Manual Waste Management

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1 Manual Waste Management A huge Challenge to Change the Local Governmental Service Provision in Waste Management according to the new Law and By-laws and in the interest of the Citizens, the Society, and the Nature and Environment as a whole.

2 Knowing is not enough, we must apply. Willing is not enough, we must do Goethe (German Poet) Manual Waste Management 2

3 Colophon This waste manual has been developed in the framework of the LOGO East programme. Author Mr. Adriaan de Koeijer (VNG International senior expert) 2007 VNG International This publication was financially supported by the Social Transformation Programme Central and Eastern Europe (Matra) of the Netherlands Ministry of Foreign Affairs. VNG International The Hague, the Netherlands T: F: E: Union of Municipalities in Turkey Ankara, Turkey T: F: E: 3

4 Table of Contents 1. General introduction 2. Process of preparing policy, strategy and implementation plan for changing and improving service provision in waste management 3. Waste management concept 3.1 Waste prevention 3.2 Separate collection of waste components and their recycling 3.3 Separate collection of Bio-waste and compost or Bio-gas production 3.4 Separate collection of construction and demolition waste and their recycling 3.5 Separate collection and recycling and/or controlled storage of several types of dangerous wastes 3.6 Separate collection and recycling and/or controlled storage of hospital / medical wastes 3.7 Separate collection and recycling of electronic and electrical waste 3.8 Separate collection of used cars, tyres, car batteries, oils etc. 3.9 Regular collection of remaining non-recyclable waste, transfer and transportation to a controlled landfill 3.10 Controlled landfill: Technology Investments, costs and fees Control Ownership and administration 4. Important aspects in the process of preparation implementation: 4.1 Creating / improving awareness by: Awareness raising and special education Information and communication Citizen participation 4.2 Municipal organization 4.3 Management, staff and experts 4.4 Investments, costs and fees 4.5 Quality of the services 4.6 Handling complaints 4.7 Inter municipal cooperation 4.8 Public private partnership 4.9 Cooperation with NGO s 4.10 Attention for changes in social position and labour conditions of the informal sector (waste-pickers, scavengers and small-scale recycling companies) 4.11 Ethics and integrity in waste management 4.12 SWOT analysis. 5 Implementation plan 6 Some final remarks Annexes Annex 1: Information Brochure in the Province of Afyonkarahisar Annex 2: Handling Complaints procedure municipality of Bergama Annex 3: Waste management presentation of the municipality of Fatih(TR) on Final seminar 4

5 1. General Introduction Background The LOGO East programme is a national bilateral programme for strengthening local and regional governments in Romania, Bulgaria, Turkey, Ukraine and Serbia through partnerships. The programme provides a mechanism for exchange of local and regional government experiences between Netherlands municipalities, provinces, water boards, public utility companies and their equivalent counterparts in the target countries. It builds on the local government twining networks that already exist between the Netherlands and the target countries, but also aims to initiate new twinnings. LOGO East is financially supported by the Social Transformation Programme Central and Eastern Europe (Matra) of the Netherlands Ministry of Foreign Affairs. The programme was launched in 2006 and the first phase of LOGO East finalizes end of The main objective of LOGO East is to strengthen the capacity of local and regional governments in the target countries by direct but decentralized cooperation. Per target country the interventions are focussed on one theme. In Turkey all LOGO East activities focus on improving service provision. A special focus within the Turkish programme is put on social service provision and waste management. A total number of 9 Dutch-Turkish twinnings cooperate within the programme LOGO East, implementing a total of 11 projects. The manual Improvement of service provision in waste management is the subject of three LOGO-East Turkey projects. Waste management is on the top of the list when it comes to improving the environment and - last but not least - to the negotiations on the future membership of the European Union. Already quite a lot of important work is done by both the national Turkish government and the municipalities in the field of improving waste management. New environmental laws, like the new waste management law, have been approved and are currently in the process of policy preparation and implementation in many provinces, districts and municipalities. Many projects to improve waste management and education and raise awareness among citizens started or are completed. The building of new controlled landfills started all over Turkey. Also, new technologies on separate collection, recycling and treatment of wastes, including new collection systems, are introduced. In many cases international cooperation and funds from abroad proved to be very useful to enhance the process. However, still a lot of very important work has to be done in the coming years. This is a huge, difficult, but also challenging assignment for especially - the Turkish municipalities. Therefore, VNG- International wants to support this process by preparing this manual in good cooperation with the partnerships mentioned below and the TBB. This manual is the result of knowledge sharing and exchange of experiences and best practices between a number of Turkish and Dutch municipalities, who cooperated in the field of improving waste management service provision. The following twinnings cooperated on the following aspects of waste management: Denizli-Almelo: Waste management policy and implementation plan, including feasibility study on Bio-gas abstraction from a controlled landfill; Emirdağ-Haarlem: Waste management policy and implementation plan with special attention to awareness raising and education; 5

