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1 THE TURKISH ONLINE JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY JULY 2004 Volume 3 - Issue 3 Assoc. Prof. Dr. Aytekin İşman Editor-in-Chief Prof. Dr. Jerry Willis Editor Fahme Dabaj Associate Editor ISSN:

2 TOJET Volume 3 Issue 3 July 2004 Table of Contents An Audio-Book Project for Blind Students at the Open Education System of Anadolu University. Aydın Zıya ÖZGÜR, Halil Ibrahim GÜRCAN Design Strategies for Higher Education Faculty. Deniz PALAK Instructional Materials for Teacher Educators: A Review of SCRTEC s Active Learning with Technology Betul C. ÖZKAN, Nina SEMKO, Jerry W. WILLIS Integrating multimedia into the Malaysian classroom: Engaging students in interactive learning Tse-Kian NEO, Mai NEO Online Learning: Student Role and Readiness Selma VONDERWELL, John SAVERY Open Learning: Communicating with the learner Bahire EFE ÖZAD, Murat BARKAN The Effect of Learning Together Technique of Cooperative Learning Method on Student Achievement in Mathematics Teaching 7th Class of Primary School Nesrin ÖZSOY, Nazlı YILDIZ The Evaluation of Students Perceptions of Distance Education Aytekin İŞMAN, Fahme DABAJ, Zehra ALTINAY, Fahriye ALTINAY To Kill the Blackboard? Technology in Language Teaching and Learning Dinçay KÖKSAL Web-Based Learning Materials for Higher Education: The Merlot Repository Emrah ORHUN Alternatif Değerlendirme Aracı Olarak Bilgisayar Destekli Bireysel Gelişim Dosyası Uygulamasınından Yansımalar: Bir Özel Durum Çalışması Adnan BAKİ, Osman BİRGİN Ayrık Matematik Program Paketi ve Bir Uygulama Mustafa Murat İNCEOĞLU Data Logger Cihazının Ohm Kanunu Üzerindeki Pilot Uygulaması Hakan Şevki AYVACI, Tuncay ÖZSEVGEÇ, Miraç AYDIN Eğitim İletişiminde Çağdaş Ortamlar:.. iletişim bir sorun kaynağı mı yoksa çözüm seçeneği mi?.. Murat BARKAN, Erhan EROĞLU Eğitim Teknolojisiyle ilgili Öğrenmeyi Etkileyebilecek bazı Etmenlere Karşı Öğretmen Yaklaşımları Yavuz AKPINAR Enstrümental Analiz Dersinde İnternet Destekli Öğretim Uygulanmalı Mıdır? Şahin DÜNDAR, Gülbin KIYICI Teknolojik Gelişme için Eğitimin Önemi ve İnternet Destekli Öğretimin Eğitimdeki Yeri Özdemir ÇETİN, Murat ÇAKIROĞLU, Cüneyt BAYILMIŞ, Hüseyin EKİZ Tekstil (Örme) İşletmelerinde Hizmet İçi Eğitime Yönelik Kullanılan Teknolojik Ekipmanların Çalışanların Algılamaları Üzerindeki Etkileri Erkan İŞGÖREN, Nuriye ÇEVİK İŞGÖREN Uzaktan Eğitimde Teknoloji Seçimi Nuray GİRGİNER, Ali Ekrem ÖZKUL Uzaktan Eğitimin Temelleri Dersindeki Uzaktan Eğitim İhtiyacı Ünitesinin Web Tabanlı Sunumunun Hazırlanması Zeki KAYA, Orhan ERDEN, Hüseyin ÇAKIR, N. Barış BAĞIRSAKÇI Copyright The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology

3 An Audio-Book Project for Blind Students at the Open Education System of Anadolu University Aydin Ziya Ozgur, Ph.D. Associate Professor Open Education Faculty, Anadolu University 26470, Eskisehir, Turkey Halil Ibrahim Gurcan. Ph.D. Associate Professor Department of Journalism, Faculty of Communication Sciences Anadolu University, 26470, Eskisehir, Turkey Abstract As a contemporary system to provide equal education rights to all learners, distance education gives different education opportunities to people who cannot get enough educational services because of the some limitations of traditional education. Distance education at the Open Education System of Anadolu University has been formed for all diverse people who have severely different educational needs and expectations from each other. Therefore, the system provides different educational programs and services to them, especially the people who need special education. This study conducted to develop an audio-book project for the 362 blind students in Open Education Faculty of Anadolu University. The process to convert available traditional books to audio-books, commonly known as e- audio -books, will be explained in this paper. Also, the production and publication processes of e-audio-books will be discussed. Introduction Integrating novel technologies and their new capacities to increase educational productivity by considering individual differences in distance education are very essential phenomena in effective learning. To approach educational problems sensibly, contemporary education uses and integrates new technologies into distance education in many developed or developing countries. Also, it provides diverse opportunities to people from different environments, different ages, all income rates and/or all vocational groups. Therefore, these people can obtain an equal opportunity without losing their productivity and arrange their own pace and capacity for education as well as benefit from communication technology. The Open Education System of Anadolu University is one of the contemporary applications to provide higher education opportunity to the hundred thousands of students in Turkey, six West Europe countries and Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus since It has been benefiting from communication technologies with undergraduate, graduate and certificate programs. Problem Statement Of approximately 1,5 million students in Turkish higher education, students are registered to the Open Education System of Anadolu University, which provides all students with equal education opportunities. However, there is no any single study done about preparing distance materials to create a student-center environment for all the groups registered in the system, because of budget and/or administrative limitations. It has become compulsory to prepare more original educational materials for the students according to the variety of communication means. Especially, designed course materials cannot be provided to those blind students, who register in the Open Education System of Anadolu University. Those students particularly cannot benefit from the books without other people s help while they are studying. In fact, the main part of creating an equal learning setting in education is to provide blind students in the open education system with e-audio-book, thus those students become independent individuals. In this study, it is to focus on creating an e-audio-book which will be presented to 362 students getting education at the Open Education System of Anadolu University in academic years. Purpose E-audio-books are course materials, which facilitate blind students to study without other people s help. The aim of this study is to provide blind students in the Open Education System of Anadolu University. E-audio-books make blind students learn on their own in effective, productive and equal learning environments. Copyright The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology

4 Creating e- audio-books is not only practical but also easily accessible and inexpensive as well as duplicable in different environments such as cassette, CD ROM, the Internet. This is another goal for us to help the blinds and also all students benefit from this. Besides, Anadolu University contributes educational opportunities for disabled people, thus this project will have a good impression in constructing a public opinion about the blind students in Anadolu University. How can E- Audio-Book Material be used? E-audio-books are instruction materials that blind students can use in every situation and every time without being tied to any place or without other people s help. E-audio-books produced for blind students can create an environment to provide, enrich, inform, guide and teach subjects completely by creating an environment to learn and also develop independent learning skill to solve problems and answer question as well as discuss on different course related topics. The benefits of e-audio-books in distance education provide an easy, access, low cost and quick change of the content when it is necessary. Since e-audio-books are educational tools to support learning, programs must be established with simple vocabulary, supported with music and sound effects and the length of program must last minutes. Additionally; blind students need to listen to e-audio cassettes, etc. and like the idea of being heard on audiobook. Courses would gain status by having an e-audio-book. The powers-that-be think it would be a good idea for us to use audio. Learners can achieve some of our objectives only with the help of an e-audio-book. E-audio book present raw sounds for learners to experience; these sounds may be natural (e.g. the call birds or animals), mechanical (e.g. the grinding of gears), musical (e.g. the magic of Mozart), etc. and present foreign language dialogues. Also, it provides a spoken glossary of which are difficult to pronounce terms. To present some conversations to be analyzed, e.g. between doctor and patient, sales staff and criminals talking about their way of life. To provide an expert talking in an informal, engaging style. For tutoring, i.e. guiding learners through a task or exercise that requires eyes and hands as well as ears, for example: To study a series of diagrams or photographs. To operate a machine or piece of equipment. To assemble a model. To deal with physical or biological specimens. To complete a form or questionnaire. To set up equipment and/or an experiment. To consult tables of statistics, accounts, etc. To examine a map, plan, blueprint, etc. To provide guidance in fieldwork situations, etc. Using E-Audio-Book for Open Education Audio-book is not so widespread but inexpensive that its potential in open education contexts is easily overlooked. In subject disciplines such as music, where sound is important for blind students, the use of an e- audio-book as an educational medium is already well developed. In multimedia packages, sound and images are often combined to with good effect, yet audio-book can sometimes play a similar role at much less cost. The use of audio-books to support open education can be extended to most disciplines. The following suggestions may help support learners by putting e-audio-books in good use. (Race, 1998, pp ). Have good reasons for using e-audio-books, Most learners have access to e-audio-books, Label e-audio-books informatively, Keep e-audio-book extracts short and sharp, Use e-audio-books where the tone of voice is important, Sound can help open education learners about the subject-related jargon, Use e-audio-books to bring open education to life, Clarify exactly when a recorded episode must be used, Copyright The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology

5 Turn open education learners listening into an active process, When using e-audio-book to help your learners achieve particular outcomes, explain exactly what they must be getting out of listening to the tape, Consider using e-audio-book to give open learners feedback on their tutor-marked assignments, and Combine audio and visual learning. E-audio-book must be clearly support learning objectives. To create attractive e-audio-books for blind students and other learners, the following given below must be considered: (Rowntree, 1994, p. 6) E-audio-book must be physically available to learners where and when they need it and convenient for them to use and to control the timing and pace of their learning, E-audio-book must be one for which they already have, or can quickly learn, the skills to use effectively and that relates the teacher/ trainer have the skills and know- how to use effectively, and E-audio-book must be one that relates clearly to the other course media- i.e. not appearing tacked on as an optional extra and afford to use. Creating an Effective Learning Environment for Blind Students What kind of learning environment an e-audio-book provides is that some criteria is listed below: (Rowntree, 1994, p. 7-9). Matching your learning objectives: Audio will be virtually chosen it if the learning objectives require earners to respond to sound. E-audio-book is one way of presenting necessary stimulus. It will be the best way for blind students. Appeal to your learners: Any learner is likely to find some media more appealing than others. Older learners may be happier with printed materials or television; younger people liking high-tech ones, will like computerbased learning and multimedia. E-audio-book has always been a popular medium among blind students; because only this kind book helps them study without other people s assistances. Physical access: E-audio-books are easier for blind students to get access to than others. For instance, learners may need to make a journey (and possibly an appointment) and the place and times may be inconvenient for them but more and more people have a tape or CD player at home, or can get access to one if necessary. Most people have own an audio-cassette player, some have one in their cars as well as at home. Convenience in use: Few media can be superior a book to in terms of convenience in use, but audio-cassette player is very user-friendly, certainly. Because learners can study the material at any time they choose; stop and start the sound whenever they want; replay a passage as many times as they wish; and skip over any material they do not need. Necessary learning skills: Different media require different learning skills and different attitudes. For example, e-audio-books require blind students to be good listeners. Learners have positive attitudes toward media; such as they used to be relaxed for entertainment often limit them in using those media for study purposes. Most learners can acquire necessary skills and attitudes, of course, if they want to. However, we have to be sure that it will be worth their time while within the time they have available for course or program they are working on. Clearly, e-audio-book can provide relief for learners who are not too keen on reading. We may need to support it with printed materials to help them develop the skills for using the audio medium effectively. Your skills and know-how: Do you, as a trainer or teacher, have the know-how and skills you ll need to use the medium effectively? Do you know enough about its teaching capabilities to design effective materials? Do you have the technical skills needed to produce them? E-audio-book is rather more demanding than printed materials for blind students. Most teachers and trainers are already familiar with what it can do and will rapidly acquire the know-how and skills to design effective teaching and even to produce usable cassettes that can be used. You can remain in control of the medium. Integration with other media: Some of the high-tech media relate uneasily to other media. Either because their producers believe that chosen medium can do everything by itself or because producers of other media are unsure of what the high-tech media are doing, so they can get sidelined. Audio-book can be connected closely to other media. They can be used in class as well as for individual learning, and learners can (and often should) use them alongside internet and computer-based learning or practices Copyright The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology

6 Can we afford it? Apart from printed material, no medium will cost less to use than e-audio-book-for both you and the learners. Designing effective audio takes no more time than writing a book and producing an audiocassette needs negligible investment in equipment compared with video-or computer-based packages (an audio package might cost between one sixth and one tenth of a video on a similar topic). Learners are equally fortunate. They don t have to buy or rent expensive equipment themselves; nor do they incur costs and waste time traveling to a center to use someone else s. How can We Teach with E- Audio- Book? E-audio-book seems to have some special practical advantages. Thus, e-audio-book is better educational tool than other media. (Rowntree, 1994, p. 10). To provide aural source material e.g.: A conversation with a client or colleague for learner to analyze or react to. To bring ideas into life presented elsewhere in the course. To talk with learners through tasks during which it would be disruptive for them to keep consulting by means of written guidance. To help learners practice skills. To make teaching more human and personal. To be very easily expressed. To encourage or motivate learners. To influence learners feelings and attitudes. To get valuable contributions to teaching from people who would be unlikely to contribute by means of writing. To let learners hear the voices of experts, users, clients, other learners, etc. To present new ideas to learners who are unable or unwilling to read or whose circumstances prevent them from reading. To provide necessary variety in learners learning. To act as a trigger for group sharing of ideas and experience. Tutoring or Coaching with Audio-Book Some e-audio-books use audio simply to give guidance and reinforcement by leading a tutoring and/or coaching package: (Rowntree, 1994, p ): You talk to your learners rather than expressing your teaching points in writing. While they are listening, you may be getting them to turn the pages of a workbook, which you have laid out with text and pictures. (Similarly, they may be operating a piece of equipment or handling real objects). Anytime you will ask them (on the audio-book) to answer a questions or carry out some exercise perhaps writing their answers in the workbook or doing something with equipment they are working with. Each time you set such an activity, you will say Stop tape now, and start it again when you have finished You may record a tone or a few seconds of music at this point, as another signal for the learner to switch off. When learners switch on again, they hear your feedback and comments on activity. You will talk about the kind of results they must have come up with. Or, if they re not the kind of results that can easily be described in word (e.g. diagrams or complex calculations), you may direct your learners to a page in the workbook where your sample answers have been printed. Having finished commenting on the previous activity, you go on to the next teaching point you want to talk about, as in 1 and 2 above. Learner carries on working with tape guidance, even when the cassette player is switched off: 20 minutes of tape time might provide for an hour or more of learning time. Other Uses of E-Audio-Book E-audio-cassettes can be used in open and distance education in different ways; for instance: (Rowntree, 1994, p. 25) You may want to record a commentary or study guidance for many set books or other sources your learners are using. Tutors and distance learners may sometimes choose to communicate with one another using cassettes as well as, or instead of, by sending letters or phoning. Your learners may be interested in recording their own ideas about certain topics as a way of preparing for the exams. Copyright The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology

7 You may want to try an evaluation technique and ask distance learners to interview themselves, talking about responses in an evaluation questionnaire into their own tape recorders. E-audio may also be used for assessment purposes, if you get learners to record examples of their work (e.g. foreign language speaking) or their reflections about some other project they have been engaged in. Organizers in open or distance education program can consider sending round a regular audionewsletter cassette to keep both learners and their supporters aware of what is going on in the system. What Kind of Structure will be Involved in E-Audio-Books? In e-audio-books, besides a professional narrator, there must be music and sound effects as well. Structured format elements in e-audio-books to help blind students are listed below: (Ozgur, 1999) Presenter or Teacher Talking Directly Subject taught in this format is given with the style of direct talking by a presenter or teacher. In this format, it must be paid attention to the fact that there is only one subject to be taught and it is supported by means of music and sound effects. In presenter/teacher format, presenter-teacher is the voice and personality in program. Teacher-presenter must influence students/listeners by means of his/her tone of voice, style of talking, reliability, intimacy but not physical properties and (the most important this is flat) s/he must be convincing establishing emotional relations with students. Dialogues Radio education program presented to students is given using characters voices to be found out with helping radio playwright written about subject to be taught. Testimony Radio is a personal media. In general, students are alone while they are listening to radio. Sometimes, the point of teaching can be told with those people s testimonies related to that subject. In other words, when real people talk about their experiences, they can realize learning. Story Radio education programs telling story are realized with help at a story, which has been starting, developing and ending; such as radiophonic plays. Drawing listeners attention to story developing, educational goals and/or subject is presented to students in program that story is resourced from teaching subject itself. Recorded Programs Recorded programs are prepared in advance, cover certain periods and designed in units and involve music and sound effect. Sometimes, converting TV-based education programs to radio-based education program technology also contributes to support subject taught in TV with radio. The advantages of recorded programs are that they are creative and it can be controlled in each phase of preparation. Educational Environments in the Open Education System of Anadolu University Education The educational materials, environment and services used in the Open Education System of Anadolu University are classified below: Printed materials, Radio and Television Programs, Academic Counseling Services, Computer Based Instruction Services, Test Research Center, Student Affairs and Interaction Center, Interaction Center, Advanced Technology Use: Videoconferencing, Web Services, and Trial Tests. Starting from the academic years, e-audio-book project will be put into practice as addition to the educational materials for blind students in the Open Education Faculty of Anadolu University. The numbers of the handicapped students in the Open Education Faculty are as indicated below. Copyright The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology

8 In the academic years, 741 out of students in the Open Education Faculty of Anadolu University are handicapped students. In Table 1, the number of handicapped students based on handicap groups is presented. The Number of Handicapped Students in the Open Education of Anadolu University based on Handicap Groups Departments in Open Education Faculty Foot Hand Eye Total Banking And Insurance Program Information Management 1 1 Office Management & Secretarial Office Management Program Foreign Trade Program 2 2 Home Management Program Public Relations Program Theology Program English Language Teaching B.A. (Adana) 1 1 English Language Teaching B.A. (Ankara) English Language Teaching B.A. (Eskişehir) 1 1 Laboratory Assistants and Terinary Health Associate Program Local Administrations Accounting Program Pre-School Teacher Program 3 3 Administration Of Medical Organizations Sales Management 1 1 Social Sciences Program Agriculture Associasse Programme 1 1 Tourism & Hotel Management Tourism & Hotel Working Economy & Industrial Relations Economy Public Management Finance Business Administration Total Table 1: The numbers of handicapped students in the Open Education System of Anadolu University School Years PROGRAMS Total Banking & Insurance Office Management And Secretarial 5 5 Foreign Trade 2 2 Home Management Public Relations Theology English Language Teaching B.A. (Adana) 1 1 English Language Teaching B.A. (Ankara) 1 1 English Language Teaching B.A. (Eskişehir) 1 1 Laboratory Assistants And Terinary Health Associate Program 6 6 Copyright The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology

9 Local Administrations 2 2 Accounting Pre-School Teacher Administration Of Medical Organizations Social Sciences Programme Agriculture Associasse 1 1 Tourism & Hotel Management 7 7 Tourism & Hotel Program 1 1 Working Economy & Industrial Relations Economy Public Management Finance Business Administration TOTAL Table 2. The Numbers of Blind Students in the Open Education Faculty of Anadolu University The courses prepared as e-audio-book consider vast number of freshmen blind students in the content of e- audio-book project at the Open Education Faculty of Anadolu University. Firstly, not only have shared courses in all programs been, but also Theology and Public Relations Programs have been included in this project. The courses having eudio-book are listed below: General Management, Introduction to Law, History of Civilization, Introduction to Communication, Atatürk s Principles and History of Innovation, Basics of Islam Religion, Principles of Islam, History of First Era of Islam, Communication and Public Affairs in Religious Services, Basic Terms in Social Sciences. To create e-audio-book project for blind students requires teamwork. Those people given below will be in this team: 1. Project director 2. Producer director (for all the courses) 3. Field expert 4. Education technologist 5. Text writer 6. Sound artists 7. Studio technical team 8. A person in charge of duplications Director of Project: She/He is responsible for carrying out the project, planning all activities and providing coordinators. Producer Director: She/He is responsible for designing and applying e-audio-books in accordance with instructional objectives. Field Expert: She/He designs content and takes a scientific responsibility in realizing the book. Education Technologist: She/He is an expert deciding on which techniques, format and styles to be used to present the book to the students. Text Writes: She/He is preparing a text for the book according to determined format in coordination with the director. Sound Artist: These people have been trained in this field and they have microphonic voice. They will be in charge of making a sound recording. Studio Technical Team: (a person who records, music director and technical care). This team will make it possible to record to book and match the music and sound effects. Copyright The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology

10 The person in charge of duplication: She/He is in charge of duplication of e-audio-books in technical formats (cassette, CD ROMs, etc.) as students want. The Process of an E-Audio-Book Production in the Open Education System of Anadolu University The process of e-audio-book production consists of pre-production, production and post-production steps, like any audio, cinema and television program productions. Pre-Production: In the beginning, to verify courses with e-audio-books, the number of the disabled students in the Open Education System of Anadolu University was determined. This research was conducted on the demographic, psychological and social backgrounds of the blind students, and the communication tools they have. Research on how e-audio-books support student learning can be carried out in the future. This is a weakness at the beginning at the project. In the Open Education System of Anadolu University, the books consist of units (chapters). Therefore, every unit can be accepted as an individual module while e-audio-books are produced. The books will be recorded as a direct lecture with the readings from different narrators. Music and sound effects will be mixed in the appropriate parts. The parts in e-books (title of the unit, its number, its objectives, pre-test, introduction, text, summary, self-test, through life, sample events, a self-test key) will get ready one by one. No special text will be written for the e-audio-books. Production: To product e-audio-books, a professional sound recording studio is needed. It requires a professional sound control room, and must be planned every studio individually in these studios in the Open Education Faculty Radio & TV Production Center of Anadolu University, which have been equipped with professional recording machines with a soundproof technology. While recording e-audio-books, the students and instructors from the State Conservatoire Theatre of Anadolu University will collaborate with the researcher in this study. To avoid waste of time, rehearsal will not be carried out in studios. They will be recorded as a dat system, and they can be changed to every format wanted. It will approximately take one month to record a book. Units are regarded as individual programs while recording e- audio-books. The e-books in the Open Education Faculty is approximately fifteen units, and these books is around pages long. Each unit is about pages. It will take two days to record each unit, and a month to produce an e-audio-book. Post-Production: This stage is montage step mishmashed and matched with musical and natural sounds. Each unit has pages long, and a 45-minute-program. Each e-audio-book is a 16-unit-book, and produced on CD ROMs and adapted to the Internet.. Budget and Timing There is no extra financial cost to produce e-audio-books in this project, because the studio and technical personnel infrastructure of Anadolu University can make this project possible by an effective planning and productive working. However, it takes long time to transmit in the format that students want. The answer of this situation was gained from the survey results from the students whom we asked which format e-audio books they would like to listen after this project completed. At the first stage, only seven books will be designed for e- audio-books between April and September Conclusion E-audio-books produced for the blind students in the Open Education System of Anadolu University are quite important for all students to study on their own whenever and wherever they want with a more productive and efficient way. Anadolu University is the first and unique university to support disabled students with this project. There is no equivalent open system in Turkey and the world. References Erdamar, Bengul (1992). Radio Programming. Istanbul, Der Publishing. Ozgur, Aydin Ziya (1999). Radio As an Medium Supports Learning at Distance Learning and Open Education Faculty Applications, BITE, Ministry of Education: FRTEB, Ankara. Race, Phil (1998). 500 Tips for Open and Flexible Learning, London, Kogan Page. Rowntree, Derek (1994). Teaching with Audio in Open and Distance Education, London, Kogan Page. Copyright The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology

11 DESIGN STRATEGIES FOR HIGHER EDUCATION FACULTY Deniz PALAK Abstract This paper reports the current findings in literature on the impact of instructional technologies on teaching and learning environments pertaining higher education institutions. This study investigates the instructional design strategies in terms of (1) the scope of change in design strategies as a result of current school reform in the United States (2) impact of instructional technologies on teaching and learning, (3) evolving roles of teachers and learners within these new environments, (4) new networked technologies available for teaching, and (5) implications for changes in instructional strategies. The paper also brings two models of instructional technology integration (Harris genres of telecollaborative activity structures and Tomei s Taxonomy of Instructional Technologies) for higher education faculty who are interested in applying learner-centered design principles. As this paper is an interactive document taking advantage of the full range of hyperlinks, it is recommended to be viewed to online. Higher education institutions are undergoing substantial changes as a result of education reform that is taking place at schools. Universities are making the shift from face-to-face print only delivery to digital delivery in both traditional face-to-face and online courses. Coupled with socio-economic and pedagogical changes over the last decade, higher education faculty has become increasingly responsive to creating flexible technologysupported teaching and learning environments. In this growing demand, higher education faculty has begun to integrate instructional technologies into their existing course design. The paper investigates the instructional design strategies in terms of (1) the scope of change in design strategies as a result of school reform (2) impact of instructional technologies on teaching and learning, (3) evolving roles of teachers and learners within these new environments, (4) new networked technologies available for teaching, and (5) implications for changes in instructional strategies used by faculty in higher education. Scope of Change in Design Strategies for Higher Education Faculty From a larger perspective, two most important recent developments have shifted the focus on instructional design strategies for conditions of successful teaching: (1) social and economic forces of change and (2) a dramatic shift in the beliefs of learning and education itself. These two developments have neither developed in isolation nor independent from each other. They reflect the larger social and economical conditions that are shaping the industrialized democratic societies of today. Specifically, the movement of educational change or reform began in the 1990s in the US. Today s social and economic change forces demographic, economic, and global - are affecting higher education organizations and their functioning (Morrison, 2002). Student enrollments in higher education institutions are increasing in numbers and becoming ethnically diverse. International movement in capital, labor, products, technology, information exchange and business are expanding beyond national boundaries. Technology is both changing and being changed or reshaped due to the current social and economic forces, affecting the local as well as global economy and culture in which we do everyday business. In parallel to social and economic change forces, education reform since 1990s suggests a fundamental shift in the direction of educational beliefs (Wasser, 1996). Due to recent neuroscience research and convergence of evidence from a number of scientific fields, human intelligence is now believed not to be a fixed entity, but a spiraling and evolving human capacity. Recent findings indicate that there is a positive relationship between the amount of experience in a complex environment and the amount of structural change in the human brain (Bransford, Brown, & Cocking, 1999). More specifically research now points to evidence that (1) learning changes the physical structure of the brain, (2) learning organizes and reorganizes the brain, and (3) different parts of the brain may be ready to learn at different times. The shift in the belief of learning, moving away from a fixed entity to an ever-evolving non-linear process that is enriched by providing learning experiences, has yielded the revision of learning theories, giving way to constructivist learning environments for successful teaching and learning. Changing social and economic forces combined with changing beliefs in learning have compelled an educational reform to sketch out the expectations of what students should know and be able to do. Since the quality of learning has a direct relationship to the quality of teaching, new educational standards have been reinforced to ensure the preparation of teacher professionals to meet the demands of the modern postindustrialized society. In the last few years, higher education institutions that prepare future teachers have been expected to the respond to these changes in society at large by following the standards to achieve reform. To ensure that beginning teachers are prepared to meet standards, National Commission on Teaching and Copyright The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology

12 America s Future (NCTAF) prepared the following criteria as benchmarks for teacher preparation, licensing, and hiring. These benchmarks reflect the emerging, research-based consensus on learning and social and economic forces of the last few decades. The benchmarks outline the expected standards for highly qualified beginning teachers in line with current education reform that is taking place at schools. The standards for highly qualified teachers are the following: Possess a deep understanding of the subjects they teach; A firm understanding of how students learn; Demonstrate the teaching skills necessary to help students achieve high standards; Create positive learning environments; Use a variety of assessment strategies to diagnose and respond to learning needs; Demonstrate and integrate modern technology into school curriculum to support student learning; Collaborate with colleagues, parents, and community members, and other educators to improve student learning; Reflect on their practice to improve future teaching and student achievement; Pursue professional growth in both content and pedagogy; Instill a passion for learning in their students. Higher education institutions must prepare the teachers of the nation to meet the demands of knowledge-based, pluralistic society of the 21 st century. Students of the 21 st century will not be able to meet the changing demands of society unless teachers are prepared to meet the high standards. The amendments, such as the Higher Education Act Amendments of 1998 and Title II made the teacher preparation programs accountable for the quality of their graduates. Consequently, new design strategies need to be developed in higher education institutions whose mission is to prepare new qualified teachers as well as to enhance the quality of teaching for in-service teachers through professional development. Technology is an integral part in the changing face of education reform. Not more than a decade ago, society at large was beginning to experience the Internet and multimedia revolution before their eyes. Computers at schools were beginning to enter specifically designated labs with software for the purposes of drill-and-practice, tutorial, and games. Computer technologies were seen as an add-on or a new media to deliver instruction. This view formed the earlier type of instructional technology model, namely Computer-Based Instruction (CBI) (Kearsley, 2000). Within two decades the advancements of PC, Internet, and multimedia communication technologies have allowed educators to create new learning environments, opportunities, and qualities for learning and teaching. Technologies are no longer mere media to deliver of instruction, but they are tools, environments, activities, or methods to foster student learning (Jonassen, Peck & Wilson, 1999). Instructional design integrates technologies that are curriculum-based and rooted in student activities. In this new framework of instructional design, technologies are used to (1) bring exciting curricula based on real-world problems into classroom through the integration of video/audio, simulations, and networked connectivity to concrete data and outside experts and learners, (2) provide scaffolds and tools to enhance learning by participation in complex cognitive performances, (3) give students and teachers more opportunities for feedback, reflection, and revision, (4) build local and global communities that include teachers, students, experts, parents, administrators, and other interested people, and (5) expand opportunities for teacher learning (Bransford, Brown, & Cocking, 1999). Given today s education reform movement, all learners are being held to high education standards, which in turn have shifted learning environments to prepare the students of the 21 st century. As society is changing due to social, economic, demographic, and global forces, it is imperative that all learners are furnished with higher order thinking, presentation, communication, collaboration, and technology skills (Riel & Fulton, 1998). In this new paradigm of learning and school reform, transmitting knowledge shifted to constructing knowledge in authentic, meaningful learning environments with support of technology. Impact of Instructional Technologies on Teaching and Learning Environments The goal of integrating instructional technologies is to build teachers capacity for sustaining practice to improve the quality of teaching and learning in line with current education reform. The challenge is incorporating new content and pedagogical standards into higher education curriculum to model new design strategies for future teachers. The challenge will be met when higher education faculty use technology to build the capacity for sustaining reform objectives from within their instructional design. How do such faculty implement instructional technology strategies that connect content and classroom practice with technology? Following is a framework of effective learning environments with the opportunities made possible by access to Copyright The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology

13 communication technologies. The four dimensions of the effective learning environments reflect the consensus in the learning sciences research as they are outlined in the book, How People Learn: Brain, Mind, Experience, and School (Bransford, Brown, & Cocking, 1999). The four dimensions of effective learning environment are (1) learner-centered, (2) knowledge-centered, (3) assessment-centered, and (4) community-centered. Learner-Centered Learning Environments In learner-centered environments, integration of instructional technology is seen as a tool to foster learning. The purpose of integration is not an end of itself or to deliver instruction with different media. Instead, technology is integrated as a means to create new and exciting instructional opportunities for best teaching and learning practices. Because in technology-supported learning environments, learning is an active process in which students construct knowledge based on their goals and real-world problems, learner-centered design addresses to the needs of the learners holistically and systematically. The focus is on the process of creating knowledge with the community of learners that engage students with authentic and project-based challenges (McCombs, 2000). The learner-centered environments mirror learning in real life settings in which learning is often characterized as playful, non-linear, engaging, self-directed, and meaningful from the perspective of learners (McCombs, 2000). Learners are not seen as blank slates with respect to their goals, opinions, knowledge, and time (Bransford, 2000). The authority of curriculum is shared with the learner and instructional design takes learners goals, needs, strengths, and interests into account. The learner-centered design honors preconceptions, cultural values, and special strengths of each individual learner as each may have something to contribute to unique classroom interactions in proactive learning environments. The International Communication and Negotiation Simulations (ICONS) Project is an example of how learnercentered curriculum can be a powerful teaching strategy in regards to enhancing learners ability for interactive learning, critical thinking skills, appreciation of controversial issues, and an awareness of cultural differences with negotiation and problem-solving. The ICONS provides a laboratory where university level students around the world can test theories about how decision-makers resolve conflicts. Working in teams, students perform research in order to develop policies on issues of international importance, such as nuclear proliferation, human rights, trade, narcotics trafficking and environmental degradation. Global SchoolNet Foundation (GSN) is a non-profit international online education organization, dedicated to prepare young learners for the workforce and help them become literate and responsible global citizens. GSN works with schools, universities, businesses, government and community organizations to provide meaningful Internet-based learning programs and professional development. GSN hosts over 700 online projects organized by grade level of students and partnering with 25,000 schools in the US and 89 schools all over the world. GSN provides online synchronous, asynchronous, and, publishing tools for both learners and teachers. Knowledge-Centered learning Environments As Bransford (2000) indicated there are many overlaps between knowledge-centered and learner-centered since knowledge centered learning activities are conducted in learner-centered environments. The learner-centered design yields open-ended learning environments through inquiry-based constructivist design strategies in which learners build knowledge around the solution of problems with authentic tasks and project-based learning activities. The design strategies in knowledge-centered learning environments (1) use a problem solving approach to acquire knowledge (2) have a specific curriculum focus requiring active student engagement through inquiry, (3) expect active student engagement and learning (4) and negotiate solutions with a community of learners. In knowledge-centered learning environments, students are expected to do something: solve a problem, produce an artifact, and organize their ideas to present and/or disseminate. Although nothing appears to be new at first in knowledge-centered instructional design strategies, technology s capacity to extend the physical boundaries, community of learners, providing opportunities for in-depth active learning have a great impact in the quality of teaching and learning. Instructional technologies strengthen learners ability to think, reflect, and solve problems by accessing ideas, assumptions, and conceptions of both people and resources, which are otherwise beyond the reach of the learners. In the knowledge-centered design, knowledge is constructed in meaningful, open learning environments. Knowledge is built within the community of learners who may be geographically far away from each other; knowledge-building learning activities are meaningful, context-specific and acquired through inquiry with problem and project based authentic learning tasks that are negotiated with the learner in the design process. 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14 Hebert Simon once stated that (as cited in Bransfrod, Brown, & Cocking, 1999) knowing is no longer seen as remembering and repeating information; rather knowing is being able to find and use information. Below are some examples of how knowledge can be built in the learning communities using the Internet or networked resources. The Science Learning Network (SLN) provides online community of educators, students, schools, science museums and other institutions with a model for inquiry in science education. The network incorporates inquirybased teaching approaches, telecomputing, collaboration among geographically dispersed teachers and classrooms, and WWW content resources. Participant schools may exhibit their findings in the four U.S. science museums as well as partnering six international online museums. The SLN is an example of how students accomplish inquiry in knowledge-based curriculum. Study Skills Help Page Dr. Carolyn Hopper provides help in learning skills. Qualified students can take her course online or take advantage of the resources she made available on the website. Assessment-Centered Learning Environments The implications of the learner, knowledge, and community-centered networked environments result in schools becoming hubs (Carroll, 2000). As education delivery moves away from self-contained classrooms to open networked resources in which knowledge is constructed through inquiry and authentic tasks, it is imperative that assessment methods align with the instructional strategies. The former methods of multiple choice, short answer, and standardized tests, however, will not reflect the learning outcomes that take place in networked learning environments. In the assessment-centered learning environments, student learning is active, intentional, authentic, and cooperative. The method of assessment is about finding out how students make meaning as a result of their interactions in the networked environments with the other community of learners. The measurement of meaning-making is a qualitative and process oriented method, which requires learners to be assessed while they are making the meaning through interaction, inquiry, and negotiation. Formative evaluation methods, such as portfolios, rubrics, self-reflection sheets, checklists, student reports and videos documenting students performances are some of the tools to assess performance-based learning strategies. Technology plays a crucial role in both documenting student performance and giving instant feedback to students about their performance-based learning process. The National Center for Technology Planning (NCTP) specifically helps teachers determine what resources, assessment and design tools they will need for educational networks. This site is a clearinghouse for the exchange of many types of information related to higher education technology planning, assessment, and educational web portals. The Jason Project gives students all over the world a chance to directly participate in science, mathematics, social sciences, language arts, and technology projects through exploration and discovery. The Jason Project follows a standards-based curriculum and provides a variety of assessment tools appropriate to the project in online learning environments. These curriculum-based assessment tools are performance-based, standards and assessment rubric, student and self-assessment. Helen C. Barrett, a predominant researcher in portfolio development, provides a wealth of information on her website on the process of digital portfolio development. The Gallery Walk Projects, ISTE s Assessment & Technology Forum, has several examples of electronic portfolio approaches and portfolio products both from K-12 and college/university projects. In addition to the available portfolio help website, there are also number of commercial electronic portfolio providers, such as Chalk & Wire, LiveText, TaskStream, and ProfPort. World Lecture Hall contains open links to university-level course materials in 83 categories that instructors can browse. Course materials may include the syllabus, audio, video, and course notes. Community-Centered Learning Environments. Riel (2000) argued that fundamental change in the next decades will result from participation in education by a larger community of people who the Internet brings together, rather than from access to technology. The Internet brings the access to a larger community of people. Designing community-centered learning environments connects communities of people - learners, teachers, and professionals - toward a common goal. Community-centered environments facilitate collaboration and cooperation, which are to some, the biggest Copyright The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology

