1 Akademik Sosyal Araştırmalar Dergisi, Yıl: 5, Sayı: 51, Ağustos 2017, s Yayın Geliş Tarihi / Article Arrival Date Yayınlanma Tarihi / The Publication Date Deniz ALÇİN SAHİNTÜRK Research Asistant of Manisa Celal Bayar University Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences Public Finance Department Öznur AKYOL BULUT Research Asistant of Manisa Celal Bayar University Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences Public Finance Department THE SOCIO-ECONOMICAL RESULTS OF LABOR MIGRATION FROM TURKEY TO GERMANY 12 Abstract After World War II, when development policies were implementing in Europe there was a labor shortage and central countries claimed cheap labor from other countries.in the same period, Turkey faced many economic problems too. One of these problems was that the foreign exchange income was insufficient. Another problem was the unemployment problem. For this reason, the two countries signed a "guest worker" agreement on October 31, 1961 to provide mutual benefits. According to the provisions of the agreement thousands of Turkish workers migrated to Germany. The purposes of Turkey by this migration policy were to decrease unemployment, have qualified labor after migrated labor turn back, close foreign exchange gap and consequently accelerate development of the country. In our study, a case study based on economical indicators of the period for whether the labor mi- 1 Bu makale içeriği Viyana da düzenlenen Turkish Migration Conference 2016 da 14 Temmuz 2016 tarihinde Göç, Kalkınma ve İşgücü-II oturumunda bildiri olarak sunulmuştur. 2 "The content of this article was presented at the Turkish Migration Conference 2016 in Vienna, at the Migration, Development and Workforce-II session on July 14, 2016".
2 gration to Germany with the aforementioned reasons have provided the expected socio-economical results will be done. Keywords: Labor Migration, Germany, Labor Foreign Exchange, Economical Indicators TÜRKİYE DEN ALMANYA YA İŞÇİ GÖÇÜNÜN SOSYO-EKONOMİK SONUÇLARI Öz İkinci Dünya Savaşı ndan sonra Avrupa'da kalkınma politikaları uygulanırken işgücü sıkıntısı yaşanmış, merkez ülkeler diğer ülkelerden ucuz işgücü talebinde bulunmuştur.aynı dönemde Türkiye de birçok ekonomik sorunlarla karşılaşmıştır. Bu sorunlardan biri döviz gelirinin yetersizliğidir. Diğer bir sorun ise işsizlik problemidir. Bu nedenle iki ülke 31 Ekim 1961 tarihinde karşılıklı kazanç sağlayacakları bir misafir işçi anlaşması imzalamıştır. Anlaşma hükümlerine göre binlerce Türk işçisi Almanya'ya göç etmiştir. Türkiye'nin bu göç politikası ile hedeflediği; işsizlik sorunundan kurtulmak, işçilerin geri dönümü ile kalifiye işgücüne sahip olmak, işçi dövizleri ile döviz açığını kapatmak ve sonuç olarak kalkınmasını hızlandırmaktır. Çalışmamızda yukarıda sebepleri belirtilen Almanya ya gerçekleşen işçi göçünün ülkemizde beklenilen sosyo-ekonomik sonuçları doğurup doğurmadığı konusunda dönemin ekonomik göstergelerine dayalı bir durum analizi yapılacaktır. 395 Anahtar kelimeler: İşçi Göçü, Almanya, İşçi Dövizleri, Ekonomik Göstergeler I-REASONS AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE MIGRATION After the World War II, there was a manpower deficit due to low population growth rate and losing manpower in the war during the restructuring and development process of Europe and rapidly industrializing central countries requested cheap labor from their neighboring countries. Germany as one of these central countries entered into agreements with Italy, Spain and Greece and imported labor from these countries but could not close its labor gap. During the same term, Turkey even it was not a part of the World War II, faced significant economical problems. One of the most important of these problems was the foreign exchange bottle-neck. Because, sufficient foreign exchange input could not be ensured as mainly agricultural products were exported. Another problem was high population growth rate. Especially, the density of unqualified population and import substitution policies decelerated development thrusts and unemployment rapidly increased. Sending manpower to abroad was adopted as an alternative policy for development plans of the term for coping with unemployment and the statement "Another aspect of the employment policy is to export excessive manpower to the Western European countries with manpower deficiency" was included in the First Five-Year Development Plan (DPT (a), 1963:456). Here, at this point the paths of Turkey and Germany coincided. Actually, in 1956, Kiel University of Germany planned that the Turks to work in Germany for supporting German investments in Turkey would be firstly trained by German firms and on this purpose 12 Turkish interns were taken to Germany by the labor migration
