Nursing Research, 59: GRIFFETH, R.W., HOM, P.W., and GAERT- NER, S., (2000). A meta-analysis of antecedents and correlates of employee turnover: Update, moderator tests, and research implications for the next millennium, Journal of Management, 26: GUTTERIDGE, T.G., LEIBOWITZ, Z.B., and SHORE, J.E., (1993). Organizational Career Development, San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. 71

81 ID:429 K:461 JEL CODE: M12-G21 (Management and Organization) GUTHRIE, J.P., (2001). High Involvement Work Practices, Turnover and Productivity: Evidence from New Zealand, Academy of Management Journal, 44: HUGHES, L.W., AVEY, J.B. and NIXON, D.R., (2010). Relationship between leadership and followers quitting intentions and job search behavior, Journal of Leadership and Organizational Studies, 20: 1-12 HUSELID, M.A., (1995). The impact of human resource management practices on turnover, productivity, and corporate financial performance, Academy of Management Journal, 38: KAYA, N., KOC, E., and TOPCU, D., (2010). An exploratory analysis of the influence of human resource management activities and organizational climate on job satisfaction in Turkish banks, The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 21 (11): KELLOWAY, E.K., GOTTLIEB, B.H., and BARHAM, L., (1999). The source, nature, and direction of work and family conflict: A longitudinal investigation, Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 4: KOC, E., (2006). Total Quality Management and Business Excellence in Services: The Implications of All-inclusive Pricing System on Internal and External Customer Satisfaction in the Turkish Tourism Market, Total Quality Management and Business Excellence, 17(7): KOC, T., and CEYLAN, C., (2007). Factors Impacting the Innovative Capacity of Large-scale Companies, Technovation, 27 (3): KOGUT, B., (2000). The network as knowledge: Generative rules and the emergence of structure, Strategic Management Journal, 21: KOYS, D.J., and DECOTIIS, T.A., (1991). Inductive Measures of Psychological Climate,Human Relations, 44(3): LADO, A.A., and WILSON, M., (1994). Human Resource Systems and Sustained Competitive Advantage: A Competence Based Perspective, Academy of Management Review, 19: LAU, M.L., and NGO, H., (2004). The HR System, Organizational Culture and Product Innovation, International Business Review, 13: LAWLER, E.E., (2000). Rewarding Excellence, San Franciso, CA: Josey-Bass 72

82 ID:429 K:461 JEL CODE: M12-G21 (Management and Organization) L EVY, F., GUISS E, A., NAZAREN KO, A., OMRANE, N., and SZULMAN, S., (2010). An environment for the joint management of written policies and business rules, 22nd International Conference on Tools with Artificial Intelligence, LEPAK, D.P., and SNELL. S.A., (2002). Examining the Human Resource Architecture: The Relationships among Human Capital, Employment, and Human Resource Configurations, Journal of Management, 28: LIOU, S.R., and CHENG, C.Y., (2010). Organizational climate, organizational commitment and intention to leave amongst hospital nurses in Taiwan, Journal of Clinical Nursing, 19: LITWIN, G., and STRINGER, R., (1968). Motivation and Organizational Climate, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press LURIA, G., (2008). Climate strength How Leaders Form Consensus, The Leadership Quarterly, 19: MALONE, T., and CROWSTON, K., (1994). The interdisciplinary study of coordination, ACM Computer Surveys, 26: MILKOVICH, T.G., and BOUDREAU, W.J., (1998). Human Resource Management (8th ed.), Boston, MA: Irwin MISHRA, S.K. and BHATNAGAR, D., (2010). Linking emotional dissonance and organizational identification to turnover intention and emotional well-being: A study of medical representatives in India, Human Resource Management, 49: MITCHELL, T.R., SABLYNSKI, C.J., and EREZ, M., (2001b). Why People Stay: Using Job Embeddedness to Predict Voluntary Turnover, Academy of Management Journal, 44: MONTES, F.J.L., MORENO, A.R., and FERNANDEZ, L.M.M., (2004). Assessing the Organizational Climate and Contractual Relationship for Perceptions of Support for Innovation, International Journal of Manpower, 25 (2): MORAN, E.T., and VOLKWEIN, J.F., (1992). The Cultural Approach to the Formation of Organizational Climate, Human Relations, 45(1): OHLY, S. and FRITZ, C., (2010). Work characteristics, challenge appraisal, creativity, and proactive behavior: A multilevel study, Journal of Organizational Behavior, 31:

83 ID:429 K:461 JEL CODE: M12-G21 (Management and Organization) PARE, G., and TREMBLAY, M., (2007). The Influence of High-Performance Human Resource Practices, Procedural Justice, Organizational Commitment, and Citizenship Behaviors on Information Technology Professionals Turnover Intentions, Group and Organization Management, 32 (7): PFEFFER, J., (2005). The myth of disposable worker, Business 2.0. PHILLIPS, J., (1996). Accountability in Human Resource Management, Houston: Gulf Publishing ROGG, K.L., SCHMIDT, D.B., SHULL, C., and SCHMITT, N., (2001). Human resource practices, organizational climate, and customer satisfaction, Journal of Management 27: RUSSEL, E.M., WILLIAMS, S.W., and GLEASON-GOMEZ, C., (2010). Teachers perceptions of administrative support and antecedents of turnover intention, Journal of Research in Childhood Education, 24: SANDERS, K., DORENBOSCH, L. and DE REUVER, R., (2008). The Impact of Individual and Shared Employee Perceptions of HRM on Affective Commitment: Considering Climate Strength, Personnel Review, 37: SAUNGWEME, R., and GWANDURE, C., (2011). Organizational Climate and Intent to Leave Among Recruitment Consultants in Johannesburg, South Africa, J Hum Ecol, 34(3): SCHNEIDER, B., and REICHERS, A., (1983). On the Etimology of Climates, Personnel Psychology, 36: SCHNEIDER, B., SALVAGGIO, A.N., and SUBRIRATS, M., (2002). Climate Strength: A New Direction for Climate Research, Journal of Applied Psychology, 87: SCHWEPKER, JR. and CHARLES H., (2001). Ethical Climate s Relationship to Job Satisfaction, Organizational Commitment and Turnover Intention in the Salesforce, Journal of Business Research, 54: SHAW, J.D., DELERY, J.E., JENKINS, G.D. and GUPTA, N., (1998). An organization-level analysis of voluntary and involuntary turnover, Academy of Management Journal, 41: VALENTINE, S. and FLEISCHMAN, G., (2008). Ethics Programs, Perceived Corporate Social Responsibility and Job Satisfaction, Journal of Business Ethics, 77:

84 ID:429 K:461 JEL CODE: M12-G21 (Management and Organization) VAN VIANEN, A.E.M., and PRINS, M.G., (1997). Changes in Newcomers Person Climate Fit Following the First Stage of Socialization, International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 5: WEISBERG, J., (1994). Measuring workers burnout and intention to leave, International Journal of Manpower, 15(1):4-14 WERTHER, W.B., and DAVIS, K., (1996). Human Resources and Personnel Management, New York: McGraw-Hill XIAO, J., (1996). The Relationship between Organizational Factors and the Transfer of Training in the Electronics Industry in Shenzhen, China, Human Resource Development Quarterly, 7 (1): YILMAZ, C., ALPKAN, L. and ERGUN, E., (2005). Cultural Determinants of Customer- and Learning Oriented Value Systems and their Joint Effects on Firm Performance, Journal of Business Research, 58: WRIGHT, P.M., DUNFORD, B., and SNELL. S.A., (2001). Human Resources and the Resource Based View of the Firm, Journal of Management 27:

85 ID:429 K:461 JEL CODE: M12-G21 (Management and Organization) İNSAN KAYNAKLARI YÖNETİMİ UYGULAMALARI VE ÖRGÜTSEL İKLİMİN İŞTEN AYRILMA NİYETİ ÜZERİNDEKİ ETKİLERİ: TÜRK BANKACILIK SEKTÖRÜNDE AMPİRİK BİR ÇALIŞMA Öz: Bu çalışma, Türk bankalarında insan kaynakları yönetimi uygulamaları ve örgütsel iklimin işten ayrılma niyeti üzerindeki etkilerini keşfetmeyi amaçlamaktadır. Çalışmada ilk olarak maddelik birbiriyle bağlantılı sekiz botuttan oluşan insan kaynakları yönetimi uygulamaları : ( i) personel alma ve seçmede davranış ve tutumlar; ii) takım çalışması; iii) kapsamlı eğitim; iv) yazılı kurallar; v) çok fonksiyonlu eğitim ; vi) teşvikler ; vii) performans değerleme ; viii) işten ayrılma düşüncesi üzerinde performans geri bildirimi) incelendikten sonra işten ayrılmada örgütsel iklimin etkisi araştırılmıştır. İşten ayrılmayı etkilediğine inanılan örgütsel iklim faktörleri: i) yenilikçiliği destek, ii) yönetici yeterlilik ve tutarlılığı, iii) iş yükü baskısı, iv) çalışanlar arası uyum, v) örgütsel sınırlar, vi) koordinasyon ve vii) örgütsel etik olarak ele alınmıştır. Toplanan veriler 391 banka çalışanıyla yüzyüze mülakat yöntemiyle elde edilmiştir. Yapılan analiz sonuçlarında, insan kaynakları yönetimi uygulamalarına ait davranış ve tutumlar, kapsamlı eğitim ve geri bildirim boyutlarının; örgütsel iklim değişkenine bağlı olarak ise örgütsel sınırlar ve örgütsel etik boyutlarının direkt ya da dolaylı olarak işten ayrılma niyetini etkilediği ortaya çıkmıştır. Yapılan çalışma ayrıca, yöneticilere ve uygulayıcılara işten ayrılma problemleriyle baş etmeleri ve çözüm yolları bulmaları için ipuçları göstererek öneriler sunmaktadır. Araştırmadaki demografik değişkenler ile ilgili sonuçlar incelendiğinde; çalışanların 90 tanesi yaş aralığındayken, 186 tanesi yaş aralığındadır. Geriye kalan 186 tanesi ise yaş aralığında olup 9 tanesi de 46 yaş ve üzerindedir. Çalışanların 107 si erkek ve 282 tanesi de kadındır. Bunların 12 si lise mezunuyken, 337 tanesi ise üniversite mezunudur. Ayrıca 42 si yüksek lisans ve doktoralıdır. İş deneyimi açısından ise çalışanların 286 sının 0-5 yıl, 75 inin 6-10 yıl, 25 inin yıl ve sadece 5 nin 20 yıldan fazla deneyime sahip oldukları görülmektedir. Bunlara ek olarak, araştırmaya katkı veren çalışanların pozisyonları açısından; 131 tanesinin memur, 130 tanesinin kısım amiri, 92 tanesinin orta düzey yönetici ve 38 tanesinin ise üst düzey yönetici olarak görev yaptıkları belirlenmiştir. Bu çalışmada kullanılan değişkenler, önceki araştırmalardan uyarlanmış olup geçerliliği ve güvenirliği test edilmiş ölçme araçları ile ölçülmüştür. Ölçeklere ait tüm maddeler (=1) Kesinlikle Katılmıyorum ve (=5) Tamamen Katılıyorum aralığında uzanan 5 li Likert ölçeği ile puanlanmıştır. İnsan Kaynakları Yönetimi Etkinliklerini ölçen maddeler Rogg (2001); Ahmad ve Schroeder (2003) e dayandırılarak 76