6 Fatih-Zoetermeer: Information and communication plan focusing on schoolchildren and awareness raising. The aim of this manual is to share these examples with other Turkish municipalities, who have to prepare and implement the new waste management law according to the EU principles in the coming years. Depending on the number of inhabitants of the municipality or village this process has to be completed approximately between the years 2010 and Municipalities are convinced that this is not only a duty, since it is written in the new Turkish waste management law, but that it is also in the interest of their citizens, future generations and the environment. The three above mentioned Turkish municipalities and their partners have shown that they were and are able to change the current service provision in waste management by cooperation with all stakeholders and interested partners. Not the available resources as money, staff expert capacity and materials were the success factors in their projects, but the willingness to cooperate with all stakeholders, interested partners and last but not least citizens to use each other s know-how, experiences and strong points. The participating partners also showed the willingness to start the implementation of the new waste management policy by awareness raising among both their citizens and staff members. Cooperation is the key-word in this type of change processes. During the implementation of all three above mentioned projects interested stakeholders were involved in the process of brainstorming, developing the policy and strategy and the process of implementation. Those stakeholders are: Province (Environmental department); Districts (Education and health departments); NGO s; Universities; Schools; Adult education institutions; Environmental Union of Municipalities; Public and private companies, like waste collection and recycling companies, consultants etc. The process of brainstorming and the creation of involvement and support was realized successfully. This manual provides useful know-how, experiences and best practices from the projects in the 3 Turkish pilot municipalities and at the same time options for waste management policy and practice in all Turkish municipalities and villages. It is not a blue-print for waste management policy and practice in all Turkish municipalities, but it offers examples and best practices that might be useful for the specific situation in your own municipality. In chapter 3 specific waste management issues are collected and described. In chapter 4 issues closely related to both the preparation and the implementation of the waste management policy and practice are discussed. The issues mentioned in chapter 4 are of crucial importance for the success of the new service provision in waste management. 6

7 2. Process of preparing policy, strategy and implementation plan for changing and improving service provision in waste management Preparing a change in and - at the same time - improving the service in a specific field of interest in your municipality will request a lot of commitment, capacity and finances. These are the main reasons to prepare such a process in a proper way and to map all aspects before starting it. First of all, changing the policy, strategy and daily practice of waste management in your municipality is a long and difficult process. It is therefore important to keep in mind that the service provision will not change from one day to the next, but gradually. Our first advise is: Take that time, especially in the first phase of implementing the change and improvement process, in order to get a good and complete overview on: What should be done / changed / improved?; Why? (Law, changes in society etc.); When should it be ready? (Terms are written in the by-law on waste management); Who will/can be our partners?; Who will be our stakeholders?; What should be done to inform and involve the Town Council and the citizens? These are the Strategic so-called W-questions. The following items should become clear after discussing the W-questions, like: New waste management law in Turkey; Changing situation in our/your society and the option of a future membership of the European Union; The local government has to show more than before that the right things are done at the right time and for the best price; Although the local government is not a private company, the efficiency, effectiveness and transparency of the organization have to increase to gain and keep the confidence of the citizens and the community; The citizens request more participation, information and communication. After answering the so-called W-questions it is important to ask and answer the How-questions. We are facing a process of changing and improving the policy, strategy and service provision in local waste management. As has been mentioned before, it is a process, things will not change from one day to the next. Furthermore, this type of process is not the target, it is only an instrument. The process starts with showing your political willingness and courage to start the process of changing the local government. The second step is to show your the willingness to listen to the community (citizens, NGO s, institutions and companies ) and their expectations regarding the local government. The municipality should try to challenge and involve them in the process by inviting them to participate. The next step is to get the support and cooperation of the Town Council; Also on the level of the civil servants you have to show and support enthusiasm. It is important to make it clear to both the Town Council and the civil servants that this is not a prestigious plan of the mayor, but a serious matter that will positively effect the whole community. 7