3 agreement signed by the governments of two countries in 1957 (Yaprak, 2013:864). Thousands of Turkish labor migrated to Germany by the labor import agreement signed with Germany in October 31, Beginning from June 1, 1963, the children of our labors in Germany living in Turkey began providing child support and the most important step for securing social rights of these people was taken by Turkish-German Social Security Agreement with 30th April 1964 date (Unver, 2003:192). The migration of Turkish labor to Germany became popular in the beginning of 70s. This increase is mainly based on the permission for them to take their families with them. While, the future plans of these people had returning Turkey, increasing unemployment and political instability caused most of them to postpone their plans after retirement and bringing their families with them (Fidan, Fidecioglu, 2010:30-31). However, oil crisis in 1973 the migration to Germany was decreased by Germany. With the oil crisis in 1973, Germany stopped taking labor and remigration accelerated to Turkey. Advance payment of premium returns and payment of comeback premiums by "the Comeback Incentive Law" which was in force almost eleven months during 1983 and 1984, it was ensured that 120 thousands of insured workforce, 215 thousands of Turkish citizens left Germany (Dogan, :23). The ones benefited from the comeback law has ensured that their children stayed in Germany in anyway and these children and the ones who did not turn back have continued Turkish presence in Germany (Sahin, 2012:4). These children and the ones who has gone to Germany by marriage are the 2nd generation Turks. This process of migration was called "social migration" (Solaker, 2017:411). Beginning from the 2nd generation, Turks integrated into the education system of Germany and learned German. In 1980s, many Turkish citizens returned to our country by "the Comeback Inventive Law" while some educated Turkish citizens migrated to Germany by asylum request after military coup. It was adopted by the 1990 dated "German Foreigners Law" that the immigrant population was permanent in Germany and it was facilitated to take German citizenship by the "German Citizenship Law" put into force in 1999 (Celik Uguz, 2012:179). 396
4 Table 1: Our Labor Gone to and Returned from Germany as of Years Years Gone Labor Returned Labor Years Gone Labor Returned Labor Source: Turgut Göksu, İşçilikten Vatandaşlığa: Almanya daki Türkler, Özen Yayıncılık, Ankara, 2000, s.35,83. II-SOCIO-ECONOMICAL RESULTS OF THE MIGRATION WITH REGARDS TO TURKEY Labor migration has influenced our country's economy especially with regards to labor foreign exchanges, employment, entrepreneurship culture and tourism income. A-INFLUENCE OF THE MIGRATION ON LABOR FOREIGN EXCHANGES In 1976 Central Bank of Turkey established foreign currency deposit account for this people called workers' remittance. (Saritas, 2011:163)
5 Table 2: Rates of Labor Incomes to Foreign Trade Balance Years Rates of Labor Incomes to Foreign Trade Balance (%) Years Rates of Labor Incomes to Foreign Trade Balance (%) Source: Aysel ATALAY, Almanya daki İşçi Tasarruflarının Değerlendirilmesi: Kredi Mektuplu Döviz Tevdiat ve Süper Döviz Hesapları Örneğinde Bir Makro Analiz, Uzmanlık Yeterlilik Tezi, TCMB İşçi Dövizleri Genel Müdürlüğü, Ankara, 2005, s. 45, 48. As it is seen from Table 2, the rate of labor foreign exchanges to the foreign trade balance increased significantly until the year of oil crisis and it increased a level to compensate the whole foreign trade gap in In 1973, our country had a surplus in the current budget for the first time in history due to labor incomes. After this year, it showed a continuous fluctuation. The foreign exchange input decreased after our labor became permanent there and this item has begun to be considered under the tourism incomes title since 2003 (Kalkınma Bakanlığı, 2015:100). However, Turkey could not use labor foreign exchange income efficiently. In time, Turkey became more destitude and addicted to these foreign exchanges sent from abroad for decreasing its foreign trade gap and increasing importation made it intensified (Unat, Keles, Penninx, Renselaar, Velzen, Yenisey, 1976:409). As it is seen in Table 3, most of the incoming foreign exchange was directed to real-estate investments by families. As the labor foreign exchange made influences for enlarging currency in circulation without any in kind transfer, prices caused continuously increases at general level and became one of the important reasons for high cost of living, violent price increases and worrying inflationary pressures (Ekin, 1986:45).