86 ID:429 K:461 JEL CODE: M12-G21 (Management and Organization) oluşturulurken. Örgütsel İklimi ölçen sorular Montes (2003); Rogg (2001) ve Schwepker (2001) ölçeğinden uyarlanmıştır. İşten ayrılma niyeti içinse Kelloway, Gottlieb ve Barham (1999) tarafından geliştirilen ölçekten istifade edilmiştir. Açıklayıcı faktör analizleri, maddelerin toplam korelasyon ve alfa katsayıları, ölçeklerin psikometrik oranlarının değerlendirilmesinde kullanılmıştır. Açıklayıcı faktör analizinin çıkarımsal sonuçları için, İnsan Kaynakları Yönetimi Etkinlikleri, Örgütsel İklim ve İşten Ayrılma Niyeti ölçeklerine ait maddelerin her biri ayrı ayrı Varimax Rotasyon sürecine tabi tutularak yürütülmüştür. Araştırmada kullanılan değişkenlerin birbiriyle ilişkilerini ve birbirine etki derecelerini saptamak için, korelasyon ve regresyon analizleri kullanılmıştır. Korelasyon sonuçlarına ulaşmada Pearson korelasyon katsayısından yararlanılmıştır. Bu analizlerden elde edilen bulgular neticesinde, İnsan Kaynakları Yönetimi Etkinlikleri ve Örgütsel İklim değişkenlerinin İşten Ayrılma Niyeti değişkeniyle güçlü ilişkilere sahip olduğu belirlenmiştir. Araştırmada kullanılan regresyon analizleri incelendiğinde; işten ayrılma niyetinin bağımlı değişken ve insan kaynakları yönetimi etkinliklerinin de bağımsız değişken olarak ele alındığı birinci regresyon modelinde, kapsamlı eğitim ve personel alma ve seçmede davranış ve tutumlar boyutlarının açık bir şekilde işten ayrılma niyetini negatif yönde etkilediği gözlenmiştir. Bu netice, çalışanların profesyonel bir eğitim programına tabi tutulduklarında ve mesleklerinde kendilerini geliştirme imkânı bulduklarında, işlerini bırakmamaları için daha yüksek düzeyde bir moral ve motivasyona sahip olabilecekleri şeklinde açıklanabilir. Örgütsel iklim perspektifinden bakıldığında ise; işten ayrılma niyetinin bağımlı değişken ve örgütsel iklimin bağımsız değişken olarak ele alındığı ikinci regresyon modelinde; işten ayrılma niyetini etkileyen iki boyutun örgütsel sınırlar ve örgütsel etik olduğu belirlenmiştir. Eğer yöneticiler etik ilkelere uygun davranmayı ihmal ederlerse ve yönettikleri ortamda etik bir ortam oluşturamazlarsa, işten ayrılma oranlarında bir yükselişe sebep olabilirler. Tüm örgütü kapsayacak şekilde oluşturulacak etik iklim, işten ayrılma oranlarını düşürerek örgüt için düşük maliyetlerin oluşmasını sağlayabilir. İşten ayrılma niyetinin bağımlı, insan kaynakları yönetimi etkinlikleri ve örgütsel iklimin bağımsız değişken olarak ele alındığı üçüncü regresyon modelinde ise; insan kaynakları yönetimi etkinlikleri boyutlarından işten ayrılma düşüncesi üzerinde performansın geri bildirimi ve kapsamlı eğitim ile örgütsel iklimin örgütsel etik boyutlarının işten ayrılma niyetini negatif yönde etkilediği bulunmuştur. İyi niyetlerle ve güzel düşüncelerle çalışanı geliştirmeyi amaçlayan geribildirimler vermek işten ayrılma düşüncesini azaltmaya etkili şekilde yardımcı olacaktır. Buradan hareketle, eğer yöneticiler çalışanlarına çalışma performansları hakkında iyi ve yeterli geribildirimde bulu- 77

87 ID:429 K:461 JEL CODE: M12-G21 (Management and Organization) nurlarsa, çalışanlar sahip oldukları maharet ve ustalıkları fark edecekler, böylece çalıştıkları iş yerinde daha uzun soluklu çalışmak isteyeceklerdir yargısına varılabilir. Anahtar Kelimeler: İnsan Kaynakları Yönetimi, Örgütsel İklim, İşten Ayrılma Niyeti, Örgütsel Etik, Türk Bankaları 78