8 The last step is to create an enthusiastic team. The head of the environmental and/or waste management department will play a very important role in this part of the process. He could be the chairman of the team. Creating such a team also means that the members of the team will need: Sufficient political support and confidence of the Mayor, Deputy-mayors and Town Council to do their very important job; Sufficient facilities, to do the job; Realistic time-schedule for the process. A process needs time; Support, involvement and cooperation of provincial departments like environment and forests, district departments like education and health, NGO s, universities, private companies, consultants and - last but not least - interested citizens. The main tasks of the team will be: Investigating the present waste management policy and practice in the municipality, including amounts, sorts and composition of wastes produced nowadays, collection systems and frequencies, equipment, number of executives, waste treatment, costs and fees, etc; Making a SWOT analysis of the present situation; Investigating the basic issues, like policy in waste management law, terms in by-laws etc.; Preparing a proposal for the process with items like: - Activities; - Time schedule; - Reports to mayor and deputy-mayors (when and contents); - Information and communication (Town Council, citizens); - Citizen participation; - Etc. Investigating the issues and options for implementation of the new waste management policy and practice, like: - Prevention of waste production by awareness raising and education of both adults and children; - Separate collection and recycling of waste components. Start with the most feasible ones like paper, metals, plastics, textiles etc. and introduce it step by step! - Separate collection of bio-waste and production of compost. Start only if the produced amounts are realistic and when the compost will be re-used. - Separate collection and recycling of construction waste, like concrete and stone materials; - Separate collection and recycling or controlled storage of dangerous wastes like: - Old batteries; - Paints; - Household chemicals; - Old medicines; - Used oils; - Etc. - Separate collection of hospital and medical waste and storage on a special site on the controlled landfill; - Separate collection of electrical and electronic equipment like: washing machines, 8

9 refrigerators, computers, TV s etc. and recycling them; - Separate collection of old/used cars, car tyres etc. and recycling them; - Collection of the remaining - non-recyclable - waste and transporting it to the controlled landfill; - Abstraction of bio-gas from the landfill for re-use in household or companies; - Preparing proposals for both the policy, strategy and implementation plan. It is clear that a lot of work has to be done. During this process, it is advised that the teams of different municipalities in the district or province cooperate, in order to learn from each others know-how and experience. It is a process of learning by doing. Process in headlines : Show your willingness to listen to the citizens, you can t succeed without their support; Show your political courage; Get and try to keep the support and the cooperation of the Town Council; Create an enthusiastic team; Have an open mind; Take initiatives. Don t be afraid to make a mistake! Be realistic in terms of: - Time-schedule; - Political expectations, change won t come overnight; - Organisation / capacity; - Cooperation of citizens etc. Prepare and present a realistic plan and time-schedule; Keep the Town Council involved and informed; Keep your citizens informed; Contacts with neighbouring municipalities and the district. Cooperation is the key-word here. Perform the changes in your administration, organization, services etc. Step by Step Last but not leas: Believe in what you are doing and show it to your citizens! 9

10 3. Waste Management Concept In this chapter the main issues of a waste management concept will be presented and worked out in headlines. First of all we will put some questions: What is a waste management concept? Why should we prepare it? What is the base for the concept? What is a waste management concept? A waste management concept is a coherent activity plan in order to be able to realize the targets set in waste management law. The sequence of the issues in the policy and its activities are related to the importance of the activity and to the impact on the environment and saving raw materials and energy. Therefore, the waste management concept will start with waste prevention and will end with landfilling of non-recyclable waste. Why should we prepare it? Waste management makes clear to citizens, companies and your organization which activities have to prepared and implemented in the process of improving and saving the environment, raw materials and energy. What is the base for the concept? Of course, the new Turkish waste management law will be the basic document for this concept, but also specific regional and local circumstances and decisions can influence the concept. For instance the presence or absence of companies being able to recycle waste materials can influence the introduction of this type of separate collection and recycling. Headlines of a waste management concept for a municipality or village: 1. Waste prevention 2. Separate collection and recycling of waste components like: Paper and cardboard; Metals; Plastics; Textiles; Glass; Etc. 3. Separate collection of bio-waste and production of compost and/or bio-gas; 4. Separate collection and re-use of construction and demolition wastes like: Concrete; Stone; Metals; Wood; Plastics; Etc. 5. Separate collection and recycling and/or controlled storage of several types of dangerous waste: a) Dangerous waste from households like: 10