6 Table 3: Nature of Investments of Returning Labor (as of 1991) Nature of Investment % Rentable Properties 44 Own Business 27,7 Land 24,5 Bank 9,3 Tractor, Agricultural Machinery 3,3 Labor Companies 0,5 Source: GOKSU, a.g.e., s.67. We can state other advantages of labor incomes other than decreasing current account deficit: With the remittances, welfare of the families who had obtained these remittances increased. Also, this foreign exchange and refunds accelerated modernization trend of Turkey (Goksu, 2000:63). In the beginning of 1970s, labor foreign exchanges provided contribution in money sources needed for importing machinery and other intermediate goods and increased domestic production (Tansel, Yasar, 2012:347). After, liberalization of capital movements, in between 1988 and 2004, some of the Turkish citizens living in other countries preferred using their savings in the country where they live due to the withholding tax and fund deduction applied on foreign exchange accounts in Turkey (Saritas, 2011:167). Currently, Turkey has focused on capital inputs with foreign investment nature more than past by economical liberalization. 399 B- THE INFLUENCE OF MIGRATION ON UNEMPLOYMENT AND QUALI- FIED WORKFORCE 38 percent of labor gone abroad since 1964 were people with professions and this high rate does not comply with sending unqualified labor and 60 percent that labor gone from the western parts of our country contradicts with the determined principle (DPT (b), 1968:141). In the following years, the migration from eastern parts of the country to Germany was encouraged by Village Development Cooperatives. The people in Turkey working in agriculture and industry even with professions as teacher, accountant and merchandiser preferred labor status for higher living standards but on contrary with their expectations they were employed in heavy industries such as mining, trash collection, heavy industry, textile, construction, metallurgy, manufacturing industry, handicrafts and etc. (ISKUR, 2011:10). Employment of qualified labor in such sectors and mainly focusing saving money and making investments interrupted the process of being qualified by getting professional training in Germany. Some Turkish labor in Germany got a profession but most of them preferred staying there. Because these people have mastered their profession with education. And they brought their families to Germany the same time. The participation of women in business life after coming back is extremely higher than the rate before migration (Sahin Kütük, 2015: ). The participation of returning labor in development process of Turkey exposes to great damage because there is not any clear employment and manpower policy (Unat, Keles, Penninx, Renselaar, Velzen, Yenisey, 1976:412).
7 C-IMPACT OF THE MIGRATION ON CULTURE OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP In time, some Turkish labor migrated to Germany have become entrepreneurs in various sectors. According to research institutions, as of 2013, there are approximately Turkish employer and almost people are employed in these enterprises (CSGB, 2014:17). Some of our migrated labor attempted to establish business in Turkey. These people established Turkish Labor Companies" which provided jobs for thousands of people. The Turkish labor enterprises were usually in Western Anatolia and especially around Istanbul and Central Anatolia followed these regions while the investments in underdeveloped eastern cities were low and consequently Turkish labor investments could not overcome regional economical difference (Unat, 1976 cited by Goksu, 2000:67). The expected impact of the labor companies could not be implemented completely due to problems such as financing requirements of incomplete investment, high interest rates, production of consumption materials based on basic technology rather than fundamental industrial fields, incapacity for raising company directors and etc. (Artukoglu, 2005:56,57). Consequently, the labor foreign exchange were just short-term capital movements (Kumcu, ). D-IMPACTS OF THE MIGRATION ON TOURISM OF TURKEY Germany is one of the most important countries sending tourists to Turkey. The first reason for this is travelling is a need for Germans and the second reason is the high population of Turkish citizens living in Germany (Celik Uguz, 2012:178). According to 2014 data, number of Turkish people living in Germany is and with this number Turkey comes first among the EU countries, Switzerland, Africa, America, Asia, Australia and Oceania countries (Fedaral Statistics Department, cited by CSGB, 2014:11). While, the first generation expats spend their Turkey holidays in their hometowns, the second generation expats aspire to visit immediate vicinity, know country and explore Turkey as well as family visits (Mutluer, Sudas, 2008:33). It is known that the recommendations of friends, relatives and acquaintances are important for Germans consisting one fifth of tourists visiting Turkey for holiday country preference and it is because they are under the impression of Turkish citizens living in their country (Avcikurt, 1989 cited by Celik Uguz, 2012:180). According to 2009 data, 16.6% of foreign tourists visiting Turkey are Germans (TUIK, 2009:5). Germany comes first with this figure. 400 III. CONCLUSION In essence, the labor migration to Germany began in 1960s is important with its socioeconomical outcomes. First of all, the balance of payments was relieved by the foreign exchange brought by our labor in a period when Turkey was applying import substitution policies and trying to direct economy by development plans. The labor foreign exchange coming from the beginning of the 1960s increased to the highest level in 1973 and provided a surplus in current account. However, incoming foreign exchange were not directed to investments for increasing production and spent mostly on real-estate investments and consumption. Consequently, this contributed in inflationary process of our country. The positive contribution of labor foreign exchange was to increase the living level of our citizens and accelerate modernization by contributing in financing of importation of modern consumption and investment goods. Secondly, migration provided contribution in decreasing unemployment by sending some surplus workforce of our country in that term. However, due to the planning deficiency in the
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