88 IIBINTERNATIONAL REFEREED ACADEMIC SOCIAL SCIENCES JOURNAL ANALYSIS OF INDIVIDUAL AND ORGANIZATIONAL FACTORS THAT HAVE INFLUENCE ON THE TACIT KNOWLEDGE SHARING BY FUZZY LOGIC METHOD 1 Kürşad ZORLU Ahi Evran University, Department of Business Administration Kırşehir / Turkey Abstract: In this study, it s aimed to identify that how and in which dimension that individual and organizational factors have influence on the Tacit Knowledge Sharing and also providing suggestions for using Fuzzy Logic method as a prediction tool for relation between the variables. Under the extent of the study, Tacit Knowledge Sharing taken account dependent, organizational structure and culture, positive and negative result expectation, self-efficacy and trust to management are acknowledged as independent variables. The survey application of the study held on three different universities which are Gazi University (Ankara), Kırıkkale University (Kırıkkale) and Ahi Evran University (Kırşehir). According to the results, it s noted that Fuzzy Logic method is successful and negative result expectation, centrazilation and formalization have negative influence on information sharing but rest of the factors have positive influence on it. Key Words: Knowledge Management, Tacit Knowledge, Fuzzy Logic Doi: /IIB (1) Corresponding Author: Kürşad ZORLU, Ahi Evran University, Department of Business Administration Kırşehir / Turkey Received: Accepted: Typeofarticle (Research -Application) Conflict of Interest: None NoneofEthicsCommittee 79

89 ID:415 K:232 JEL CODE: M1-M15-D8 (Management and Organization) 1. INTRODUCTION In modern-day management and organization understanding, human based organizations have become informational systems beyond being systems in which energies of employees gathered and it faces with the hardness of collecting and storing information (Katz & Kahn, 1977:245). Having strategic significance, knowledge eases making decision in atmosphere of uncertainty and is gaining more and more importance in daily lives of individuals (Öğüt, 2001:1). Together with the increasing importance of concept of information, the concept of Information society that requires novelty and creativity in each phases also comes into prominence. Knowledge oriented paradigm have been relieving creativity for competition, process for success, solution for problem approaches and examining usage of knowledge from the point of organizations. This paradigm suggests a model that changes between inputprocess-output and explicit-tacit knowledge in solution of organizational problems. Gaining, usage and sharing of knowledge include easy, fast and explicitly accessible system, process and implementations that the members of organization are in need of. Bringing in the knowledge capacities of members of organization or groups in organization is evaluated as competitiveness treasury or modern-day organizations. This basic target becomes more of issue within the point of transferring power of knowledge in organization to organizational purposes. In as much as, increase in sharing level of knowledge and gaining sustainability enable the equipment of both employees and organization memory with more knowledge. In this context, it is possible to express that production, distribution, share and transfer of knowledge is possible with the internalization of ideas and processes in question by employees (Nonaka et. al. 1994:4-6; Nonaka et. al. 2006:1179). With regard to modern-day organizations, sustainable success can be provided with a participative organizational atmosphere that reveals knowledge and that bring all employees together in a common point rather than concealing or leaking knowledge. Such that, not revealing and avoiding share of the knowledge gained as a result of experience, skills and trainings have become one of the innate problems of executives in many large and small organizations. Unrevealing tacit knowledge that reflects the training, skills and experiences of employees as necessary may cause lose of qualified human resources with all acquisitions and new organization members lacking of this knowledge. For this reason, one of the main duties of the executives is to actualize the decisions and implementations that can bring share and usage of Tacit knowledge into force and to direct 80

90 ID:415 K:232 JEL CODE: M1-M15-D8 (Management and Organization) negative and positive factors that affect this process in a right way by checking those factors (İbicioğlu&Doğan, 2006:90; Sağsan, 2007: ). In this process, one of the priorities of management floor is to establish sharing mechanisms that will provide the reveal of tacit knowledge and to determine the variables that affect sharing levels to do so. During knowledge sharing process, factors such as intention, self-determination and continuity of members of organization may have also influence besides the cultural and structural efficacious. Thus, it is necessary for the organizations that pay attention to knowledge share to evaluate organizational and individual factors all together (Koza, 2008: ). Within this framework, tacit knowledge is accepted as an effective factor to reach success, to make the novelty and creativity continuous and to come to the fore in competition conditions that is getting more and more intense nowadays (Doğan, 2004: 107; Bolat; 2009: 341). Thus it is extremely important not to confine to data processing in dynamic business environments but to explore, to reveal and to provide sharing tacit knowledge among employees. Likewise, there has been comprehensive researches that express that tacit knowledge is effective on performance of business and employees and capability of novelty of the organization (bkz. Lin, 2008a; 2008b; Liu & Cui, 2012). When the subject of this study and the method that is implemented evaluated together, it can be seen that the most comprehensive study done before is performed by Lin (2008a; 2008b) in Taiwan manufacturing businesses. Knowledge sharing is discussed as a dependent variable and with a general approach in both studies. In aforementioned studies the attitude of knowledge sharing is not divided as tacit or explicit knowledge and each kind of knowledge sharing among employees in different levels in organization is expressed. In the same study, organizational culture, organizational structure, organizational reliance and organizational dependency variables are preferred as factors that affect knowledge sharing and fuzzy logic is used as method of analysis. In these studies; organizational culture is studied as bureaucracy, innovative and supportive culture sub-factors; and organizational structure is studied as formalism, centralization and totality sub-factors. From this point of view, it can be expressed that this study has some distinctive features when compared to previously done. Especially, in this study attitude of tacit knowledge is dealt with as an independent variable being more particular and limited rather than attitude of knowledge sharing. The difficulty in measurement of tacit knowledge makes it difficult to carry out measurements on sharing of it. For this reason, it can be said that researchers use explicit and tacit knowledge together. 81