11 Used batteries; Used medicines; Paints; Used oils; Etc. b) Dangerous waste from shops/offices and companies like: Various chemical liquids; Industrial and (waste) water treatment sludges; Etc. 6. Separate collection and recycling and/or controlled storage of hospital and medical wastes; 7. Separate collection and recycling of electrical waste like washing machines, refrigerators etc. and electronic waste like computers, TV s etc. (WEEE); 8. Separate collection of used cars, used tyres, car batteries etc. and their recycling; 9. Regular collection of the remaining non-recyclable waste, transport to the transfer station and transportation to the landfill; 10. Controlled landfill with aspects like: Technology; Investments, costs and fees; Control of the facilities; Ownership and administration. Next to the above mentioned typical waste - items in a waste management concept the following items are very important and, maybe, of crucial importance in the process of both the preparation and the implementation of the waste management concept. These items are: 1. Creating / improving awareness by: Special education for both adults, students and children Information and communication Citizen participation 2. Municipal organization; 3. Management, staff and experts; 4. Finances / investments and fees; 5. Quality of the services; 6. Handling complaints; 7. Inter municipal cooperation; 8. Public private partnership; 9. Cooperation with NGO s; 10. Attention for changes in social position and labour conditions of scavengers and small-scale recycling companies; 11. Ethics and integrity in waste management; 12. SWOT analysis. These items will be further described in chapter 4 of this manual. 3.1 Waste Prevention Main target: creating / improving awareness among adults, students and children on issues like: What is waste?; 11

12 The influence of waste on health; The influence of waste on nature and environment; The necessity to change consumption and waste production; The ways to change consumption and prevent waste production. By: Special education programmes for adults like housewives, teachers (training the trainer), children in primary schools and students etc.; Projects like Eco - Kids, Eco - Teams and competitions among schools and/or children on issues like: separate collection of paper, old batteries etc. and making drawings, paintings etc. on environmental issues; Mosques, tea houses etc.; Military sites etc. 3.2 Separate collection of waste components and their recycling Paper and cardboard; Plastics; Metals; Glass; Textiles; Hazardous household wastes The separate collection of these waste components should take place in both the city and in the surrounding villages. Note: Only start the separate collection of wastes when the recycling facilities are available! Otherwise, the municipality will loose the confidence of its citizens. It is therefore advised to approach the process Step by Step. This means: Only start the introduction of separate waste collection when the recycling is guaranteed. On a short term the separate collection of paper, cardboard, textiles and metals is feasible, since cooperation with paper producing companies using paper waste is possible. In the near future the separate collection of plastics can become a feasible option. Cooperation with private companies is the best solution since they own the facilities for recycling the waste components and they have knowledge of the market for recycled products and goods. Some examples in the municipality of Denizli To enhance the results of the collection of recyclable waste 30 waste paper containers were allocated throughout the municipal area. Waste paper collection was performed by the municipality. The paper containers purchased within the waste investment project belong to the municipality. For the secure sale of the collected materials, tendering is organized at certain intervals. The separate collection of glass waste is realized with 47 depot glass containers allocated throughout the municipal area. The collection is under the municipality s responsibility, but is still conducted by the glass factory vehicle and staff approximately every 3 weeks. The glass factory is also supported by the municipal staff members. The glass containers are owned by the glass factory. The efficiency of the 12

13 containers was monitored by the waste management department on a regular basis. When required the placement of the containers was adjusted. The results of the separate collection of glass and paper in the municipality of Denizli over the past years are showed in the following two graphics. They provide an indication of the recyclable quantities. In practice it always comes to a proper registration and interpretation of the separately collected amounts of waste components. Especially when a private company will perform the collection and transportation of the glass, paper etc. a very good description in the agreement on providing the results of the collection and weighing of the collected glass and paper is necessary. This requests full trust among the partners (municipality and private company) and an open atmosphere in the cooperation. WASTE GLASS AMOUNTS FOR 2006 AMOUNT (ton/year) ,06 January 10,07 February 9,82 March 3,945 April May 0 9,81 4,93 June July 9,45 August 9,68 September 4,91 October 9,57 November 9,42 December MONTHS WASTE PAPER AMOUNTS FOR 2006 AMOUNT (ton/year) ,22 January 3,6 February 3,62 March 3,9 April 5,82 May 5,78 June 6,54 4,78 July August 6,14 September 6,58 3,31 October November 3,04 December MONTHS 13

14 3.3 Separate collection of Bio-waste and compost or Bio-gas production Step by step approach! (see separate collection of wastes); Cooperation with private companies; Cooperation with other municipalities and province. Note: Recycling this type of waste can only be done on a large scale, so cooperation is the key-word! 3.4 Separate collection of Construction and Demolition waste and recycling Concrete; Stone; Metals; Wood; Plastics; Etc. These separate collected waste components can be recycled. For instance clean concrete and stone can be used to build foundations for roads etc. Metals can be recycled and wood can either be recycled or used in waste-to-energy systems for the production of electricity, steam bio-gas etc. It is important to note that the word clean is underlined here. When the concrete and/or stone materials are polluted with oils or chemicals etc., it can not be used for recycling in building foundations for roads etc., since it will pollute the subsoil and the groundwater. Also for these types of waste the conditions mentioned before are very useful: Step by step approach! (see separate collection of wastes); Cooperation with private companies; Cooperation with other municipalities and the province. Especially the municipalities and the provinces will play a very important role in recycling these types of waste, since they are the designers and principals of road building and reconstruction projects. They will have to show they really want to use this type of valuable recycled material for the (re)construction of their roads etc. It is important they set the example to make the recycling concrete and stone a success! Note: Recycling this type of waste only can be done on a large scale, so again cooperation is the keyword. 3.5 Separate collection and recycling and/or controlled storage of several types of dangerous wastes from households For these types of waste attention has to be given to both the separate collection and the environment friendly treatment of the wastes. Separate collection The way dangerous household waste can be collected separately, easily and safely depends on the type of waste. For instance, used batteries can easily be collected by schoolchildren. In many 14