91 ID:415 K:232 JEL CODE: M1-M15-D8 (Management and Organization) One of the features that makes this study significant is that the effect of Conclusion Expectancy, Structure of Organization, Organization Culture, Confidence in Management and Self-sufficiency perception that are used as independent variables, on tacit knowledge sharing attitude is expressed all together and integrally. Particularly usage of Negative Conclusion Expectancy in this study for the first time can be accepted as important within the sense of originality of the study. Yet, it can be observed that subjective assessments of participants during data gathering may result in concealing negative statements and not being reflected in general evaluation. Thus, involving negative conclusion expectancy in measurements as well as positive conclusion expectancy will enable setting forth the emotion, thoughts and expectations of employees in business life in two different terms. One of the main issues that increases the significance of the study is the originality of the method of analysis that is used. Within this perspective, this study is the first in Turkish literature. There are two purposes of this study deemed to be final. (1) Determination of how and at which level some organizational and individual factors affect the sharing of tacit knowledge; (2) Development of determinations and suggestions for usage in analysis of relations between variables as an estimator of fuzzy logic method. This study presents theoretical aspects that include literature basis and hypothesis and afterwards, results of analysis performed with fuzzy logic method are presented. 2. LITERATURE REFERENCES Looking at literature, knowledge is evaluated as a main power that supports novelty and creativity within the scope of organization conditions of today and competitiveness and it can be seen that particular attention is paid to individual tacit knowledge. In this context, it is accepted that individual knowledge is main factor; yet, group attitudes in production or reveal of new information for success of organization is not ignored (Erden et. al. 2008:6). Some studies put emphasise on bringing the tacit knowledge in organization and its quality (see: Gourlay, 2004; Nonaka et al., 2000; Nonaka, 1994; Polanyi,1967; Doran, 2004; Koskinen, 2001; Sanders, 2004). In this framework, it can be seen that there has been various studies on the factors that affect sharing of tacit knowledge among employees (see: Bock & Kim, 2002; Bock et. al. 2005; Kankanhalli et. al. 2005; Purvis et. al. 2001; Wasko&Faraj, 2005). It is used in Tsai (2002) that knowledge sharing among units and hierarchical ranks in organizations to explain social network theory. Hansen (2002) emphasised on the importance of parallel communication within the frame of 82

92 ID:415 K:232 JEL CODE: M1-M15-D8 (Management and Organization) knowledge sharing and stated that smaller and more flexible structures can be more efficient in knowledge sharing. It is stated in Tsai and Ghoshal (1998) that removing communication obstacles inter-departments in organization has positive effect on knowledge sharing and incites innovativeness. Looking at the similar studies in literature, it is possible to assess knowledge sharing in two perspectives. Accordingly, it is required not to ignore the attitude of knowledge sharing and intention factor in compliance with this attitude. It is highly possible that a person who intends to perform this attitude individually would perform this attitude because of different causes of motivation (Yang &Farn, 2009:212). However, in this study tacitknowledge sharing intention and sharing attitude is analysed by evaluating as single factor under the name of tacit knowledge sharing due to the difficulty of measuring the intention of knowledge sharing and subjectivity that increases in relative way during obtaining data. On the other hand, when studies on reveal of information in the process of determination of the variables used in the study are evaluated, it can be observed that some variables become evident in organizational and individual level. Krogh, Ichijo and Nonaka (2000) grouped the obstacles on knowledge sharing in two groups as individual and organizational obstacles. Individual obstacles generally consist of main expressions related to the losing faith of the person, and on the other side, organizational obstacles are considered as communication and organizational structure. Generally, organization climate, organization structure, organization culture, reliance on administration, motivation and some means of incentives are used as independent variables in the performed studies (Hsu et. al. 2007:154). There are some studies on the positive effect of reliance of employees on the administration on knowledge sharing intention (Lucas, 2005; Koshinen, Pihlanto&Vanharanta, 2003). In the study carried out by Simonin (1999), it was presented that for aforementioned reason knowledge sharing in USA companies is more difficult than in Japan companies. Particularly, cultural differences among employees may increase the organizational conflicts and anxieties. Furthermore, it is understood that some problems arising from organization structure and reliance and mutual expectation among employees also complicate obtaining of tacit knowledge (Collins &Hitt, 2006: ; Spulber, 2012:642). Even though the effect of variables as organization culture, organization structure and reliance on administration on knowledge sharing is generally determined, it can be observed that the number of studies on tacit knowledge sharing is limited. However, organizational culture and structure taking information rela- 83

93 ID:415 K:232 JEL CODE: M1-M15-D8 (Management and Organization) tions among members of organization into consideration is needed to reveal the tacit knowledge. Similarly, Shao and Liu (2012) discussed the effect of culture on the attitude of knowledge sharing in two perspectives as explicit and tacit knowledge sharing and stated that the effect on Implicit knowledge sharing is more powerful. For this reason, organizational culture, organizational structure and reliance on administration take place in this study as independent variables. Recently, it is started to examine the relation between selfsufficiency and attitude of knowledge sharing (Kim, 2002; Kaankahalli et. al., 2005; Hsu et. al., 2007). In these studies, the positive effect of self-sufficiency factor on attitude of knowledge sharing introduced. Besides this, preference of conclusion expectancy and self-sufficiency perception can be considered as a variable that must be analysed in universities and that may be interrelating with each other. Reliance on administration can also be seen as a variable that pave the way for the effect of these two variables. In this respect, the variables that may present new findings within the sense of sample of the study as well as the variables the effects on attitude of knowledge sharing have introduced before, in the determination of variables used in study. This constitutes a basis while forming hypothesis that are explained separately for each variable and given below THE CONCEPT OF KNOWLEDGE Knowledge and information that are expressed by words and figures can substitute each other but there are differences between these concepts. Knowledge, unlike information, includes dependence and belief elements. This aspect of also expresses the relation with human actions (Nonaka, 1994:6). Information is the form that is transferred from the outside of organisms and recorded. On the other hand, knowledge is located in the brain of the individuals. It is possible to obtain new knowledge by processing information. It can be claimed that there is a parallelism between the discussion of knowledge as a social concept and studies on organizational knowledge (Akgün&Keskin, 2003: ) KNOWLEDGE CONVERSION PE- RIOD Polanyi (1996) categorizes the knowledge concerning human beings in two ways as implicit and explicit knowledge (Nonaka, 1994:7). Knowledge in organizations is generated by means of interactions between explicit and tacit knowledge. The interaction carried out between these two types is called as conversion of knowledge. In the study performed by Nonaka& Takeuchi (1995), it is stated that tacit knowledge can become explicit knowledge via some means. The pro- 84

94 ID:415 K:232 JEL CODE: M1-M15-D8 (Management and Organization) cess of creation of knowledge among explicit and tacit knowledge is continuous within the frame of organizations. Knowledge conversion model (SECI) that takes the relationship between implicit and explicit knowledge as a basis and that is commonly accepted is given in Figure 1. Socialization may occur in or out of the borders of organization. In this phase which is evaluated as tendency from tacit knowledge to tacit knowledge, Implicit knowledge may occur and be shared with the interaction between individuals. In this case, socialization is a process that is related to the social dimension of organization such as attitudes and relations of group and organization culture. Employees learn tacit knowledge in social dimension of organization with interpersonal relations. Interpersonal learning works with observation and imitation rather than being in compliance with written and oral rules (Atak, 2011:165). Knowledge conversion in master-apprentice relations can also be given as example of socialization. In externalization aspect, interpersonal communication and reflections provide conversion from tacit knowledge to explicit knowledge and when Implicit knowledge is released, crystallisation of knowledge is ensured. Conversion of Implicit knowledge as explicit knowledge in knowledge generation process is knowledge s taking shape of procedures, instructions, hypothesis or concepts. Methods such as most successful examples implementation in which experiences are recorded by being shared, expert systems and case based reasoning; narration and knowledge interchange records are used in conversion of Implicit knowledge to explicit knowledge. However, it needs to be paid attention to implement suitable method in this phase. Merging knowledge means the tendency from explicit knowledge to explicit knowledge by gathering more complex and systematic knowledge. Interchange or merging of knowledge via documents, meetings, phone conversations or computer networks is the point in question. One of the most suitable examples of this process is information s that is obtained as a result of the studies performed by an auditor in organization, becoming a financial report. However, in internalization explicit knowledge is conversed to tacit knowledge. In this process, explicit knowledge is shared throughout groups and organizations. During internalization process of knowledge, together with the share of newly generated explicit knowledge with whole organization, members of organization internalize this knowledge. Organization members internalization of this knowledge, in other words, means concerning knowledge s being hidden and their own knowledge. In this case, the action that occurs is conversion of explicit knowledge to Implicit knowledge. The process of internalization of knowledge is closely related with learning by practising,that is one 85

95 ID:415 K:232 JEL CODE: M1-M15-D8 (Management and Organization) of learning methods. (Nonaka et. al. 2003:886; Zaim&Seçgin, 2012:6). Figure 1.Knowledge Conversion Model (SECI) Source: Nonaka ve Takeuchi, (1995) 2.3. TACIT KNOWLEDGE Tacit knowledge is a kind of knowledge that is hard to be expressed orally, subjectivity of which outweighs and varied from person to person. There are two aspects of this knowledge, which are technical and cognitive. Technical aspect of tacit knowledge is knowledge that is developed in the intellect of individual based on manhandling and is not revealed. Cognitive aspect, on the other hand, consists of beliefs, ideals, opinions, conventional judgements and mental models. Implicit knowledge that is kept in the brains of employees is conversed to explicit in organizational level by being coded (Sagsan, 2006:32). In spite of that, explicit knowledge is a knowledge that can be coded, used in a systematic way and expressed and easily transferred via symbols and other means. However, any knowledge that can be expressed needs to be supported 86