15 municipalities some sort of competition is connected to the collection of batteries. By using special boxes in schools, shops etc.(see picture) the collection can be safe and well organized. Special collection box for used batteries in schools, shops etc. Also on the streets the separate collection of batteries, plastics, metals and paper can be done in a very effective way. The following picture below shows a special litter collection bin in the streets of the city of Afyonkarahisar. Other types of dangerous wastes like paints and old medicines can be collected separately in an easy way by bringing them back to the shops and pharmacies where citizens have bought them. The collected cans with paints and old medicines can be stored in special boxes. Of course, citizens will have to be informed about this way of collecting dangerous types of waste. Since handling and sorting 15

16 these types of dangerous waste is a job for experts, the involved managers, supervisors and employees will need a special education and training. The boxes with the separately collected paints and old medicines can be transported to the treatment plant by specialized companies using special trucks to transport and store the boxes safely. The transportation can also be done by experts of municipal and/or provincial environmental departments. Environmental friendly treatment The way dangerous household wastes are treated depends on their composition. Some sorts of dangerous wastes, like batteries, paints, used oils etc. can be recycled. Other sorts of dangerous wastes like chemicals will have to be burned in a special incinerator at a temperature of at least degrees Celcius. We also produce dangerous wastes that can not be treated yet in a proper way. They will have to be stored temporarily and in a safe way in a special built plant/stock. Sorting out this types of waste is also a job for experts. This means that also some members of the staff who are responsible for handling this type of waste will need a special education and training to do the job in a proper and safe way. Since dealing with the treatment of dangerous waste is a specialized activity, cooperation with public companies, like the waste management company ISTAC in Istanbul and/or private companies is a very good option. Dangerous industrial chemical wastes First of all the producer of industrial chemicals is responsible for both the production of the waste, for the collection and the final treatment. On the one hand, the municipality and/or province can provide assistance and/or advise. On the other hand, the municipality checks the proper (temporary) storage of the produced chemical wastes and the final treatment. Also in these cases, cooperation with public or private companies with expertise in handling and treating chemical wastes offers a good solution. Industrial sludges Sludges of industrial plants can be stored in an area especially assigned for this purpose in a new landfill, according to the requirements of the landfill operation. However, the sludge must comply with the criteria required for water content and stability of the sludge according to the control regulations of hazardous wastes. The industries must guarantee to always act according to these criteria and sign the agreement. Sludge can be received on the landfill site in exchange of fees identified every year by the municipal or union council. 3.6 Separate collection and recycling and/or controlled storage of hospital / medical wastes For these types of waste both the separate collection and the environmental friendly treatment of the wastes need attention. Furthermore, the tension that might arise from a clash between Islamic religion and values and the incineration of parts of human bodies needs special attention. Separate collection Hospital and medical wastes are produced in hospitals and in health care centres with practices of doctors, dentists, veterinarians etc. Besides hospital and medical waste, hospitals etc. also produce a household type of waste. This household type of waste should be collected separately from the medical and hospital wastes. The household type of waste can be treated like normal waste from households. 16

17 The typical hospital and medical wastes like injection needles, with blood and or bacterial infected bandages, bacteriological contaminated samples for research, small parts of human bodies, etc. should be carefully and safely collected separately, since those waste materials can be a huge threat for the health of the doctors, nurses and laboratory experts, but also for the people of the waste management department who are collecting the wastes and last but not least the vulnerable patients. Due to new insights on therapy-management of cytostatic drugs by intravenous way the attention on the waste of these materials is increasing. These drugs and their packing materials cause hazardous effects on people s health and on the environment when it is not properly handled before, during and after the therapy. Management of hospital / medical waste is expensive. On the one side it includes the materials to be collected separately, the collection facilities like special boxes etc. and on the other - most important - side it includes the health of the staff, personnel and patients. The policy of the hospital-management has to be focused on risks: don t harm the people involved; apply the right collection facilities for the separate collection; environmental aspects; and on costs: of the collection facilities like special bins etc. So it is a matter of Effectiveness versus Efficiency! Therefore, a very clear procedure should be prepared and implemented in both the hospitals and the health care centres. This procedure has to be introduced to the doctors, nurses and laboratory experts and also the Facility department by special education and information. At the same time the special collection boxes etc. have to be available for the users, before the participants start the education etc. The education and provision of information has to be a continuous process since the procedure and/or the collection boxes etc. could change. An example of a procedure / internal hospital manual is presented below. Kind of waste What is it Where to put in Collected by household type of waste needles glass cytostatic waste chemical waste drugs medical risk waste human body parts x-ray waste depends on hospital criteria use the right collecting material(s) depends on hospital organization 17