96 ID:415 K:232 JEL CODE: M1-M15-D8 (Management and Organization) with tacit knowledge. In other words, the roots of human knowledge are in relation with tacit knowledge processes (Liu & Cui, 2012:2074). Implicit knowledge is a knowledge that is hidden in experiences, skills and various actions of individuals in cognitive and technical way. It is assumed in Implicit knowledge that the person has more than the said and written (Alavi&Leinder, 2001:110; Schulz &Jobe, 2001:142). Implicit knowledge can be analysed in two main sections in itself. First, technical knowledge, know-how and skills, and the second is cognitive knowledge such as belief, perception and foresight (Khuzaimah& Hassan, 2012:344). At the same time, tacit knowledge that is used in novelty and creativity also constitutes 90% of knowledge store of human brain (Doğan, 2011:79) TACIT KNOWLEDGE SHARING Looking at the applications directed to knowledge sharing attitudes, it can be observed that knowledge sharing intention that determines attitude performance of person and being clarified with subjective norms are affected by various organizational and individual factors. As implicit knowledge that is hidden by employees provides competitive advantage among them, employees do not want to reveal them (Sagsan, 2006:32). There are several explanations on the fact that there is a relationship between the power of intention on knowledge sharing and the sizes of attitudes that occur (see: Chang, 1998; Chau& Hu, 2001; Yang &Farn, 2009). This case not only directs the managerial researches between two variables but also directs the researchers within the scope of psychology discipline (Ryu, Ho& Han, 2003:114). However, implicit knowledge sharing is taken as a single factor by gathering intention and attitude variables together in this study as it is hard to measure the sharing intention FACTOR THAT AFFECT TACIT KNOWLEDGE SHARING AND DEVEL- OPING HYPOTHESIS The factors that affect implicit knowledge sharing are discussed as organizational and individual factors in this study. Organizational factors consist of organization culture and organization structure; individual factors consist of self-sufficiency perception, reliance on administration and conclusion expectancy (positive-negative). Theoretical details on these factors are given below and suggested research model is set forth ORGANIZATION CULTURE The affect of organization culture on the increase of organizational knowledge sharing and success of knowledge management applications in changing levels is analysed in several studies (Davenport, De Long, & Beers, 1998; Davenport &Prusak, 1998). 87

97 ID:415 K:232 JEL CODE: M1-M15-D8 (Management and Organization) Employees of organization may perceive the system in a different way compared to the individuals out of organization. This difference consists of codifications, norms and values in relation with the system and common expectations with other members (Katz & Kahn, 1977:251). A significant part of these variables is under the effect of organization culture. The fact that sharing culture affects attitude of knowledge sharing strongly has already been expressed in previous studies (Yu et. al.,2010; Jones et. al., 2006). For this reason, Organization culture can be accepted as the most significant supportive in reveal and sharing of implicit knowledge ORGANIZATION STRUCTURE For the success of a culture system that focuses on sharing of implicit knowledge, it needs to establish an organizational structure in compliance with this. Because, organizing the organizational structure in a way to constitute an obstacle on sharing of implicit knowledge may commence separation, conflicts and severances among members of organization. This case requires compliance between organization culture and organization structure. It is possible to claim that an organization structure that is external environment and change sensitive and that is flexible and apparent can increase the tendency on cooperation and sharing on employees (İbicioğlu&Doğan, 2006: ). Organizational structure that is in comply with this case may pave the way to encourage employees on knowledge sharing by forming knowledge sharing channels and usage of technology in the organization. In organizations based on hierarchical, scalar relationships and extreme control, lack of confidence against management or fear culture may be in the ascendant. (Barutçugil, 2002: ). There are some studies that express the fact that organization structure affect the attitude of knowledge sharing (Abili et. al., 2011). Considering the studies on organizational structure, it can be observed that generally formalization, centralization, coordination, technical qualifications, sophistication and hierarchical system sub-dimensions are used as variable groups (Bkz. Blau, 1967; Hickson, 1969; Reiman, 1973; Germain, 1996; Andrew &Kaçmar, 2001; Daft, 2001; Robbins & Coulter, 2003; Lin, 2008; Willem &Buelens, 2009). Willem &Buelens (2009) set forth that low formalization has positive effect on attitude of knowledge sharing, and centralization has negative effect on it. Within the direction of these determinations obtained from literature, formalism, hierarchy and centralization effects are analysed as sub-factors within the frame of organizational structure variables in the study. Formalism: It refers to the fact that organizational relationships and job-oriented activities are continued with formal rules, regula- 88

98 ID:415 K:232 JEL CODE: M1-M15-D8 (Management and Organization) tions and procedures to what extend (Lin, 2008:667). The more the level of formalism of organization increase, the more the rights and duties of employees and all rules, procedures and instructions needs to be officially determined. As formalism factor create extreme control and thus decrease flexibility have negative effect on knowledge sharing (Chen & Huang, 2007:106; Willem &Buelens, 2009:152). Hierarchy: It is not possible to increase share and usage of implicit knowledge with a hierarchical structure that is too strict. (İbicioğlu&Doğan, 2006: ). Increasing in hierarchy level in organization may cause some bureaucratic and communicational problems and may make knowledge sharing among employees difficult. Centralization: It is a variable that expresses to what extend the power of making decision is focused on top management and hierarchical system is the focus of making decisions. The increase in centralization level of organization may affect attitude of knowledge sharing in negative way (Willem &Buelens, 2009:152). Increase in centralization level is a process that has negative effects on organizational dependency and that eliminates high participation condition in duties and projects among employees. In fact, developments in business life require proliferation of sense of responsibility and strengthening of selfcontrol and self-determination in decisions for enhance of knowledge sharing among employees (Chen & Huang, 2007:106). With this aspect, increase in centralization level may decrease implicit knowledge sharing among employees POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE CON- SLUSION EXPENCTANCY It is a fact that members of organization are doubtful and selfish in sharing and usage of knowledge as a result of the anxiety of other employees being competitors of them (İbicioğlu&Doğan, 2006:90). For this reason, conclusion expectancy means positive and negative results that are expected from their own behaviours. It is possible for his expectation to be evaluated within physical, social and self-sufficiency scope. It can also be accepted that many acquisitions such as enjoyment, pain, reward, power and authority are under the effect of conclusion expectancy. In the study performed by Bandura (1997), it is expressed that positive and negative expectations may direct human behaviours. Likewise, employees thinking of the things that are to be lost as much as the reward to be gained regarding knowledge sharing is a result of rational human behaviours (Hsu et. al. 2007:156). Together with the changes in competition conditions and employees being in a race during routine business lives in varying levels, it may be possible to cause retarda- 89