18 Some figures on hospital and medical wastes in the municipality of Denizli, including the organizations producing the wastes. MEDICAL WASTE AMOUNTS FROM ORGANISATIONS FOR 2006 AMOUNT (ton/year) 500,00 400,00 300,00 200,00 100,00 0,00 463,54 Hospitals 55,48 Clinics 13,09 Village Clinics 9,98 Laboratory 6,07 Doctors 2,78 Dentists 2,71 Public Offices 0,90 Pharmacy 0,23 Industry 0,09 Beauty Salons ORGANISATIONS These figures only provide an indication of the amounts of medical and hospital wastes. They especially show the variety of the producers. Environmental friendly treatment In most Western-European countries nowadays - according to the law - medical and hospital wastes are collected separately in special plastic boxes. These boxes, for instance with injection needles, are closed when they are full. They will not be opened again. The boxes will be stored in a special room while waiting for transportation to a special treatment plant (See the following pictures). Generally speaking there are three methods for treatment of hospital and medical wastes: Controlled storage on a landfill; Incineration in a special plant (Incineration temp. min. 1,000 Ċ); Pyrolysis and gasification in a special plant (Process temp. 1,200 Ċ). In Holland the third method is used. For a population of approximately sixteen million people there is one plant in the municipality of Dordrecht. All separately collected hospital and medical wastes are transported to this plant with special collection trucks. Both the incineration and processing of hospital and medical wastes are expensive treatment methods, because the plants require high investments. Furthermore, the exploitation is also expensive, because the costs of maintenance and salaries of employees, like special experts, are high. Especially in Islamic countries we have to take into account whether it will be allowed - according to the Koran to incinerate or gasify parts of human bodies, like feet, legs, arms, internal body parts etc. being produced during surgeries. On the short and mid-term (10 15 years) the most appropriate option will be to create a special area on the (new) controlled landfill and to burry the medical and hospital wastes there. 18

19 Special collection truck for hospital and medical waste. Source: ZAVIN The Netherlands Special plastic boxes containing hospital and medical waste on a belt in the treatment plant. Source: ZAVIN The Netherlands 3.7 Separate collection and recycling of waste from electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) Waste from electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) is a fast growing part of the waste produced by both households, offices and companies. The composition of this type of waste shows both very polluting components like gases in old refrigerators and very valuable components like different kinds of metals. The composition of the WEEE and the fact that it is a fast growing types of waste make it attractive to collect it separately and transport it to special companies to dismantle it. Dismantling this type of wastes requires both special tools, equipment and last but not least safe and clean labour conditions. The stripped materials can either be recycled or treated as chemical wastes. Over 90% of WEEE can be recycled. Special collection and payment/deposit systems have to be introduced before the process of recycling can be started effectively. Please don t export this type of wastes to very poor countries 19

20 where poor people will dismantle the WEEE under unhealthy and dangerous labour conditions. That s not how we should recycle valuable materials. 3.8 Separate collection and recycling of old/used cars, tyres etc. In fact the same reasons for and the same system of separate collection like for WEEE can be used for used cars, old/used tyres, used oil from cars, used batteries etc. Also with this type of waste the private sector can offer good options for the cooperation with the municipalities or union. Modern cars can be recycled for more than 90%. 3.9 Regular collection of remaining non-recyclable waste, transfer and transportation to a controlled landfill Although the separate collection and recycling of all sorts of waste is the best solution to handle and treat the produced wastes in our society, non-recyclable wastes will always remain. In many Turkish municipalities and villages cooking and heating is still done with coal and wood. The produced ashes can not yet be recycled and have to be collected regularly together with other non-recyclable wastes. The term regularly means, according to the law, a minimum frequency: Taking into account the specific local situation, like temperature but also special economical reasons like tourism, thermal resorts etc.; Taking into account the opportunities to use the different types of collection. For instance: Is collection of garbage bags on the streets the most appropriate option or the usage of containers with a capacity of 500 1,500 l.?; A well-known frequency of collection is for example one time a day for smaller collection like bins/bags, or one time a week for large containers. Citizens should be aware of the collection frequency and its reliability. In many municipalities the collected non-recyclable wastes will be transported to a local or regional transfer station. The wastes will be weighed there in order to charge every municipality for the amount of waste they bring to the transfer station and from there to the landfill. It also is an option to create a special recycling yard on the area of the transfer station. Citizens will be enabled to bring their wastes, like bulk waste, garden waste, and hazardous waste from households etc., at a time and day that is convenient for them. Offering the citizens the opportunity to sort out their waste over several containers also creates an additional way of separate collection and recycling. At the same time citizens will become more aware of the necessity and extent of the separate collection and recycling activities in a municipality. From the transfer station the non-recyclable wastes will be transported to the landfill by means of large carriers. In most provinces there will only be one new controlled landfill, so the transportation distances will vary from a few kilometres to approximately seventy-five kilometres. In order to realize a transportation system that is both reliable and able to guarantee continuity, it is of crucial importance to arrange this type of transportation on a provincial scale and maybe - in cooperation with a private company. 20

21 Reliability and continuity are very important issues when it comes to transportation over a long distance since the capacity to store waste - temporarily - in the transfer station is very limited. Especially in municipalities that have a lot of tourists in summer time, reliability and continuity are of crucial importance. Speaking of huge differences in the number of citizens over the year, a very interesting example is the municipality of Emirdağ. Normally some 20,000 citizens live in the municipality and the same number in the surrounding villages. In summer time that number is approximately 120,000 due to the fact that many Turkish people originating from Emirdağ, but currently living in Belgium and Holland, return for about six weeks to their home-city and relatives. This huge temporary growth of the population causes a lot of extra demands on service provision in waste management. In those cases a reliable and continuous collection and transportation system has to be available Controlled landfill Before being able to start the discussion about building a new controlled landfill in a specific province, large district or municipality, a lot of questions have to be put and answered. The first question that is at stake is: What is your vision on the treatment of your waste? Headlines of waste treatment vision for a municipality / district / province: Separate collection and recycling of all kinds of waste; Producing compost and/or Bio-gas from Bio-waste; Separate collection and re-use of construction and demolition wastes; Building a (new) controlled landfill for non-recyclable wastes; Building transfer stations/facilities for wastes to be transported from the municipalities and villages to the landfill; Organizing transportation from the transfer stations to the landfill; Clear costs calculations, including the costs of transfer and transportation to the landfill. Next to the above mentioned waste issues the following issues are also very important: Technology; Investments, costs and fees; Control; Ownership and administration. Technology The technology for building new controlled and environmentally friendly landfills in Turkey is based on both the know-how and experiences with this new design in Western-European countries and on the specific geological and hydrological circumstances in Turkey. The most important items in the design of the landfill are: Protection of the subsoil and the groundwater, prevent pollution by waste and leachate water in the landfill; Special impermeable membranes and drains protected by sand and stones are the basic materials for the construction of the floor of the landfill; Abstraction of the bio-gases produced in the landfill during the digestion process; 21

22 Good procedures and conditions for the acceptance of the waste on the landfill; Well-organized control and maintenance of the landfill. Note: Designing a new controlled landfill is the job of experts in this field. Our advise is to involve those experts either private or public consultants in the process of decision making and design in order to avoid wasting time and money. Also in the field of preparing, building and operating of the controlled landfill cooperation between municipalities and the province is of crucial importance for getting the necessary positive decisions to make the huge investments and for the success of an efficient and effective exploitation of the landfill during a period of about 25 years. The example in the Municipality of Denizli : Landfill Gas Exploitation Methane gas abstraction has started at the new controlled landfill which is operating since There are 3 gas collection pipes in the area of the landfill. For the methane gas to be abstracted by appropriate technical methods, a mutual study with municipality of Almelo was set up. Within the scope of the study representatives of the company COGAS - experienced in this field - conducted research at the controlled landfill site in Denizli. A feasibility-study was carried out concerning the applicability of the project. A time and work plan was prepared for the following steps and extended with a summary of the feasibility-study. Investments, costs and fees For all kinds of local governmental service provisions, costs and fees seem almost more important than (the level of) service provision itself. This is not surprising, since the citizens are fully aware of the direct link between the services they need and get, and the fee they have to pay for it. Therefore it is up to the mayor and deputy-mayor to explain to the citizens that the fees are reasonable for the level of service the citizens receive. The participation of the citizens is vital, it is therefore important to win their support. The costs of investment in and exploitation of a new landfill have to be shared by several municipalities in most cases. Good communication is therefore the key to succeed in this process. In the following paragraphs we will try to present the headlines of the models and systems for the investments, costs and fees in waste treatment. Model for optimization and minimization of the costs of a landfill The explained calculation model is an instrument to assist and support policy-makers in the process of preparing and making their decisions. The model is based on: Knowing the amounts of non-recyclable wastes (per year and in tonnes) in every municipality in the province; The expected/estimated growth of the amounts of non-recyclable wastes over the next 10 years; The present and future composition / volume of the non-recyclable wastes; The costs of transfer in the municipalities; 22