99 ID:415 K:232 JEL CODE: M1-M15-D8 (Management and Organization) tion in the tendency of sharing their experiences and background information with others. This case can be accepted as a product of the expectation of employees for positive or negative results that will be obtained by implicit knowledge sharing. Sharing of knowledge can be explained with instinct of progression to a better position or losing current position of organization member who shared this knowledge. There are some studies that state that conclusion expectancy has effects on individual knowledge sharing (see: Bock & Kim, 2002; Kankanhalli et. al. 2005). In this study, positive and negative conclusion expectancy are assessed as two sub-variables and tried to explain what kind of conclusion expectancy is more effective on sharing of implicit knowledge SELF CONFIDENCE In the studies recently carried out, it is stated that the individuals with high self-sufficiency can eliminate negative expectancies that may arise from attitude of knowledge sharing (Constant et. al. 1994; Bock& Kim, 2002; Kankanhalli et. al. 2005; Hsu et. al. 2007). As per these studies, self-sufficiency criterion that includes perceptions of employees as skill, success and satisfaction has a certain level effect on motivation in organization and course of behaviour. The level of actualization of intentions to performance is higher in the individuals with high self-sufficiency compared to individuals with low self-sufficiency level in the organization. It is understood that the positive changes in individuals perception of self-sufficiency affect knowledge sharing intention besides motivation and performance (Chen, Chuang & Chen, 2012:112). Thus, possible effect of self-sufficiency factor on knowledge sharing conclusion expectancy that is accepted to have effect on knowledge sharing attitude of individuals can be analysed together. For this reason, three hypotheses regarding the perception of self-sufficiency are established in the study TRUST ON ADMINISTRATION It is possible to mention about management skills that eases knowledge sharing and generation of new knowledge in an organization in which knowledge is paid importance. Executives having this skill is called as knowledge leaders ; and it is observed that they try to create body of rules and an environment that supports corporation among organization members and that encourages knowledge sharing and transfer (implicit and explicit) (Nonaka et. al :888). In both social and organizational environment, it is expected from organization members to rely on management as well as relying on other members of organization to increase knowledge sharing (Renzl, 2008:208). Increase in the level of reliance on administration is one of the tools 90

100 ID:415 K:232 JEL CODE: M1-M15-D8 (Management and Organization) that encourage employees to act within the direction of organizational purposes. Executives shall create a sense of trust on employees that they will be rewarded in the event that they share their knowledge and experiences and as a result this can increase knowledge sharing (Abrams et. al. 2003:65). Thus sharing of individual knowledge in implicit and explicit way is made easier and faster by increasing reliance levels of organization members on management. At the same time, it is determined that employees level of reliance on administration also has effect on several variables that can be seen in workplaces such as satisfaction, loyalty, efficiency and stress besides knowledge sharing (Kramer, 1995; Levin & Cross, 2004). Hypotheses that can be tested to actualize the general purpose of the study as well as explanations and ground given above are: H1.There is a positive relation between organization culture and implicit knowledge sharing. H2. There is a positive relation between organization structure and implicit knowledge sharing. H2.1. There is a negative relation between level of formalism and implicit knowledge sharing within the scope of organization structure. H2.2. There is a negative relation between level of hierarchy and implicit knowledge sharing within the scope of organization structure. H2.3. There is a negative relation between level of centralization and implicit knowledge sharing within the scope of organization structure. H3. There is a positive relation between implicit knowledge sharing and conclusion expectancy. H3.1. There is a positive relation between positive conclusion expectancy and implicit knowledge sharing. H3.2. There is a negative relation between negative conclusion expectancy and implicit knowledge sharing. H4. There is a positive relation between level of self-sufficiency and implicit knowledge sharing. H4.1. There is a negative relation between level of self-sufficiency and negative conclusion expectancy. H4.2. There is a positive relation between level of self-sufficiency and positive conclusion expectancy. H5. There is a positive relation between level of reliance on administration and implicit knowledge sharing. 91

101 ID:415 K:232 JEL CODE: M1-M15-D8 (Management and Organization) RESEARCH MODEL As per deductions and hypotheses made by literature research, model suggested in the study is given in figure 2. Figure 2. Research Model 3. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 3.1. Data Collection Tool Questionnaire technique is used to collect data within the scope of study and Five point Likert scale take part. Questions on determination of demographic features and statements used for measurement of variables are included. In some studies there are some expressions for determination of knowledge sharing and empirical studies on implicit knowledge sharing are limited relatively. For this reason, expressions on implicit knowledge sharing are taken from (Yang &Farn, 2009; Bock, et. al. 2005) and then adopted. Expressions on positive conclusion expectancy are taken from (Hsu, et. al. 2007) in which the relation with attitude of knowledge sharing is presented and then these are developed. Expressions that define negative conclusion expectancy are prepared within the scope of the study. Thus, whether employees fear of losing or beliefs 92

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