23 The costs of transportation from the municipalities to the (new) controlled landfill. The calculation model itself is rather simple. The following figures need to be collected: Costs of investments in the landfill per year; Costs of administration and control of the landfill per year; Costs of transferring the wastes in the municipalities: Σ Am./M. х Costs/ton Note : Am./M. = Amount of non-recyclable wastes per municipality per year; Costs of transportation of the wastes from the municipalities to the landfill: Σ Am./M. х Costs/ton. Km. The 4 collected figures provide the total costs of exploitation in a specific year. These total costs divided by the total amount (Σ Am./M.) of non-recyclable wastes in the specific year will provide the integral costs per ton for every participating municipality in the specific province of in a specific year. Note: This way of calculating the integral costs per ton has the benefit that all participating municipalities in the landfill face the same costs and benefits ( Economy of scale ), independent of their distance to the landfill and their amounts of non-recyclable wastes.in the annexed figure the economy of scale is showed. Due to the political wish to strive for costs minimization, the amounts of non-recyclable wastes to be handled every year should be somewhere between figures 3 and 5 in the next graphic.the shape of the figure will have to be calculated, based on the specific circumstances in the province and the municipalities. Economy of scale in waste treatment Economy of scale in waste treatment Costs per ton Costs per ton Amount of waste 23

24 Notes: 1. The green line in the upper graphic only provides an indicative relationship between the integral costs per ton and the amounts of handled wastes. The graphic shows that somewhere between the numbers 3 and 5 the optimum situation will be reached. In other words the integral costs will be at a minimum level between the numbers 3 and The mentioned figures are only examples. The real figures will have to be calculated on basis of reliable information under the specific local circumstances, like investments, costs of labour, transfer and transportation, etc Control Having a well-designed and constructed landfill is a very important starting point in the new waste management treatment policy in a specific province. Having a well-organised control of the landfill is of crucial importance for the success of the preventive technical measures being taken during the process of design and construction of the landfill. If the control of the landfill might fail, the targets of the waste management policy will not be realised and pollution of the environment will continue to be a big threat in the future. An effective control-system for the exploitation of the landfill will be inevitable. It will have to be ready and introduced to the managers, supervisors and employees on the landfill before the actual use of the facilities can start. Some headlines for an effective control-system: Make clear to all waste providers (municipalities, private companies etc.) what types of waste will be accepted on the landfill and why. In most cases only non-recyclable types of waste and hospital and medical wastes will be accepted; Make clear to all waste providers what your conditions are for acceptance of the wastes, like Clear description of the origin, the composition etc.; Special acceptance forms will have to be designed!; The way the waste will have to be packed; Stick to the regulations in the control-system you have designed and introduced; Check whether your supervisors and employees also are sticking to the regulations in the control-system and whether they do their job in a proper way; Security checks by night and during the weekend may be necessary. Ownership and administration Ownership and administration are always very interesting items in political-administrational organizations like provinces and municipalities. The following questions are interesting to ask when it comes to raising prices and/or shortage of budgets and/or environmental problems: Who is in the position to take the decisions about investments, facilities etc. on the landfill?; Who is in the position to take the decisions about, for instance, the price for landfilling one ton of non-recyclable waste?; Who is accountable for the environmental and the financial results of the exploitation of the landfill? To avoid discussions and disagreements as much as possible it is of crucial importance to discuss these issues during the process of preparing the first ideas/plans for a new landfill. In some provinces in Turkey the governor played a very important role in this process by taking the initiative to create a special Environmental Union of Municipalities. In the Emirdağ Haarlem project 24

25 the role of this union has showed to be of importance especially when it comes to the interests exceeding the borders of both the municipalities and the districts. The following issues have to clear from the start in order to make close cooperation between the stakeholders in waste management successful: Ownership of the landfill, the facilities like waste transfer stations etc.; Administration by an elected board of mayors, deputy-mayors and members of the town council; Decision making processes, etc. can be made very clear from the very beginning of the necessary very close cooperation between the above mentioned partners in the Waste Management Treatment Policy in the specific Province 25

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