15 single change (Kearsley, 2000) as well as challenge (Harris, 2002) that networked technologies bring to the changing face of education. Community-based learning expands both the human and technological resources, provides students a meaningful context for knowledge construction, an environment for building social and academic skills, such as negotiating a meaning, turn taking, and reaching a consensus. The Center for Curriculum, Transfer, and Technology (C2T2) is a peer-based professional development organization from British Colombia provides higher education faculty access to information and resources to improve student learning. The organization offers tools, publications, reports and materials that document innovative solutions in teaching and learning. Project Bio is a partnership for biology education involving educators in Iowa State University. The materials developed in Project BIO are available worldwide on the Internet. The project aims to enhance biology distance education by developing biology distance courses and share teaching resources to promote shared curriculum development. The site provides higher education faculty with resources for creating web-based lecture and adding audio to lecture. Teachers Helping Teachers site was developed by Dr. Scott Mandel to provide basic teaching tips and new ideas in teaching methodologies for inexperienced teachers as well as to provide a forum for experienced teachers to share their expertise with colleagues around the world. Searle Center for Teaching Excellence is Northwestern University s higher education teaching effectiveness center assists higher education faculty in research, assessment, and in a wide range of services with resources and peer feedback. The Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory (NWREL) makes numerous resources as well as projects available for educators, policymakers, parents, and the public. NWREL provides research and development in six areas: assessment; child and family; education, career and community; program evaluation, rural education; and school improvement program, in addition to four in training and technical assistance: equity center; comprehensive center; mathematics and science education center; and national mentoring center. The Training & Development Community Center provides a gateway for those educators who are interested in professional organizations, discussion boards, training and development listservs, or similar information and engagement in the field of instructional technology and human resources development. The IMS Global Learning Consortium develops and promotes online distributed learning activities, such as locating and using educational content, tracking learner progress, reporting learner performance, and exchanging student records between administrative systems. Evolving Roles of Teachers and Learners within These New Environments The integration of instructional technologies into the new learning environments has a great impact on the roles of teachers and students. Professionally-engaged teachers who integrate instructional technologies differ significantly from classroom teachers who are isolated behind the closed environments of traditional classrooms (Riel, 2000). The learner-centered design compels teachers to change their roles significantly both in their design and instructional delivery. Traditional closed classrooms place the teacher not only as the sole authority to design and deliver instruction, but also as the central person who stands and delivers the content while students sit and receive the knowledge. However, in the learner-centered constructivist environments, learners solve complex and realistic problems, work together with other community of learners to solve the problems, and take ownership of their own learning. Learners are active participants in the learning environments, working together with teachers both as designers and learners as opposed to being seen as empty vessels waiting to be filled (Driscoll, 2000). Teachers play entirely new roles along with the student in the new instructional environments where teachers are likely to be knowledge managers and learners are more autonomous individuals with greater responsibilities for their own learning process. The following framework is adapted from Newby, Stepich, Lehman, and Russell (2000) to describe the changes of roles of both teachers and students in the learner-centered environments. Copyright The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology

16 For the TEACHER A shift from: Always being viewed as the content expert and source for all of the answers Being viewed as the primary source of information who continually directs it to students Always asking the questions and controlling the focus of student learning Directing students through pretest step-by-step exercises so that all achieve similar conclusions For the LEARNER A shift from: Passively waiting for the teacher to give directions and information Always being in the role of the learner Always following given procedures Viewing the teachers as the one who has all the answers A shift to: Participating at times as one who may not know it all but desires to learn Being viewed as a support. Collaborator, and coach for students as they learn to gather and evaluate information for themselves. Actively coaching students to develop and pose their own questions and explore their own alternative ways of finding answers Actively encouraging individuals to use their personal knowledge and skills to create unique solutions to problems A shit to: Actively searching for needed information and learning experiences, determining what is needed, seeking ways to attain it Participating at times as the expert/knowledge provide Desiring to explore, discover, and create unique solutions to learning problems Viewing the teacher as a resource, model, and helper who will encourage exploration and attempts to find solutions to problems New Networked Technologies for Teaching The emerging major theme in the technology-supported learning environments can be described briefly as students actively building knowledge through inquiry with telecollaborative activities that are housed in the Internet, networked resources. In the Virtual Architecture s Web Home, Harris (1998) introduced a structure to conduct telecollaborative activities using a variety of networked tools. Harris (1998) stated the tool, in and of itself, no matter how powerful its features, cannot make learning happen. The application of these tools makes learning an active, holistic, idiosyncratic process that is modeled, situated, and authentic and built with community of learners. From this perspective, networked technologies are dealt with within the framework of three genres: interpersonal exchange, information collection & analysis, and problem solving. The genres are organized into three categories of student action depending on the dominant type of learning act to accomplish curriculum-related learning goals (Harris, 1998). Below is the table of the three genres of activity structures. The examples of specific telecollaborative activities are provided with a hyperlink in the example column. The tools column states the specific software, hardware, and online resources that can be used to accomplish the telecollaborative activities. Although the use of each tool appears to be separated by the type of genres, any tool appropriate with the design strategies can be used to conduct a specific telecollaborative activity. In fact, majority of the tools that are used in the telecollaborative activities are embedded in the telecollaborative project web pages. Teachers may take advantage of the available tools in the Internet and create their own specific learning environments in collaboration with their own students and others. Genre Activity Structure Examples Tools INTERPERSONAL EXCHANGE Keypals epals is a classroom exchange platform for teachers of higher education and K-12, students, and parents Asynchronous tools: bulletin boards, newsgroups, listservs, streaming audio and video, and (voice or text). Copyright The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology

17 Global Classroom The Globe Program Curriculum-specific collaboration among participating global classroom for targeted grade level. The Global School House Project-based K-12 telecollaborative learning with schools around the world. Electronic Appearances Ask the Space Scientists is NASA s site for K-12 students Telementoring The Math Forum: Person-to-person interaction (4D) Electronic mentoring Project, for native American Children Question & Answer CIESE, Educational Links Several links to educational ask an expert websites. Synchronous tools: Chatrooms, instant messaging, desktop video conferencing (CU-SeeMe), electronic whiteboards. Software tools: Java applets, spreadsheets, word processing, desktop publishing, web page development, presentation, concept mapping, speech synthesis, and file transfer protocol software. Other WWW tools: search engines, virtual tours, webcams, MUDs & MOOs. Impersonations Ask Thomas Jefferson for K-12 INFORMATION COLLECTION & ANALYSIS Information Exchanges Global Grocery List Project Students report prices on various groceries and then compare their data with that of people in other areas. Database Creation Plantwatch Learners observe flowering times for plant species and to report these dates electronically. Electronic Publishing E-Link Writer s Corner K-12 students publish poetry Kid s International Peace Museum Student created exhibits on peace Speech Processing, Swiki/CoWeb, is a collaborative hypertext tool allows both teachers and students to create collaborative activities. Anybody can create or edit the pages; pages are linked by their names. By allowing students the same power and flexibility as the teacher, agency shifts so that teachers become participants in the students' activities and students become critical consumers of the teacher's activities. Copyright The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology

18 Telefieldtrips Virtual China Students virtually travel to china PROBLEM SOLVING Online from Jupiter NASA Quest Pooled Data Analysis The Global Sun Temperature Project Students determine how where they live affects daily temperature The PathFinder Science Students determine the effect of several ongoing science projects Information Searches Hunt for Country Capital Games Peer-to- Peer information collection games Internet Math Hunt Math scavenger hunt in which students compete to find math answers WebQuest Design Page WebQuest Examples Online Educational Simulations Online Digital Libraries Peer Activities Feedback How Far Does Light Go Students discover, defend, and refute theories about how far light travels. Virtual Reality Ebooks Palms Classroom Anatomy Online Students post fictional case studies about patients. Other students, in turn, use on-line forms to offer their diagnoses. Parallel Solving Problem A Day in the Life of an Ice Cube Students from around the world measure how long it takes an ice cube to melt in their location Inventions Project Students brainstorm and design inventions that may change the way we live. Copyright The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology

19 Sequential Creations I have a Dream Electronic Project a Students compose a series of poems sequentially. PROBLEM SOLVING Continued Worldwide F.A.X Project Students from Nebraska and Japan create sequential stories using . Telepresent Solving Problem KidCast for Peace with CU-SeeMe videoconferencing technology students meet and discuss world peace Simulations Educational Space Simulations Project Space simulations by National Association of Space Simulating Educators (NASSE) educators. Biology Labs On-Line Interactive, inquirybased biology simulations for high schools students. Social Action Projects The International Communication and Negotiation Simulations (ICONS) has several social action projects. IEARN Social Action Projects with international participation Implications for Changes in Instructional Strategies Used by Faculty in Higher Education Beginning to Integrate New Technologies As noted above, the socio-economic forces have shaped the school reform movement since the 1990s. Recent findings from the learning sciences have had an impact on the way we understand what learning is and how learning environments need to be designed. Constructivist philosophy has emerged in line with our new understanding on the ways in which learners knowledge need to be built to respond to the needs of today s growingly complex postmodern society. The constructivists believe in meaning making with authentic complex goals that are solved in context specific learning environments with purposeful strategies similar to the ways in which we learn in real-world situations. Since constructivist philosophy has a great impact on instructional design regarding learning conditions and instructional strategies (Driscoll, 2002), creating appropriate learning environments are essential for successful teaching and learning. Networked computer and multimedia technologies support creating complex learning environments to implement the new design strategies. This is why, when constructivists talk about technologies, they don t refer to it as a separate entity (media to deliver instruction), but rather as a tool or method that students learn with. Learning with technologies has implications for changes in designing instruction. These changes bring new Copyright The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology

20 dimensions to the following components of design principles: (1) instructional strategies, (2) interaction, and (3) taxonomy of instructional technology objectives. Instructional Strategies Conditions of learning in the learning environments that are learner, knowledge, community, and assessmentcentered are created with the following instructional strategies: (1) problem-based, (2) project-based, (3) inquiry, (4) collaboration, and (5) cooperation. The key elements of these instructional strategies are that they are context-driven as opposed to content-specific. That means context houses the learning conditions in which students build knowledge through mentoring, apprenticeships, and problem-based scenarios. Learning context is modeled by the community of learners that include students, teachers, outside experts. Learning is situated specific to the context and facilitated through the cases or problem scenarios that are built on what students already know (Maddux, Johnson, & Willes, 2001). Morrison and Lowther (2002) described Problem-Based Learning as a teaching strategy consistent with a learner-centered approach in which students are provided with the problem first, before they began studying the material. Students must then think about what they know individually and collectively and what they need to learn to solve the problem. By determining what they need to know, the students develop knowledge structures, based on problem-solving approaches rather than subject matter approaches as presented in text-books. Project-Based Learning focuses teaching and learning around projects that are driven by an authentic question or problem that is central to the curriculum (McGrath, 2002). The project-based activities involve a community of learners toward building student constructed products. Technology becomes embedded in project-based student activities since it supports and extends the possibilities for inquiry, data collection, collaboration, analysis, construction, and communication. Inquiry learning is another learner-centered design tool that was previously called discovery learning. This approach requires students to seek information in order to discover concepts (e.g., classification) and relationships (e.g., principles) between ideas (Morrison & Lowther, 2002). Cooperation and collaboration are sometimes referred unanimously, but in essence, they are two separate strategies. Judi Harris (2002) described the difference between these two strategies with the following analogy. In the first situation, two children are playing in a sandbox next to each other, each of whom is building their own sandcastle while sharing a shovel or a bucket. Their castle resides side-by-side in the same sandbox. In the second situation, however, the same two children are in the same sandbox, working together on a single castle. Although each of these situations takes place in a learning community, the first example represents cooperation and the second collaboration. Telecollaborative activities are collaborative conducted through the Internet networked resources. Harris cautions that telecollaborative activities are more challenging for teachers to conduct since they require active and ongoing coordination on part of the teacher. Telecollaboration is also challenging because collaboration requires negotiation with others (teachers and students) what we are and what we will be doing during a learning activity (Harris, 2002). Internet based networked technologies provide the tools, the means to accomplish instructional strategies that are problem and project-based and conducted through inquiry. Harris activity structures foster learning through cooperation or collaboration among peers who are both present in the same location and distant from each other. Information is sought not for the sake of collecting knowledge but is collected and negotiated in context specific learning environments. Making knowledge of that information is active, holistic, and idiosyncratic process that is modeled, situated, and authentic Interaction The concept of interaction in either face-to-face or distance education programs are fundamental for creating effective instruction (McIsaac, & Gunawardena, 2002). In constructivist learning environments, learners communicate one to other electronically, collect information, and analyze, share, or publish their constructed knowledge in the electronic environments, there is a heavy involvement of the learner with HTML pages. Due to the learner s involvement with the electronic resources and communities during this process, the learner spends considerable amount of time in navigating through non-linear hypertext environments. This involvement of interaction between the learner and technology, thus, naturally brings a new type of interaction, Learner- Interface. The learner-interface interaction has been proposed by Hillman, Hills, and Gunawardena in addition to the three others (learner-instructor, learner-learner, and learner-content interaction) that were introduced previously (McIsaac, & Gunawardena, 2002). Copyright The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology

21 The learner-interface interaction proposes that instructional design strategies in the new technology-supported learning environments must consider the learners who may or may not have the skills required to use the communication mediated through technology. Since collaboration involves a high degree of interaction, instructional design strategies must ensure the continuous degrees of interaction that take place among the learners, instructor, content, and the electronic interfaces. Assuring interaction though four levels (learner-instructor, learner-learner, learner-content, and learnerinterface) is the key in the new learning environments. Moore and Kearsley (1999) proposed that the amount of distance is no longer measured by geography in either traditional or distance education courses. Greater transactional distance occurs among the instructor and the learners if the instructional design is highly structured toward teacher-centered curriculum with limited interaction. When there is more dialog and less structure, the instructional design has less transactional distance. Course design with less transactional distance is learner-centered in which learners are given greater autonomy, high levels interaction and less structure in the learning environments. Taxonomy of Instructional Technology Objectives The implications of changes in constructivist learning environments yield orchestrating different instructional strategies in which technologies are integrated in the overall instructional design. Since integration of instructional technology becomes an embedded teaching strategy in the learning environment, designers will benefit from determining at what level they achieve technology-supported learning objectives. For many decades, Blooms Taxonomy of Educational Objectives has given educators the criteria for measuring learning objectives in the cognitive domain. Complementary to Bloom s Taxonomy, Lawrence Tomei s (2002) taxonomy for the technology domain provides educators with the most robust classification of determining the hierarchical level of instructional technology integration in the new design environments. Tomei s Taxonomy of Instructional Technologies is a framework of reference to help teachers determine at what level they have integrated instructional technologies. The table below is adapted from Tomei s (2000) Technology Façade: Overcoming barriers to effective instructional technology. Taxonomy Actions that Present Intellectual Classification Activity on this Level Literacy: understanding technology and its components Apply computer terminology in oral and written Consider the various uses of computers and technology Master keyboarding, clicking, and dragging object Use web-based search engines Download information via file transfer protocol Operate input and output devices Duplicate solutions of hardware and software problems Communications: Use technology tools for writing and communications sharing ideas, working Participate in demonstrations of DE applications collaboratively, and Share information electronically forming relationship Value work conducted cooperatively and collaboratively with technology using technology Respond to opportunities for sharing electronic information Communicate interpersonally using electronic mail Interact with the electronic community via chatrooms Subscribe to online newsgroups Access remote information via telecommunications Decision Making: using technology in new and concrete situations Instruction: Apply electronic tools for research, information analysis, and problem solving Design effective instruction Evaluate the accuracy, relevance, and bias of electronic information resources Formulate new ideas with software Prepare an electronic spreadsheet Create calendars, address books, and class schedules Conduct research that enhances learning Teach, differentiate, and discriminate using technology Copyright The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology

22 breaking down Appraise educational software for its pedagogical strengths technology-based Support learning goals by choosing multimedia resources instructional material Formulate a collegial environment for teaching using technology-based tools into its components Theorize instructional opportunities that might be adaptive to diverse learners Integrate technology into student guidance, career, awareness, and student web-based materials Create text-based materials using technology Create visual-based classroom presentations Integration: reassembling technology-based instruction to create new materials Assimilate technology into a personal learning style Facilitate lifelong learning by constructing a personal schema for technology Address personal skill deficits using technology Consider the consequences of inappropriate uses of technology Enhance personal productivity with technology Society: Support copyright and fair use laws for using technology the value of Debate the issues surrounding legal/ethical behavior when using technology Argue and assess the historical evolution of technology and predict its probable future roles in society Rate the promises for using information technology to solve real-world problems Judge the responsible uses and abuses of technology Conclusion Higher education institutions have yet to overcome the evolving design strategies to accomplish best teaching practices to foster student learning. Current education reform and pedagogy suggest a shift toward learnercentered design and delivery. Instructional technology integration will only improve teaching and learning provided that technology tools are applied with sound design strategies. The combination of the instructional strategies that are employed in the new learning environments suggests different design strategies, affecting the roles of teachers and learners, learning conditions, and objectives. Evolving design strategies where instructional technologies are integrated appear to be a challenge until teachers learn how to operate these tools to foster learning. In the framework of current literature of instructional design, this paper investigated design principles for creating learner-centered instruction, specifically focusing on new networked technologies available for teaching. Two models for integrating instructional technologies have been brought: (1) Harris genres of telecollaborative activity structures for problem, project, and inquiry based learning and (2) Tomei s Taxonomy of Instructional Technologies for determining the level instructional technology integration. Harris activity structures that are accomplished through networked technologies facilitate the orchestration of the design principles in learner-centered constructivist learning environments. Tomei s Taxonomy is a tool to measure how successfully teachers achieve the expected learning outcomes in the learner-centered environments where technologies are integrated. These two models are references for higher education faculty who are interested in creating learner-centered design supported by instructional technologies. References Bransford, J.D. (2000). Toward the development of a stronger community of educators: New opportunities made possible by integrating the learning sciences and technology. Retrieved May 9, 2003, from, Bransford, J. D., Brown, A.L., & Cocking, R. R. (1999). How people learn: Brain, mind, experience, and school. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. Caroll, T.G. (2000). Do today s evaluations meet the needs of tomorrow s networked learning communities? Retrieved May 9, 2003, from, Driscoll, M.P. (2002).Psychological foundations of instructional design. In R.A. Reiser & J.V. Dempsey (Ed.), Trends and issues in instructional design and technology. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Pearson Education. Driscoll, M.P. (2000). Psychology of learning for instruction. MA: Allyn &Bacon. Harris, J. (1998). Curriculum-based telecollaboration: Using activity structures to design student projects. Learning and Leading With Technology, 26(1), Harris, J. (2002). Wherefore art thou, Telecollaboration? Learning and Leading With Technology, 29(6), 55, Retrieved May 10, 2003, from, Harris, J., & Grandgenett, N. (2002). Teacher s authentic e-learning. Learning & Leading with Technology, 30(3), Jonassen, D.H., Peck, K.L., & Wilson, B.G. (1999). Learning with technology: A constructivist perspective. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill/Prentice Hall. Copyright The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology

23 Kearsley, G. (2000). Online education: Learning and teaching in cyberspace. Book version. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth. Retrieved May 10, 2003, 2003 from, Maddux, C.D., Johnson, D.L.& Willis, J.W. (2001). Educational Computing. Learning with tomorrow s technologies. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon McIsaac, M.S., & Gunawardena, C.N. (2002). Distance Education. In David H. Jonassen (Ed.) Handbook of research for educational communications and technology (pp ). Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers. Moore, M.G., & Kearsley, G.(1999). Distance education: a systems view. California: Wadsworth Publishing Company. Morrison, J.L. (2002). The University is dead! Long live the university! Retrieved May 9, 2003, from, Morrison, G.R., & Lowther, D.L. (2002). Integrating computer technology into the classroom (2 nd Edition). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education. McCombs, B. L. (2000). Assessing the role of educational technology in the teaching and learning process: A learner-centered perspective. Paper presented at the Secretary's Conference on Educational Technology: Measuring the Impacts and Shaping the Future. Washington, DC. Retrieved May 10, 2003, 2003 from, McGrath, D. (2002). Getting started with project-based learning. Learning & Leading with Technology. 30(3), Newby, T.J., Stepich, D.A., Lehman, J.D. & Russell, J.D. (2000). Instructional technology for teaching and learning: Designing instruction, integrating computers, and using media. Upper Saddle, River, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall. Riel, M. (2000). New designs for connected teaching and learning. U.S. Department of Education: Secretary s Conference on Educational Technology, September, Retrieved May 10, 2003, 2003 from, Riel, M. & Fulton, K. (1998). Technology in the classroom: tools for doing things differently or doing different things. Retrieved May 9, 2003, from, Tomei, L.A. (2002). The technology façade: Overcoming barriers to effective instructional technology. Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon. Wasser, J.D. (1996). Reform, restructuring, and technology infusion. Retrieved May 9, 2003 from, Copyright The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology

24 Instructional Materials for Teacher Educators: A Review of SCRTEC s Active Learning with Technology Betul C. Ozkan State University of West Georgia Nina Semko Baton Rouge, Louisiana Jerry W. Willis Louisiana State University Abstract In this paper, we will review and critique a package of instructional materials developed by a southern education consortium. The materials package is called Active Learning with Technology, and it is one of only a few instructional packages designed specifically for teacher educators. There is an old rock and roll song from the sixties that is a dialog between a teenager and her boyfriend. We never hear what he says but from her responses we know basically what he is saying. At one point in the song she asks him how he liked the wallet she gave him for his birthday. Then, after a pause, she says I ll put some money in it!! which gives us the distinct impression that the boyfriend was the ungrateful recipient of a nice wallet. We don t want to feel like that ungrateful boyfriend because we are going to review a package of materials designed specifically for use in teacher education. Other than standard college textbooks there are so few instructional packages available today, particularly for technology-related teacher education, that we feel guilty making any criticisms at all about this package. For more than 20 years, educators have been interested in constructivist theory because of its potential for supporting student learning. The number of books, web documents, and papers published about constructivism in the last ten years is voluminous, but the number of instructional packages designed to help teachers explore this way of thinking about teaching and learning is quite small. Who Developed This Package? SCRTEC (http://www.southcentralrtec.org) is housed at the Southwest Educational Development Laboratory (SEDL) in Austin, Texas, and its team of professionals works in a five state region around Texas. SCRTEC is funded by the U. S. Department of Education, especially the Office of Educational Research and Improvement (OERI). It offers a range of services in its region and the development of this package is one of the services offered to its five-state region. Figure 1: The Regional Technology in Education Consortia around the country (http://rtec.org) What is Active Learning with Technology? SCRTEC s web site (http://www.southcentralrtec.org/alt/alt.html) describes the package this way: Copyright The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology

25 The Active Learning with Technology (ALT) portfolio is a set of materials and activities designed for educators who provide professional development to K-12 teachers. The materials in the portfolio were developed using research from current learning theory and have been field tested and carried out in a variety of settings by over 350 teachers. The goal of the portfolio is to assist teachers in developing and implementing learner-centered environments supported by technology. Active Learning with Technology (ALT) has a number of components: 1 A set of 16 booklets, about 30 pages each in length, on topics like Active Learning Environments and Building a Vision. There are six booklets in a Foundations set, and ten additional booklets on topics like Deconstructing Constructivism, and Using Web-Based Resources. These are not for teachers, however, they are for facilitators who will offer workshops on the topics covered by the booklets. 2 Supplemental materials including participant handouts, copies of a newsletter, TAP into Learning, and a review of the literature, Constructing Knowledge with Technology: A Review of the Literature. 3 A set of eight classroom videos that illustrate how constructivism and active learning concepts are applied. They depict students and educators in the Southwest in primarily high poverty and culturally diverse communities. 4 A very detailed set of directions on how to set up a two day workshop that covers the six Foundations booklets (called modules) and how to offer training on the other ten topics. 5 A CD-ROM that has electronic versions of all the instructional materials, including the classroom videos. ALT was developed specifically for in-service teacher education. However, the material is also applicable to pre-service teacher education and we will emphasize the potential for that application in this review. Format for Use When it is used for in-service professional development, the SCRTEC recommends that the first six modules be covered in a two and a half day workshop. The remaining ten modules can then be taught in a variety of formats and in any order. For example, an in-service program might start with a workshop before school begins and then cover the other modules in sessions spread over the school year. For preservice teachers, the material could become the foundation for a course on constructivist teaching or other courses such as Teaching Constructively with Technology. Availability The entire set of materials (the portfolio), including videos on cassettes, can be purchased from SCRTEC for $250. However, if you are in the five state region serviced by SCRTEC (Texas, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Arkansas, Louisiana) the portfolio is free. It comes nicely packaged in a canvas bag slightly larger than a standard notebook computer case. Each portfolio has a CD-ROM that includes all the videos, all the booklets, and the supplemental materials. Another option is to use the materials on the SCRTEC web site Everything is also available there, in electronic format. The videos, for example, are in Quicktime and can be played on both Windows and Macintosh computers. All the documents are available in PDF format which means they can be downloaded and printed locally. Both the printed and Internet versions include comprehensive directions for leading the workshop. Each module has a set of plans, illustrated with icons, for each major aspect. As noted earlier ALT was developed for inservice teacher education, and the specific focus is the application of constructivism supported by technology. ALT is organized around 6 constructivist principles: 1 Learners bring unique prior knowledge, experience, and beliefs to learning situation. 2 Knowledge is constructed uniquely and individually, in multiple ways, through variety of authentic tools, resources, experiences, and contexts. 3 Learning is both an active and reflective process. 4 Learning is a developmental process of accommodation, assimilation, or rejection to construct new conceptual structures, meaningful representations, or new mental models. 5 Social interaction introduces multiple perspectives through reflection, collaboration, negotiation, and shared meaning. Copyright The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology

26 6 Learning is internally controlled and mediated by the learner. The developers used these principles, developed from a review of the literature, as a guiding framework for all the ALT materials. A Contradiction: The Theory versus The Workshop Model We will review the materials themselves in a moment, but before that we would like to comment on the workshop plans included in the package. Those plans are detailed, specific, and based on group objectives. Facilitators are given a linear series of tasks, supporting handouts, and the number of minutes that should be devoted to each task. There is very little, if any, room for building a workshop agenda by working with the participants to identify their needs and expectations. Consider, for example, the directions to the facilitator for the module on creating electronic presentations: Facilitator preparation: Note: While this guide is designed for Microsoft PowerPoint in Office 97, the presentation template in the facilitator CD-ROM can be adapted for other software applications. 1. Create an electronic presentation in PowerPoint using the template provided in the Active Learning with Technology CD-ROM or create an original presentation following the steps in the activity sequence. 2. Prior to the activity, the facilitator and/or co-facilitator need to learn how to insert/import graphic images from the digital camera into the presentation. The process for inserting digital camera images will vary with the make of digital camera used to take the original pictures and will be affected by the compatibility of the presentation software with those images. Determine how your presentation software manages the digital camera images that you want to use in the presentation. PowerPoint 97 and later versions will convert these images automatically from JPEG to BMP. For users of PowerPoint version 4.0 or less, the digital camera JPEG files will need to be converted to BMP files before inserting them into a presentation. This can be done with an imaging conversion software application such as Adobe PhotoDeluxe. This process can be demonstrated for a representative from each group. 3. Create your own Handout 1 by printing a hard copy of your presentation. On the Print menu dialog box, choose 3 slides per page, and the option Pure Black and White. 4. Make copies of Handout 2: Basic Steps for Creating a PowerPoint Presentation for each participant. 5. Practice using the presentation with the projection equipment. These directions, most aspects of the lesson plans, in fact, have a scripted feel to them. Facilitators do not even need to create their own handouts, they can use the ones created by the developers. Many people who use these materials will probably appreciate all the work that went into the lesson plans. They even tell you how much time to spend on each of the activities. Here is another example: Samples of responses from previous sessions: Question 1 How would you use this activity in your classroom with your students? What would you change for your students and your classroom? How would you extend this activity to other curricular areas or as a unit? Community Profile: Based on introduction to U.S. Census, have students develop their own classroom census, doing individual charts, then collaborating for class chart. The data gathered could be: hair color, height, ethnic background, gender, eye color, age, handedness (left/right) family membership, language dominance Other activities to use with a spreadsheet: Language arts: Keep a family log for a family biography Science: Make predictions based on data. Math: Cost analysis, weather analysis, rain analysis Question 2 What particular station has the most value or appeal for you and your classroom? Why? One group replied, The camera, because it s a very concrete activity for small children. Copyright The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology

27 Question 3 Reflect on the whole session. That is, using a computer station in an interdisciplinary, collaborative environment with multiple activities taking place at the same time. One group suggested, We would use the same format, except the activity with the camera would be with the whole class. Follow-up activity If Foundations 1: Active Learning Environments is to be followed by Foundations 4: Creating Electronic Presentations, remind participants to keep the diskettes and information they gathered. They may also want to gather additional information from outside resources. The Content of ALT In this section of the review we will focus on the content of the16 modules that are organized into two major sections: Foundations, and applications. Foundations of Constructivist Learning Environments (CLE) supported by Technology. The goal of these six modules is to provide general information about active and student-centered learning with technology to K-12 teachers, and to introduce teachers to methods of creating and implementing active, constructivist learning environments. Before starting to work the directions call for the facilitator to request a letter of intent from each participant to increase their commitment to this workshop. Then they begin work on the six foundation modules. Here are short descriptions of the modules: Active Learning Environments. This module is based on a set of learning stations that participants will rotate through to become familiar with some basic forms of technology. A set of assignments requires each small group (learning community) to use the technology at each station. For example, at a station with digital cameras they use them to take pictures of the group in response to a teacher-posed question: What does our community look like? Like many of the modules in ALT the basic content and even the proposed structure is quite good. Essentially, participants (teachers) participate in a collaborative learning activity that involves gathering information and planning exhibits for a proposed community museum. As they work on this authentic activity they use a range of technology including tools like the Internet, digital cameras, databases, and a spreadsheet. Left as a general idea that can be shaped and molded by the participants to fit their particular interests, this would be a very good illustration of constructivist learning. Draw Learning. For this module participants explore their ideas and beliefs about learning, start to work on a group definition of learning, and learn about basic constructivist principles. Much of this module is based on group discussions. It begins with a discussion of the first module, Active Learning Environments, and uses it as an anchor for exploring the concept of learning and active learning. Two additional activities, creating a graphical representation of learning in small groups, and presenting the drawings to the whole group, set the stage for a final discussion of what learning is. In a discussion after the graphics are presented to the group, participants collaborate on a set of essential or common elements of learning. The module ends with a presentation by the facilitator of the six principles of constructivism. This final activity is not, however, a teacher-centered lecture. Instead, the facilitator asks for volunteers to read each principle aloud, one by one, and asks the group to make comparisons with the list of essential elements they have just compiled. Applications for Learning. In this module participants look at two types of instructional software Type 1 programs that generally stimulate relatively passive intellectual involvement on the part of the user and the software developer predetermines almost everything that happens on the screen and Type II programs that generally stimulate relatively active intellectual involvement on the part of the user and the user, rather than the software developer, is in charge of almost everything that happens. The participants explore two geography programs to see how different Type I and Type II software is in the classroom. One program, Geography Explorer, is a drill on geography knowledge. The other, Navigation Exploration poses a problem and asks students to work in small groups to solve the problem. Creating Electronic Presentations. In this module participants create an electronic presentation (PowerPoint) to support the first module. The teaching strategies and the content are quite teacher-centered. An alternative would be to create a module that helps teachers develop strategies for creating PowerPoint presentations that represent the progress of group discussions, or to help teachers think through how they can support small groups that want to create electronic presentations themselves as part of collaborative or problem-based learning activities. Copyright The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology

28 Building a Vision. This module is anchored around one of the videos that comes with the program, Engaged Discoverers: Kids Constructing Knowledge with Technology. Participants view examples of constructivist classrooms and then use that as a common framework for discussing a set of facilitator-supplied questions in small groups. The questions are general (What roles did the teacher play? What roles did the students play? What were some examples of how technology supported learning? What instructional strategies did you observe?). This module ends with a whole group discussion of the answers to the questions. Analyzing Lesson Plans. In this final module of the Foundations workshop, a major goal is to critique lesson plans that focus on the use of technology in promoting student learning in a constructivist learning environment that are appropriate to participants grade level or subject. Participants view one of the videos, Engaged Discoverers, and then work in small groups to review some sample lesson plans. They read material that helps them critique the plans and they answer a set of questions provided by the facilitator. The module ends with a whole group discussion. Application. The remaining ten modules all address an issue of application or professional practice. These modules use the same organizational structure and format as the six foundation modules. The titles and topics of the remaining ten modules are listed below: 1 Getting the Word Out. Teachers develop instructional materials using word processors. 2 Deconstructing Constructivism. This module shows how to use concept mapping software and how it contributes to learner-centered environments. 3 Analyzing Our Practice. The third module emphasizes the discussion of different technologies, which can enhance student learning. It also gives teachers the opportunity to create rubrics based on their practice. 4 Developing a Multimedia Presentation. Shows how the creation of multimedia presentations can be incorporated into constructivist learning. 5 Technology Seminars. During this session teachers review software applications they studied in the previous modules and try to improve their technology skills. 6 Creating Databases. This module is helps participants understand the role of the teacher as a facilitator while students collaboratively solve a problem using databases. 7 Using Web-based Resources. Teachers publish their web pages and practice how to use and integrate Internet resources for instructional purposes. 8 Managing Growth. Participants are engaged as learners in a problem solving activity. The problem is how to plan for population changes in their community s future. They use Geographic Information Systems (GIS) software in this activity. 9 Connections. This is a continuation of the previous module. Participants learn about the multiple effects of population growth using a variety of multidisciplinary resources. 10 Sharing Lessons. Each participant develops and shares a lesson based on their practice in this workshop. Each ALT module was designed around commonly available resources and the software most often found in classroom settings. The booklet begins with an Overview section that explains the purpose, lists participant outcomes (goals), describes the content, notes the constructivist principles used, and describes the instructional strategies. The Module Organizer section provides information like the time needed, the participant prerequisites, room preparation, facilitator preparation and follow-up activities. The Activity Sequence section of the module provides detailed directions for each activity in the module. The final section, Facilitator Materials and Participant Handouts, includes things like overhead masters and handouts that can be duplicated and distributed to participants. In terms of our overall assessment of the modules, we think the content is good, quite good. Many of the activities are thoughtful, interesting, and likely to help teachers work through the difficult process of rethinking what it means to teach and learn. Take the content and many of the activities. On the other hand, if you ignore, adapt on the fly, and remain flexible about the instructions for running the workshops, the result will likely be more constructivist. In fact, involving the participants in determining some of the goals and objectives of the workshops seems almost essential. ALT Supplemental Materials Copyright The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology

29 The ALT package includes a number of supplemental materials including videos, newsletters, and booklets. The Videos. The eight videos included in ALT exemplify student-centered environments enhanced by technology. The schools are all in the southwestern part of the United States and represent a range of culturally diverse and poor school districts. The streaming video versions of videos are available at Two videos use clips from several schools to illustrate general concepts: Engaged Discoverers: Kids Constructing Knowledge with Technology and Classrooms Under Construction: Integrating Student Centered Learning with Technology. Another video was developed specifically to support one of the modules in the portfolio, Managing Growth. The other five videos are classroom episodes that show different uses of technology in different grade levels. The technical quality of the videos is quite good. The videotapes, in particular, illustrate the quality that can be achieved when an agency invests time, resources, and professional expertise in the creation of instructional videos. The quality of the streaming video versions is, predictably, not as high, but again they are of very high quality compared to other streaming video on the web today. The content is also excellent. These videos could be used in a variety of settings, including methods courses for preservice teachers. They are precisely the type of video that we need more in teacher education. Printed Materials. The ALT package also includes copies of a newsletter named Tap into Learning (available at which provides examples of each principle for classroom practice with the compatible software. Each of the six issues focuses on one of the six principles of constructivism and discusses its application in the classroom. These newsletters also describe several cases that illustrate what a teacher has done in a particular classroom. The newsletters are well written and illustrated, and are on target in terms of the type of information both preservice and inservice teachers need to know. There is also a booklet, Connecting Student Learning and Technology, (available at that presents general information about studentcentered environments and how they can be supported by technology. This booklet may serve as an introductory resource for teachers and teacher educators. However, if you need to explore more comprehensive and extended information about the topic, you need the search for other resources. A second printed publication is a 270 page book, Planning into Practice: A Practical Guide for Implementing and Integrating Instructional Technology (downloadable version is available at The main purpose of this book is to provide how-to-do-it information for those in charge of technology planning for their schools, districts or states. The main emphasis is, however, at the school level. This is a very useful book for technology coordinators, particularly those new to the position, and for administrators responsible for supporting technology initiatives. The chapters on curricular integration may be helpful to classroom teachers, but both the tone and the topic of the booklet will be less appealing to teachers. A third printed resource is a 35 page booklet, Constructing Knowledge with Technology: A Review of Literature. This booklet (available at is a thoughtful summary of the professional practice and research literature on technology in relation to constructivist learning theory and its implications for the classrooms. The report starts with the discussion of major concepts in constructivist theory (six principles), then the implications of those concepts for the K-12 classrooms. The booklet also deals with barriers and problems, and approaches to creating technology-supported constructivist learning environments. It is well written and very useful. It would be appropriate for undergraduate teacher education reading assignments as well as inservice workshops. The SEDL Technology Assistance Program Web Site While this web site is not devoted solely to supporting ALT, that is one of its goals. The web site (http://www.sedl.org) is a service of the Southwestern Educational Development Laboratory (SEDL), which is the parent of SCRTEC. It offers online resources for K-12 teachers and teacher educators. It also includes a searchable database for Internet resources as well as a discipline-based database about instructional materials. It is also possible to suggest resources to SEDL team that should be added to the databases. Overall, it is a useful web site that should be of interest to many teacher educators. Copyright The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology

30 In Summary That the team of professionals at SCRTEC undertook the task of creating ALT is admirable in itself. While we feel it has minor flaws - our only criticism has to do with the instructional approach the authors took to the workshops, it is the best produced, most thoughtfully developed instructional packages for teacher educators. The videos and the newsletters are particular strengths as are several of the printed books and booklets. The 16 modules are quite good and could be used as a foundation for either preservice or in-service teacher education. References Adams, S., Burniske, J., Burns, M., Cuevas, J., Dimock, V., Heath, M., et al. (2000). Active learning with technology. Austin, TX: Southwest Educational Development Laboratory (Online version retrieved October 1, 2003 from R*TEC (n.d.) Network of National Technology in Education Consortia. Retrieved October 14, 2003 from Southwest Educational Development Laboratory (n.d.) Active learning with technology. Retrieved October 14, 2003 from South Central Regional Technology in Education Consortium (n.d.) Homepage. Retrieved October 14, 2003 from Copyright The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology

31 Integrating multimedia into the Malaysian classroom: Engaging students in interactive learning Tse-Kian Neo & Mai Neo - Multimedia University, Malaysia - Abstract In recent years, with the infusion of the multimedia technology into the education arena, traditional educational materials can be translated into interactive electronic form through the use of multimedia authoring tools. This has allowed teachers to design and incorporate multimedia elements and choreograph them in an orderly sequence to convey the message in an interactive and multi-sensory learning environment. The focus in education is thus moving away from the conventional "chalk-and-talk" method to one which uses multimedia as the instructional media and a platform in teaching and learning. This presentation focuses on using the multimedia design process (MDP) to enable educators to re-design their educational curricula into an interactive and media-rich learning environment. This multimedia educational design process will reinforce and strengthen the traditional instructional communication process (ICP) and foster a number of innovative methods to communicate knowledge to the learners. In this context, there is a need to adjust the educator's approach to teaching, preparing content and delivering learning materials. As the present generation becomes more familiar with computers and the Internet, they are going to expect information in the classrooms to be delivered in the same pattern. Introduction In the traditional education realm, the role of the teacher is to provide the content and information to the students. The information or content that is presented is based on the teacher's curriculum and other relevant information for the class. In the past few decades, educators have used various types of instructional technologies for delivery of instruction to their students. Radio, film, television and video are the instructional media, which were most often used. However, the use of these media has not made any significant change in the instructional communication strategies and produced the results desired by the educators. In recent years, the advent of multimedia and the Information and Communication Technology (ICT) have rapidly transformed the scenario in using instructional technologies in the educational institutions particularly in higher education (Roblyer & Edwards, 1998). The fusion of technology and educational content has an important bearing on our instructional methodology. The very same content can be converted into the electronic form by using multimedia authoring tools and presented on the PC. This has enabled the teacher to present his/her educational content in a multimedia format and in an interactive, multi-sensory manner rather than in the traditional single media format (text) This not only provides the teacher with a more effective way to transfer knowledge and information to students, but also enable the students to learn in a more productive way. In recent years in Malaysia, institutions of higher learning are showing a rapidly growing trend in integrating ICT into their educational curricula and are marching towards e-learning and establishing digital universities (Cheok, 2000; Ismail, 2001; Mat, 2001). The focus in education is thus moving away from the conventional "chalk-andtalk" method to one which uses multimedia as the instructional media and a platform in teaching and learning. The multimedia technologies used will transform the traditional materials into interactive multimedia content. With the introduction of multimedia into the various industries which engineered the multimedia revolution in the 1990s, many educators began to see multimedia as part of a combination of technology resources, which included media elements such as text, graphics, sound, video and animations, instructional systems and computer-based support systems. In fact, multimedia is changing the communication process and the exchange of information. The way messages are sent and received is more effectively done and better comprehended. The inclusion of media elements reinforces the message and the delivery, which leads to a better learning rate. The power of multimedia lies in the fact that it is multi-sensory, stimulating the many senses of the audience, which consequently leads to better attention and retention rates. At the heart of any digital multimedia development is interactivity. With interactivity, the audience is involved in the communication process and in the navigation of the content. Research has shown that interactivity enhances retention in learning (Lindstrom, 1994) (see Table 1). Copyright The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology

32 Table 1 Interactivity enhances retention in learning Retention rates in learning When people see When people see and hear When people see, hear and do 20% 40% 75% Interactivity is, in fact, the heart of multimedia. Therefore, interactivity and interactive features in a multimedia application facilitate communication and interaction between the computer and the user. As such, many are turning to multimedia as a means to better communicate their message and to foster better feedback on the information exchanged. For many years, multimedia and multimedia developers were housed in selected industries such as advertising, entertainment and edutainment, games and corporate computer-based training (CBT) systems. However, multimedia is now penetrating the education field and changing the way teachers teach and students learn. With the advent of the ICT and multimedia in the classrooms, teachers can equip themselves with these technological skills and become better communicators of their content materials, and thus enabling the students to learn in a more productive way. Integrating technology into the classroom: Its impact on education The traditional way of teaching and learning is the chalk-and-talk or the OHP (Overhead Projector) and transparencies method and the instructional media used is mainly textual (printed books) (see Figure 2). This directed instruction model has its foundations embedded in the behavioural learning perspective (Skinner, 1938) and is a popular technique which has been used for decades as an educational strategy in our institutions of learning. Figure 2 The traditional instructional model In this model, basically the teacher controls the instructional process while the content is delivered to the entire class where the teacher emphasizes factual knowledge. In other words, the teacher delivers the lecture content and the students obediently listen to the lecture. Thus, the learning mode tends to be passive and the learners play little part in their learning process (Orlich, Harder, Callahan & Gibson, 1998). However, if now multimedia is integrated into the teaching and learning process, the situation immediately changes to one that will have great impact on our traditional educational system today. Previously, in the teaching and learning process, a single media (text) is mainly used as the instructional media and the presentation of the educational content is in a linear fashion. But with multimedia, multiple media elements can be used. The instructional materials can be delivered in a multi-sensory environment using the multimedia elements such as text, graphics, animation, sound and video. Tway (1995) posits that "Multimedia offers an excellent alternative to traditional teaching. By allowing the students to explore and learn at different paces, every student has the opportunity to learn at his or her full potential." Thus, with the combination of multimedia technology and educational content materials, the final interactive content can be delivered in various ways and made available for the different teaching and learning modes such as the teacher-centric, student-centric and mixed modes (Neo & Neo, 2000) (see Figure 3). Furthermore, with the assistance of multimedia authoring software packages such as Macromedia Authorware and Director, features such as interactivity and navigational links can be added to the instructional content to enable the learner to interact and move around the content with ease in the way he or she likes best. Thus, the learner can control the pace of learning, suitable to his or her skill level. The presentation can take place in a non-linear manner, which will empower the learner to foster two-way communications or interaction between the user and the computer. This mode of learning is geared towards student-centred or self-directed learning Copyright The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology

33 mode which will cater to individualistic needs in learning unlike the mass learning as practiced in directed instruction method. Figure 3 The technology-enhanced instructional communication process Thus, the use of digital multimedia technologies has generated a new paradigm in our educational methodologies and strategies. It has given rise to new modes of learning and enabled new and innovative ways to deliver instructional materials to the learners (Neo and Neo, 2000). Furthermore, the advent of the Internet and the World Wide Web (WWW), which is a global network, in the mid-90s, has provided us with a global learning infrastructure for digital learning and a vast resource of information and educational materials, which can be procured almost instantly (Tapscott, Lowry & Ticoll,1998). It made it possible for anyone with an Internet connection to access the innumerable libraries and information resources of the world. The landscape in the education field is indeed fast changing into an IT-oriented one. The birth of Intranets, , chat-rooms and FTP is spearheading the establishments of e-learning institutions, digital universities and distance learning centres. The arrival of the digital technologies has been a boon to the educational field, and has led, in recent years, to many institutions of higher learning rapidly embracing digital multimedia technology in their educational curricula (McAlpine & Clements, 2001; McLoughlin, 1999). The full impact of the Internet revolution on our society as a whole is still continuing and has yet to be totally understood and measured (Kadlubowski, 2001). However, it has become a fact that the Internet has made information communications global and almost instantaneous ( ) and reduced the world into "a global village". The multimedia design process (MDP) - Creating the interactive multimedia module using Authorware The interactive content showcased in this paper utilised Authorware's multimedia and interactive features. The content for the application was based on a class lecture entitled, "The Multimedia Authoring Process". The main points in the creation process of the digital multimedia learning module using Macromedia Authorware consists essentially the following 5-step process: (1) Assembling the media elements needed to represent the educational content (2) Digitising the analogue media (3) Editing the media elements (4) Multimedia authoring (5) Packaging for delivery on a CD-ROM, the Web or the University Intranet. (Neo & Neo, 1998; Luther, 1994). Assembling the media elements The first step in this process is to determine the different media types that are to be used to represent the content. Images and graphics are used to visually represent a concept or provide an example while sound and video clips can be created to provide information within the module. By assembling the different media types earlier on in the process, the developer or the author is able to use them at his/her convenience. Not all the materials gathered are in digital format, therefore, those materials that are in analogue format will need to undergo a conversion process. Digitising the analogue media Copyright The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology

34 After all the materials have been collected and assembled in their raw analogue state, they are converted from the analogue format to digital format in order to incorporate the information gathered into the multimedia application. These digital media are then saved in the computer in a variety of file formats. Editing the media elements Once the media elements have been digitised and stored in the PC, they can then be edited or modified in software packages. Editing of various elements is an important step in MDP since different images, colours, sounds and video can effect how the user perceives the application. Proper editing is needed to ensure that the media are in line with the focus and direction of the multimedia development process. Multimedia authoring It is here that the various media elements are integrated and synchronised in the authoring tool, which, in this case, is Authorware. Authorware allows the author to integrate the various multimedia elements into a seamless application. This integration process is feasible and possible as a result of the rapid advancement in multimedia and computing technologies. At this stage, elements of interactivity and navigation are also incorporated into the content in order to involve the user in the application and to create a multi-sensory experience as well as to provide a two-way communication or interaction between the user and the computer and a two-way communication or interaction with the application itself thus enabling the user to explore and learn at his/her own pace (Willson & Thornton, 2001). Once this is completed, the application is ready to enter the final step of the MDP, which is packaging for delivery. Packaging for delivery At this stage of the process, the multimedia application is completed. The final interactive presentation can be packaged for several different delivery modes. It can be packaged as a standalone, self-executing file, or an EXE, that would enable it to be delivered on a CD-ROM and be used as a self-paced, student-centred learning module, which the student can use to revise his or her work and further strengthen his or her understanding of the subject matter. It can also be packaged as a Web-enabled module, or "shocked" for the Web, to be delivered and viewed in the Web environment for a more asynchronous, student-centred learning mode. Both the EXE and the "shocked" module can also be delivered over a synchronous learning networked environment for a more teacher-centric mode of teaching and learning. The choice of the teaching and learning mode will depend on the instructor, as the final interactive Authorware module can be delivered in different learning environments (Neo & Neo, 2000). Figure (4) illustrates the schematic diagram of the multimedia design process (MDP) Figure 4. The multimedia design process (MDP) An interactive learning module entitled The Multimedia Authoring Process", authored in Authorware, will be showcased to demonstrate the robustness of Authorware to create a media-rich, interactive and multi-sensory learning environment (see Figures 5(a), (b) and (c)). Copyright The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology

35 (a) (b) (c) Figures 5 (a), (b) & (c) show the interfaces of the learning module This interactive module has several characteristics that make it a more effective way to teach and learn: (1) It is a visual-based module that allows the user to see the concepts presented. (2) It contains materials that allow the students to learn at his or her own pace. (3) It contains interactive features that would empower the user to control the content and the flow of information and encourages students to be responsible for their own learning. This learning module was used to deliver the educational content in various teaching and learning methods such as the teacher-centered and student-centered modes. Students' responses A survey was also carried out among the students (N=53) to assess their attitudes and reactions to these methods. The survey was measured in a 5-point Likert scale (1= Strongly Disagree, 5= Strongly Agree). In particular, the students were asked to respond to questions that included 1) what they thought of the use of technology in teaching, 2) how appropriate was the use of media in explaining concepts, 3) whether they found the lecture module stimulating, 4) whether the information presented was clear and concise, 5) whether the interface of the module was easy to understand, and 6) whether they were satisfied with the amount of information received. Results showed that 88.6% of the students were very favourable towards the use of technology in teaching (mean = 4.42), 88.7% found the use of media appropriate in explaining concepts (mean = 4.3), 84.9% found the lecture module very stimulating (mean = 4.11), 88.7% found the information presented clear and concise (mean = 4.19), 90.6% found the module's interface easy to understand (mean = 4.23), and 83.1% were satisfied with the amount of information received in the module (mean = 4.02). Table 2 illustrates these results. Copyright The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology

36 Table 2 Mean and percentages of survey results Items Mean % Students 1. Prefer technology-based teaching Use of media appropriate Found lecture very stimulating Information presented was clear and concise Interface of the module easy to understand Satisfied with the amount of information received N= 53 Discussion Five significant factors have emerged with the integration of multimedia into the teaching and learning process: 1) It has changed the fundamental concept of learning. The students are no longer passive learners, i.e., passively absorbing the information from the teachers, but can actively participate in their own learning process. 2) With multimedia, the teachers now have more options to represent their educational content using a combination of media rather than just text only. That means that their content can now be interactive and media-rich. 3) In the survey, 88.7% of the students (with a mean of 4.3) liked the use of media in explaining concepts. This is in conjunction with Tapscott's (1998) position that the new generation looks to using digital media in their learning process. 4) The teachers can now strengthen their instructional strategies and methods of communicating content to the learners, thus enhancing the teaching and learning environment. 5) The learners preferred technology-based teaching (88.6% with a mean of 4.42). This could be due to the innovativeness of the method of teaching coupled with the fact that these students belong to the PC generation and find using computers and technology-based instruction a more effective and innovative way to learn. In effect, this infusion of multimedia technology into the teaching and learning process has generated a new paradigm in education and changing the way teachers teach and students learn. And its impact on learning is farreaching. Conclusion In conclusion, learning with multimedia technology has introduced an important paradigm shift in education that will have a very important impact on our educational system and the way teachers teach and students learn. The trends strongly indicate that digital teaching and learning will gain ground in the Malaysian institutions of higher learning and multimedia will emerge as an effective platform for teaching and learning in the classroom. The changing role of teaching and learning is inevitable with the introduction of multimedia technologies in the educational field and the spawning of a technological savvy generation of youths. Information is being exchanged in a digital mode, and the educational curriculum is evolving to incorporate multimedia elements and interactive features that create a better teaching and learning environment for the students as well as the teachers. The future trend in educational methodology and strategy is towards integrating technology into the classroom. In this context, multimedia can be used as the strategic instructional medium for teaching and learning in our education system. Incorporating multimedia into the classroom has become a global trend, and in recent years, many institutions of higher learning in Malaysia are incorporating multimedia into their educational curricula. By integrating ICT and multimedia technologies into education, we will be better able to produce a workforce that meets the needs of the 21 st century IT society. Copyright The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology

37 References Cheok, L.L. (2000). Internet--Creating New Learning Experience, e-learning 2000: Accelerating e-learning Towards Higher Education Value, Malaysian International Conference & Exhibition on Electronic Learning 2000, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, May 25. [Retrieved on May 30, 2000]. Ismail, Z. (2001). Learning for the Knowledge Society: National E-Learning Agenda (NELA). National Conference & Exhibition on Electronic Learning 2001 (e-learning 2001): Moving Towards e-learning Society, June 7-8, Petaling Jaya, Malaysia. Kadlubowski, M. (2001). Web-Based Instruction: A Paradox and Enigma in Instructional Pradigms and Design Principles. In Montgomerie, C. & Viteli, J. (Eds.). Proceedings of Ed-Media 2001: World Conference on Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia, July 25-30, Tampere, Finland: AACE, pp Lindstrom, R. (1994). The Business Week Guide to Multimedia Presentations: Create Dynamic Presentations That Inspire. New York: McGraw-Hill. Luther, Arch. C. (1994). Authoring Interactive Multimedia. MA: AP Professional. McAlpine, I. and Clements, R. (2001). Problem based learning in the design of a multimedia project. Australian Journal of Educational Technology, 17(2), Mat, J. (2001). Challenges in developing local content e-education, e-learning 2001: Moving Towards e- learning Society, Malaysian International Conference & Exhibition on Electronic Learning 2001, Petaling Jaya, Malaysia, June [Retrieved on June 14, 2001]. McLoughlin, C. (1999). Scaffolding: Application to learning technology supported environments. In B. Collis and R. Oliver (Eds.), Proceedings of EdMedia 1999: World Conference on Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia, Charlottesville, VA: AACE, pp Neo, M. and Neo, T.K. (1998). The Multimedia Pavilion: Trends and Technologies. Subang Jaya, Malaysia: Meway Computec Sdn. Bhd. Neo, M & Neo, T. K. (2000). Multimedia Learning: Using multimedia as a platform for instruction and learning in higher education. Multimedia University International Symposium on Information and Communication Technologies 2000 (M2USIC'2000), PJ Hilton, October 5-6, Orlich, D. C., Harder, R. J., Callahan, R.C., and Gibson, H.W. (1998). Teaching Strategies: A Guide To Better Instruction. New York: Houghton Mifflin Co. Roblyer, M.D. and Edwards, J. (1998). Integrating Educational Technology into Teaching (second edition). New Jersey: Merrill/Prentice-Hall. Skinner, B.F., (1938). The behaviour of organisms. New York : Appleton. Tapscott, D. (1998). Growing Up Digital: The Rise of the Net Generation. New York: McGraw-Hill. Tapscott, D., Lowry, A., and Ticoll, D. (Eds.) (1998). Blueprint to the Digital Economy: New York: McGraw- Hill. Tway, L. (1995). Multimedia in Action. MA: AP Professional. Wilson, S.J. & Thornton, J., (2001). Authorware 6. USA: Onword Press Copyright The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology

38 ONLINE LEARNING: STUDENT ROLE AND READINESS Selma Vonderwell John Savery Abstract Successful online learning requires a reconstruction of the roles, responsibilities, and practices of online instructors and their online students. It is essential to understand the dynamics of a range of online learning environments, the perceptions and pre-conceptions that exist, and how best to utilize the potential of current technology to overcome barriers to successful learning. Promoting student readiness is essential for successful learning experiences. Students need to be prepared for changing demands related to online learning with respect to technology, learning management, pedagogical practice and social roles. The purpose of this article is to examine and discuss student roles and responsibilities for learning online and strategies to promote student readiness. Introduction Online learning 1 is impacting current university practices and policies and quickly changing the fabric of higher education (Rowley, Lujan, & Dolence, 1998). In the USA, the rapid and expanding use of online education (also called distance learning) in K-12 education, 2-year college and 4-year university courses has been documented by the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES, 2003). The convergence of technological, instructional, and pedagogical developments (Bonk & King, 1998) has helped define a new paradigm of online teaching and learning. Successful learning by online students requires a pedagogy in which active and dynamic learning opportunities for student engagement can be facilitated and supported. Computer technologies allow many possibilities for interactive, distributive and collaborative learning ( The Report, 1999). Understanding the pedagogical potential of technology tools for active learning is an important step in successfully implementing online learning. Educators, researchers, and instructional designers are faced with the dual challenges of understanding the potential of the technology tools and designing instructional strategies for teaching and learning online. What leads to successful online teaching and learning? What are the experiences of students and instructors in this type of an environment? How do students learn? How do we prepare students for successful online learning? These are among the questions being discussed in the area. It is essential to understand the dynamics of the online learning environments, the perceptions and pre-conceptions that exist, and how best to utilize the potential of the technology to overcome barriers to successful learning. Students need to be prepared for changing demands related to online learning with respect to technology, learning management, pedagogical practice and social roles. The purpose of this article is to examine and discuss student roles and responsibilities for learning online and strategies to promote student readiness. Student Readiness for Online Learning Online learners need to understand the dynamics in an online setting, how online learning works; interactions, relations, perceptions, role of learners and instructors. Learners should have an understanding of the instructor s role as a facilitator or a guide. Learners may have expectations of instruction, and they may feel that the instructor is not teaching when in fact teaching is in the form of facilitating, guiding, scaffolding learning. A student, when reflecting on her online learning experiences, noted: I think that I am not going to understand what I am doing if someone doesn t tell me. Or I just got lazy over the years. Oh, just tell me how to do it! I don t want to read it [directions of how to perform the task]. For this student, this was her first online course. She feared she would not understand the course content if someone did not tell her what to do. She emphasized This is a new type of learning for me. For many students, classroom success was made possible by caring teachers who provided emotional and intellectual support inadvertently making their students teacher dependent. When these students move into an online environment where the requirement for self-directed and self-managed learning is far greater, they often may experience anxiety. 1 Online learning for the purposes of this paper is defined as any of several web-based formats used to provide instruction at a distance. The range includes courses where the students and the instructor never meet face-toface to courses where approximately 30% of the learning interactions take place within the online environment. Copyright The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology

39 Interactions and relationships between instructor-student, student-to-student, and student-content are different than traditional face-to-face classrooms. Learners may adopt new personas and may not feel obligated or pressured to participate in online communications when they do not see each other (Palloff & Pratt, 1999). A learner who for a variety of social, linguistic or cultural reasons is less likely to talk, discuss, or ask questions in a face-to-face classroom, may become very articulate in an online setting. On the other hand, the absence or low level of social cues and emotions such as body language, tone and pitch may influence student learning and interaction. This aspect can set the stage for more uninhibited behavior on the part of students than would occur in face-to-face conversations as well as misunderstandings and misinterpretations (Berge, 1997). The benefits of active learning versus passive learning are well documented (APA, 1993, 1997; Bransford, Brown, & Cocking, 2000). Creating active learning environments can be challenging in a face-to-face classroom and it may be equally challenging in an online classroom. There is a need for much more research on the pedagogy of online teaching and the utilization of tools afforded by the online environment to provide dynamic and active learning environments for students. Creating active, successful learning environment requires both the learner and the faculty to take active roles. Concerning student learning, self-regulation appears as a recurring theme in the literature. McLoughlin and Marshall (2000) note that effective learning requires a number of skills and cognitive abilities that are not merely intuitive, nor can they be assumed in novice university students or those unfamiliar with learning online. (p.1). They further note that the skills needed by students include; articulation, self-regulation, selfevaluation skills, and a repertoire of learning strategies. Articulation means being an aware learner and being aware of one s own thinking. Self-regulation is being able to plan and adjust learning strategies in order to achieve a goal or complete a task. Self-evaluation is being able to monitor understanding and having the capacity to seek help when needed 2. Grabinger and Dunlap (2000), state that online learning environments afford greater opportunities for individualization and flexibility, thereby creating an increased demand for self-directed learning. They note also that students in an online learning environment require a set of well-developed lifelong learning skills and strategies, such as goal-setting, action planning, learning-strategy selection and assessment, resource selection and evaluation, reflective learning and time management. (p. 37). Savery (1998) describes these elements as components in the development of student ownership for learning. Wolfe (2000) states that there are greater demands placed on the learner in the online environment than in traditional learning environments Lastly, Draves (1999), notes that self-direction and initiative are required for the learner to define learning and systematically explore the online context to meet personal goals. Jung (2001) found in his literature analysis of web-based instruction that learners have autonomy in making decisions regarding their own learning. He states learners engaged in Web-based instruction use certain cognitive strategies or knowledge to exercise their learning autonomy which maximizes learning and the construction of new knowledge (p. 531). Jung s (2001) analysis of fifty-eight articles showed that online learning requires that learners be collaborative as well as autonomous. He notes, Both learner collaboration and learner autonomy seem to have emerged in webbased learning environments. Of course, web-based instruction can differ in the degree to which it accommodates these two elements. (p. 532). Successful online learners need to be self-regulated or in the process of learning how to become self-regulated learners. Self-regulated learners use opportunities to make decisions about several aspects of their own learning. They make decisions in the goal setting, planning, monitoring and assessment phases of the learning process. Self-regulated learners know how to learn, how they learn, how to reflect on their learning, how to initiate learning and how to use time management skills efficiently. Mastery of these skills enable online learners to make efficient use of their time and the available online resources. Instructor Readiness for Teaching Online Concerning instructors, teaching online learning requires a reconstruction of their roles, responsibilities, and practices. Often, in the context of distance learning, the concept of transactional distance is discussed. Transactional distance (Moore & Kearsley, 1996) refers to a communications gap that may be created due to physical distance between participants and effect the development of shared understandings and perceptions. Simply telling a student to be more active in their own learning is insufficient. The instructor must create an environment that requires active interaction among the participants in the learning setting. Interactions and 2 Collectively these phenomena are more commonly referred to as metacognition. (Flavell, 1972; Paris, & Winograd, 1990) Copyright The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology

40 collaboration should be integrated to provide meaningful learning for students in online learning. More importantly a web of learning interactions will develop when instructors and learners work together collaboratively to construct knowledge (Palloff & Pratt, 1999). Interaction among students and between students and instructors is critical to support effective learning and collaboration (Palloff & Pratt, 1999). Furthermore, the intrinsic motivation to learn is fostered when interactions occur between learners (Wagner, 1997). Instructors need to model for their students how to communicate effectively and properly using asynchronous and synchronous communication tools. This is important specifically because of the lack of physical presence and lack of body language in online environments. Proper behavior and an understanding of netiquette are essential skills for effective communication and although students are entering online environments with increasingly sophisticated skills and novices will learn through trial and error, having the instructor set the standard is a more effective strategy. Learners need to be aware of what, when and how to ask questions. If students their instructor every time they have trouble with content or technology, they will be replicating their teacher-dependent behavior and may not be giving themselves a chance to explore and find answers to their questions on their own. Learner success in online environments can be improved when students are able to use the tools afforded by the environment. In combination with critical thinking, these tools can assist the learner in filtering through the tremendous amount of information they will encounter when searching online resources to obtain useful knowledge. Online instructors need to understand the importance of building a supportive online learning community. Several researchers (Palloff & Pratt, 1999; Schwier, 1999) have examined the phenomena of online communities and strategies for building communities of learners. Shaffer and Anderson (as cited in Palloff & Pratt, 1999) define community as a dynamic whole that emerges when a group of people share common practices; are interdependent, make decisions jointly, identify themselves with something larger than the sum of their relationships, make long-term commitment to well-being. (p. 11). Palloff and Pratt (1999) emphasize that attention needs to be paid to developing a sense of community within the group participants in distance learning. Online learners need to be aware of the dynamics and importance of a learning community and collaborate and cooperate to share and construct knowledge and experience. Motivating other learners, acknowledging and appreciating and encouraging other members of the learning community can foster learning and provide motivation. Some suggestions Instructors need to understand how to use the currently available online tools to realize the pedagogical potential of online learning. For example, instructors should contact students via prior to the start of the course. Instructors could provide students with a technology skills and needs assessment survey to obtain valuable background information on the current skills with online technologies of this group of learners. Instructors could also provide an orientation for the learners and access to the online course. Clear expectations, guidelines and code of conduct as well as special needs of learners could to be discussed and addressed. The structure of the course and organization of the materials could to be provided and discussed for user-friendly access. Peer support can be structured into the course and a frequently asked questions area provided to help students with questions as well as institutional support. Learners need to be aware of self-regulation and self-regulation strategies. A learning styles questionairre may help instructors as well as learners by allowing students become more aware if how they learn and what they might need to do to gain or enhance their skills in particular areas such as self-regulation. Instructors can integrate activities such as reflective online journaling, problem-based learning, authentic activities and authentic assessment, case studies in addition to multiple sources or ways for learners with different learning styles and strategies. The widely used Minute Paper format can be used within a reflective online journal to allow instructors to check for learning and progress. Support systems that include online discussions, peer to peer tasks, collaborative buddies, mentors, self and peer assessment, social coffehouse/cybercafe with games, anonymous feedback forum can enable pedagogical and social preparation and development. Learners need to understand group processes and effectively play individual roles in group learning. Thus, in the online environment, community building and communication are essential so that group learning can be enhanced and strengthened. Learners should show presence and trust to the community, initiate dialogue, and mediate communication if required. Instructors may need to orient students for collaboration and for group processes, and structure collaboration and dialogue into the course. Learner may have roles such as editor, summarizer, task leader, group discussion leader, mentor, expert, moderator, peer reviewer. Copyright The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology

41 Conclusion Faculty who teach online need to be aware that traditional courses do not necessarily prepare students for the level of interdependence and independent learning required in an online course (Palloff & Pratt, 2001). The online instructor must provide an active learning environment in which learners take ownership for their learning. Traditional and face-to-face learning and online learning need to encourage and support active and self-regulated learning. Instructors need to understand student behavior and students need to understand online learning and how people may behave in online settings. Understanding student characterisitcs is important to prepare students for online learning. Students need to learn to become active learners and seek active learning strategies in their learning. Learner autonomy as well as collaborative strategies needs to be negotiated for the effectiveness of learning. Group processes and how collaboration can be facilitated need to be taught to students during their education. Instructors need to know the group processes and dynamics as well as strategies of how to engage students in effective communication and learning. Recognition of a student s capabilities and limitations, an understanding of student expectations and motivations, and the personas they may take during online learning can help encourage active learning. References American Psychological Association. (1993). Learner-centered psychological principles: Guidelines for school reform and restructuring. Washington, DC: Author and the Mid-continent Regional Educational Laboratory. American Psychological Association. (1997). Learner-centered psychological principles: A Framework for School Redesign and Reform (Online), Retrieved April 19, 2004, from: Berge, Z. L. (1997). Characteristics of online teaching in post-secondary, formal education. Educational Technology, 37(3), Bonk, C. J., & King, K. S. (1998). Introduction to electronic collaborators. In C. J. Bonk & K. S. King (Eds.), Electronic collaborators: Learner-centered technologies for literacy, apprenticeship, and discourse (pp. xxv-xxxv). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers. Bransford, J., D., Brown, A. L., & Cocking, R. R. (Eds.), (2000). How People Learn: Brain, Mind, Experience, and School: Expanded Edition. Washington DC: National Academies Press. Daugherty, M., & Funke, B. (1998). University faculty and student perceptions of web-based instruction. Journal of Distance Education, 13(1), Draves, W. A. (1999). Why learning online is totally different? Lifelong Learning Today, 3, 4-8. Flavell, J. H. (1979). Metacognition and Cognitive Monitoring: A new area of cognitive-developmental inquiry. American Psychologist, 34(10), Jung, I. (2001). Building a theoretical framework of web-based instruction in the context of distance education. British Journal of Educational Technology, 32(5), McLoughlin, C. and Marshall, L. (2000). Scaffolding: A model for learner support in an online teaching environment. In A. Herrmann and M.M. Kulski (Eds), Flexible Futures in Tertiary Teaching. Proceedings of the 9th Annual Teaching Learning Forum, 2-4 February Perth: Curtin University of Technology. Retrieved April 13, 2004, from: Moore, M. G., & Kearsley, G. (1996). Distance education. A systems view. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing Company. National Center for Education Statistics (NCES). (2003) Distance Education at Degree-Granting Postsecondary Institutions: Retrieved March 30, 2004 from: Palloff, R. M., & Pratt, K. (2001). Lessons from the cyberspace classroom: The realities of online teaching. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Publishers. Palloff & Pratt (1999). Building learning communities in cyberspace: effective strategies for the online classroom. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Publishers. Paris, S. G., & Winograd, P. (1990). How metacognition can promote academic learning and instruction. In B.F. Jones & L. Idol (Eds.), Dimensions of thinking and cognitive instruction. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. Rowley, D. J., Lujan, H. D., & Dolence, M. G. (1998). Strategic choices for the academy: How demand for lifelong learning will re-create higher education. San Francisco: Jossey Bass. Savery, J. R. (1998). Toward a theory of ownership for learning. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of American Educational Research Association (AERA), San Diego CA. Copyright The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology

42 Schwier, R.A. (1999). Turning learning environments into learning communities: Expanding the notion of interaction in multimedia. Proceedings of the World Conference on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia and Telecommunications, Seattle, Washington: Association for the Advancement of Computers in Education, June 23. The Report of the University of Illinois Teaching at an Internet Distance Seminar (December 7, 1999). Teaching at a distance: The pedagogy of online teaching and learning. Retrieved April 17, 2004, from the Vice President Academic Affairs, Internet Teaching Seminar Web site: Wagner, E. D. (1997). Interactivity: From agents to outcomes. In T. E. Cyrs (Ed.), Teaching and learning at a distance: What it takes to effectively design, deliver and evaluate programs. No. 71. New Directions for Teaching and Learning (pp ). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. Wolfe, C. R. (2000). Learning and teaching on the World Wide Web. In C. D. Wolfe. (Ed.), Learning and teaching on the World Wide Web (pp. 1-22). Academic Press. Copyright The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology

43 OPEN LEARNING: Communicating with the learner Asst. Prof. Dr. Bahire Efe Özad Prof. Dr. Murat Barkan ABSTRACT The present paper defines the key words of Distance Teaching (DT), Distance Education (DE), and Open (Distance) Learning (ODL) to be followed by the exploration of the Instructional Design (ID) concept, its principles and process and the operational steps to emphasize on the ever missing issue of the communication with the learner. Considering the fact that educational needs and requirements are loosing their mass identity but becoming more individualized, communication with the learner becomes a more dominant fact in discussing the future strategies of education at a distance. The paper concludes with the suggestion that Open Distance Learning (ODL) is the way ahead. Key Words: Distance Education (DE), Distance Teaching (DT), Open (Distance) Learning (ODL), Instructional Design (ID) The 20 th century has observed great advancements in science and information/communication technologies that have an interdisciplinary impact. Due to those improvements, not only the philosophy of education but also the expectations of the potential learners as well as the teaching methods and the teaching aids changed drastically. The developments in information technologies played an important role in the formation and development of Distance Education (DE), Distance Teaching (DT), Open (Distance) Learning (ODL), and the web. Through these developments the institutional, location-based nature of knowledge and education have been challenged. Under the influence of these fascinating developments, man started to question whether the technology will replace the human factor in education or will there be a remaining role for man? The aim of the present paper is to raise awareness to the significance of the relationship and the relativity between the instructional design process and the learners needs from the aspect of the intensive improvements in communication sciences. In this paper we would like to focus on instructional design and the processes involved in instructional design; then, we take DT, DE, and ODL, all of which make use of ID, into consideration and suggest that ODL would be the way forward in education. Distance Teaching, Distance Education and Open Learning The next section explores the terms Distance Teaching, Distance Education and Open (Distance) Learning all of which rely on instructional design. Distance Teaching Distance Teaching has been realized by the Open Universities. In the UK, Open University was first established in Buckingham, for providing degree courses for the students who were 21 and over. This University accepts all the students who apply without requesting pre-requisite courses (GCE A Levels). In other words, it has an open admission policy toward students. Initially, Open University provided correspondence courses (Lawton and Gordon 1993:133). In Turkey, Open University education was established as a Faculty under the roof of Anadolu University in 1982, and has been accepting students with the marks they obtained from the Central University Entrance Examinations. Distance Teaching is based on the Teaching-Machine metaphor set forth by Skinner (1954), the father of programmed learning. He believed that the information should first be presented, followed by reinforcement till the learning occurs before moving onto the next stage of learning. Skinner suggested that one teacher may not be sufficient for motivating 30 or so students. Therefore, there is a need for a teaching machine. It is believed that the seeds of using the computer in education were planted by the teaching machine metaphor (Wiburg, p.1). In DT, today, in addition to correspondence, other teaching aids like the radio, television and the web are being used. Copyright The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology

44 Distance Education Distance Education is a developed form of distant teaching. DE is based normally on a pre-produced course (computer conferencing) which is self-instructional but where organized two-way communication takes place between the student and a supporting institution (Gordon and Lawton 1993:75). The most common kind is the correspondence courses. Currently these are gradually taken over by the courses put on the Internet. The main claim of Distant Education is to provide a second-chance in education that is better than nothing to those who would not be able to continue organized education. One of the reasons for innovation in distance education has been the increase in the expectations of the learners due to the tremendous developments in communication facilities. According to Distance Education; The education demands of the public are catered for. A central authority decides on the goals of the education. Face-to-face communication is rare and secondary. Media is fundamental and the organized education supports this. An academic advisory system is compulsory. Open (Distance) Learning Open Learning, with the support of the facilities of communication, suggests an alternative education with a high level of face-to-face communication, at least (if not more) at the quality of organized education. Open Learning is based on John Dewey s (1959) philosophy of progressive education. According to Dewey, learning is a problem solving activity. Learners are motivated to solve problems that would result in learning. According to Open Learning: Individual demands have priority in education. Requirements are decided as a result of a needs analysis. Face-to-face communication is primary and its proportion is high. Organized education is fundamental and is supported by the media. Counseling replaces academic advising. Teachers, Learners, Materials In the cases of DT and DE, the institution takes over the role of the teacher. The institution is the holder of the knowledge, and provides the content of the pre-determined syllabus. The content is delivered from the perspective of the institution, which is in control of the education process. In DT and DE learners are passive recipients. Their learning is based on memorizing the facts. They learn the content presented by the institution. They study the material as presented by the institution on their own. The materials, the sacred deposits of knowledge have been sequenced according to the pre-determined curriculum. In Open Learning, the institution partially undertakes the role of the teacher. The learners have the opportunity to interact with each other and with the instructors. The teacher acts as the facilitator of the learning process and provides the basis for social interaction. In OL, learning is considered a process and emphasis is placed on learning how to learn. Learners are no longer the passive recipients but the constructors of knowledge. They develop their skills in problem solving, open to multiple perspectives, and they take the responsibility of their own learning. Learning is experience based and holistic. There is a multiple-way transmission between the teacher and the student and learner and learner and an interactive method is used in teaching. The outcome of learning differs for each learner. Copyright The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology

45 Instructional Design Instructional Design refers to a process that comprises production and consumption. It involves all the political, strategic, technical and tactical activities used in solving the pre-defined problems; planning, structuring of the product and the process of production. In a nutshell, this definition addresses the following questions: Why shall we produce? What shall we produce? How shall we produce? With what shall we produce? The issues referred to by each question are: Why shall we produce? Who is the learner? Which problem(s) of the learner would be solved by the product? Whose problems do we set out to solve? What are the aims and objectives (of the product)? In education, these issues are addressed as the needs analysis and the statement of the problem. What shall we produce? Which of the learners expectations would be fulfilled by the product? What would be the structural identity of the product? Comparing the product with the demand is done on paper at the desk, and, as a result, the content of the product is designed. How shall we produce? Which action or operational steps will take place in the production process? How will the job descriptions be clarified? In carrying out the process of instructional design, political and strategic decisions are taken into consideration. With what shall we produce? At which stage of the production process shall we make use of the source(s)? Which function(s) will be overtaken by the sources? The need for reaching the vital data is valid for the production and consumption processes of the product called education whose basic specification is defined as service. Principles of Instructional Design With the raise of the positivist paradigm, education, like other sciences, started to locate its foundations on scientific research (among many others Skinner 1968, and Dewey 1959 applied psychology to learning). In relation to instructional technology, Skinner s view of learning (learning will take place if the content matter is carefully selected, refined, sequenced and if the students are appropriately reinforced) is the first important theory of learning underlying instructional design. He prescribed intense practice as a condition for learning. Another significant name in the literature of instructional design is Gagne (1965) who pointed out that learning is not a uniform concept. Gagne drew our attention to the fact that there are various types of human learning, each of which require different types of instructional strategies. Gagne noted that practice was effective for kinesthetic types of learning (like learning typing) but not for developing cognitive strategies (like the ones used in solving puzzle problems). Gagne also suggested that instructional designers should understand the functions of short and long-term memory. Learners will only be able to retrieve learning from the long-term memory for later use only if they are assisted in encoding the new concepts in meaningful ways. In other words, Gagne s ideas inspired the instructional designers to take the cognitive needs of the learner into consideration. Copyright The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology

46 Process of Instructional Design The process of instructional design comprises the following stages: Problem Analysis Stage Design Stage Development Stage Application Stage Assessment and Evaluation Stage Problem Analysis Stage Instructional design seeks to provide the students with problem solving experiences and skills. The question addressed is whether the students problems would be solved via education. Expectations of the students should be clarified and attempts should be made in order to fulfill these expectations. Therefore, analyzing; the problem to be solved is the first step forward. The analysis of the needs and the expectations of the students is the second stage of problem solving process with the assistance of education. It should be explored whether the expectations of the students are suitable for solving their problems via education. Design Stage At the design stage: Aims of the program are clarified. Goals are the problems that will be solved when the students have the necessary knowledge and skills. The required knowledge and skills are clarified in accordance with the defined goals. The defined goals are translated into tasks that the program would enable the students to accomplish. The skills the students would gain, and be able to perform at the end of the program in order to solve the problems and reach their goals, are specified. The defined targets should be the targets of the students not the designer. Considering this is a pre-requisite of instructional design. Development Stage The development stage is the conversion of preparations into teaching materials and the process of physical production of the teaching aids. At the end of the production stage, the product will be produced concretely. At the development stage, the targets should be used to constitute and structure the content, direct the teaching strategies from the testing and evaluation scales and choose the communication opportunities that will be used. The relationship among the aims will contribute to the construction of sections and chapters for each lesson. At the end, topics will constitute the units. The units will constitute the sections. The sections will constitute the lessons and how the lessons will be grouped in order to constitute the program. At the design stage, decisions are made towards specifying the knowledge or skill(s) to be developed through communication opportunities. In this respect, the choice of media is a matter of strategy. Teaching strategies comprise a series of decisions based on the aims related to structuring the content and the choice of communication opportunities for transmitting the structured content. The students should be taken into consideration in choosing the suitable style, preferences and proportions among the visual (photography, graphics, tables, illustration, iconography, pictures, etc.) and textual or visual (animation, documentary, dramatization, etc.) and voice alternatives in specifying the decisions related to teaching strategies. Pages in printed teaching materials are designed according to the principles defined above. Application Stage Application stage is the stage at which the service is transmitted to the student; in other words, the producer introduces its product to its consumers. Copyright The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology

47 Assesment and Evaluation Stage At this stage materials are developed for testing the students performance and the materials are evaluated considering the aims and the objectives defined at the preliminary stages of the process. Operational Steps to Follow The work carried out at these stages is divided into five groups: First phase Getting organized; Establishment of the technological infrastructure. Second phase Defining educational needs; Analyzing students qualities; Embodiment of strategic education targets; Definition and writing of the education materials; Deciding of the teaching strategies; Structuring the content; Preparation of the unit based lesson plans; Writing of the print materials; Composition and edition of print materials. Third phase Establishing coordination and harmony among the units during the production; Setting up course teams; Educating academic advisors. Fourth phase Production of audio-visual materials; Establishing the test criteria and measures. Fifth phase Preparation of test materials; Publication of the material; Making the amendments. Conclusion: The need to communicate with the Learner Learning becomes not only an intellectual activity to become a civilized member of the modern society, but an open gate for problem solving. That is why it becomes a most crucial requirement for any person to survive. Keeping in mind the mentality of social change as fulfilling the requirements of the daily life the importance of education and the speed of change is more understandable. Yes, life changes faster and more intensely due to the fast and intensive changes in the communication facilities that serve for our needs. This provides people with more information to provoke new needs and more complex future expectations. Thus, peoples needs are more complex today. And this explains the main reason for the speed of the change. As for the problem solving identity of education In spite of the fact that the main problem seems as though equipping mankind with the necessary information to get what they are expecting, it is more acceptable to perceive the issuing a rather generalized perspective. Problem solving approaches require neutralizing the affect of the problem resources in the first place. For this, correct identification of the problem resources becomes more important. In the case stated above, the main resource is not the increasing and improving needs but improving communication facilities to speed up the social change by provoking the needs. Depending on the problem statement the solution seems to be identified much easier. To catch-up with the speed of the change by employing the resource of the problem which is the communication itself. Copyright The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology

48 Having done this, people who are the owners of the problem will learn how to make use of communication for achieving their targets and meeting their needs and expectations. Instructional design is an area improving day by day under the influence of new developments in communication. This is definitely a potential area for research. The following are some of the issues to be discussed: How can the designed materials be promoted? How can the designed materials be publicized? What are the ways in which the need is created in the learner for further improvement? Which aspects of the materials make the material user-friendly? Gardener (1983) suggested that all learners have the ability to be successful academically, but the schools stand in the way. He points out that the current education system focuses on logical and linguistic intelligence and undervalues other forms of intelligence (like music, visual etc.). Taking the multiple intelligences pointed out by Gardener (1983), into account, we can explore a variety of strategies for catering the needs of different intelligences. Although Instructional Design has been emerging as one of the essential concepts in today s education system, there is an urgent need for training teachers to produce high quality communication skills including materials that help learners reach the information. In other words, materials produced should be promoted and publicized. In this venture, communication has a role to play. References Dewey J (1959) Dewey on Education, Selections from the Child and the Curriculum, New York Teachers College. Gagne RM (1965) The Conditions of Learning, New York: Holt. Gardener H (1983) Frames of Mind: Theory of Multiple Intelligences, New York: Basic Books. Lawton D & Gordon P (1993) Dictionary of Education, Hodder and Stoughton. Skinner BF (1954) Teaching Machines, Science, 128, Skinner BF (1968) The Technology of Teaching, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice Hall. Wiburg KM A Historical Perspective on Instructional Design: Is IT Time to Exchange Skinner s Teaching Machine for Dewey s Toolbox? Copyright The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology

49 THE EFFECT OF LEARNING TOGETHER TECHNIQUE OF COOPERATIVE LEARNING METHOD ON STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT IN MATHEMATICS TEACHING 7TH CLASS OF PRIMARY SCHOOL İŞBİRLİKLİ ÖĞRENME YÖNTEMİNİN İLKÖĞRETİM 7.SINIF MATEMATİK ÖĞRETİMİNDE ÖĞRENCİ BAŞARISI ÜZERİNE ETKİSİ Nesrin ÖZSOY* Nazlı YILDIZ** ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of learning together technique of cooperative learning method on student mathematics achievement. The study was an experimental research in which pre-test posttest design with control group was applied. The study was conducted in spring 2004 with 70 pupils studying at 7 th class in Balıkesir, Turkey. In this study, experiment and control groups have been used. Learning Together technique of Cooperative Learning method has been applied to the experiment group and Traditional Teaching method has been applied to the control group. Before applying the measure means is given to groups as pre-test. In the end of applying is practised post-test to groups. Conclusions showed that there is a significant difference between the results of experiment and control groups. Learning Together technique of cooperative learning method is more effective than traditional teaching methods. KEY WORDS: Cooperative Learning, Learning Together, Mathematics Learning. 1. INTRODUCTION In the recent years, cooperative learning method, which attracts the attention of many educators, constitutes an alternative to the traditional learning methods. According to Açıkgöz (1992), cooperative learning is a process in which students learn by working in small groups and helping each other's learning for a common aim. Since cooperative learning is a group working, it is similar to the set working method. But every group working is not cooperative learning. A group working becomes cooperative learning if every member of the group knows that he or she can't be successful unless the other members are successful. According to Deutsh (1949); the effort of a student to reach his goal has, a) a supportive effect in the cooperative case, b) a obstructive effect in the competive case, c) a neutral effect in the individualistic case. on the other students. According to D.W. Johnson and R.T. Johnson (1991a), in order to construct a lesson with cooperative method, five basic principles must be provided. 1. positive interdependence, 2. face-to-face primitive interaction, 3. individual accountability, 4. the appropriate use of social skills, 5. processing how well the group is functioning, Cooperative learning method includes many techniques. Some of these are; Learning together, Teams-games-tournaments, Group investigation, Constructive controversy, Jigsaw producers, In this study learning together technique from cooperative learning method was used because the lesson could best be constructed by this method when the subject of angles and triangles were being taught. The learning together method is a technique developed by D.W. Johnson and R.T. Johnson (1991b). The most important properties of this technique are the existence of the group goal and sharing the opinion and materials, Copyright The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology

50 division of labour and the group reward. According to Johnson and Johnson, the first applications that was done, they developed. When learning together technique is applied the following options must be given place: 1- Determining of instructional objectives, 2- Deciding the group size, 3- Diving the students into groups, 4- Arranging of the class, 5- Planning of educational materials to provide dependence, 6- Giving the roles to the group members in order to provide dependence, 7- Explaining of the academic work, 8- Creating the positive objective dependence, 9- Individual evaluation, 10- Providing the cooperation among the groups, 11- Being explained the criterions necessary for achievement, 12- Determining the required behaviours for success, 13- Guiding the student behaviours, 14- Helping to the group work, 15- Having students come together for being to able to teach cooperation, 16- Finishing the lesson, 17- Evaluation for students learning qualitative and quantitative, 18- Evaluating the performance of the group, 19- Forming academic contrasts The Aim and Importance of the Research The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of learning together technique of cooperative learning method on student mathematics achievement. Mathematics classes are thought be difficult and always make students afraid because of the insufficiencies on the education system and teach and many difficulties are faced in the application (D.W. Johnson & R.T. Johnson, 1991a). Therefore, cooperative learning method, which can be used in every area and every level of the developed countries, can fill this emptiness in the education system. Conclusions of this study are expected to; 1- be useful for maths teachers while they are planning the process of teaching-learning, 2- bring the variety to the methods and techniques used in the process of teaching-learning, 3- create new discussions and researches concerning the methods and techniques used in maths teaching of primary school. 4- contribute to the curriculum of the education faculties, 5- make suggestions that will be useful for the improvement of the curriculum of maths lesson of primary school. 2. METHOD The study is an experimental research in which pre test-post test design with control group has been used. 2.1 Subjects Participants were 70 seventh-grade pupils who were taught by the same Maths teacher in Mehmetçik Primary School in Balıkesir in Turkey in March Most children came from middle-class families. Approximately 40% of the children were girls. (As sex did not affect any of the dependent variables under any conditions, it will not be discussed further.) The experiment has lasted for five weeks. After meeting school director and authorities, the most experienced and willing mathematics teacher in Mehmetçik Primary School was chosen. 7-B and 7-D Classes to which this teacher taught were chosen as sample. For the rrch seventh-grade pupils were selected. Primary school is preparation to high school. Mathematics teaching that is effectively given provides fundamental for high school and university education. This strong fundamental provides to be permanent learning and high achievement to pupils. To increase the low success level in primary school it is necessary that the contemporary methods are tried and explained their effects in the atmosphere of teaching and learning. Copyright The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology

51 Experiment and control groups were randomly assigned. 7-B Class was determined as experiment group and 7- D Class as control group. Table 1. Subject s Dispersion Group Method N Experiment Learning Together 36 technique of Cooperative Learning Control Traditional Teaching 34 Total 2 70 Since it is wanted to be determined how learning together technique of cooperative learning method will affect the pupil achievement by this research, equalization was tried to be provided between experiment and control groups. 2.2 Equalizing On equalizing, students autumn term points, spring term first exam points and the equating test were used. Table 2. Mean of the student s autumn term scores Group N M Sd T P Experiment >0.0 Control Table 2, no significant difference was found between classes on the students s autumn term scores. Table 3. Mean of the student s spring term the first exam scores Group N M Sd T P Experiment Control >0.0 5 Table 3, no significant difference was found between classes on the student s spring term the first exam scores. Table 4. The equating test Group N M Sd T P Experiment Control >0.05 The KR-20 coefficient of 0.82 was considered a highly acceptable indicator of the reliability of this test. Table 4, no significant difference was found between classes on the equating test. 2.3 Process When preparing the data collection tools, getting permission from Balıkesir National Education Management and determining the experiment and control groups has been completed. Both groups have been told that they have been selected the subjects of an experimental research to examine the effect of cooperative learning methods on student's mathematics achievement. By this explanation, it has been aimed to motivate students positively for the research. By considering the main principles of cooperative learning method, the lesson plans have been prepared with respect to learning together technique of cooperative learning and traditional learning. Obeying these has done instruction. In the research this way has been followed: 1- Application of pre-test. 2- Getting experiment and control groups constituted, 3- Application of learning methods determined at groups, a) Traditional method has been applied to the control group. b) Before cooperative learning method has been applied to the experiment group, it has been thought that the group size would consist of 4 students. At first, the class has been separated to groups consisting of 4 Copyright The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology

52 students. While constituting these groups, it has been paid attention that groups were homogeneous. These homogeneous groups have been constituted by considering the students' autumn term scores, their spring term the first exam scores, and their scores of the equating test, their behaviour inside the class, their social abilities and sexes. After separating the students to groups, it has been explained them that they would learn maths lesson with their own groups and their work didn't matter without their groups. The classrooms in Turkey are in classic style. Since this case didn't enable cooperative working, the lessons were done at the art workshop of Mehmetçik Primary School. Groups were told to find a group name. Then all the class was introduced the role of every group members and handed The Role Cards out to every group. Every group has been shared these roles. Then the groups have been given The task sheet. The groups were told to make a house plan with the certain rules in which 4 people would live during 100 days like "Somebody Watching Over You" published on TV. The groups didn't take the help from anybody else by preparing their house plans. Their teacher made the required explanations. After the groups had prepared their house plans, "Work Sheet 1"[Appendix 1] and "Work Sheet 2" [Appendix 2] were given to them. After they completed the work sheets, "Observation Sheet, "My Checklist for Cooperative Groups and "Group Processes" have been given to them. Then, the house plans and all the given work sheets were collected from the groups. After they finished their works, every group has presented their house plan to the class. After the presentations finished, every group was found successful. Therefore everybody has been given "Achievement Certificate. 4-Being applied of post-test. The mentioned processes had been realised between February 24 and March 25 in FINDINGS Evidence to support the reliability of the achievement test was obtained for the pre-test results of both classroom combined. The KR-20 coefficient of 0.84 was considered a highly acceptable indicator of the reliability of this test. Table 5, no significant difference was found between classes on the pre-test scores. Table 5. Pre-test Mathematics Mean Scores Group N M Sd T P Experiment Control >0.0 5 Evidence to support the reliability of the achievement test was obtained for the post-test results of both classroom combined. The KR-20 coefficient of 0.86 was considered a highly acceptable indicator of the reliability of this test. Table 6, significant difference was found between classes on the post-test scores. Group N M Sd T P Experiment Control >0.05 Table 6. Post-test Mathematics Mean Scores Table 7, whereas neither groups was significantly different (p>0.05) from the other on the pre-test, the experiment (cooperative) group obtained significantly (p<0.05) higher achievement on the post test than the control (traditional) group. It should be noted that both groups demonstrated significant (p<0.05) gains from preto post-test: Thus, our hypothesis, which was based on Johnson and Johnson s (2000) earlier meta-analysis, was confirmed. Table 7. The Means of Pre-test and Post-test Results of Experimental and Control Groups Group Test N M Sd Experim Pre-test Differences between the mean of Pre-test and Post-test Differe nces of mean scores p Copyright The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology

53 ent Control Pre-test Posttest Posttest < RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS In this part, there are the results and discussions reached by means of findings obtained in the research done for testing the effects of cooperative learning method and traditional learning method on the pupil s achievement in maths teaching of primary school 7 th class. According to the results, in this research; 1- It was observed that learning together technique of cooperative learning method is more effective than traditional method in maths teaching of primary school 7 th class. 2- It was noticed that the level which is concerned with improvement his achievement in maths of the students in the experiment group in which learning together technique of cooperative learning method is applied is higher than the level of the students in the control group in which traditional teaching method is applied. With the help of conclusions obtained in the research, it is reached the result that learning together technique is more effective than traditional teaching method in maths teaching. In learning together technique of cooperative learning method, the students permanently connects with each other and their teachers for learning and teaching, whereas in traditional teaching method, there is an atmosphere that the connection is less and the teachers is at the center. In cooperative learning, the students explain their opinions; present the alternative strategies and approximations that help them to understand maths concepts. When the students explain, transfer and question, their opinions, they are peachier in traditional class atmosphere. By studying cooperative the students gain self-confidence. The students more commonly stilize their agnostic sourcles within the cooperative group. In cooperative groups, they understand more by using maths language in the process of deciding with their friends. By understanding the logic drive strategies and problem analysis to their group friends they discover the content and drive the logic. Explaining their opinions and the ways of solving problems to their group friends and teachers, provide more aids to student when compared to traditional method. When the one of students teach, the others control themselves, the misunderstandings are explained, maths rules are understood, and the errors occurred in the application are corrected. Namely, cooperative learning method is a strong base for learning. In cooperative learning method, the students learn driving logic mathematically, sharing their opinions with the others, and using maths for solving the problems. During the research most of the students wanted to use cooperative learning method at the other lessons too. In the maths teaching, cooperative learning method is a good choice for learning effectively. In the light of conclusions obtained in this research and results reached, the following suggestions are presented: 1- Cooperative learning method should be used in maths teaching at the level of primary school, high school and collage. 2- Taking results more successful when compared to traditional teaching method cooperative learning method and its techniques should be put in the curriculum and taught at the lesson of special teaching methods in the Education Faculties. 3- Maths laboratory should be designed for to use cooperative learning method in maths teaching at all process of education. These laboratories should be designed in the way of providing the groups peacefully. 4- In maths teaching, before beginning cooperative learning, students should understand to study by devising cooperative groups at the activities out of the lesson. 5- The conferences and seminars about cooperative learning method and teaching are introduced to the teachers should be made. 6- The more comprehensive researches with long period should be done with respect to determine the effect of cooperative learning method to maths teaching. The comprehensive projects in which the experts in maths teaching and experienced maths teachers participate should be done in order to be improve maths teaching. Copyright The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology

54 References Açıkgöz, K.Ü., (1992), İşbirlikli Öğrenme Kuram-Araştırma-Uygulama, Uğurel Matbaası, Malatya. Deutsch, M., (1949), An Experimental Study of the Effects of Cooperation and Competition Upon Group Process, Human Relations, 2, Johnson, D.W. and Johnson, R.T., (1991), Learning Mathematics and Cooperative Learning Lesson Plans For Teachers, Interaction Book Company, Minnesota. Johnson, D.W. and Johnson, R.T., (1991), Learning Together and Alone, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Pretice-Hall. Johnson, D.W., Johnson, R.T. and Stanne, M.B. 2000, Cooperative Learning Methods: A Meta-Analysis, Minnesota. Copyright The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology

55 The evaluation of Students Perceptions of Distance Education Assoc. Prof. Dr. Aytekin İŞMAN - Eastern Mediterranean University Senior Instructor Fahme DABAJ - Eastern Mediterranean University Research Assistant Zehra ALTINAY - Eastern Mediterranean University Research Assistant Fahriye ALTINAY - Eastern Mediterranean University Abstract Distance Education provides the technological improvement effect on education. With the developments of high technology and globalization, social, cultural, educational aspects of life become different and get better in terms of time space and communication. In the educational field, classical learning and teaching techniques can not be effective without technology and time, space limitations. Distance Education provides fast, easy education opportunities for everyone without concentrating time, distance, and space limitations. There are huge tendencies from students for participating in distance education to live the sense of selfdevelopment, achievement and responsibility. Whatever there are some kind of problems within distance education, it is good concern to evaluate what students perceptions are toward distance education in our context in order to calculate common interpretations around the world for popular education style as distance education. Introduction In order to conclude the perceptions of students toward distance education, it s necessary to know what distance education is. Distance Education refers interactive, educational process between two people, student and teacher, separated by physical distance (Harry, et al., 1993, p.32). What it means that distance education provides equal opportunities to learner and reduce the distance among communicators for global, competitive learning environments among the countries. Distance education becomes popular among the developed countries. But its applications are so new for developing countries like Turkey and TRNC. In order to create effective distance education system, it should be known what are the perceptions of students and their roles as communicators based on the study of literature reviews. Distance Education can be done as telecommunicating, audio conferencing, , and functions. There is a two-way communication between teacher and student as well (Isman, 1999). Through this communication process, students have active role in distance education according to compare with traditional classroom environment. Computer Aided learning, computer managed Instruction and Computer Conferencing are the three applications of distance education. Computer Managed instruction is management that provide administration of learning process and Computer Aided learning includes software applications to make students learn through pre-structured and programmed materials. Computer Conferencing requires electronic network that enables individuals to communicate (Clark, 2001). Through the system organization, distance education provides self-learning, responsibility on learning and achievement. There is a communication between learner and instructor. Through the technological like Internet, Distance Education can be different from classical learning atmosphere and overcame the time, space, distance. Whatever the interactivity is difficult in communication through the distance education, fast, easy, global context without any time, space, and distance difficulty can be carried to education. It s important to define our context s perceptions of students according to gender, demographic, psychographic considerations. Holmberg (1995) handled guided for didactic conversation between teacher and student as important characteristics of distance education; 1.Those feelings of personal relation between the teaching and learning parties promote study pleasure and motivation. 2. That such feelings can be fostered by well-developed self-instructional material and two-way communication at a distance. 3. That intellectual pleasure and study motivation are favorable to the attainment of study goals and the use of proper study processes and methods. 4. That the atmosphere, language and conventions of friendly conversation favor feelings of personal relation. 5. Those messages given and received in conversational forms are comparatively easily understood and remembered. 6. That the conversation concept can be successfully translated, for use by media available, to distance education. Copyright The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology

56 7. That planning and guiding the work, whether provided by the teaching organization or the student, are necessary for organized study, which is characterized by explicit or implicit goal conceptions (Holmberg, 1995, p.47). Students perceptions that is main concern to set the roles of the students through knowing interaction of them with teachers. Distance Education requires interaction between teacher and student through their technical, academically, personal roles to implement technology based communication and distance education offers an opportunity for educator to extend their academic offerings to new students and address the issue of equal educational standards. Everyone has also opportunity to consult the uses of this kind of education. Students become more self-realized, responsible on their training and learning. Distance Education is activity that embraces whole of the student activity, responsibility and willingness for getting, asking for the related questions, answers. Distance Learning or Education is both system and a process that connects learners with distributed resources. Educators role become only just as facilitator while the student involve active learning in the form of constructivism. Distance Education provides opportunity for the student to interact with teacher as soon as he/she encounters need for this interaction. As a learning environment; there is positive correlation between students perceptions of instructor immediacy of response with students with affective learning. Going distance education for the active learners takes planning and the understanding of available interactive distance learning possibilities (Notar, et al., 2002). Today s there should be challenge of being traditional classroom and propose virtual classroom. Distance Education use telecommunicating, audio conferencing and asynchronous learning networks. Learners use computers and communications technologies. Interaction among learners also supports the learning process (Rovia, 2002). Aim of the Research As it was mentioned before; technology changes the living styles and tendencies of people toward social, communicational, economical, educational aspects. People need to reach information or any resources fast, and easy. In addition to this; they need to exchange and share resources in on informational base. Through the help of technology, today it is very easy to reach information, and share with others with the help of the information technology like Internet connection. Distance Education is also the useful alternative to educational fields. It can eliminate time, distance and obstacles for opportunities to everyone who have willingness to be educated and develop him or herself. As we know that distance education is the technology based education alternative which provides easy, fast access to resources, eliminate distance and self-responsibility of learning, home atmosphere environment. It s inevitable that there are some problems like finance, communication and organization. Especially in organization, it s very important to define the technical, educational personnel that facilitate the education environments. Finance of the distance education is also problematic for developing countries that they face with distance education programs. Distance Education environment is the group work without only concentrating gender and receiver communication. It can be done as telecommunicating, audio conferencing or . It s discussible how effectively receiver or sender do communication, but both of them can be used to deliver information without distance limitation. People who have roles in distance education like students, teacher, designer groups, and directors. Students are main concern which facilitate active role of communication. Teacher has role to guide students. Designer groups are the real establishers of process as technology facilitators. Directors are people who plan and implement education process. Learner-context interaction, Learner-instructor interaction, Learner-learner instructions are the three types of interaction, students attitudes and perceptions require the concrete attitudes toward distance education because of being active participant (Harry, et al., 1993). With the effect of constructivist view, students get the major role of learning-teaching process. Technology facilitate to create student-centered, self-responsibility on learning, distance education is the main concern to apply constructivist learning approach to education with providing learner for experiencing reality on owns learning and directing deliver of information according to their needs, interests, and expectations. Distance Education with the effect of constructivist view; change the role of the students and teachers from the classical learning process. The important change or impact is the technology and distance. In addition to this, not requiring immediate feedback is also the advantage to reconstruct personal understanding and reflections through the learning-teaching process in distance education. As it was mentioned, student has active role on learning while instructor becomes only the counselors, facilitators. If the students are the main indicators of learning and distance education, it s important to determine what the students perceptions are toward distance education for catching effective, global aspects, Copyright The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology

57 developments of distance education. The aim of the research is to define students perceptions toward distance education for the reflective attributes to the effective distance education. Importance of the Research It s important to take consideration of communication between communicators and active role of students within distance education. It s very useful to determine what students perceive abut system, barriers and roles, the whole of the process as a livers of the process for attributing the effectiveness of this kind of education. Distance Education is the process that educators, organizer of technical and administrative level, students actively involve to create meaningful learning teaching like in the comfort of home atmosphere. In the global, competitive world standard, every developed or even developing country competes to bring more educated citizens in their context. With this tendencies of being more educated, distance education become the alternative aspects of education that facilitate elimination of time, space, distance, equal opportunity for all individuals, home atmosphere learning and constructivist reflection on meaningful learning in the base of education. With all advantages of learning styles, distance education requires some kind of communication, finance and organization barriers different from the classical learning. If the all attention and evaluation turn to the perceptions of students toward distance education, it s inevitable to conclude the reflections about the effectiveness of process. While the teachers are facilitators, students have active role in teaching, learning process with controlling instruction according to their needs, interest and expectations. Under the constructivist learning approach, students experience the reality; catch the self-developments, understanding within the self-responsibility through the support of technology with distance education. If the main concern is the students and their perceptions there should be the goal of learning learner autonomy to make students as self-directed, motivated and evaluative under the constructivist view. Learner autonomy requires learner participation on their learning objectives, implementation of their programs study and evaluation (Moore, et al., 1996). It s important to determine what student s perceptions are toward distance education in developing countries like our context, in order to provide active reflections, interpretation about distancelearning effectiveness and tendencies to apply e learning. Because students are main indicators that they are active learner which distance education facilitate flexible, student-centered, easy, fast delivering information out of time, distance limitations. Related Researches There are some related researches on communication barriers in distance education, some of them are summarized as below: Ludlow, et al., (1998) examined what distance education is for understanding the interaction between instructor and learner which are the heart of education. According to article; distance education focus on learning as a selfdirected, active and collaborative process view the instructor as a facilitator or guide rather than transmitter of knowledge. Distance education provides both instructors and learners with powerful tools for locating resources in digital schools without walls. These new model of contemporary education require knowing perceptions of active participants in order to develop effective distance education. Frost (1998) indicated that distance education is gaining in influence throughout the world. With evolving of technology that modern post industrial societies are developing. Distance education is the tremendous need to educate hundreds of millions of students in developing countries in short period of time. It s the part to involve global economy for developing countries. From the difference of traditional, classical learning, course planning refers to be learner-based. In order to make qualified learning atmosphere, there should be flexible, diversity and understanding of learner autonomy through the innovation of distance education. Borrowdale (2000) handled the online distance education perspectives with the aspects of technology. With the development of high technology, distance education becomes the main concern, opportunity for the participants. Through the different applications of technology like , bulletin boards, web pages, students can also experience the social, face-to-face learning in distance education as well. There can be the variations of participants to the distance education and also have different perceptions in terms of demographic, gender, physiological differences. Sankaran (2000) investigated the students attitudes about web vs. lecture formats. Attitudes toward web along with learning strategies wore measured using a survey and learning performance by test score. Findings suggest that students tend to enroll in the format according to their attitude and learning strategies. Individuals learn Copyright The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology

58 differently even when the content and format is the same. Distance Education become alternative for individualized learning and concern of different learning tendencies. Schmid (1998) focused on the position or attitudes of student in distance education process. According to some kind of research results and self-experiences, students search for the attention, feedback and valuable information, and social support. In being role of student for distance education create self-direct, adult learner and intrinsic motivation through doing research like with the help of internet in order to catch meaningful learning. Willis (1992) examined the particular strategies for teaching distance education in order to understand active participants need, wants and expectations as student. There should be willingness to change from classical learning to contemporary technology based learning environments. In order to create positive tendencies toward distance education, teachers have role as facilitators like make students aware and comfortable, learn students background and experiences, be sensitive to different communication styles, remember that students must take active role, cope with technological developments, etc. Schrum (2002) pointed out that interests to the distance education become increased today s educational fields. It should be interactivity and feedback possibilities in distance education to create effective learning environment. Because active participants who are students look for the real education that include active, productive interactivity. With given electronic learning environment to educational field, distance education will continue to expand, evolve and more satiety. Jeffries (2002) examined that distance education definition and differences from other learning approaches. Distance Education takes emphasis of dialectical relationship between teacher and student under the elimination of distance and time. Distance Education put learners to the mode of self-responsibility on learning as a active participants. In Order to create effective distance education process, there should be positive attitudes and perceptions, which comes from the valuable consciousness. Rosenthal (2000) pointed out that there should be ideal, concrete relationship and communication health in order to crate effective distance learning environments. There are some indicators that reflect the negative or positive interaction attitudes of students. Like understanding, encouraging from the instructors. Research reported the proportions of non-traditional and traditional students reporting with the significance series of tests. Levin (2001) examines distance education in post secondary institutions, specifically in community and technical colleges in the United States, as an educational domain where information technologies have a central place. Looks at characterizing features of distance education management through a group of distance education managers and explores their role as professionals to identify what, to them, are critical issues in distance education. It is good reflection to know the management of distance education in particular field or place in order to reflect perceptions from the management influences on the program. Rockwell, et al. (2000) wrote an article that was about Distance educators participated in a Delphi study to identify and rank future research and evaluation needs/issues. The study focused on planning for distance education; structuring decisions required for distance education; the implementation process; and evaluation needs in documenting outcomes. Four themes emerged: cooperation and collaboration among institutions; designing the educational experience for the distance learner; teacher preparation; and educational outcomes. Jones (2000) wrote an article which was about the these Australian educators, the ongoing American debate over distance education reported in the daily press, The Chronicle, and Change, is surprising, for several reasons. Most obviously, it s surprising because the essential debate is long over in Australia. Respected Australian universities have been awarding indistinguishable degrees to on-campus and off-campus students for decades. Nearly 14 percent of university students study at a distance. When we look, as Australians still occasionally do, toward Britain, we see Open University degrees recognized as representing a rigorous, thorough British education. And article was so important to see the alternative view on distance educational disciplines and give light to the thesis as references. Isman (1999) requires constructivist approach on learning for being interactive within teaching-learning instruction. Students should search and design their activities with their self-experience on the subject and the construct all activities under the sense of instruction. Through the role of technology with contemporary education as distance education, students can catch real experience of learning and develop self-developments. Copyright The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology

59 Isman (2002) examined that student role from the sense of constructivist approach. These roles can be fit to the role of student in distance education as well. Student Role in Distance Education based on Constructivist Approach; Student should be interaction between teacher in order to get proper feedback on their self-directed subjects and consult to teacher for correctness and evaluation. Students can be in collaborative learning with their class members through the technological support, Students are self-responsible on their learning. They should decide what they want to learn and make individual study on their subject, Students should come to the solution for problems with data through the research instead of implementing available data. Therefore they should be researcher, Students should be problem solvers. They should implement what they learn on problems and set solutions strategies with using relevance information, Students should be well informed from the technology to not face with communicational barriers because of technology. In addition to this; they should use technology to construct the learning with rich materials, Students should be learners through the life. The students should know how to access and use the information whatever the instruction was finished. They should reach the information immediately if it is necessary. As a conclusion of the above the article reviews or research, there are a lot of thoughts that go around the concept of the Distance Education. The articles concentrated on the definition of the distance education and high degree relation with the information technology, Internet based access in education. According to these ordered, huge and alternative point of views about the distance education, they give the proper base to search on the concrete roles of students in distance education with selecting base line on the exact reflective roles of the students in the new style of the education whatever there are different management perceptions, models and communicational barriers. These handled articles and research findings reflect the approximate findings and comments on the roles of the students and teachers in Distance Education. Findings and Results According to the total reflections of research studies, student perceptions toward distance education varies based on gender, age, educational level as demographic data that researcher handle as the indicators of the perceptions. In order to examine the perceptions of students, there should be well known roles of them to live the healthy communication for successful distance education program or system. In distance education, teachers should have tendency to facilitate student-centered, constructivist way of learning in teaching process. Therefore; while the teachers are the facilitator, students should be active, selfresponsible, feel the sense of home atmosphere, immediate researcher, adult learner in their learning through distance education. There should be healthy communication out of technical, semantically, and psychological barriers between two participants. Most of the non-motivation of the students can be caused because of the lackness on the face-to-face communication. As Nasseh (1997) stated that media and technical developments in distance education carry us not to face with technological obstacles and help to improve the replacement of faceto-face communication side of the program. In addition to this; Nasseh (1997) mentioned that few studies examined students learning experiences, effectiveness of instructional methods, limitations. The research field study reflected that students learn equally well from education delivered by technology as measured by these 218 reports at a distance and face-to-face. Therefore; the applications, atmosphere of the distance education requires the advancement of technology and become the most important variable that effect the learning experiences, perceptions of students towards distance education. Borrowdale (2000) handled the distance education that student experienced the class through internet. It is mentioned that face-to-face learning experiences become computer mediated learning experiences. Internet, student forums, , online discussion, bulletin boards and web pages are the tools to facilitate e-learning to students. In order to understand the how system function effectively, there should be the evaluation of perceptions towards distance education. If the students are the main participants with their self-learner, autonomy and responsibility, perceptions of them should be taken account. Borrowdale (2000) give the richness of the study with its relevant example and indicated that differences in learning style, gender, age did not have an impact on the students level of satisfaction. The main indicator of the student perceptions is their satisfaction. Therefore; there should be feedback and response between participants, lack of communication barriers based on technology or technical, right learning styles, comfort of learning atmosphere, effective understanding and willingness. As a conclusion of the all reflective findings and results; Isman (1997) examined that the greatest number of relationship was found between students perceptions and content taught. There are some significant relationships between students perceptions of distance education courses and age. There are some significant relationship between students perceptions and educational level. In addition to this study reflect that there are some significant relationships between students perceptions and the number of the distance education courses Copyright The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology

60 taken. There are fewer significant relationships between students perception and instructional site and academic major, being either part-time-full-time students. Based on the results of this study, there can be several recommendations with the five areas need additional attention (Isman, 1997); First, distance education need to pay more attention to content taught because the most significance relationship was found to be the content taught and the student perceptions of content. The results of this study indicate that all content may not be appropriate for distance education. For this reason, distance educators should choose appropriate content for their distance education system. Second, distance educators should design different distance education classes for different age groups because younger and older students have different learning skills and styles. Third, distance educators need to pay attention to different educational levels. When the courses are designed, the differences between undergraduate and graduate courses should be considered. There are some learning and teaching differences between graduate and undergraduate students; graduate courses are more complex than the undergraduate courses. Otherwise, the graduate students will be satisfied with their distance education course (s). This may affect the level of academic achievement. Fourth, universities should pay attention for providing the best-updated telecommunication infrastructure because the qualities of the distance education courses are directly affected by the nature of the telecommunication system. Universities should pay particular attention to difficulties associated with audio and video problems as soon as possible because these problems can affect instructional delivery to remote site classes. Last, these universities should provide teachers who are unfamiliar with distance education the opportunity to obtain specialized presentation training that would help instructors to interact through a new medium with remote sites, and how they can design remote class discussion and related activities. Universities should never forget that the role of the teachers in distance education classroom is different from the traditional classroom. Recommendations Distance Education is the easy way of learning for the technology-advanced environment. It provides loss of time, space and distance through the support of high information technology. Students who are active participants in distance education process should be adult learners, self-responsible and immediate researchers. In order to reflect right perceptions of students, satisfactions on contact, performance, motivation through interaction among participants, learning styles, method, and environment should be well organized. With considering demographic variables effect perceptions towards distance education system, we can come up with concrete recommendations based on that Isman (1997) stated like that very limited research exists on the relationship between students perceptions and various demographic factors. To take this research further, new distance educational research should focus on the following areas (Isman, 1997): 1. Teacher perceptions about two-way interactive television systems should be investigated. The results of such study might explain how students perception and teachers perception about two-way interactive television courses are similar and how they are different from each other. 2. Another trend that needs to be investigated is the relationship between students perception and grades received from two-way interactive television classes. These results might reveal differences between students who earned high grades and students who earned lower grades from tow-way interactive television classes. 3. A combination of quantitative and qualitative analysis (triangulation) is recommended for this kind of research. Quantitative analysis alone may not be significant to investigate the perceptions of students about two-way interactive television systems. The use of both methods could assist researchers to better understand the distance education system. 4. The last trend that should be investigated is content which can test be taught using distance education because greatest differences were found in content taught. The results of such a study might explain how the teaching methods of teachers are different in terms of content taught. References Borrowdale, Cherly. (2000). Online Distance Education: The Influence of Culture and Gender on Student Perceptions at Jones International University. Clark, Melody. (2001). The Soft Technology of Distance Education. Copyright The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology

61 Frost, Charles H. (1998). Distance Education for Developing Countries. International Education v. 27 no2, p Harry, Keith, et al. (1993). Distance Education: New Perspectives. Routledge in London and New York. Isman, Aytekin. (1997). Student Perception of a Class Offered Through Distance Education. Dissertation. Ohio University. Isman, Aytekin. (1999). Distance Education. Degisim Publishing Company. Turkey. Isman, Aytekin. et al. January. (2002). The Effects of Constructivism in Science Education. TOJET (The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology). V.n.2 Jeffries, Michael. (2002). The History of Distance Education. Jones, Edmund et al. (2002). Faculty Philosophic Position Towards Distance Education. ERIC NO: EJ Levin, John S. (2001). Is Management of Distance Education Transforming Instruction in Colleges?. ERIC NO: ET Ludlow, Barbara, et al. (1998). Distance Education and Tomorrow s Schools. Phi. Delta Kappa Fastbacks no. 439, p Moore, G. Michael, Kearsky, Greg. (1996). Distance Education System View. Wadsworth Publishing Company in United State of America. Nasseh, Bizhan. (1997 ). A Brief History of Distance Education. Rockwell, Kay, Marx, David. (2000). Research and Evaluation Needs for Distance Education". ERIC NO: EJ Rosenthal, Gary T. (2000). The One to One Survey: Traditional Versus Non-Traditional Student Satisfaction With Professors during One to One Contacts. Rovai, Alfred P. (2002). Building Sense of Community at a Distance Sankaran, Siva R. (2000). Effect of Student Attitude to Course Format on Learning Performance. Schmid, Mavreen. (1998). The Distance Education Student. Schrum, Lynne. (2002). Oh, what wonders you will see: Distance Education Past, Present, and Future. Learning and Leading with Technology v.30 no3, p. 6-9,20-1 Willis, Barry. (1992). Strategies for Teaching Distance. Wilson, Janell D. et al. (2002). Going the distance: active learning /purl=rc1_eaim_o_a dyn=11!ar_fmt?sw_aep=em Copyright The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology

62 TO KILL THE BLACKBOARD? TECHNOLOGY IN LANGUAGE TEACHING AND LEARNING Assoc. Prof. Dinçay KÖKSAL, PhD. Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University Abstract In language teaching and learning, we have a lot to choose from the world of technology: radio, TV, CD-Rom, computers, C.A.L.L., the Internet, Electronic Dictionary, , audio cassettes, Power-point, and videos/dvds or VCDs. Table 1 in Appendix C illustrates their advantages and disadvantages. This paper aims to discuss the use and importance of Videos/DVDs as visual aids in language learning and teaching, presenting a sample video lesson focusing on the study of language through literary texts--a novel by Harper Lee. We all know that there are hundreds of films on video or DVD (VCD), which borrow their stories from novels. This paper does not aim to present prescriptions to language teachers, but rather, to make suggestions concerning the effective use of video or films in EFL classes. Key words: Language Teaching, Technology, Language Learning, Learning Strategies, Learning Styles and Video Introduction We are all aware that technology is one of the most significant drivers of both social and linguistic change. Graddol (1997:16) states that technology now lies at the heart of the globalisation process; affecting education, work and culture. There are various reasons why all language learners and teachers must know about and make use of new technology. Here we need to emphasize that new technologies develop and are disseminated so quickly that we cannot avoid their attraction and influence in any form. If we neglect or ignore technological developments, they will continue and perhaps we will never be able to catch up, irrespective of our branch or discipline. For this reason, it is important for language teachers to be aware of the latest and best equipment and to have a full knowledge of what is suitable and available in any given teaching situation. There are many techniques applicable in various degrees to language learning situations. Some are useful for testing and distance education, some for teaching Business English or interpreting, some for teaching at primary schools, some for self-study at home. The teaching principle should be to appreciate new technologies in the areas and functions where they provide something decisively new and useful, and never let the machines take over the role of the teacher or limit functions where more traditional ways are superior. Kayaoğlu (1990) emphasizes this as follows: Trying to make use of technological innovations to make our teaching more effective and meaningful on the part of the learner by providing the students with variety in content and activities is something different from making the use of technology. We should check our own understanding of language learning and decide what we are going to do with the new technologies. The reason why we experienced frustration with the language lab is that the language lab almost became a method of language teaching and became a major purpose, as did video. They can only work and be of value with the help and command of a human. All materials and tools need to be specified, directed and planned by teachers to be of pedagogical value in language teaching. The use of authentic materials: TV, film, video, radio, and satellites Language teachers have used authentic material in the form of film and TV for a long time. It is true that radio and TV courses in various countries have been very successful in place of textbook instruction. In recent years some multimedia courses consisting of TV programmes and textbooks, as well as sound and videotapes, have been based on a functional/notional approach. For instance, Eskişehir Anadolu University has used the BBC's "Follow Me" series to teach English to Open University students on television for many years. Radio programmes with visual support, so- called radio vision, have also been quite effective. Zettersten (1986:101) makes a distinction between authentic materials and didactic materials. In order to gain maximum access to real-life situations with natural and life-like communication, it is necessary to make use of available authentic documents. She quotes Philip Riley's definitions of an authentic document: Copyright The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology

63 (1) The first is a negative definition stating that it is "one which has not been produced for language learning or language teaching purposes". (2) The second is a positive definition stating that it is "one that has been produced in a real communication situation". Naturally, both are necessary to use in a language learning system. If teachers or individual learners have access to a variety of good authentic documents, supplementary training and testing material can be quite easily produced according to certain fixed models. Some materials may have been produced for particular learning situations in disciplines other than language learning. Films produced for teaching business administration, for example, may be suitable to use for teaching English for specific purposes such as Business English. Videos/DVDs in Language Teaching and Learning "English teachers all over the world cry out for materials which can make English come alive for their students. TV, video, and the newer video-related technologies provide just such a resource..." (Stempleski, 1995 p.48 qtd in Lebedko). It is universally recognized that videos as visual aids have a lot to contribute to the process of language learning and teaching, combining education and entertainment. Supporters agree that videos stimulate student interest to acquire the target culture, as well as language (e.g., Stempleski, 1992; Tomalin, 1992). Video is supposed to communicate meaning better than any other media (Tomalin 1992). Here it will be useful to look at the advantages of video in language classes from different perspectives. The advantages of videos /DVDs in language teaching: Tatsuki (1997:13) discusses three particular teaching orientations that fit well with what video has to offer: 1. Video as a model of target performance 2. Video as an information model 3. Video as a context for language use Arthur (1999, quoted in Canning) claims that videos can: give students realistic models to imitate for role-play; increase awareness of other cultures by teaching appropriateness and suitability; strengthen audio/visual linguistic perceptions simultaneously; widen the classroom repertoire and range of activities; help utilize the latest technology to facilitate language learning; teach direct observation of the paralinguistic features found in association with the target language; be used to help when training students in ESP related scenarios and language; offer a visual reinforcement of the target language and can lower anxiety when practicing the skill of listening. Canning (2001) discusses the practical implications of using video in the classroom as follows: Video provides visual stimuli such as the environment and this can lead to and generate prediction, speculation and a chance to activate background schemata when viewing a visual scene re-enacted. It can be argued that language found in videos could help nonnative speakers understand stress patterns. Videos allow the learner to see both rhythm and speech rhythm in second language discourse through the use of authentic language and speed of speech in various situations. Videos allow contextual clues to be offered. In addition, video can stimulate and motivate student interest. The use of visuals overall can help learners to predict information, infer ideas and analyse the world that is brought into the classroom via the use of video instruction. In a teaching or testing situation video can help enhance clarity and give meaning to an auditory text; it can create a solid link between the materials being learned and the practical application of it in a testing situation; the video can act as a stimulus or catalyst to help integrate materials or aspects of the language; videos can help manipulate language and at the same time be open to a variety of interpretations. We can add further potential benefits of using video to the ones mentioned above: Videos save time, focusing the learners' attention quickly and keeping it there. They can be adapted for use with both large and small classes. Copyright The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology

64 They are an endless source of grammatical structures and words. They contain live speech, (word stress and intonation are important factors in understanding the speaker's intention). They can be exploited as a discussion starter. They stimulate the listener's/reader's imagination and help readers with a lack of imagination. They help readers establish auditory, visual and mental links that help improve their longterm memory. They can increase oral comprehension and "stimulate student interaction and communication with other classmates." They "promote cross-cultural awareness," and "are adaptable for use with students at any English-language proficiency level" (Rice, 1993, p. vii quoted in Lebedko, 1999). Video can be used to distinguish items in a listening comprehension test, aid in the role of recall, help to sequence events, as well as be adapted, edited or changed in order to meet the needs of the language learner (Canning, 1998). To summarise, the role that video is to take in the teaching process determines how it is used and how material is prepared for use with the video. We can take great advantage of this technology to teach language, not only on the recognition level, but also at the production level, using techniques that will encourage students to use learning strategies (memory, cognitive, compensation, metacognitive, social, and affective) appropriate to their learning styles. The activities we can use in video classes may thus appeal to learners with different styles of learning. Students may prefer a visual (seeing), auditory (hearing), kinaesthetic (moving) or tactile (touching) way of learning. Based on the film, activities such as role-plays, acting out the dialogues, and simulations makes it possible for students to employ actions which contribute to their developing memory strategies. By means of video, students also have the chance to place new expressions in a context with which the new information is linked. This helps them recall those items easily. Here it is necessary to emphasize that, as Oxford (1990) said, memory strategies will be more effective when students are encouraged to use metacognitive strategies (like paying attentiondirected or selective) and affective strategies (like lowering anxiety). Activities like summarizing, after both reading the novel and viewing its film version, taking notes when viewing to answer comprehension questions, and making notes when reading the novel to make comparisons, are all of great importance in enhancing the use of cognitive strategies, which help students manipulate and transform the target language. Video also helps students use two compensation strategies relevant to reading and listening, that of using linguistic and non-linguistic clues. As Cunning (2001) states, communication can be achieved without the help of language, because we often interact by gesture, eye contact and facial expression to convey a message. When viewing the film, students have the chance to observe nonverbal behaviour such as the speaker's tone of voice, facial expression, emphasis, and body language (gestures, distance, posture and relaxation/tension). Rand (1997:4) states that the language redundancy provided by these non-linguistic cues through the use of video reinforces and clarifies meaning, filling in communication gaps. (At the same time, they will also become aware of cultural differences in using body language and nonverbal behaviour, both of which are crucial to cross-cultural communication. How to use Videos/DVDs in the Language Classroom Reading activities are of two types: (i) intensive; (ii) extensive. For extensive reading, students are generally given a reading list of novels at the beginning of the academic year. Teachers ask students to write a summary of the novel and do an analysis of the characters as an assignment. This is a boring task for students. To make this task more interesting and motivate students, teachers, if possible, can integrate film versions of these novels into in-class reading activities by means of videos. Of course, it is impossible to study the whole novel in one class hour but we can have our students view segments of the film easily. Some teachers see watching videos as time-filling activity in classroom. They show the whole film non-stop without any activities to present and reinforce the language. As Cunning (2001) states, "If video is to be used in the classroom to improve listening comprehension, it should be shown in segments and not as a whole." Copyright The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology

65 Suggested Activities in Video Classes Those who are interested in the use of video in literature classes can benefit greatly from Bauman's article (1995), which presents practical implications in the study of literature through video. Stempleski and Tomalin (2001) also present a variety of practical and useful activities which teachers can use with films at all levels (elementary to advanced). The differences between literature on paper and literature on celluloid are discussed in Table 1 in Appendix B. We need an integrated approach to the use of video in the language classroom. We must not use it simply in isolation but within a sequence of tasks: Pre-viewing, while viewing, and post-viewing. Below are suggested activities for these three stages when integrating video into reading courses. Depending on the time available, teachers can do all or some of the activities suggested below. Pre-viewing activities Any pre-viewing activity will be associated with developing learners' comprehension strategies and preparing students "to see the video by means of activating schema, that is, tapping students' background knowledge or trying newly introduced information to materials previously introduced" (Stoller, undated) Activities Tell students they are going to watch/listen to a story about... What do they expect to hear and see? Class discussion about the theme of the story Give students two minutes to brainstorm vocabulary related to the story Have students put written summary of video in order Guessing Have students watch the video with sound off, then guess what people are saying. Ask students to guess what happens in the story, using flashcards of the story. Ask students predict the story by numbering pictures from the story on a worksheet. To make the worksheet draw basic pictures illustrating the main ideas of the story on paper. Make sure they are in a different order to that in the story. While-viewing activities We can have students watch the video more than once. The aim for watching the video the first time, and subsequently, will probably be different. General Listening: Tasks completed while viewing a video for the first time are commonly associated with developing listening skills. Here students listen for global understanding. Activities for a second viewing are often associated with gathering specific information and presenting or reinforcing language (grammar, vocabulary, functions). Activities Developing listening skills Have students watch the video to confirm predictions made in the pre -viewing activity. Have students answer comprehension questions. Stop the video and asks students to predict how it continues. Providing information Have students make notes about the content that will be used in the post-viewing activity. This could be information they have either heard or seen. Presenting or reinforcing language Paying Attention (Selective) Have students listen for specific pre-taught vocabulary. 6-8 vocabulary items would be enough. Students say 'stop' when they hear the word(s). Have students listen for examples of grammatical structures and note them down. Practising Have students tell the story along with the video. This could be used after a video has been watched a few times. Copyright The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology

66 The students are given a character in the story and the sound is turned down at various points. The students try to say the words. Post viewing activities Post viewing activities aim at encouraging and stimulating the use of newly acquired knowledge that came from the video, and the use of both written and spoken language. Stoller (undated) suggests such post viewing activities as class surveys, video summaries, alternate endings, comparisons, discussion, agree/disagree/unsure activity, ranking group consensus, organisation in writing, speed writing, role-plays, simulation, and debates. Activities Using language - Production Have students read the story and compare it with the video. Have students act out/record their own version of video. Ask students to write similar dialogues to the one they heard on the video. Project work Have students make posters/wall displays. Craftwork Ask students to draw characters from the story. Make a book based on story. Stimulus Learners describe people in the video. Learners decide how old people in video are. Learners vote on the best/worst person. For a variety of activities that can be used in video lessons, search on line: When I started to teach reading courses in the ELT department at Gazi University in 1989, I assigned students to read some novels as an extensive reading task, one of which was 'To Kill a Mockingbird'. I decided to take my students to the library of the Turkish- American Association to see the film of that novel. They enjoyed watching it and gave positive feedback. Several times upon students' request we went to that library to see other films. At that time, I did not know how to use video when studying a literary text in ELT classes. Of course, I had used it in preparatory classes with young learners, but the videotapes (Video English) were designed for language learning and were accompanied by a book that consisted of the video script of the segments and activities that the students were expected to perform. When working at a state secondary school, I had an inservice training course on ELT Methodology at Boğaziçi University and we were taught how to use video in ELT classes. However, this training was not enough to equip us with the full knowledge and skill to make effective use of videos not specifically designed for language teaching. Here, as a sample lesson, I have chosen 'To Kill a Mockingbird'. Video Lesson Before viewing the film, assign the students to read one or two chapters from the novel Aims: Listening for global comprehension and specific information. Speaking, language of description. Age: 18 upward Level: Advanced Materials: Video + book 'To Kill a Mockingbird', by Harper Lee The novel has twenty-eight chapters and the film of the novel also has twenty-eight sections. Note: Let them have a look at the tasks they are expected to perform while watching the video. Some extracts from the novel to be used during the activities are presented in Appendix A. Procedure Pre-viewing activities Have the students read selected paragraphs only from the beginning of the story in the novel. Ask them to make notes about or underline all the important details about the characters and places. Copyright The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology

67 Write down information about the following characters; the adjectives that best describe them morally, physically, and psychologically. Jem Boo Radley Mr. Radley Mr Nathan Radley Atticus Dill Harris Miss Stephanie Crawford Miss Rachel Mr Corner The judge Mrs Henry Lafayette Dubose Calpurnia Charles Baker Harris Who are they? Physical Appearance Psychological State Morality While-viewing activities Have students view this particular part of the story on video/dvd. Deliver the worksheets to the students and ask them to circle the correct details in the film, as below. The narration introduces Maycomb, a tired old town. The year is a) 1922 b) 1932 c) 1942 The narrator was years old then. There is a man delivering something. What is it? a) letters b) bread c) newspapers Choose the correct alternatives from the narration: "Somehow it was hotter then. Men's stiff collars by nine in the morning. a) wilted b) melted c) fainted Ladies bathed... after their three o'clock a) chats b) snacks c) naps and by nightfall were like soft teacakes with frostings of a) sweat b) soot c) cream and sweet talcum. The day was 24 hours long but it seemed a) shorter b) longer c) hotter." That man has got a boy called Boo, who he keeps chained to the bed and he only comes out a) on holidays b) at night c) at tea-time Boo is described as: "Judging from his tracks, he's about six feet tall, he eats squirrels, and all the he can catch, there's a long' jagged that runs all the way across his face, his are yellow and rotten, his are popped, and he drools most of the time." One day, Boo attacked his father with a a) knife b) scissors c) razor He was kept locked up in the of the county jail. a) basement b) attic c) garden shed (Aksu, 1996) Have students watch the video to confirm their predictions concerning the characters in the pre -viewing activity. Have the students answer comprehension questions. What does Walter Cunningham bring Atticus Finch? A bag of a) Hickory nuts b) Hazel nuts c) Chestnuts Why does Walter bring Atticus the bag? a) It's a custom in the town b) Because he borrowed some the previous week c) To pay him for some legal work Why doesn't Atticus want to meet Walter? Copyright The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology

68 a) It embarrasses Walter b) They are old enemies c) It embarrasses Atticus Is Atticus a) as poor as Walter? b) poorer than Walter? c) Not quite as poor as Walter? Jem, his son, is up the tree. He 'ain't coming down for breakfast., Why? Also, his father won't let him have a a) bike b) gun c) dog In the vegetable patch is a boy, going on 7, who is from a) Mississippi b) Missouri c) Minnesota How many weeks will he spend with his Aunt Stephanie? When a man passes the house, one of the children says about him: "There goes the man that ever took breath of life." a) kindest b) strictest c) meanest Stop the video and ask students to predict the continuation. Fill in the gaps in this continuation of the narration: "There was no for there was to go, to buy, no money to buy it, though Maycomb County had been told it had nothing to but itself." Identify language points from the video: adjectives, superlatives. Learners note down any they hear. Or they can check how well they were at using the adjectives to describe the characters in the story during the pre-viewing activity. Post-viewing activities Ask students to summarize the story in the film. Ask some of the following questions for Discussion 1) How many stories are there in the film? What about the novel? 2) How much do you think is fact and how much is fiction? 3) What are the main themes in the film? Is there any message that the narrator is trying to give? 4) Give as many examples as you can which pinpoint the location of the story as the Deep South of America in the 1930s. 5) Have racial attitudes changed or remained the same? 6) What are the qualities of the film that make it especially appealing? 7) Would it have been more, or less effective, in colour? Dramatisation: Ask students to act out the roles of the characters in the story. Ask students to compare and discuss the main differences between the film version and the actual written text in terms of the story line, plot, characterisation, viewpoint, setting, and tension. Have students read reviews of the film, encouraging them to use the Internet and write their own reviews and share their thoughts with others online. This gives students to practise the language naturalistically (see examples of reviews in Appendix D). Teachers can also use such reviews as a starter for discussion in conversation classes. Concluding remarks We should kill neither the blackboard nor the mockingbird. We need blackboards or whiteboards as visual aids and the sound of the mockingbird for relaxation. However, teachers shouldn't be so dependent on the board and textbooks. Use of the title "To Kill the Blackboard?" is intended to attract teachers' attention to the ineffective overuse of the boards on which they mostly transfer knowledge. We can encourage students to be more actively involved in the learning process through the use of films, which also enable students to be entertained while they are learning the language in question. In the language teaching profession, we need to adapt new technologies to classroom use. Videos can be used as a tool for developing students' listening comprehension and enhancing their intercultural competence as well as presenting new language material or consolidating what has already been presented through the activities suggested in this paper. Today, most classrooms have monitors and video/dvd or VCD players available for teachers to make use of. Student feedback regarding the use of video clips and films in the language class is generally very positive when the materials are authentic and attract to students' interest. Copyright The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology

69 As technology becomes cheaper and more readily available to students it seems appropriate that we, as language teachers, integrate it into our lesson and assessment planning in the same way we have been doing with video, film and computer-assisted learning strategies. Students are surrounded by technology and this technology can provide interesting and novel approaches to language learning. We can conclude with the following quotation from Canning (2001): With the increase in educational technology, video is no longer imprisoned in the traditional classroom; it can easily be expanded into the computer aided learning lab (Canning 1998). Interactive language learning using video, CD ROM, and computers allow learners the ability to view and actively participate in lessons at their desired pace. It is recommended that institutions and practitioners encourage the use of instructional video in the ESOL classroom as it enables them to monitor and alternate instruction by fostering greater mental effort for active learning instead of passive retrieval of visual and auditory information. References Aksu, İbrahim (1996) Handout for video of 'To Kill a Mockingbird', Onsekiz Mart University. Çanakkale Bouman, Lenny (1995). "Video, an extra dimension to the study of literature." Language Learning Journal. No 12 September 1995, pp Brooke, Sebastian (2003). "Video Production in the Foreign Language Classroom: Some Practical Ideas." The Internet TESL Journal, Vol. IX, No. 11, November Cunning-Wilson, C. (2001). "Practical Aspects of Using Video in the Foreign Language Classroom." The Internet TESL Journal, Vol. VI, No.11, November Examples of Technology. Graddol, David (1997). "Can English survive the new technologies?" IATEFL Newsletter. Issue No.138, August-September 1992, pp.13. Kayaoğlu, M.N. (1990) "An Instructional Model for Using Video Effectively in Turkish EFL Settings" Unpublished MA Thesis in TEFL, Bilkent University, Ankara. Lebedko, M.G. (1999). "Video as a Resource for Teaching American Culture." TESL Reporter, Vol.32 (1), April 1999, pp.1-8. Lee, Harper. (1974), To Kill a Mockingbird. London: Pan Books Rand, W.E. (1997), Improved Listening Comprehension Through Video TESL Reporter 30, 2 (1997), pp Stempleski, S. and Arcario, P. (Undated). Video in Second Language Teaching: Using, Selecting and Producing Video for the Classroom. TESOL Inc Stempleski, S and Tomalin, B. (2001). Film. (ed) Alan Maley. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Stoller, F. L. (undated). "Using Video in Theme-based Curricula" In Stempleski, S. and Arcario, P. (eds) Tatsuki Donna (1997). "Video in Curriculum Design" IATEFL Newsletter. Issue No.138, August-September 1992, pp.13. To Kill a Mockingbird. (1962). Video. Cast: Gregory Peck. Brock Peters, Robert Duvall. Director: Richard Mulligan. Tomalin B. (undated) 'Teaching young children with video' in Stempleski S. & Arcario P. (eds) Zettersten, Arne. (1986). New Technologies in Language Learning. Oxford:Pergamon Press. Video Lessons Appendices Appendix A Extracts from the novel Extract 1 Maycomb was an old town, but it was a tired old town when I first knew it. In rainy weather the streets turned to red slop; grass grew on the sidewalks, the court-house sagged in the square. Somehow, it was hotter then; a black dog suffered on a summer's day; bony mules hitched to Hoover carts flicked flies in the sweltering shade of the live oaks on the square. Men's stiff collars wilted by nine in the morning. Ladies bathed before noon, after their three o'clock naps, and by nightfall were like soft tea-cakes with frostings of sweat and sweet talcum. People moved slowly then. They ambled across the square, shuffled in and out of the stores around it, took their time about everything. A day was twenty-four hours long but seemed longer. There was no hurry, for there was nowhere to go, nothing to buy and no money to buy' it with, nothing to see outside the boundaries of Maycomb County. But it was a time of vague optimism for some of the people: Maycomb County had recently been told that it had nothing to fear but fear itself. p.11 Copyright The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology

70 Extract 2 ' Jem gave a reasonable description of Boo: Boo was about six-and-a-half feet tall, judging from his tracks; he dined on raw squirrels and any cats he could catch, that's why his hands were blood-stained - if you ate an animal raw, you could never wash the blood off. There was a long jagged scar that ran across his face; what teeth he had were yellow and rotten; his eyes popped, and he drooled most of the time. p.19 Extract 3 So Jem received most of his information from Miss Stephanie Crawford, a neighborhood scold, who said she knew the whole thing. According to Miss Stephanie, Boo was sitting in the Jiving-room cutting some items from the May-comb Tribune to paste in his scrapbook. His father entered the room. As Mr Radley passed by, Boo drove the scissors into his parent's leg, pulled them out, wiped them on his pants, and resumed his activities. Extract 4 Miss Stephanie said old Mr Radley said no Radley was going to any asylum, when it was suggested that a season in Tuscaloosa might be helpful to Boo. Boo wasn't crazy, he was high-strung at times. It was all right to shut him up, Mr Radley conceded, but insisted that Boo not be charged with anything: he was not a criminal. The sheriff hadn't the heart to put him in jail alongside Negroes, so Boo was locked in the court-house basement. To Kill a Mockingbird, by Harper Lee Appendix B Table 1 Differences between literature on paper and literature on the celluloid In terms of the storyline and plot Author has only words at his disposal, descriptive and informative. Author has unlimited time and space at his disposal, for instance, To Kill a Mockingbird by Harper Lee covers 285 pages and it might take almost 10 hours to read it. Author can divide the story into clearly indicated, separate chapters. Film director makes actors communicate things without speaking but through facial expression, gesture and pose. Director has to unravel the plot in no more than two and half hours and has to make a well-considered selection of scenes. Director has no such device at his disposal, but uses such time indicators as ten years, In terms of characterisation Author has to describe characters in detail, which Director has an advantage over the storywriter requires him to choose descriptive words carefully. because he is able to visualise things. Author can be as elaborate and precise as s/he wishes to be in describing the inner world of a character. Author makes a narrator tell the story and describe every happening through his eyes and writes the story in the I-form, often loaded with personal viewpoints and comments. Author creates tension in the story by means of words only, the power of words (their figurative and denotative meaning). In terms of viewpoint In terms of plot and tension Director finds himself/herself at disadvantage during the expression of emotions because he has to depend on the acting talents of actors to portray what is going on inside a particular character. Director cannot translate a narrator s character s viewpoint into the version. Having a narrator tell the story in a flashback or having a subjective camera that focuses on people, objects and events as if it is the eye of the I person, does this. Director creates tension in the film by means of the camera (its angle and focus) and two extra features (sound and music) that make film so much different from literature on paper. (Adapted from Bauman 1996:29-31) Copyright The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology

71 Appendix C Table 2. Examples of Technology in Language Teaching and Learning Examples of technology TV Radio CD Rom Examples of use in teaching and learning Listening to programmes Potential benefits Learn at own pace, listening skills trained Watching programmes Variety of material, listening to target language, visual aids Language and grammar exercises, topic-specific Focused learning, reinforcement, no time limitations Computers Language games Excitement factor of using computers, independent learning, learning through fun, self-experimentation, immediate feedback CALL Internet Electronic Dictionary PowerPoint Audio Cassettes Videos Tandem learning via Internet Grammar and vocabulary drills Distance learning, use of web pages in class for discussion/exploration, students can create their own web page Consult new vocabulary/phrases Presentations, language teaching Listening comprehensions (fillin-the-gaps, multiple choice) Watching feature films/programmes Contact via /phone with partner in target language Reinforcement of skills, no time limits, designed specifically for language learning, immediate feedback Reading target language, up-to-date materials, less formal Convenient, fast, portable Easy-to-read and nicely presented, can be scrolled through Hearing target language, ability to rewind Hearing target language, ability to rewind, variety of topics, self-study opportunities, exposure to foreign culture in some instances Exposure to target language, increasing knowledge of foreign culture Potential problems Can t rewind (unless recorded), lack of visual aids Can t rewind (unless taped), may be too hard for beginners Computer-related problems, need for selfmotivation, cost, copyright issues, material can become out-of-date Cost, technical problems, need for training Can be boring and repetitive Technical problems, need for student training, lack of teacher control, requires careful planning, files can be slow to load Cost, may not contain all vocabulary required (eg slang), problems with the machine (eg- batteries) Technical problems. Lack of or overload of information Level of target language, a little bit dated, technical problems Level of target language, lack of resources Need for self-motivation, (Search) Copyright The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology

72 Appendix D Editorial Reviews Amazon.com essential video Ranked 34 on the American Film Institute's list of the 100 Greatest American Films, To Kill a Mockingbird is quite simply one of the finest family-oriented dramas ever made. A beautiful and deeply affecting adaptation of the Pulitzer Prize-winning novel by Harper Lee, the film retains a timeless quality that transcends its historically dated subject matter (racism in the Depression-era South) and remains powerfully resonant in present-day America with its advocacy of tolerance, justice, integrity, and loving, responsible parenthood. It's tempting to call this an important "message" movie that should be required viewing for children and adults alike, but this riveting courtroom drama is anything but stodgy or pedantic. As Atticus Finch, the small-town Alabama lawyer and widower father of two, Gregory Peck gives one of his finest performances with his impassioned defense of a black man (Brock Peters) wrongfully accused of the rape and assault of a young white woman. While his children, Scout (Mary Badham) and Jem (Philip Alford), learn the realities of racial prejudice and irrational hatred, they also learn to overcome their fear of the unknown as personified by their mysterious, mostly unseen neighbor Boo Radley (Robert Duvall, in his brilliant, almost completely nonverbal screen debut). What emerges from this evocative, exquisitely filmed drama is a pure distillation of the themes of Harper Lee's enduring novel, a showcase for some of the finest American acting ever assembled in one film, and a rare quality of humanitarian artistry (including Horton Foote's splendid screenplay and Elmer Bernstein's outstanding score) that seems all but lost in the chaotic morass of modern cinema. --Jeff Shannon A small town lesson for the whole world, November 17, 2003 Reviewer: Tony Hinde from Sydney, Australia It's easy to think "To Kill a Mockingbird" is older than it is. Released in 1962, the same year James Bond was immortalised in "Dr. No," director Robert Mulligan chose to film in black & white, despite Hollywood's rush to adopt the new Kodachrome II color film. Since the story is set in the 1930's, the classic look of the film adds weight to its historic reality. Adapted from Harper Lee's only book, which won a Pulitzer Prize, the script itself won an academy award. Added to this is a stellar cast who manage to hold their own against the amazing performance given by, Gregory Peck, an actor at the peak of his abilities. For those who also enjoy Robert Duvall's huge body of work, it may be interesting to note this film as his first, in a non-speaking but pivotal role as Boo Radley. It would be easy to dismiss an old film that deals with the race issue in Alabama. Some might think this topic has been done to death and, to an extent, they are right. But To Kill a Mockingbird is not solely about racism. It deals with honesty, justice, fear, childhood, quick judgements and parenthood. Even the race card is dealt with fairly, without blowing things out to sensational proportions. It shows that minor, selfish decisions, which rely on the racism in others, can breed larger evils. An adult Jean Louise 'Scout' Finch narrates much of the story but it is her father, Atticus, around which the narrative hinges. Played with subtle dignity by Peck, Atticus is a small town Lawyer who agrees to defend Tom Robinson against charges of Rape. He agrees, in the full knowledge that many of his neighbours will hate him for defending a black man and still others will expect him to put up only a token effort. Instead, Atticus does what we know he will... his best. There is an interesting contrast between what we see of Atticus and how his two children describe him. Apparently he's too old to do anything, like play ball, and they are a bit embarrassed by his quite ways. The trial and its associated moral battles put their father squarely in the spotlight and not in a good way. He and they are attacked and ridiculed but in the end Scout and Jem see a different picture of their old Pop. A man who is strong enough to stand against hatred, and brave enough to highlight the weaknesses of flawed white girl against the strengths of an honest black man. The name of the film is taken from one of Attcus's rules relating to using a rifle. Jem relates his father's instruction "to remember it was a sin to kill a mockingbird...well, I reckon because mockingbirds don't do anything but make music for us to enjoy. They don't eat people's gardens, don't nest in the corncribs, they don't do one thing but just sing their hearts out for us." Copyright The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology

73 WEB-BASED LEARNING MATERIALS FOR HIGHER EDUCATION: THE MERLOT REPOSITORY Emrah Orhun Computer & Information Science Department Troy State University Montgomery Montgomery AL , USA ABSTRACT MERLOT (Multimedia Educational Resource for Learning and Online Teaching) is a web-based open resource designed primarily for faculty and students in higher education. The resources in MERLOT include over 8,000 learning materials and support materials from a wide variety of disciplines that can be integrated within the context of a larger course. Support resources attached to materials include sample assignments and evaluations of the learning materials, and help faculty members identify learning materials that are high quality and pedagogically appropriate for their courses. Evaluation materials include discipline panel peer reviews and individual user reviews. MERLOT is also a community of people who strive to enrich teaching and learning by connecting systems, consortiums, and institutions of higher education, professional organizations of academic disciplines, and individual members. The number of registered individual members who can add materials, comments, and assignments to the MERLOT collection has currently exceeded 11,000. This paper presents examples of learning materials included in the repository and discusses some of the issues in the use of webbased materials in teaching in higher education. Keywords: Web-based learning, Online teaching, Evaluation of learning materials, Open educational resources. INTRODUCTION There are two aspects of using web-based teaching and learning materials to enhance student learning. The first aspect is the availability of materials in the chosen field of study. Since high quality learning materials are costly to produce, sharing of teaching/learning resources among institutions is needed. Online resources shared over the World Wide Web include complete courses as well as smaller materials. For example, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology is making the materials for nearly all its courses freely available on the web as part of the program, known as MIT OpenCourseWare (2003). The second aspect of using web-based teaching and learning materials concerns finding relevant materials and assessing their quality. Finding resources with standard web search engines is usually inefficient. Search for relevant information on the web can benefit from the availability of portals, websites that are entry points to other websites. Educational portals (e.g. University of Texas World Lecture Hall) provide systems of categorization and searching that allow users access to learning and teaching resources linked to the portal. Such portals may also offer services that support communication and collaboration among the educators and learners. MERLOT (Multimedia Educational Resource for Learning and Online Teaching) is a portal designed primarily for faculty and students in higher education. The resources in the MERLOT repository include over 8,000 free learning materials and support materials from a wide variety of disciplines that can be integrated within the context of a larger course ( MERLOT Tasting Room, 2002). Support resources attached to materials include sample assignments and evaluations of the learning materials and help faculty members identify high-quality learning materials that are pedagogically appropriate for their courses. Evaluation materials include discipline panel peer reviews and individual user reviews. MERLOT was created by the California State University-Center for Distributed Learning in Since then MERLOT has grown into an international cooperative project with 23 partner institutions serving over 1,400 campuses which serve over 350,000 faculty and about 8 million students ( A Brief and Simplified History of MERLOT, 2002). Troy State University has been an institutional partner of MERLOT since 2000 with the author serving on the Information Technology Discipline Team. MERLOT also aims at building a community of people who strive to enrich the teaching and learning experience by connecting systems, consortiums, and institutions of higher education, professional organizations of academic disciplines, and individual members ( MERLOT Tasting Room, 2002). The number of registered individual members who can add materials, comments, and assignments to the MERLOT collection has currently exceeded 13,000. LEARNING AND TEACHING MATERIALS IN THE MERLOT COLLECTION Searching and Browsing in MERLOT Copyright The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology

74 The resources in the MERLOT repository include teaching-learning modules (called learning objects ) that can be re-used in different contexts, and support materials, which include sample assignments, formal peer reviews and user comments. MERLOT s advanced searching and sorting features allow faculty and students to search materials by title, description, author, subject category, material type, primary audience, technical format or language of material. Other search options include author's , author's organization, source code availability, cost, copyright restrictions, content URL, availability of peer reviews, availability of member comments, availability of assignments, minimum panel rating and minimum user rating. The material types include simulation, animation, tutorial, drill and practice, quiz/test, lecture/presentation, case study, collection, and reference material. The search results can be sorted according to title, author, date entered, rating or material type. The users can also conduct searches for MERLOT members by name, organization, address, phone, and associations. The collection can be browsed by subject area, which includes Arts, Business, Education, Humanities, Mathematics, Science and Technology, and Social Sciences. The subjects are organized in a three-level hierarchy. For example, the Science and Technology category currently has over three thousand entries which are organized in eleven sub-categories including Agriculture, Information Technology, etc. The Information Technology subcategory in turn has twelve sub/subcategories, which include E-commerce, Networking, Security and others. The "browse members" link on the Browse the MERLOT Library screen allows the user to browse the MERLOT members by subject area/skill or interest. Figure 1 shows the expansion of the Database sub/subcategory under Information Technology. Two tutorials and a drill-and-practice are displayed in the partial listing. Each material has a peer review and one or more user ( Member ) comments. The ratings are indicated by the number of stars on a scale of 1 to 5, 5 being the highest. Figure 2 shows Detail View of the third material Creating Databases and Tables In SQL. Figure 1. Entries in the Database sub/subcategory of Information Technology subcategory under Science and Technology category Peer Reviews The quality of the learning materials in the MERLOT collection is ensured by the peer review process. MERLOT has established discipline communities of reviewers to conduct peer reviews of learning materials within the discipline for the following thirteen subject areas: biology, business, chemistry, engineering, health sciences, history, information technology, mathematics, music, physics, psychology, teacher education, and world languages. In the peer review process, each learning material is evaluated by at least two team members who have relevant expertise. Copyright The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology

75 Figure 2. Detail View of Creating Databases and Tables In SQL The resulting peer review report posted to MERLOT contains a description of the learning material and the evaluation. The description includes learning goals, targeted student population(s), prerequisite knowledge/skills, type of learning material, summary of procedures for using the software and technical requirements (Hanley and Thomas, 2000). The evaluation is divided into three dimensions: quality of content, potential effectiveness as a teaching tool, and ease of use. Each of these dimensions is evaluated separately (on a scale of 1-5 stars, 5 being the highest), and an overall rating is computed ( Peer Review of MERLOT Materials, 2002). A review must average three stars in order to be posted to the site. Figure 3 shows how a review report is displayed on the MERLOT web site. Member Contributions to MERLOT Individual members can submit learning materials, assignments and user comments (called Member Comments) to MERLOT. The entries in the MERLOT repository are listed with the numbers of and average ratings for Peer Reviews and Member Comments as shown in Figure 1. A sample user comment is given in Figure 4. Figure 3(a). Peer Review of Creating Databases and Tables In SQL (Part a) Assignments An Assignment is an example that explains how an instructor has used a particular learning material in a specific context. Assignments help create understanding of how particular learning materials might be used in a course ( MERLOT Introduction: Assignments, 2002). Search for learning materials indicates whether any assignments exist for the materials listed, as Figure 1 illustrates. Search options for assignments include: subject category, sub-category, assignment title, description, author's name, topics, course, education level, learning objectives, technical notes, and assessment. Search results are listed with category, title, date, course, by, and education level. Copyright The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology

76 Current State of MERLOT MERLOT is steadily growing as indicated in Table 1. As of April 25, 2003, MERLOT indexes 8580 learning materials of which 2457 have been added during the last 365 days, representing a 40.1% increase. However, only 881 (10.3%) of the materials have been peer reviewed. The number of materials with member comments has reached 1,831, representing 21.3% of the materials, and assignments have totaled 352, representing 4.1%. The number of registered members has almost reached 13,700, representing an increase of 72.8% during the last year. Figure 3(b). Peer Review of Creating Databases and Tables In SQL (Part b) Table 1. Growth of MERLOT materials, members, and peer reviews (April 25, 2003) Total Added during last 365 days Materials Members Peer Reviews Member Comments Assignments Figure 3(c). Peer Review of Creating Databases and Tables In SQL (Part c) Copyright The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology

77 CONCLUSIONS MERLOT aspires to be not only a repository of web learning materials, but also evaluations and guidance for use (Hanley & Thomas, 2000). The MERLOT project has made significant progress towards its goal of providing a free and open collection of high quality Web-based learning materials to improve learning and teaching within higher education. Knauff (2001) discusses some of the strengths and weaknesses of MERLOT. Two limitations of MERLOT are the small ratio of the materials that are peer reviewed and scarcity of assignments. The labor-intensive peer review process carried out by 150 discipline team members is obviously too slow in spite of recent improvements in productivity. The scarcity of assignments does not currently get as much attention as peer reviews in MERLOT. Although we might expect continuing increases in the number of peer reviews, learning assignments, and user reviews in MERLOT, successful integration of learning materials into teaching may require additional initiatives, such as MERLOT TWO ( ABOUT MERLOT-Teaching Well Online, 2001), which focuses on successful integration of online resources in teaching and learning. Evaluation and usability improvement of MERLOT educational resources are being carried out at several institutions. An ongoing study at Troy State University is aimed at exploring the potential of web-based learning and teaching materials to enhance student learning in Computer and Information Science (CIS). The goal of the study is to find out to what extent MERLOT provides relevant and quality materials for the CIS courses. The preliminary results indicate that the quality and quantity of learning materials in the MERLOT collection is sufficient to satisfy the majority of CIS students knowledge/learning needs in specific courses. The ongoing study is also trying to evaluate the usability of the MERLOT collection. A more important issue concerning the future of MERLOT and sharing of web-based resources in general is economical. How non-profit cooperatives such as MERLOT can be sustained in an era of continuing financial cuts for education institutions is a major challenge. Figure 4. Member Comments for Creating Databases and Tables In SQL REFERENCES A Brief and Simplified History of MERLOT. (2002). Retrieved May 25, 2002, from ABOUT MERLOT-Teaching Well Online (TWO). (2001). Retrieved May 25, 2002, from Evaluation Standards for Learning Materials in MERLOT. (2000). Retrieved May 25, 2002, from Hanley, G.L. & Thomas, C. (2000). MERLOT: Peer Review of Instructional technology. Syllabus Magazine, 14(3). Retrieved May 25, 2002, from Knauff, B. (2001). MERLOT promises efficiency and quality control. In Web Teaching. Retrieved May 25, 2002, from MERLOT Editorial Boards (2002) Retrieved May 25, 2002, from Copyright The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology

78 MERLOT Introduction: Assignments. (2002). Retrieved May 25, 2002, from MERLOT Tasting Room (2002). Retrieved May 25, 2002, from MIT OpenCourseWare. Retrieved May 10, 2003, from Peer Review of MERLOT Materials. (2002). Retrieved May 25, 2002, from Peer Review Process. (2002). Retrieved May 25, 2002, from Copyright The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology

79 ALTERNATİF DEĞERLENDİRME ARACI OLARAK BİLGİSAYAR DESTEKLİ BİREYSEL GELİŞİM DOSYASI UYGULAMASININDAN YANSIMALAR: BİR ÖZEL DURUM ÇALIŞMASI Doç. Dr. Adnan BAKİ * Arş.Gör.Osman BİRGİN** *KTU, Fatih Eğitim Fakültesi, Bilgisayar ve Öğretim Teknolojileri Bölümü, TRABZON **KTÜ, Fatih Eğitim Fakültesi, İlköğretim Bölümü,TRABZON Özet Eğitim alanındaki yeni araştırmalar ve uygulamalar geleneksel öğrenme, öğretme ve değerlendirme yaklaşımlarını da derinden etkilemektedir. Bu değişim süreci öğrencinin öğrenmesini sadece sınırlı bir zaman diliminde çoktan seçmeli sorulara verdiği cevaplara bakarak değerlendirmekten ziyade, öğrencinin öğrenme sürecinde bireysel ve grup olarak gösterdiği performanslarını da değerlendirilmeye katılmasını gerekli kılmaktadır. Bu nedenle, yapısalcı öğrenme teorisiyle tutarlı olan alternatif değerlendirme tekniklerinden bireysel gelişim dosyası nın (portfolio assessment) matematik eğitim alanında kullanımı gittikçe yaygınlaşmaktadır. Çalışmanın amacı, matematik dersine yönelik alternatif bir değerlendirme aracı olarak geliştirilen bilgisayar destekli bireysel gelişim dosyasının (BDBGD) eğitim sistemi içinde uygulanabilirliğini ortaya koymaktır. İlköğretim 7.sınıf matematik dersine yönelik geliştirilen bireysel gelişim dosyasının 2 haftalık pilot çalışması yapıldı. Asıl çalışma ise öğretim yılında Trabzon ilinde 2 farklı ilköğretim okulunda görev yapan 2 matematik öğretmenin kendi sınıflarında bir dönem boyunca uygulanmasıyla gerçekleşmiştir. Veriler, uygulama sürecinde ve sonunda öğretmenlerle gerçekleştirilen mülakatlardan, araştırmacının edindiği gözlem ve izlenimlerden elde edilmiştir. Verilerin analizinde üçgenleme (triangulation) tekniği kullanıldı. Bireysel gelişim dosyası uygulamasının üstün ve zayıf yönleri öğretmenlerin görüşleri ışığı altında tartışıldı. Bu çalışma, BDBGD nın öğrencinin geleneksel ölçme değerlendirme araçlarına göre daha gerçekçi ve ayrıntılı olarak izleme ve hakkında daha isabetli kararlar alma imkanı sunduğunu ve eğitim sistemimiz içinde alternatif bir değerlendirme aracı olabileceğini ortaya koymuştur. Anahtar Sözcükler: Matematik Eğitimi, Ölçme ve Değerlendirme, Bireysel Gelişim Dosyası REFLECTIONS OF USING COMPUTER-BASED PORTFOLIOS AS AN ALTERNATIVE ASSESSMENT TOOLS: A CASE STUDY Abstract: The current educational research and practices have deeply affected the traditional approaches of learning, teaching and assessment. In this process, student s learning cannot be assessed in a way as considering of how to students achieve in a limited time scale and in a test consisting of multiple-chose questions. This approach requires assessing student individual and group performance as a whole throughout his/her learning experiences. As a result of this, the portfolio assessment based on constructivist learning theory became widespread in the field of mathematics education. This study aimed to examine the applicability of a computer-based portfolio (CBP) developed as an alternative assessment tool in the current school system. Pilot studies of the CBP with two mathematics teachers took two weeks. Then, the teachers from two primary schools used the CBP for their students at grade seven during the first term of the academic year. Data gathered through interviews conducted with teachers and observer s notes about the application of the CBP. Qualitative data were examined and analyzed by means of the triangulation technique. Reflections of the implementation of portfolio assessment approach were discussed under the light of teacher s views. The results showed that the CBP could be as an alternative assessment in Turkish education system. The CBP assessment could provide teachers with an opportunity for more richer and valid information about student performance than traditional assessments. Key Words: Mathematics Education, Measurement and Assessment, Portfolios 1.GİRİŞ Öğrenme kuramlarındaki yeni anlayışlar ölçme ve değerlendirme etkinliklerine doğrudan yansımaktadır (Fourie ve Van Niekerk, 2001). Davranışçı öğrenme kuramına bağlı olarak yapılan ölçme ve değerlendirme etkinliklerinde genellikle kritere dayalı testler, standart çoktan seçmeli testler ve öğrencinin zekasının ölçülmesinde kullanılan IQ testleri kullanılmaktadır. Davranışçı öğrenme kuramına dayanan bu ölçme araçları, öğrencinin bilgisi sınırlı bir zaman diliminde ölçülmeye çalışılmakta, öğrencinin kendi başarısını ve eksiklerini görme fırsatı vermemekte, öğrencinin oluşturduğu öğrenme şeması hakkında yeterli bilgi sunmamaktadır Copyright The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology

80 (Romberg, 1993; Shepard, 1989; Mumme, 1990). Bu tür ölçme yaklaşımları basit düzeydeki bilgi ve becerileri ölçmekte, üst düzeydeki bilişsel becerileri yoklamakta yetersiz kalmaktadır (Ryan, 1998; Shepard, 1989). Bunun aksine bütünleştirici (constructivist) bilgi kuramı, bireyin bilgiyi oluştururken aktif katılımı ve çevresiyle sosyal etkileşim içinde olması gerektiğini savunmaktadır. Bu süreçte birey önceki bilgileri ve tecrübeleri ışığında yeni bilgileri organize eder, yorumlar ve anlamlaştırır (Baki, 2002). Bu kurama göre öğrenme, bireyin tartışma, işbirliğine girme, derinlemesine irdeleme gibi etkinliklerle zenginleştirilen bireysel bir süreçtir. Bu nedenle, öğrencinin öğrenmesini sadece sınırlı bir zaman diliminde çoktan seçmeli sorulara verdiği cevaplara bakarak değerlendirme yeterli olamamakta, öğrencinin öğrenme sürecinde bireysel ve grup olarak gösterdiği performansların da değerlendirilmeye katılması gerekmektedir (Dwyer, 1994; Ryan, 1998; Lustin, 1996). Üstelik, bu kurama dayanan performans değerlendirme, her bir öğrencinin rutin olmayan problem çözme, ifade etme, varsayımda bulunma, çeşitli problem durumlarında matematiksel bilgilerini kullanabilme gibi yeteneklerindeki gelişme derecesini belirleme fırsatı sunmaktadır (Romberg, 1993). Amerika daki Ulusal Matematik Öğretmenleri Konseyi (National Council of Teachers of Mathematics [NCTM], 1989) yayınlamış olduğu standartlarda öğrencinin neyi yapıp yapamadığının yanında neyi bildiğini değerlendiren, matematik öğrenmesini destekleyen, yazılı, sözlü ve eylemsel olarak performansını açığa çıkaran çeşitli değerlendirme teknik ve araçların kullanılmasını önermektedir. Bu yüzden, öğrencilerin performanslarını değerlendirmek ve gelişimlerini takip etmek için geleneksel değerlendirme araç ve tekniklerinden farklı olarak alternatif değerlendirme tekniklerinin kullanmasına ihtiyaç vardır (NCTM, 1989; 1995; Thompson, 1999). İlköğretim seviyesinde değerlendirme etkinliklerinin öğrencinin eksiklerinin saptanması ve giderilmesine yönelik yapılması önerilmektedir. Ancak, Milli Eğitim Bakanlığı tarafından bu yönde tavsiyelerde bulunulmasına rağmen uygulamada öğretmenlerin ölçme değerlendirme yaklaşımları birçok olumsuzlukları ve eksiklikleri beraberinde getirmektedir. Genellikle öğretmenlere MEB bakanlığının yasal zorunluluğunun dışında sınıf içi değerlendirmeleri nasıl yapacağı, hangi ölçme değerlendirme tekniklerini kullanacağı konusunda yeterli kaynak ve bilgi verilmemektedir (Baki ve Birgin, 2002). Bu nedenle, sınıf içi değerlendirmenin yapılma biçimi öğretmenin kendi tecrübesi ile sınırlı kalmaktadır Yapılan çalışmalar ülkemizde matematik öğretmenlerinin sınıf içi değerlendirme yapmada yetersiz olduklarını ortaya koymaktadır (Türüklü, 2001). Bu durum öğrencinin öğrenmesini geliştirmede ve eksiklerini tespit etmede oldukça önemli olan sınıf içi değerlendirmenin eksikliğine işaret etmektedir. Üstelik, geleneksel ölçme ve değerlendirme araçlarıyla sistem içerisindeki öğrencilerin sahip oldukları yetenekler ile gelişme potansiyelleri birlikte değerlendirilmemekte ve tanınamamaktadır. İlgili literatür, bireysel gelişim dosyasının sınıf içi değerlendirmenin yapılmasında etkili bir araç olarak kullanılabileceğini göstermektedir (Birgin, 2003, Stiggins, 2001; Shepard, 2000; Micklo, 1997). Araştırmalar bireysel gelişim dosyaları ile değerlendirmenin geleneksel ölçme araçlarıyla yapılan değerlendirmelere göre karşılaştırıldığında öğretmene, öğrenciye ve veliye öğrenci hakkında birinci elden güvenilir ve dinamik veriler sağlamasından dolayı eğitim alanında kullanılması gerektiği birçok araştırmacı tarafından önerilmektedir (De Fina, 1992; Mumme, 1990). Bu değerlendirme tekniğinin ilköğretim kademesinde matematik dersinde kullanılması öğrencileri daha iyi tanıma fırsatı sağladığı ve öğrencilerin eksiklerinin zamanında telafi edilmesine yardımcı olduğu ve öğretmene öğretimini planlamasına yardım ettiği belirtilmektedir (Barton ve Collins, 1997; Norman, 1998). Yapılan literatür taraması sonunda, bireysel gelişim dosyasının nasıl uygulanması gerektiği ile ilgili bir çok teorik çalışma bulunmasına rağmen bunun öğretmen, öğrenci ve veliler tarafından değerlendirme aracı olarak kullanılmasına ilişkin çalışmalar sınırlı kalmaktadır (Norman, 1998; Herman ve Winter, 1994; Cicmanec ve Viecknicki, 1994; Simon ve Forgette-Giroux, 2000; Mokhtari vd, 1996). Yine, bireysel gelişim dosyası uygulaması ile ilgili ülkemizde yapılan çalışmalar çok az olmakla beraber bunlar teorik alanda kalmıştır (Birgin, 2003). Bu yüzden, geleneksel ölçme ve değerlendirme yaklaşımlarına alternatif olarak günümüzdeki yaygın olarak kabul edilen, bilişsel ve yapısalcı öğrenme teorilerine dayalı olan bireysel gelişim dosyası uygulamasının bir değerlendirme aracının eğitim sistemimizde uygulamaya konulması, uygulama sırasında karşılaşılan problemlerin tespit edilmesi, uygulama sonuçlarının alınması daha sonra yapılacak çalışmalara rehber olması bakımından oldukça önemlidir. Üstelik, bireysel gelişim dosyasının öğretmenlerin geleneksel öğretme ve değerlendirme yaklaşımlarını değiştirmede önemli bir role sahip olduğu göz önüne alındığında bunun sistem içinde uygulanabilirliğinin araştırılmasının önemi daha iyi anlaşılmaktadır. Bu çalışma kapsamında öncelikli olarak bireysel gelişim dosyası ne olduğu, sağladığı kolaylıklar, içeriğinin nasıl belirlendiği ve nasıl değerlendirildiği ile ilgili literatüre bağlı olarak bilgi verildikten sonra yukarıda belirtilen sorunlara çözüm üretebilmek için ilköğretim 7.sınıf matematik dersine yönelik değerlendirme aracı olarak kullanmak üzere bilgisayar destekli bireysel gelişim dosyası (BDBGD) hazırlanmıştır. İlköğretim 7.sınıf matematik dersine yönelik geliştirilen BDBGD nın öğrencilerin değerlendirilmesinde kullanılmasının sistem Copyright The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology

81 içinde uygulanabilirliği nedir? sorusu bu araştırmanın problemini oluşturmaktadır. Araştırmanın esas problemine bağlı olarak alt problemler aşağıdaki gibi belirlenmiştir; a) BDBGD nın uygulanması sürecinde karşılaşılan teknik sorunlar nelerdir? b) BDBGD nın sınıf içi uygulamasında karşılaşılan sorunlar nelerdir? c) Öğretmenler BDBGD sını alternatif bir değerlendirme yöntemi olarak nasıl görmektedirler? Araştırmanın amacı ise, yukarıdaki sorulara verilen cevaplar ışığında matematik dersine yönelik geliştirilen BDBGD nın sistem içindeki uygulanabilirliğini ortaya koymaktır Bireysel Gelişim Dosyası Nedir? Bireysel gelişim dosyasının (portfolio) tanımı kullanıcıların amacına ve kullanma biçimlerine göre değişmektedir. Dolayısıyla, bireysel gelişim dosyası hakkında tek bir tanım yapmak mümkün değildir. Yine de bireysel gelişim dosyaları ile ilgili başlıca özellikler şunlardır (De Dina,1992, s.7): a) Gelişim dosyası, öğrencinin bir veya birkaç alandaki çalışmalarının amaçlı, sistematik ve anlamlı olacak şekilde toplanmasıdır. b) Gelişim dosyasına girecek olan çalışmaların belirlenmesinde öğretmen, öğrenci, veli ve okul yönetiminin görüşleri alınabilir. c) Gelişim dosyasını oluşturma sürecinde öğrenciler, gelişim dosyasına girecek çalışmaları seçmenin yanında seçtikleri çalışmalar için de kriter oluşturmayı öğrenirler. d) Gelişim dosyasının içeriği günlük hayattan alınan öğrenme aktivitelerini yansıtacak şekilde düzenlenmeli, e) Gelişim dosyaları belli bir süreçte öğrencinin başarısını, ilerleyişini ve çabasını gösterecek şekilde devam eden bir süreci kapsamalı, f) Gelişim dosyasına seçilen çalışmalar çeşitli ve çok boyutlu olmalı, g) Gelişim dosyaları birçok alt dosyayı veya bölümü içerebilir. Birçok araştırmacı tarafından bireysel gelişim dosyasının ne olduğu hakkında çeşitli tanımlar yapılmıştır. Bunlardan bazıları şunlardır: Bireysel gelişim dosyası, öğrencinin bir yeteneğindeki gelişimini değerlendirmek için öğrenci, öğretmen ve meslektaşları tarafından seçilen ve tavsiye edilen birikimli ve sistematik olarak çalışmaların toplanmasıdır (Simon ve Forgette-Giroux, 2000, s.36). Bireysel gelişim dosyası, öğrencinin arkadaşlarıyla zihinsel, duyuşsal ve sosyal olarak nasıl etkileşime girdiği, nasıl düşündüğü, tartıştığı, analiz ettiği ve ürettiği, neyi öğrendiği ve nasıl öğrendiğinin kayıt edilmesidir (Grace, 1992). Bireysel gelişim dosyası, öğrencinin bir ve bir kaç alanda başarılarını ve gayretlerini arkadaşlarına ve ilgililere göstermek için çalışmalarının amaçlı olarak toplanmasıdır (Arter ve Spandal, 1991). Genel anlamda bireysel gelişim dosyası, öğrencinin çabasını, ilerleyişini veya başarısını gösteren çalışma örneklerinin amaçlı olarak toplanmasıdır (Melograno, 2000, s. 3). Bu tanımlar paralelinde çalışmada geçen bireysel gelişim dosyası ile değerlendirme (portfolio assessment); öğrencinin belli bir süreç içinde bir veya birkaç alandaki becerilerini yapmış olduğu çalışmaları veya gösterdiği davranışları düzenli ve birikimli olarak toplanması ile elde edilen delillerin önceden belirlenen kriterlere göre değerlendirilmesi olarak anlaşılmalıdır. Bireysel gelişim dosyası öğrencinin sadece yapmış olduğu çalışmaların ve göstermiş olduğu performansların rasgele izlenmesi veya toplanıp dosyalanması değildir. Burada önemli olan toplanan çalışmaların amaçlı, birikimli, önceden belirlenen değerlendirme kriterlerinin olması ve belli bir süreci içermesi gerekmektedir. Gelişim dosyaları öğrencinin öğrenmesi hakkında gerçek ve geniş bir resim sunmakta ve devamlı olarak öğrenciye dönüt vermektedir (Adams, 1998). Ayrıca, bireysel gelişim dosyaları her bir öğrencinin kendi çalışmalarını ve öğrenmelerini değerlendirme, ilerleyişlerini gözden geçirme fırsatı sunmaktadır (De Fina, 1992). Öğrencinin yaptığı çalışmaların sistematik olarak toplanması ile oluşturulan bireysel gelişim dosyaları öğrencinin yeteneklerini, güçlü olduğu yönleri, başarılarını ve bir süreç içindeki gelişimini, ihtiyaç duyduğu alanlar hakkında görsel ve dinamik deliller sağladığından öğrenciyi bir bütün olarak değerlendirme imkanı vermektedir. Bireysel gelişim dosyası öğrencilerin kazanması gereken en önemli becerilerden biri olan kendi öğrenmesini izlemesi ve kendini değerlendirebilme yeteneğini kazanmasına yardım eden güçlü bir araçtır (Kuhs, 1994; Copyright The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology

82 Asturias, 1994). Ayrıca, bireysel gelişim dosyası NCTM in standartlarında belirtilen yüksek performans ve beklentileri karşılamak için öğrencilerle çalışmada bir araçtır (Asturias, 1994). Üstelik, bireysel gelişim dosyaları ile değerlendirmenin standart çoktan seçmeli testlerle yapılan değerlendirmelere göre karşılaştırıldığında bir çok üstün tarafları olduğu görülür. Bunlar Tablo 1 de karşılaştırılmalı olarak verilmektedir (De Fina, 1992, s. 39) Tablo 1. Bireysel gelişim dosyası ile standart çoktan seçmeli sınavlar ile yapılan değerlendirme arasındaki farklar Bireysel gelişim dosyası ile yapılan değerlendirme Öğrencinin içinde bulunduğu doğal ortamda yapılır. Öğrencinin eksiklerini göstermesinin yanında başarılı olduğu yönlerini gösterme fırsatı sağlar. Öğretmene öğrenci hakkında birinci elden bilgi verir Öğretmene, öğrenciye, veliye ve yöneticilere öğrencinin zayıf ve güçlü olduğu alanları görme fırsatı verir. Devam eden bir süreç olduğundan çeşitli değerlendirme ve gözlem yapma imkanı vardır Öğrenci için gerçekçi ve anlamlı olan, günlük hayattan alınan etkinlikler içinde öğrenciyi değerlendirir. Öğrencinin kendi bilgileri ve çalışmaları hakkındaki düşüncelerini yansıtmasına (metacognitive) teşvik eder. Veliye çocuğunun çalışması ve bilgisi hakkındaki düşüncelerini yansıtmasına teşvik eder. Öğretmen- öğrenci-veli arasında iletişimin kurulmasına teşvik eder Öğretimi ve müfredatı yönlendirir, öğretim sürecinin merkezine öğrenciyi yerleştirir. Standart çoktan seçmeli sınavlar ile yapılan değerlendirme Doğal ortamda yapılmaz Öğrencinin belli bir alandaki hataları hakkında sınırlı bilgi verir. Öğrencinin öğrenmesindeki eksikliklerin teşhisine yönelik olarak sınırlı bilgi verir. Öğrencinin grup içindeki seviyesi hakkında bilgi verir Öğrenciyi sınırlı bir zaman diliminde sadece belli becerilerini değerlendirir. Öğrenci için anlamlı olmayabilen suni olarak oluşturulan etkinlikler içinde değerlendirir,. Öğrenciden sadece arzu edilen cevabı vermesini ister. Velilerin çoğu zaman anlamakta zorlandığı sayısal veriler sunar. Öğretmen yönetici etkileşimine odaklanır. Eğitim sürecinin merkezine müfredatı yerleştirir Bireysel Gelişim Dosyasının Sağladığı Kolaylıklar Bireysel gelişim dosyasının öğretmene, öğrenciye ve veliye sağladığı birçok fayda vardır. Bireysel gelişim dosyasının sağladığı faydalardan etkili bir şekilde yararlanma büyük ölçüde amacına uygun biçimde kullanılmasına bağlıdır. Bireysel gelişim dosyasının geleneksel ölçme ve değerlendirme araçlarına göre üstün olduğu taraflar şunlardır; Öğretmene, öğrencilerini kendi özellikleri ve ihtiyaçları içinde bireysel olarak değerlendirmenin yanında grup olarak da gösterdiği performanslara bakma fırsatı sağlamaktadır (Sewell vd., 2002) Öğretmen, veli ve öğrenci arasındaki iletişimi sağlamada somut bir iletişim aracı olarak hizmet eder (Norman, 1998). Eğitim öğretim sürecinde öğretmen ve öğrencinin sorumluluk almasının yanında velinin de öğrenme sürecine aktif bir üye olarak katılmasını sağlar (Kuhs, 1994). Bireysel gelişim dosyası öğretmene öğrencilerin ihtiyaçlarını dikkate alarak öğretimini planlamasında kılavuzluk eder (De Fina, 1992). Öğrencinin kendi kendine öğrenmesinde sorumluluk almasını teşvik eder (Barton ve Collins, 1997). Öğrenci hakkında çeşitli veri toplama araçlarıyla farklı kaynaklardan (veli, öğrencinin kendisi ve arkadaşı, öğretmen) bilginin toplanmasını imkan sağladığından öğrencinin daha sağlıklı, güvenilir ve tüm yönleriyle değerlendirilmesini sağlar (De Fina, 1992). Öğrencinin bir süreç içindeki gelişiminin izlenmesini, zayıf ve güçlü olduğu alanların tespit edilmesini sağlar (Gilman vd., 1995). Öğrencinin kendi kendini değerlendirmesine, kendi düşüncelerini yansıtmasına teşvik eder (Asturias, 1994). Bireysel gelişim dosyası ile değerlendirme, öğrencinin neyi ve nasıl öğrendiği hakkında bilgi verir (Kuhs, 1994). Yani, bireysel gelişim dosyası NCTM (1989) standartları arasında yer alan Copyright The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology

83 değerlendirme etkinliğinin, öğretimin ayrılmaz bir parçası olması gerektiği prensibinin işleyişini sağlar. Sonuç olarak, bireysel gelişim dosyaları öğrenci hakkında daha sağlıklı verilerin toplanmasını imkan vermesi, öğrencinin tüm yönlerinin bir süreç içinde değerlendirilmesini sağlaması, öğrenmesini teşvik etmesi, öğretmenöğrenci-veli arasında iletişimin kurulmasını fırsat vermesi gibi öğretmene, öğrenciye ve veliye birçok fırsatlar sunmaktadır Bireysel Gelişim Dosyasının İçeriğinin Düzenlenmesi Bireysel gelişim dosyasındaki çalışmaların seçiminde her bir öğrencinin sahip olduğu zihinsel, duyuşsal, devinişsel özelliklerin, geçirdiği tecrübelerin, etkileşimde bulunduğu sosyal ortamın ve sahip olduğu sosyoekonomik seviyenin farklı olduğu göz önüne alınmalıdır. Bu yüzden çalışmalar her bir öğrencinin bireysel ve grup olarak gösterdikleri performansları, bilişsel, duyuşsal ve devinişsel becerileri yansıtacak şekilde tasarlanmalıdır (Sewell vd., 2002). Üstelik, bireysel gelişim dosyası ile yapılacak olan değerlendirmenin çok boyutlu olmasına ve değerlendirmenin sağlıklı ve güvenilir olması için de verilerin öğretmen, öğrencinin kendisi, öğrencinin arkadaşı, veli gibi farklı kaynaklardan alınmasına fırsat verecek şekilde içerik düzenlenmelidir. Bireysel gelişim dosyasındaki çalışmaların içeriğini Simon ve Forgette-Giroux (2000) öğrencinin bilişsel, duyuşsal, devinişsel alanı, öğrencinin kendini yansıttığı meta-bilişsel alanı ve gelişmesi beklenen becerilerin seviyelerinin belirtildiği gelişimsel boyutu yansıtacak şekilde seçilebileceğini ifade etmektedir. Benzer şekilde, Barton ve Collins (1997) bireysel gelişim dosyasının içeriğinin belirlenmesi sürecinde bireysel gelişim dosyasının amacının belirlenmesi, çalışmaların seçimi ve değerlendirme kriterinin belirlenmesi aşamalarına dikkat çekmektedir. a) Bireysel gelişim dosyasının amacının belirlenmesi: Gelişim dosyasını hazırlamadaki ve içeriği düzenlemedeki en önemli nokta, gelişim dosyasının hangi amaca hizmet edeceğidir. Gelişim dosyasını hazırlamadaki amaçlardan bazılarını Mumme (1990, s.7) şöyle sıralamaktadır: Öğrencinin matematiksel ilerleyişinin değerlendirilmesine yardım etmek, Öğretmene öğretimle ilgili karar vermesine yardım etmek, Velilerle iletişimi sağlamak, Okulda uygulanan matematik programının değerlendirmesine yardım etmek, Okulun toplumla iletişimini sağlamak. Dolayısıyla bireysel gelişim dosyasının amacı, doğrudan onu oluşturan çalışmaların niteliğini ve oluşturma biçimini de etkileyeceğinden bireysel gelişim dosyasının kullanma aşamasında dikkatli olunması gerekmektedir. Bu çalışmada kullanılan bilgisayar destekli bireysel gelişim dosyası ilköğretim 7.sınıf matematik dersine yönelik olup öğrencinin matematiksel gelişimini hakkında öğrencinin kendisine, öğretmenine ve velisine bilgi vermesi amacıyla düzenlemiştir. b) Bireysel gelişim dosyasında bulunan çalışmaların seçimi: Gelişim dosyasını hazırlanmasındaki amaca yönelik olarak hangi tür çalışmaların nasıl seçileceği, kimler tarafından toplanacağı, kimlerin karar vereceği, hangi sıklıkta toplanacağı ve nasıl değerlendirileceği soruları önem kazanmaktadır. Bireysel gelişim dosyasının içeriğinin düzenlenmesinde öğretmen, meslektaşları, öğrencileri, veliler ve okul yöneticileri ile yapacakları toplantılarda gelişim dosyasının hazırlanmasındaki amacı belirledikten sonra amaca hizmet edecek olan çalışmaların niteliği, hangi sıklıkta ve nasıl toplanacağı kararlaştırılabilir. Böylece gelişim dosyasının oluşturulması sürecinde öğretmen, öğrenci, veli ve yöneticilerin sorumluluk alması uygulamanın yürütülmesini daha kolay hale getirecektir. Özellikle bireysel gelişim dosyasına girecek çalışmaların belirlenmesi sürecinde öğrencilerin katılması yapılacak olan çalışmalarda sorumluluk ve sahiplenme duygusunu geliştireceğinden oldukça önemlidir (Kuhs, 1994). Bireysel gelişim dosyasında kaç çalışmanın bulunacağı, her bir çalışmanın hangi amaca hizmet edeceği, çalışmaların niçin dosyada bulunduğuna dair açıklayıcı bilgilerin bulundurulması önerilmektedir (Barton ve Collins, 1997). Bireysel gelişim dosyası içinde bulunması gereken çalışmalar amaca göre değişiklik gösterdiğinden hangi tür çalışmaların bulunması gerektiğine dair kesin bir kural yoktur. Ayrıca, bireysel gelişim dosyasının öğretmen veya öğrenci tarafından tutulması da çalışmaların niteliğini değiştirmektedir. Bu çalışmada kullanılan ilköğretim matematik yönelik bireysel gelişim dosyasının içinde öğrencinin problem çözme ve matematiksel ifade becerisi, üniteye ait gözlem çizelgesi, öğrencinin grup arkadaşını ve kendini değerlendirdiği gözlem çizelgesi, velinin kendi çocuğunu evde gözlemesine ait gözlem formu, öğrencinin duyuşsal yönüne ait gözlem formu, öğrencinin matematik dersi ve ödevlere ilişkin görüşlerini yansıtabileceği Copyright The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology

84 değerlendirme formu, öğrencinin akademik başarısını yansıtan form ve bu formlara ait genel değerlendirme formu yer almaktadır. c) Bireysel gelişim dosyasındaki çalışmalara ait değerlendirme kriterinin belirlenmesi: Bireysel gelişim dosyasının amacı açık olarak belirtildikten sonra gelişim dosyasındaki her bir çalışmanın hangi kriterleri (standartları) taşıması gerektiğinin belirlenir. Belirlenen kriterlere göre öğrencinin yapmış olduğu çalışmalar önceden belirlenen kriterlere bakarak amaca ne derece ulaşıp ulaşılmadığına karar verilir. Burada önemli olan öğrencinin yapmış olduğu çalışmalarının veya gösterdiği performans seviyeleri belirleyebilmek için değerlendirme kriterlerin açık ve anlaşılır olmasıdır. Bu çalışmada kullanılan bireysel gelişim dosyası içindeki her bir değerlendirme formunun kriterleri açık bir şekilde ifade edilmektedir Bireysel Gelişim Dosyasını Değerlendirme Bireysel gelişim dosyasının nasıl değerlendirileceğine dair kesin bir değerlendirme yaklaşımı olmayıp, gelişim dosyasının amacına göre değerlendirme biçimi değişmektedir (Mumme, 1990). Eğer bireysel gelişim dosyasını kullanmadaki amaç öğrencinin öğrenme süreci içindeki gelişimini takip etmek, eksiklikleri gidermek ve rehberlik etmek ise gelişim dosyasındaki çalışmalar genelde öğretmen tarafından belirlenir ve çalışmalar öğrencinin kendisi, arkadaşı ve öğretmeni tarafından değerlendirilerek öğrenciye dönüt verilir. Bu tür değerlendirmeden elde edilen sonuçlar daha çok öğrenciye rehberlik etmek için kullanılır. Eğer, gelişim dosyasını hazırlamaktaki amaç öğrencinin yapmış olduğu çalışmalarla başarısını değerlendirmek ise değerlendirmeye girecek olan çalışmalar genellikle öğrenci tarafından seçilir. Öğrenci tarafından oluşturulan bireysel gelişim dosyası öğrencinin dönem veya yıl içinde yaptığı en iyi çalışmaları içerir. Öğretmen tarafından önceden belirlenen kriterlere göre öğrencinin sunduğu en iyi çalışmalar notlandırılarak değerlendirilir. Bireysel gelişim dosyasına puan vermek ve değerlendirmek için çeşitli yaklaşımlar başarılı bir şekilde kullanılmaktadır. Genel olarak üç temel yaklaşım kullanılmaktadır (Kuhs, 1994). Bunlardan birinci yaklaşım, bireysel gelişim dosyası içindeki her bir çalışma ayrı ayrı puanlanır ve bu puanların aritmetik ortalaması bireysel gelişim dosyasının puanını belirler. Bireysel gelişim dosyasını değerlendirmede kullanılan ikinci yaklaşım, farklı performanslar için ayrı puanların verildiği analitik puanlama sisteminin kullanılmasıdır. Örneğin, problem çözme becerisine ait olarak problemi anlama, çözüm için strateji belirleme, stratejiyi uygulama ve sonucu kontrol etme davranışları aşağıdan yukarıya doğru puanlanarak problem çözme becerisine ait puanı belirlenir. Üçüncü yaklaşım ise, bireysel gelişim dosyası içindeki çalışmaların tümüne ait genel bir puan vererek değerlendirmektir. Bu yaklaşım, bireysel gelişim dosyasının bir bütün olarak algılayarak belli kritere göre puanlamasını önerir. Bu çalışmada uygulanan bireysel gelişim dosyasının amacı öğrenciye rehberlik etmek olduğundan çalışmalar araştırmacı ve öğretmen tarafından belirlenmiştir. Bireysel gelişim dosyasının değerlendirilmesinde ikinci yaklaşım (analitik puanlama sistemi) benimsenmiştir. Her bir çalışmanın puanı kendi içindeki performanslara verilen puanların ortalamasını belirlemektedir. Ayrıca, bireysel gelişim dosyası içindeki her bir çalışma diğer çalışmalardan bağımsız olarak değerlendirilmektedir. 2. YÖNTEM Bu araştırmada sadece iki okul ve iki öğretmen seçilerek BDBGD nın eğitim sistemi içerisinde uygulanabilirliği ayrıntılı bir şekilde incelenmekte ve belli bir zaman diliminde neden sonuç ilişkileri derinlemesine irdelenmektedir. Araştırma bu yönüyle düşünüldüğünde bir özel durum çalışması niteliğindedir. Araştırmanın ilk aşamasında bireysel gelişim dosyasının içeriğinin ne olması gerektiği çeşitli kaynaklardan yararlanarak öğrencinin matematik gelişimini yansıtacak şekilde çeşitli değerlendirme formları geliştirildi. Geliştirilen bireysel gelişim dosyası ve içindeki değerlendirme formlarının teknik yapısı ve sistem içinde uygulanabilirliği ile ilgili olarak ilköğretimde görev yapan bir matematik öğretmeniyle 2 hafta boyunca pilot çalışması yapıldı. Pilot çalışma ile ilgili öğretmenle mülakat yapılarak elde edilen dönütler doğrultusunda bireysel gelişim dosyasının içeriği ve teknik yapısı gözden geçirilerek yeniden düzenlendi. Pilot çalışma sonunda esas çalışmada kullanılacak olan bireysel gelişim dosyası içindeki çalışmalar yeniden belirlenmiştir. Ayrıca, pilot çalışmadan elde edilen öneriler doğrultusunda asıl çalışmada kullanılmak üzere bilgisayar ortamında Visual Basic 6.0 yazılımı kullanılarak geliştirilen elektronik bireysel gelişim dosyası da öğretmenlere tanıtılarak uygulamaya konuldu. Son halini alan BDBGD Kanuni İlköğretim ve Söğütlü ilköğretim okullarında 7.sınıf şubelerinde 1 dönem boyunca iki matematik öğretmeni tarafından değerlendirme aracı olarak kullanıldı Geliştirilen Bireysel Gelişim Dosyasının Yapısı Bu çalışmada kullanılan ilköğretim matematik müfredatına yönelik bireysel gelişim dosyasının içinde öğrencinin problem çözme ve matematiksel ifade becerisi, üniteye ait gözlem çizelgesi, öğrencinin grup arkadaşını ve kendini değerlendirdiği gözlem çizelgesi, öğrencinin veli tarafından evde gözlenmesine ait gözlem Copyright The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology

85 formu, öğrencinin duyuşsal yönüne ait gözlem formu, öğrencinin matematik dersi ve ödevlere ilişkin görüşlerini yansıtabileceği değerlendirme formu, öğrencinin akademik başarısını yansıtan form ve bu formlara ait genel değerlendirme formu yer almaktadır. Bilgisayar destekli bireysel gelişim dosyasının hazırlanması aşamasında; her bir çalışmanın amacı ve dosyada yer alan değerlendirme formlarının kriterleri açık bir şekilde ifade edildi. Amaçlar ve değerlendirme formları ilköğretimde görev yapan bir matematik öğretmenin görüşleri alınarak yeniden gözden geçirildi. Uygulama öncesinde öğrencilere bireysel gelişim dosyası içindeki çalışmaların amacı, yapısı ve işleyişi hakkında bilgi verildi ve uygulamada öğrenciye sorumluluk verildi. Çalışmalar öğrencilere, öğretmene ve veliye öğrenci hakkında dönüt verecek şekilde tasarlandı. Ayrıca, bireysel gelişim dosyası uygulaması her bir ünite boyunca öğrencinin gelişimi değerlendirebilecek şekilde tasarlandı. Çalışmada kullanılan bilgisayar destekli bireysel gelişim dosyasının türü Melograno (2000) tarafından yapılan sınıflamaya göre, her bir öğrencinin matematik dersi ve ödevlerine ilişkin düşüncelerinin alındığı çalışmaların toplanmasıyla çalışma dosyasını, öğretmenin kullanması, öğrencilerin düşüncelerini yazmasıyla ve öğrenci çalışmaların toplanmasıyla kayıt tutma dosyasını, grup çalışmalarının gözlendiği ve kayıt edildiği değerlendirme formlarını içermesiyle grup dosyasını, öğretmen tarafından tutulan bu dosya her bir üniteye bağlı olarak tutulmasıyla konuya bağımlı gelişim dosyasını, bireysel gelişim dosyası içindeki çalışmalarına ait verilerin elektronik ortama aktarılması ve saklanmasıyla elektronik gelişim dosyasını ve her bir öğrencinin gelişiminin her dönem izlenmesiyle kısmen de olsa yıllık gelişim dosyasını kapsamaktadır. Üstelik, bu çalışmada kullanılan BDBGD yukarıda belirtilen dosya türleri arasında köprüler kurmaktadır Bilgisayar Destekli Bireysel Gelişim Dosyası Programının Yapısı BDBGD programı Visual Basic 6.0 kullanılarak hazırlanan Windows 98 ve üzeri yazılımlar için kullanılabilen bir programdır. BDBGD programı ünite hedef ve davranış kaydı, sınıf ve öğrenci kaydı, ünite not girişi ve değerlendirme bölümleri olmak üzere 4 bölümden oluşmaktadır. BDBGD programı öğretmenin her bir sınıfı için (Sosyal Bilgiler, Türkçe, Fen Bilgisi, Müzik,...gibi) farklı konu alanlarında öğrenci kaydını yapılmasına, üniteye ait hedeflerin ve davranışların girilmesine, bireysel gelişim dosyası içinde yer alan grup çalışması, problem çözme, öğrencinin duyuşsal alanı, öğrencinin akademik başarısı, veli gözlem formu gibi diğer çalışmalar ile ilgili davranışların ve bilgilerin girilmesine imkan tanımaktadır. Ayrıca, bu program öğretmene istenildiği zaman her bir çalışma üzerinde kayıtları yenileme ve silme gibi değişiklik yapacak fırsatı sunmaktadır. Üstelik, ünite veri kayıtları ve sınıf kayıtları bilgisayar üzerinde programdan bağımsız olarak herhangi bir keyfi bir dosya içine kayıt edilebilmektedir. Bu dosya bir başka bir yere taşınabilmekte ve programının olduğu ortamda kullanılabilmektedir. Yani, öğretmen veri taşıma kolaylığı ve saklama kolaylığı sağlamaktadır. Aşağıdaki Şekil 2.1 de BDBGD kullanılarak Tam sayılar Ünitesi için oluşturulan örnek ekran görülmektedir. Şekil 2.1 Copyright The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology

86 Aşağıdaki Şekil 2.2 de ünite diğer çalışmalar kazanması beklenen davranışlar için öğrenci göstermiş olduğu performansının puanlamanın yapıldığı bir ekran görülmektedir. Burada her bir ünite yönelik olarak öğrencinin performans kaydı yapılabilmektedir. Yine, istenilen zamanda önceden yapılan kayıtlara tekrar bakılabilmekte ve değişiklik yapılabilmektedir. Şekil 2.2 Aşağıdaki Şekil 2.3 de öğrencilerin her bir üniteye ait olmak üzere problem çözme ve matematiksel ifade etme becerisinin, şekil 2.4 de grup çalışmasının, Şekil 2.5 de akademik başarısının kayıtlarının yapıldığı ekran görülmektedir. Şekil 2.3 Copyright The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology

87 Şekil 2.4 Şekil 2.5 Şekil 2.6 ve Şekil 2.7 de öğrencilerin üniteye bağlı olmak üzere göstermiş oldukları performanslarının değerlendirilmesinin yapıldığı bir pencere görülmektedir. Bu bölümde öğrencinin üniteye ait performansı görülebilme ve her bir çalışmada göstermiş olduğu gelişimini grafiksel olarak gösterimi sunulmaktadır. Ayrıca, öğrencinin akademik başarı hakkında da bilgi verilmektedir. Yani, bu bölüm öğrencinin ünite boyunca çeşitli alanlarda göstermiş olduğu performansı farklı pencerelerden bakma ve bir bütünlük içinde değerlendirme fırsatı vermektedir. Üstelik, öğrencinin performansı hakkında öğrencinin kendisine, velisine veya ilgililere grafiksel olarak yazılı doküman hainde verme kolaylığı yazdır komutuyla sağlanmaktadır. Dolayısıyla, BDBGD programı her bir öğretmenlerin rahatlıkla kullanabileceği alternatif bir değerlendirme aracı olan bireysel gelişim dosyasının elektronik ortama aktarılmasını sağlamaktadır. Copyright The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology

88 Şekil 2.6 Şekil Evren ve Örneklem Bu çalışma, Trabzon ili içinde yer alan Kanuni İlköğretim ve Söğütlü İlköğretim okullarında gerçekleşmiştir. Çalışma bu okullarda görev yapan iki matematik öğretmeni ve bu öğretmenlerin girdikleri 7.sınıf şubesindeki öğrenciler ile yürütülmüştür. Kanuni İlköğretim okulundaki 42, Söğütlü İlköğretim okulundaki 25 öğrenci, bu okullarda görev yapan 2 matematik öğretmeni bu çalışmanın örneklemini oluşturmaktadır. Okulların seçimi sırasında öğretmenlerin okulda kullanabileceği bilgisayara sahip olmaları göz önüne alınırken, öğretmenlerin seçiminde ise çalışmaya istekli olarak katılmaları göz önüne alınmıştır. Çalışmanın yürütüleceği sınıfların seçimi ise öğretmenlerin görüşleri doğrultusunda belirlenmiştir. 2.4.Verilerin Toplanması Bu çalışmadaki veriler, uygulama sürecinde öğretmenlerle yürütülen formal ve informal mülakatlar ve izlenimler, öğretmenlerin uygulama süreci ile ilgili düşüncelerini yazmış oldukları çalışma yaprakları, uygulama sonunda öğretmenlerle yapılan yarı yapılandırılmış mülakatlar ve gözlem notları yoluyla elde edilmiştir. Copyright The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology

89 2.5. Verilerin Analizi Bu araştırmada öğretmenlerle yapılan mülakatlar ve öğretmen tarafından yazılan haftalık uygulama görüşleri, araştırmacının tutmuş olduğu notlar veri kaynağı olarak kullanılmıştır. Bu çalışmada veri analizi üçgenleme tekniği(çepni, 2001; Cohen, Manion, 1994) kullanılarak yapılmıştır. Farklı kaynaklardan elde edilen veriler benzer ve farklılıkları yönünden guruplandırılarak araştırmanın alt problemlerine paralel olarak yorumlanmıştır. Ayrıca bu yapılırken verilerin okuyucuya önyargısız sunulması ve bunların ne anlama geldiklerini doğrudan okuyucunun da yorumlamasına fırsat sağlaması amacıyla, öğretmenlerin mülakat formlarına uygulama ile ilgili yazdıkları notlar taranarak bulgular ve tartışma bölümünde kullanılmıştır. 3.BULGULAR ve TARTIŞMA Bu bölümde araştırmanın amacına yönelik olarak sunulan bulgular araştırmanın alt problemleri çerçevesinde tartışılmaktadır BDBGD Uygulaması Sürecinde Karşılaşılan Teknik Sorunlara İlişkin Öğretmenlerin Görüşleri Bu bölümde alternatif bir değerlendirme aracı olarak hazırlanan bireysel gelişim dosyasının sınıflarda uygulanması sürecinde (hem bilgisayar ortamında hazırlanan program hem de öğretmenin kullandığı dosya yapısı ile ilgili olarak) karşılaşılan problemlerle ilgili bulgular sunulup tartışılmaktadır. a) BDBGD programının sistem içinde kullanımında karşılaşılan teknik sorunlar; Bu bölümde elde edilen bulgular BDBGD programının sistem içinde kullanımı sürecinde karşılaşılan teknik boyutu ile ilgili elde edilen verilere dayanmaktadır. Öncelikli olarak Söğütlü İlköğretim Okulu nda programın niçin uygulanamadığı hakkındaki araştırmacının izlenimleri şöyledir; Asıl uygulamanın başında hazırlanan program Microsoft Excel programında yapılmış ve uygulamaya konulmuştu. Fakat kısa bir süre sonra bu programın öğretmenlere kolay kullanım ve veri sağlamadığı şikayeti üzerine program yeniden değiştirilerek Visual Basic ortamında yapıldı. Fakat, Visual Basic programı kullanılarak hazırlanan bireysel gelişim dosyası programı, Söğütlü İlköğretim Okulu ndaki bilgisayarın teknik özellikleri düşük olmasından dolayı (Windows 95) uygulanamadı. Dolayısıyla bu uygulamada karşımıza çıkan teknik problemden biri okulun sahip olduğu bilgisayarların teknik özelliklerinin düşük olmasıydı. Elektronik bireysel gelişim dosyasının uygulanabilmesi için kullanılacak olan bilgisayarın en azından Windows 98 programına sahip olması gerekmektedir(araştırmacı İzlenimleri). Yukarıda ifade edildiği gibi elektronik bireysel gelişim dosyası programının çalışabilmesi için bilgisayarın gerekli olan teknik özelliğini taşıması gerektiği belirtilmektedir. Bu yüzden, elektronik programın Söğütlü İlköğretim okulunda uygulamasının okuldaki bilgisayarın teknik özelliğinin yetersiz olmasından dolayı uygulamaya konulamamıştır. Elektronik bireysel gelişim dosyası programı ile ilgili olarak uygulama sürecinde bazen kullanımla ilgili olarak sorunlarla karşılaşılmıştır. Bu sorunlar uygulama sürecinde araştırmacı tarafından rehberlik edilerek halledilmiştir. b) Normal olarak (elektronik program olmadan) kullanılan bireysel gelişim dosyası ile ilgili teknik problemler: Burada hazırlanan bireysel gelişim dosyasının elektronik ortamda programı olmadan bir okulda uygulama sürecinde karşılaşılan teknik problemler ile ilgili bulgular verilmektedir. Normal şartlarda bilgisayar ortamındaki program olmadan hazırlanan bireysel gelişim dosyasını sınıflarda kullanmanın bazı zorlukları olacağı araştırmacı tarafından kabul edilen bir durumdu. Fakat, buradan elde edilen bulgular ülkemizdeki okulların şartları düşünüldüğünde oldukça önem taşımaktaydı. Acaba hazırlanan bireysel gelişim dosyası bilgisayar programı olmadığında uygulanabilirliği ne olur? sorusunun cevabı aranmaktaydı. Öğretmenlerden Ayşe sınıfında uyguladığı bireysel gelişim dosyasının içinde olan değerlendirme formlarının teknik yapısıyla ilgili olarak görüşleri şöyledir; Araştırmacı :Anlamakta zorluk çektiğiniz formlar oldu mu? Ayşe Anlamakta zorluk çektiğim herhangi bir form olmadı Araştırmacı :Kullanmakta zorlandığınız formlar oldu mu? Ayşe :problem çözme becerilerine ait gözlem formunda seviyeleri ayırt etmekte zorlanıyorum. Öğrencinin gösterdiği becerinin hangi seviyede olduğunu özellikle arada olan öğrenciler için seviye 2 ile seviye 3 arasında tereddüt ediyorum Ayşe, bireysel gelişim dosyası içindeki değerlendirme formlarını kullanmakta zorluk çektiği form olarak problem çözme becerisine ait değerlendirme formundaki değerlendirme ölçeğini (seviyeleri) kullanırken seviyeleri ayırt etmekte zorlandığı için 4 lü ölçeği kullanmakta tereddüt ettiğini ifade etmektedir. Yine, öğretmenlerle yürütülen görüşmelerde bireysel gelişim dosyası içinde yer alan değerlendirme formlarındaki Copyright The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology

90 davranışların fazla bulunmuş, bunun yerine gözlem formlarındaki davranışların öğretmenlerin kendi ihtiyaçlarına göre yapılandırılması gerektiği ifade edilmiştir BDBGD nın Sınıf İçi Uygulanmasında Karşılaşılan Sorunlara İlişkin Bulgular Burada uygulama sürecinde hazırlanan BDBGD nın sınıf içinde uygulanabilirliğine ilişkin olarak karşılaşılan zorluklar öğrenci sayısı, öğretmenin sahip olması gereken özellikler, müfredat, zaman ve değerlendirme formlarının kullanımı sürecinde karşılaşılan diğer zorluklar açısından ele alınmaktadır. a) Öğrencilerin sayısı açısından karşılaşılan zorluklar; Öğretmenlerin BDBGD uygulamasında karşılaştıkları zorluklardan biri olan öğrenci sayılarına ilişkin olanıydı. Öğrenci sayılarına ilişkin olarak öğretmen görüşleri şöyledir; Araştırmacı:Öğrenci sayısı açısından karşılaştığınız zorluklar nelerdir? Ayşe :öğrenci sayısı bakımından bir sorun yok Sınıflardaki öğrenci sayısı az olduğu için herhangi bir zorluk olmuyor Mehmet :sınıftaki öğrenci sayısı fazla olursa zorluk oluyor..az sayıda öğrencide rahatlıkla uygulanabilir.. Ayşe nin haftalık uygulamaya ilişkin görüşlerini yazdığı formda da öğrenci sayısına ilişkin olarak her öğrencinin hangi konuda yeterli, hangi konuda yetersiz olduğunu inceledim (üniteye ilişkin formu doldurdum)..her sınıf için bunu uygulamaya kalksam altından kalkamazdım... şeklinde ifade etmektedir. Araştırmacı, öğretmelerden Mehmet in uygulamanın başındaki tutumunu şöyle aktarmaktadır. Mehmet, uygulamanın başında sınıfındaki öğrenci sayısının fazla olmasından dolayı (42 öğrenci) uygulamaya pek sıcak bakmıyordu ve altından kalkmayacağı gibi bir endişeye sahipti. Yine uygulama sürecinde yürütülen görüşmelerde öğrenci sayısının fazla olmasından şikayetçiydi (A izlenimleri) Yukarıda görüldüğü gibi Ayşe nin sınıfındaki öğrenci sayısı 25 olduğu için bir sınıfta uygulamada ve elektronik programı kullanmadan dahi herhangi bir zorluk çekmediğine fakat sınıf sayısının fazla olması durumunda altından kalkamayacağını ifade etmektedir. Mehmet tin ise öğrenci sayısı 42 olduğu ve elektronik programı kullandığı halde öğrenci sayısının fazla olmasında şikayet etmektedir. Öğrenci sayısının az olduğu ve öğretmenin ders yükünün fazla olmadığı durumlarda rahatlıkla uygulanabileceğini dile getirilmektedir. b) Öğretmen açısından karşılaşılan zorluklar (yenilikleri kabul etmesi, zamanından feragat etmesi); Bu bölümde öğretmenlerin hazırlanan BDBGD nı uygulama sürecinde öğretmenlerin sahip olması gereken nitelikler (yeniliklere açık olması, ideali olması, gereken özeni göstermesi, zamanından feragat etmesi) açısından karşılaşılan zorluklarla ilgili bulguları sunmaktadır. Uygulamayla ilgili olarak öğretmenlerin görüşleri şöyledir; Ayşe : ilk başta daha hevesliydim. Daha sonra bir bıkkınlık geliyor zaman alıyor, yoğun oluyor, sık sık formların okunması zaman alıyor ve yorucu oluyor... Mehmet: sınıf sayısı ve sınıflardaki öğrenci sayısı kalabalık olması nedeniyle öğretmenin yapması gereken sorumluluğu artırıyor Ayrıca, uygulama sürecinde yapılan görüşmelerde de öğretmenlerin uygulamanın başarılı olması için öğretmenin idealinin olması, zamanından feragat etmesi gerektiği ifade edilmektedir. Hatta Ayşe, uygulamanın başlangıcında oldukça hevesli olduğunu fakat zamanla uygulamanın zaman alması nedeniyle bir bıkkınlık getirdiğini, Mehmet ise öğretmen açısından karşılaşılan ana problemin öğrenci sayısı ve öğretmenin ders yükü olduğunu dile getirerek öğretmenin zamanından feragat etmesi ve bir idealinin olması gerektiğini belirtmektedir. c) Müfredat açısından kaynaklanan zorluklar; BDBGD uygulamasının öğretmenlerin müfredat programlarının işleyişini nasıl etkilediği, öğretmenlerin bu uygulamadan dolayı müfredatı yetiştirememe gibi endişelerini taşıyıp taşımadıkları ile ilgili bulgular sunulmaktadır. Öğretmenlerin görüşleri şöyledir; Araştırmacı :bireysel gelişim dosyası uygulamasını müfredat (desteklemesi veya engellemesi) açısından değerlendiriniz? Ayşe :müfredatın gidişini çok fazla etkilemiyor. Müfredat yetişiyor. Öğrencinin anlamadığı yerleri pekiştirmek zorunda kalıyoruz. Çok fazla örnek çözmek yerine az örnek çözerek daha ayrıntılı olarak üzerinde duruyoruz. Müfredatı destekliyor. Engelleyici bir yönü yok. Sadece biraz zaman alıyor. Mehmet :müfredatın uygulamasında uygun ancak detayı biraz azaltılmalı, değerlendirme formları daha öz konu ve sorular(gözlenen davranışlar) olmalı.. Mehmet, haftalık uygulamalara ilişkin olarak yazmış olduğu formda uygulamanın müfredatın işleyişine nasıl destek olduğunu şöyle açıklamaktadır; Copyright The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology

91 Yukarıdaki öğretmenlerin görüşlerinden anlaşılacağı gibi Ayşe, müfredatın işleyişini planlamada bireysel gelişim dosyasının herhangi bir engel olmadığını hatta müfredatın planlanmasında oldukça yardımcı olduğunu belirtmektedir. Sadece zaman konusunda biraz endişe taşımaktadır. Bireysel gelişim dosyası uygulaması Ayşe nin müfredatını planlamada öğrencilerin ihtiyaçlarını dikkate alarak düzenleme yapmasına neden olmaktadır. Bu durum eğitim öğretim için oldukça önemli bir noktadır. Mehmet ise sınıfındaki öğrenci sayısının fazla olmasından dolayı bireysel gelişim dosyası içindeki formların biraz daha öz olmasını dile getirmekte, fakat uygulamanın müfredata herhangi bir engel olmadığı hatta öğretimini planlamada öğrencilerin ihtiyaçlarını dikkate almasını sağlayan bireysel gelişim dosyasının yardımcı olduğuna dikkat çekmektedir. Ayrıca, öğrenci sayısının fazla olması ve öğretmenin ders yükünün fazla olmasından dolayı bireysel gelişim dosyası uygulaması sürecinde öğretmenlerin müfredatı yetiştirememe gibi bir endişeye kapıldıkları da görülmüştür. d) Zaman açısından karşılaşılan zorluklar; Alternatif bir değerlendirme aracı olarak BDBGD nın uygulama sürecinde öğretmenlerin en çok yakındıkları bir problem uygulamanın zaman alması konusuydu. Ayşe nin bununla ilgili olarak görüşleri şöyledir; Araştırmacı :Bireysel gelişim dosyasındaki gözlem formlarını doldurmak ve puanlamak zaman alıyor mu? Ayşe :gözlem formlarını sık sık doldurmak zaman alıyor. Ara sıra yapılırsa daha iyi olur. Ayşe, uygulamayla ilgili olarak farklı günlerde yazmış olduğu notlarda bireysel gelişim dosyası uygulamasının zaman aldığını ifade etmektedir. Ayşe nin dikkat çektiği diğer bir nokta da uygulamanın özel okullarda daha kolay ve rahat bir şeklide yapılabileceğini söylemesidir. Bunun nedeni olarak da devlet okullarındaki sınıflardaki öğrenci sayısının fazla olması ve öğretmenin ders yükünün fazla olması ve yöneticilerin, velilerin beklentilerinin yüksek olmamasına bağlanabilir. Aynı durum, Vermont ta yapılan bireysel gelişim dosyası uygulamalarında öğretmenlerin karşılaştıkları problemden birisinin de öğrencilerin çalışmalarını puanlamanın zaman aldığı ve öğrencilerin yapmış olduğu çalışmaların değerlendirilmesinin öğretmene yük olduğu bir çok araştırmacının yapmış olduğu çalışmalarda dile getirilmektedir (Koretz vd., 1994; 1998; Stecher, 1998). Dolayısıyla, bu araştırma geliştirilen BDBGD nın kalabalık sınıflarda uygulanmasının zor olacağını ortaya koymaktadır. Öğretmenlerin uygulamanın bir yük olarak algılamalarının bir sebebi olarak da uygulamanın kendileri için resmi yönden zorunlu olmaması, gönüllü olarak katılmaları gösterilebilir. Copyright The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology

92 e) Değerlendirme formalarının sınıf içinde kullanımı sürecinde karşılaşılan diğer problemler; Bundan önceki bölümlerde sadece uygulamada karşılaşılan teknik sorunlarla ilgili bazı bulgular sunulmuştur. Bu bölümde, BDBGD içinde yer alan her bir değerlendirme formunun sınıf içinde uygulaması sürecinde karşılaşılan problemlerle ilgili öğretmenlerin görüşleri sunulmaktadır. Sınıfındaki öğrenci sayısı (25) ideal olan fakat, okuldaki bilgisayarın teknik özelliklerinden dolayı geliştirilen BDBGD nı uygulama imkanı olmayan Ayşe nin ve sınıfındaki öğrenci sayısı (42) oldukça fazla olmasına karşın BDBGD programını kullanan Mehmet in değerlendirme formlarıyla ilgili görüşleri şöyledir: Araştırmacı :Bireysel gelişim dosyası içindeki çalışmalardan kullanamadığınız formlar oldu mu? Niçin? Ayşe Ayşe :Grup çalışmalarına ilişkin formları kullanamadık. Çünkü grup çalışmaları yapmadık :Veliye gönderilmesi düşünülen öğrenci genel durumuna ilişkin bilgi formunu kullanmadım(öğrencinin üniteye ait genel değerlendirme raporu). Veli toplantılarına katılım az oluyor. Sadece az sayıda veli ilgi duyuyor. Gelenlerde öğrencinin eksik olduğu yönlerden ziyade notla ilgileniyorlar. Mehmet :hepsini kullandım.(ancak, bütün sınıflarda uygulamış olsaydım kullanma imkanı olmayabilirdi, fazla detay oluşundan) Araştırmacı :Genel olarak baktığınızda bireysel gelişim dosyası içindeki her bir değerlendirme Ayşe Mehmet formunun sistem içinde uygulanabilirliği hakkında ne düşünüyorsunuz? :Genelde bireysel gelişim dosyasının içindeki formlar öğrenci sayısının az olduğu ve öğretmenin ders yükünün fazla olmadığı zaman uygulanabilir. Fakat sık sık kullanmaktan ziyade öğretmenin ihtiyacına göre kullanılırsa daha iyi olur. :değerlendirme formalarındaki gözlenen davranışlar (özellikle duyuşsal yöne ait gözlem formu, grup çalışmasına ait değerlendirme formu) azaltılırsa ve öğrenci sayısının az olduğu sınıflarda uygulanırsa rahatlıkla uygulanabilir. Yukarıdaki ifadelerden anlaşılacağı gibi BDBGD uygulamasında dikkate çeken bir nokta, her iki uygulama öğretmeni sınıflarında grup çalışması yapmadığı için içinde yer alan grup çalışmasına ait gözlem formunu kullanamadığını ifade etmesidir. Sınıfların kalabalık olması öğretmenler için bir gerekçe olarak gösterilmiştir. Fakat, bunun nedeninin öğretmenin grup çalışmalarına alışık olmadığı ve grup çalışması hakkında yeterince bilgi sahibi olmadıkları gösterilebilir. Halbuki, öğrencileri değerlendirirken bireysel başarılarının yanında grup çalışmalarında göstermiş olduğu performanslarının da değerlendirilmesi bir çok araştırmacı ve matematik müfredatları tarafından önerilmekte ve önem verilmektedir. (NCTM, 1995;1989; MEB, 2000; Schacter, 1995; Dwyer, 1994; Ryan, 1998; Wiggins, 1990; Lustin, 1996). Problem çözme ve matematiksel ifade etme becerisine ait gözlem formunun uygulanabilirliği ile ilgili olarak öğretmenler tarafından değerlendirme formunun kapsamlı ve ayrıntılı olmasından dolayı puanlamada tereddüt ettikleri ve öğrenci sayısının fazla olmasının oldukça zamanlarını aldığı dile getirilmiştir. Fakat, öğrenci sayısı az olan öğretmeninde bu değerlendirme formunu kullanırken puanlamada zorlanıyorum, ayırt edemiyorum şeklindeki ifadeleri öğretmenlerin problem çözme etkinliğini Polya nın problem çözme basamaklarına göre. öğretmeye alışık olmamaları olarak yorumlanabilir. Ayrıca, problem çözme etkinliklerinde matematiksel ifade etme becerisi üzerinde yeterince durulmadığını göstermektedir. Halbuki, matematik öğretiminin temel amaçlarından birisi bireye problem çözme becerisini kazandırmaktır (MEB, 2000; NCTM, 1989). Benzer şekilde Vermont ta yıllarında ilk uygulaması yapılan matematik bireysel gelişim dosyası ile değerlendirme projesi kapsamında öğretmenler öğrencilerin problem çözme becerilerini değerlendirirken öğrencilerin çalışmalarına vermiş oldukları puanların güvenirlik ve geçerliliği düşük çıktığı tespit edilmiştir (Klein vd., 1995; Koretz, 1998). Bunun nedeninin öğretmenlerin problem çözme etkinliğinden neyi anladıkları ve iyi bir problemin nasıl olması gerektiği konusunda hem fikir olmamalarından kaynaklandığına dikkat çekilmektedir. Velinin çocuğunu evde gözlemesine ait gözlem formunun uygulanabilirliğine ilişkin olarak öğretmenler bu değerlendirme formunun uygulanması aşamasında velilerin okuma ve yazma seviyelerinin düşük olması, velilerin ve öğrencilerin notla değerlendirileceği endişesi ve böyle bir uygulamayla ilk defa karşılaşmış olmaları uygulamanın başında bazı endişeleri beraberinde getirdiği fakat, bunların zamanla aşıldığı ve faydaları görüldüğünü ifade edilmektedir. Yine de bazı velilerin uygulamaya katılmadıkları ve düzenli olarak toplantı yapamadıkları için hedeflenen amaçlara tam olarak ulaşılamadığı her iki öğretmen tarafından dikkat çekilmektedir. Uygulamanın başında matematik ödevleri ve matematik dersine ilişkin öğrencilerin kendi görüşlerini yansıttığı değerlendirme formlarının haftalık olarak uygulanması ön görülüyordu. Üstelik, haftalık olarak uygulanmasının öğrencilere ve öğretmene birçok fayda sağlayacağı düşünülüyordu. Fakat, bu değerlendirme formlarının haftalık Copyright The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology

93 olarak uygulanmaya konmasıyla birlikte sık sık dağıtılmasından dolayı öğrencilerin sıkıldıkları dile getirilmiştir. Uygulamanın başında bazı öğrencilerin kendilerini ifade etmekte zorlandıkları fakat endişelerinin (notla değerlendirilme) ortadan kalkmasıyla rahat bir şekilde ifade ettikleri görülmüştür. Yine de bazı öğrencilerin (genellikle dersi zayıf öğrencilerin) değerlendirme formlarındaki bazı sorulara boş bıraktıkları, bazılarının da yeterince açık ve anlaşılır bir şekilde yazmadıkları yani, kendilerini ifade etmekte zorlandıkları görülmüştür. Bu durum, öğrencilerin böyle bir uygulama ile ilk defa karşılaşmış olmalarına, yazdıklarının öğretmen tarafından notla değerlendirileceği endişesi taşıdıklarına veya bazı öğrencilerin ise daha önceki öğrenimlerinde bu becerileri tam olarak kazanmamasından kaynaklanabileceğine bağlanabilir Öğretmenlerin BDBGD sını Alternatif Bir Değerlendirme Aracı Olarak Nasıl Gördüklerine İlişkin Bulgular Bu bölümde, BDBGD uygulamasının öğretmenlere sunduğu faydalar daha önce uygulamakta oldukları veya geleneksel ölçme değerlendirme etkinliklerini çeşitli açılardan karşılaştırılmasıyla elde edilen bulgular çerçevesinde sunulmaktadır. a) Öğrencinin performansını değerlendirme açısından sağladığı faydalar; BDBGD uygulamasının öğrencinin performansını değerlendirebilmesine ilişkin olarak uygulama öğretmeni olan Mehmet in görüşleri şöyledir;...bireysel gelişim dosyası öğrencinin gerek konu, gerek ünite bazında kavrama gücünün ne olduğu, ne gibi eksikleri olduğu, zorluk çektiği yerler kendisi tarafından daha iyi bir şekilde ifade edilmesini sağladı... Mehmet, bireysel gelişim dosyasının öğrencinin performansını tüm yönleri ile değerlendirme imkanı sağladığını, öğrencinin zorluk çektiği yerlerin ifade edilmesini sağladığını ifade etmektedir. Ayşe nin bireysel gelişim dosyasının öğrencinin performansını değerlendirmesine ilişkin önceden uygulamakta olduğu ölçme değerlendirme etkinlikleri ile karşılaştırmasına ilişkin görüşleri şöyledir;...velilere öğrenci hakkında bilgi verirken sadece sınıf içinde aktif olan ve zihnimizde kalan öğrenciler hakkında çok genel değerlendirme yapabiliyoruz. Örneğin iyi değil, fena değil fakat neye göre iyi değil ne ye göre iyi olduğunun kriterleri açık değildir. Önceden kullanmakta olduğum değerlendirme etkinlikleri ile karşılaştırdığımda bireysel gelişim dosyası daha iyidir her bir öğrenci hakkında derinlemesine ve ayrıntılı bir bilgiye sahip olabiliyoruz. Ayrıca her bir öğrencinin performansındaki gelişimini gözleme imkanı sağlamaktadır... Ayşe, bireysel gelişim dosyasının öğrencinin performansını değerlendirme açısından geleneksel ölçme değerlendirme araçlarıyla karşılaştırıldığında bireysel gelişim dosyasının öğrencinin performansı hakkında daha kapsamlı bir bilgi sağladığı, her bir öğrencinin performansındaki gelişimi izleme imkanı sunduğu ve velilere öğrenci hakkında daha ayrıntılı bilgi verdiği belirtilmektedir. Birçok araştırmacı tarafından yapılan çalışmalarda bireysel gelişim dosyasının öğrencinin performansını değerlendirme açısından geleneksel yöntemlere göre daha faydalı olduğu vurgulanmaktadır (Norman, 1998; Hayles, 1997; Micklo, 1997; Kuhs, 1994; De Fina, 1992). Dolayısıyla, bu çalışmada elde edilen bu bulgu diğer çalışmalarda elde edilen bulgularla örtüşmektedir. b) Öğrencinin kendini ifade etmesi ve kendini değerlendirme açısından sağladığı faydalar; Bireysel gelişim dosyası içinde yer olan öğrencinin ödevlerine ve matematik derslerine ilişkin olarak görüşlerinin alındığı değerlendirme formlarının öğrencilerin kendilerini ifade etmesi ve kendini değerlendirme açısından faydası olup olmadığı uygulama öğretmenlerinin görüşleri doğrultusunda ele alınmaktadır. Mehmet in bu konuya ilişkin olarak görüşleri şöyledir;...özellikle bireysel gelişim dosyası içindeki öğrencinin ödevlerine ve matematik derslerine ilişkin olarak yazmış oldukları değerlendirme formları sayesinde öğrenciler sözlü olarak söyleyemediği, anlamadığı konuları daha rahatlıkla yazıya döküp, eksiğini rahatlıkla söyleyebilmesini sağlamaktadır... Mehmet in de ifade ettiği gibi bireysel gelişim dosyası sayesinde öğrenciler sözlü olarak söylemediğini, anlayamadığını rahatlıkla çekinmeden açık bir şekilde öğretmenine iletme imkanı bulmuşlardır. Yine, Ayşe nin bu konuyla ilgili olarak görüşleri şöyledir;...bu uygulama öğrencinin öğrenemediğini ortaya çıkartıyor iyi öğrenciler bunun öğrenmeyi teşvik ettiğini söylüyorlar kendilerinin neyi anlayıp anlamadıklarını açık bir şekilde ifade diyorlar. Ama zayıf öğrenciler kendilerini ifade edemiyorlar. Neyi öğrenip öğrenmediklerinin farkında değiller. Verdikleri cevaplar çok sınırlı kalıyor... Copyright The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology

94 Ayşe, bireysel gelişim dosyası uygulamasında iyi öğrencilerin neyi anlayıp anlamadığını açık bir şekilde ifade ettiğini ve kendilerini değerlendirdiğini fakat zayıf öğrencilerin ise kendilerini ifade edemediği ve yazdıklarının çok sınırlı kaldığını dile getirmektedir. Dolayısıyla, öğretmenlerin gözüyle BDBGD uygulaması çoğu öğrenciye kendini ifade etme ve değerlendirme fırsatı sunduğunu ortaya koymaktadır. Üstelik, bireysel gelişim dosyası uygulamasının öğrencinin kendisini değerlendirme ve ifade etme becerisi kazanmasına fırsat sağladığı çeşitli araştırmacılar tarafından dikkat çekilmektedir (Klenowski, 2000; Dutt-Doner ve Gilman, 1998; Norman, 1998; Lambdin ve Walker, 1994; Wolf, 1989). a) Öğrencinin kendi eksiğini görmesi ve öğrenmesini teşvik etmesi bakımından sağladığı faydalar; Mehmet, uygulama sonunda bireysel gelişim dosyasının öğrencilerin öğrenmesini geliştirmesiyle ilgili olarak görüşlerini şöyle aktarmaktadır....öğrenciler değerlendirme formlarına içtenlikle cevap verdiği için ve eksiğini açıklaması sonucunda sınıf içi ve sınıf dışı etkinliklerde açığının kapanması açısından kendini sorumlu hissetmektedir. Öğrencilerin kendi eksiklerini görmesini sağlaması ve kendilerini değerlendirme imkanı bulmaları onların eksik olduğu konuları telafi etme yoluna gittiler dolayısıyla bireysel gelişim dosyası uygulaması öğrencilerin öğrenmesini teşvik etmekte, öğrenmede kendi sorumluluklarını taşımalarına teşvik etmektedir Tabi ki burada en büyük faydayı çalışan ve gayret eden öğrenciler görmektedir..bazı zayıf öğrenciler eksiklerini açık bir şekilde ifade edemedikleri için onlar için uygulama biraz sıkıcı geldi... Ayşe nin bu konudaki görüşleri şöyledir; öğrencinin eksiğinin bilinmesi zamanında telafi edilmesini sağlıyor..böylece öğrencinin öğrenmesine katkı sağlar. Ayrıca öğrenci kendi kendine değerlendirme yaparak öğrenmesinin sorumluluğunu taşımasını teşvik ediyor Ayşe, uygulama sürecinde yazmış olduğu ifadelerde bireysel gelişim dosyası uygulamasının öğrencilerin kendi eksiklerini görme fırsatı sunduğunu, öğrencilerin öğrenmede sorumluluk taşımasına teşvik ettiği ve eksik kalan konuların zamanında telafi edilmesini sağladığını dolayısıyla öğrencinin öğrenmesini teşvik ettiğini belirtmektedir. Mehmet de uygulamayla ilgili görüşmede değerlendirme formlarına öğrencilerin içtenlikle cevap vermeleri, eksik olduğu veya anlamadığı yerleri ifade etmeleri, yani kendi kendilerini değerlendirmeleri sonucunda eksik olduğu konularda ders içi ve ders dışı zamanlarda telafi edilmesi yönünde gayret sarf etmelerini sağladığını, bu uygulamanın öğrencileri öğrenmeye teşvik ettiğini dile getirmektedir. Mehmet in dikkat çektiği diğer bir özellik ise bazı zayıf öğrencilerin kendilerini ifade edemedikleri için uygulamanın onlar için sıkıcı geldiğidir. Genel olarak bakıldığında alternatif bir değerlendirme aracı olarak BDBGD uygulaması çoğu öğrencilerin eksiklerini görmesini, kendi kendilerini değerlendirme fırsatı sunduğu, fakat bazı öğrencilerin uygulamaya ilgisiz kalmaları nedeniyle uygulamanın sağladığı avantajlar yararlanamadıkları öğretmenler tarafından dile getirilmektedir. BDBGD uygulaması öğrencilerin öğrenmede sorumluluk taşımalarına ve NCTM de belirtildiği gibi değerlendirme etkinliğinin öğrencilerin öğrenmeye teşvik etmesi gerekir şeklindeki tavsiyesini yerine getirdiğini ortaya koymaktadır. Yine, yapılan çalışmalarda da bireysel gelişim dosyasının öğrencilerin öğrenmesine teşvik ettiği ve kendi eksiklerini görmesi ve çalışmalarını değerlendirmesiyle öğrenmede sorumluluk taşımalarını sağladığı belirtilmektedir (Motlomelo, 1998; Norman, 1998; Lustig, 1996; Borton ve Collins, 1997;Asturias, 1994). Dolayısıyla, bu çalışmadan elde edilen bulgular diğer yapılan çalışmaların bulgularla örtüştüğü görülmektedir. Copyright The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology

95 e) Öğretimini yönlendirmesi açısından sağladığı faydalar; Geleneksel ölçme ve değerlendirme yöntemlerine alternatif olarak BDBGD uygulamasına katılan Mehmet, uygulamanın öğretimi yönlendirmesine ilişkin olarak görüşleri aşağıdadır...uygulama sürecinde öğrencilerin değerlendirme formlardaki düşünce ve cevaplarına göre öğrenci eksiklerinin belirlenmesiyle öğretmenin konuyu veya üniteyi anlatma metodunda değişiklik yapmasını sağlıyor... Yukarıda görüldüğü gibi Mehmet, öğrencilere dağıtılan haftalık ödevlere ve matematik derslerine ilişkin olarak görüşlerini yazmış oldukları değerlendirme formları sayesinde öğrencilerin anladıkları ve anlamadıkları, kendilerinde eksiklik hissettikleri noktaları öğretmenine aktarmasını sağladığı, böylece öğrencilerin anlamadığı veya eksik kalan noktaları telafi edilmesi yönüne gidildiğini ifade etmektedir. Hatta Mehmet bu süreçte öğretim yöntemini değiştirdiğini açık bir şekilde belirtmektedir. Ayşe, öğrencilerin eksiklerinin giderilmesi için önceden yapmakta olduğu değerlendirme yönteminin eksikliğini şöyle ifade etmektedir;...yazılılarda genel olarak eksikleri görebiliyoruz fakat tekrar konuya dönemiyoruz buna zaman yetmiyor sadece hızlı bir özet yapıyoruz genel olarak yapılan yanlışlıkları izah ediyoruz öğrenci bazen bizi kandırıyor..şöyle ki; öğrenci sınıfta anlamış gibi görünüyor fakat sınavda yapamıyor sınav kağıtlarını tekrar geri veriyorum öğrenciler eksiklerini görsünler diye.. dönütler için 1 saat vakit ayırabiliyoruz... Bireysel gelişim dosyası uygulamasının Ayşe nin önceden yapmakta olduğu değerlendirme yöntemiyle karşılaştırdığında sağladığı kolaylığı ve kendi öğretimini nasıl yönlendirdiğini aşağıdaki cümlelerde ve uygulama sürecinde yazmış olduğu dokümanlarda görülmektedir....öğretmeni yönlendirmede oldukça verimli oluyor. Çünkü, öğrencilerin neyi anlayıp anlamadıklarını görüyoruz ve eksiklerini telafi ediyoruz müfredatı yönlendirmesine yardımcı oluyor...ayrıca, öğretmenin kendi kendine değerlendirme yapmasını ve eksiklerini görmesini sağlıyor diğer yöntemler(geleneksel ölçme değerlendirme yöntemleri) burada eksik kalıyor... Ayşe, bireysel gelişim uygulamasının geleneksel ölçme değerlendirme araçlarına göre öğrencilerin eksiklerinin tespit edilmesinde ve zamanında telafi edilmesinde avantajlar sağladığını ifade etmektedir. Dolayısıyla, öğretmenin öğretimi değerlendirme ihtiyacını hissettirdiğini, öğretimi planlamada yardımcı olduğunu ve hatta bazen öğretim yöntemi ve tekniklerinde değişiklik yapmayı zorlamıştır. Bu yüzden, BDBGD uygulamasının NCTM (1995) değerlendirme standartlarında belirtildiği gibi yapılan değerlendirme etkinliğinin öğretim ile bütünleşmesi gerekir yönündeki önerisini yerine getirdiği söylenebilir. Üstelik, BDBGD ile değerlendirme etkinliğinin öğretmenlerin belirttiği gibi öğretime destek olduğu için biçimlendirici değerlendirme (formative assessment) yapılmasına imkan sağladığı da görülmektedir. Ayrıca, BDBGD uygulamasının biçimlendirici Copyright The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology

96 değerlendirmenin yapmak için etkili bir araç olduğu ortaya çıkmıştır. Bu bulgu çeşitli araştırmalarda dile getirilmektedir (Birgin, 2003; Bell ve Cowie, 2001; Kenowski, 2000; Stiggins, 1999; 2001; Sadler, 1989) e)veli, öğretmen ve öğrenci arasındaki iletişimi sağlaması ve velinin aktif olarak değerlendirme sürecine katılması bakımından sağladığı faydalar; Bu bölümde, BDBGD nın veli, öğretmen ve öğrenci arasında iletişimi sağlaması ve velinin değerlendirme sürecine aktif olarak katılmasını sağlaması yönündeki bulgular öğretmen görüşleri doğrultusunda ele alınmaktadır. Mehmet, uygulama sürecinde BDBGD uygulamasının veli, öğretmen ve öğrenci arasındaki iletişimi artırdığını ve velilerin değerlendirme sürecine aktif olarak katılmasını sağladığını aşağıdaki cümlelerle ifade etmektedir....diyalogun artmasını sağlıyor...gerek veli çocuğu ile ilgilendiğini gerekse öğrencinin kendisiyle öğretmeninin bire bir ilgilendiğini bilmesi olumlu ilişkiler sağlıyor yapılan bu çalışma ile velinin okula gelmesi öğretmenle işbirliği yapmasını artırdı... Mehmet, bireysel gelişim dosyası uygulamasının veli, öğretmen ve öğrenci arasındaki iletişimi sağlaması ve velinin değerlendirme sürecine aktif olarak katılmasını sağlaması bakımından oldukça faydalı olduğunu, veli öğretmen arasındaki iletişimde artma olduğunu ve velilerin uygulamanın devam etmesini istediklerini ifade etmektedir.yine de olumlu gelişmelerin tüm veliler için geçerli olmadığı, bazı velilerin yeterince ilgi göstermediğini de dile getirilmektedir. Uygulamanın veli, öğrenci ve öğretmen arasındaki iletişimi sağlaması ve velinin değerlendirme sürecine aktif olarak katılmasını sağlaması ile ilgili olarak Ayşe nin görüşleri şöyledir;...bu uygulamada velinin aktif bir rolünü göremedik veliler bilinçlendirilirse belki daha aktif olabilirler yine öğrenci ile öğretmen arasındaki ilişkiyi sağlamada bazı öğrenciler için oldukça faydalı olduğunu, zayıf öğrenciler içinse böyle olmadığını görüyoruz... Bireysel gelişim dosyası uygulamasının veli, öğretmen arasındaki iletişimi sağlamada velilerin ilgisiz olmaları ve okur yazarlık seviyesinin düşük olmasından dolayı istenilen verimin alınmadığını fakat, öğrenci öğretmen arasındaki iletişimi sağlamada ise bazı istekli ve iyi öğrenciler bakımından faydalı olduğunu ilgisiz ve bazı zayıf öğrenciler bakımından istenilen seviyede olmadığını öğretmenler tarafından belirtmektedir. Genel olarak bakıldığında BDBGD uygulamasının veli, öğrenci ve öğretmen arasındaki iletişimi sağlamada bir araç olarak hizmet ettiği ve velilerin eğitim öğretim sürecinin bir öğesi olan değerlendirme etkinliği içinde aktif bir şekilde katılmasını sağladığı öğretmenler tarafından ifade edilmektedir. Yapılan çalışmalar, bireysel gelişim dosyası uygulamasının öğrenci, veli ve öğretmen arasındaki iletişimi arttırdığı, velinin değerlendirme sürecine aktif olarak katılmasını sağladığı ve sorumluluk misyonu yüklendiğini ortaya koymaktadır (Gussie, 1998; Norman, 1998; Ryan, 1998; Weldin ve Tumarkin, 1998; Cicmanec ve Viecknicki, 1994). Görüldüğü gibi çalışmamızda elde ettiğimiz bu bulgu yapılan başka çalışmalardan elde edilen bulgularla örtüşmektedir. 4. SONUÇLAR Bu çalışmada alternatif bir değerlendirme aracı olarak geliştirilen BDBGD eğitim sistemimiz içinde uygulanabilirliği Trabzon daki 2 farklı ilköğretim okulunda görev yapan 2 matematik öğretmenin sınıflarında uygulamaya konularak araştırılmıştır. Çalışmanın bulgularına dayalı olarak elde edilen sonuçlar araştırmanın alt problemi çerçevesinde sunulmaktadır. 1. Bu araştırmada BDBGD nı kullanan öğretmenlerin uygulamada değerlendirme ölçeklerinin her bir form için aynı olmaması ve elektronik programın kullanılması için gerekli olan teknik donanımın okullarda olmaması gibi teknik sorunlarla karşılaşılmıştır. Bu yüzden, yukarıdaki belirtilen teknik problemleri çözmek için BDBGD de öğretmenlerin önerileri doğrultusunda değerlendirme formlarında kriterlerin aynı olacak şekilde yeniden yapılandırılmıştır. 2. BDBGD programının normal (manuel) olarak uygulanan bireysel gelişim dosyası uygulamasına göre öğretmene değerlendirme formlarındaki davranışları ihtiyaca göre düzenleme, her sınıf için ayrı bir elektronik dosya oluşturma, her bir öğrencinin performansındaki değişimi ünite bazında inceleyebilme gibi bir çok kolaylıklar sunmuştur. Ayrıca, BDBGD programı kullanımda öğretmenin yükünü azalttığı ve zaman bakımından tasarruf sağladığı ortaya çıkmıştır. 3. BDBGD uygulaması sürecinde öğretmenlerin problem çözme becerisine ait değerlendirme formunu kullanmakta zorlandıkları, grup çalışması yapmadıkları için grup çalışmalarına ait değerlendirme formunu kullanmadıkları, veliye gözlem formunun ise velilerle yeterince iletişim sağlanamaması ve bazı velilerin okuma yazma bilmemesinden dolayı hedeflendiği gibi kullanılmadığı, matematik dersine ve ödevlerine ait değerlendirme formlarının sık sık dağıtılmaktan ziyade, ihtiyaca göre dağıtıldığı takdirde kullanılabileceği, bazı öğrencilerin kendilerini ifade edemedikleri için fazla faydalı olmadığı fakat, çoğu öğrenci için bu formların faydalı olduğu görülmüştür. 4. BDBGD uygulaması öğrenciyi geleneksel ölçme ve değerlendirme araçlarına göre daha gerçekçi ve ayrıntılı olarak izleme ve hakkında daha isabetli kararlar alma imkanı sunmuştur. Üstelik, BDBGD nın öğretmene öğretimini yönlendirmede kılavuzluk yaptığı, öğretim yöntemlerini değiştirmeye ve öğrenci Copyright The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology

97 merkezli öğretim yapmaya teşvik ettiği; öğrenci, veli, öğretmen arasındaki iletişimin güçlendirdiği; öğretim ile değerlendirmenin bütünleşmesini sağladığı; öğrencilerin eksiklerini görülmesine ve eksiklerinin telafi edilmesini yardımcı olduğu; öğrencinin kendisine, öğretmene, veliye ve ilgililere öğrenci hakkında daha detaylı bilgi sunma imkanı verdiği ortaya çıkmıştır. Benzer sonuçlar bir çok araştırmacı tarafından dile getirilmiştir (Birgin, 2003; Lambdin ve Walker, 1994; Mumme, 1990; Dutt- Doner ve Gilman, 1998; Klenowski, 2000; Wolf, 1989). Fakat, BDBGD nın öğretmenlere göre en büyük eksikliği, öğrenci sayısının, öğretmenin ders yükünün ve öğrencide gözlenen davranışların fazla olması nedeniyle öğrenci çalışmalarının değerlendirilmesinin zaman alıcı olması olarak görülmesidir. 5. BDBGD uygulaması sürecinde bazı velilerin uygulamaya yeterince aktif olarak katılmadıkları görülmüştür. Bunun nedeni, bazı velilerin uygulamaya önem vermemesi, okuma yazma bilmemesi ve okulda yapılan toplantılara katılımın az olmasına bağlanabilir. 5. ÖNERİLER Böyle bir uygulamanın eğitim sistemi içinde daha verimli ve etkili bir şekilde uygulanabilmesi için bu çalışmadan elde edilen sonuçlara dayalı olarak aşağıdaki öneriler yapılmıştır: 1. Hazırlanan elektronik BDBGD okullardaki bilgisayarlarının teknik özeliğinin yeterli olmaması durumunda uygulanamayacağı görülmüştür.dolayısıyla, elektronik BDBGD nın uygulanabilir olması için okuldaki bilgisayarın programı çalıştırabilecek kapasiteye sahip olması gerekir. 2. Yeterli donamım ve yazılım deneyimine sahip olmayan öğretmenlerin BDBGD yi kullanmada zorlandıkları ve onu zaman alıcı buldukları gözlenmiştir. Bu nedenle, öğretmenlere BDBGD yi kullanmadan önce yazılım bütün yönleriyle tanıtılmalı sınıflarında pilot uygulamalar yapılmalıdır. 3. Problem çözme ve matematiksel ifade etme becerisine yönelik olarak hazırlanan değerlendirme formunda kullanılan değerlendirme ölçeğinin (seviyelerin) tam olarak uygulama öğretmenleri tarafından anlaşılmadığı ve ayırt etmekte zorlandıkları görülmüştür. Bu nedenle, değerlendirme formundaki kriterlerin yeniden gözden geçirilerek yapılandırılması, uygulama öncesinde öğretmenlere gerekli rehberlik sağlanmalıdır. Ayrıca, öğretmenlere problem çözme becerilerinin değerlendirilmesi hakkında bilgi verilmelidir. 4. BDBGD uygulamasında öğretmenlerin derslerinde grup çalışması yapmadıkları için grup çalışmasına ait gözlem formlarını kullanamadıkları görülmüştür. Bu nedenle, öğretmen adaylarına hizmet öncesi ve öğretmenlere de hizmet içi kurslar yoluyla grup çalışması ve grup çalışmalarının değerlendirmesi hakkında yeterli bilginin kazandırılması gerekmektedir. 5. BDBGD içindeki veli gözlem formunun, velilerin toplantılara düzenli bir şekilde gelmemesi, bazı velilerin okuma yazma bilmemesi ve öğretmen veli arasında fazla bir iletişim olmamasından dolayı hedeflendiği gibi uygulanamadığı görülmüştür. Bu nedenle, bireysel gelişim dosyasının uygulamaya konulmadan önce uygulama ile ilgili olarak velilerle iletişim sağlanarak olumlu tutum sergilemeleri ve desteklerinin alınması sağlanmalı ve uygulama sürecinde düzenli bir şekilde toplantılar yapılmalıdır. 6. Bu alanda çalışma yapacak olan çalışmalarda BDBGD nın eğitim sistemi içindeki ne derecede uygulanabilir olduğu öğrenciler ve veliler açısından ele alınarak araştırılabilir. 6. KAYNAKLAR Asturias, H., Using Student s Portfolios to Assessment Mathematical Understanding, The Mathematics Teachers, Vol: 87 (9). Arter, J.A. ve Spandel, V., Using Portfolios of Student Work in Instruction and Assessment, Educational Measurement:Issue and Practice,11(1), Baki, A. ve Bell, A., Ortaöğretim Matematik Öğretimi, YÖK/Dünya Bankası Milli Eğitimi Geliştirme Projesi, Ankara. Baki, A. ve Birgin, O., Matematik Eğitiminde Alternative Bir Değerlendirme Olarak Bireysel Gelişim Dosyası Uygulaması, 5.Ulusal Fen Bilimleri ve Matematik Eğitimi Kongresi, Eylül 2002, ODTU Kültür vekongre Merkezi, Ankara. Baki, A ve Birgin, O., Bireysel Gelişim Dosyasına Dayalı Değerlendirme Uygulamasının Yansımaları, 12. Eğitim Bilimleri Sempozyumu, Ekim 2003, Antalya. Baki, A., Bilgisayar Destekli Matematik Öğretimi, Ceren yayınları, Ankara. Barton, C. ve Collins, A., Portfolio Assessment: A Handbook for Educators. Dale Seymour Publications, New York. Bell, B. ve Cowie, B., The Characteristic of Formative Assessment in Science Education, Science Education, Vol.85, Issue.5, Birgin, O., Matematik Eğitiminde Değerlendirme Aracı Olarak Bireysel Gelişim Dosyasının Kullanımı, Matematik Etkinlikleri Sempozyomu, 5-8 Haziran 2002, Ankara. Birgin, O., Bilgisayar Destekli Bireysel Gelişim Dosyasının Uygulanabilirliğinin Araştırılması, Yayınlanmamış Yüksek Lisans Tezi, Karadeniz Teknik Üniversitesi, Trabzon. Copyright The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology

98 Cicmanec, K.M. ve Viecknicki, K.J., Assessing Mathematics Skills through Portfolios: Validating The Claims From Existing Literature, Educational Assessment, 2(2), Cohen, L. ve Manion, L., Research Methods in Education, Fourth Edition, Rutledge, New York. Çepni, S., Araştırma ve Proje Çalışmalarına Giriş. Erol Ofset, Trabzon. De Fina, A., Portfolio Assessment: Getting Started. New York, NY Dutt-Doner, K. ve Gilman, D.A, Student React To Portfolio Assessment, Contemporary Education, Vol. 69, Issue 3, Dwyer, C.A., Assessment and Classroom Learning: Theory And Practice. Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy & Practice, 5(1), Fourie, I. ve Van Niekerk, D., Follow-Up on The Portfolio Assessment A Module In Research Information Skills; An Analysis Of Its Value, Education for Information, 19, Gilman, D.A., Andrew, R. ve Rafferty, C.D., Making Assessment a Meaningful Part of Instruction, NASSP Bulletin, 79 (573), 20-24, ISSN: Grace, C., The Portfolio And Its Use: Developmentally Appropriate Assessment Of Young Children, Eric Digest. ED Gussie, W.F., Assessment of The Implementation of Portfolio Assessment In The K-8 School Districts In New Jersey, Yayınlanmamış Doktora Tezi, Widener University. Hayels, E., Portfolio Assessment in Adult Basic Education: A Pilot Study, Adult Basic Education, 7(3), Herman, J.L. ve Winters, L., Portfolio Research: A Slim Collection, Education Leadership, 52 (2). Kaptan, F. ve Korkmaz, H., Fen Öğretiminde Tümel (Portfolio) Değerlendirme, Hacettepe Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, 19, Kenowski, V., Portfolios; Promoting Teaching, Assessment in Education, Police & Practice, 7 (2), Klein, S.P., McCaffrey, D., Stecher, B. ve Koretz, D., The Reliability Of Mathematics Portfolio Scores:Lessons From The Vermont Experience, Applied Measurement in Education, 8 (3), Koretz, D.,1998. Large Scale Portfolio Assessment In The US: Evidence Pertaining To The Quality Of Measurement, Assessment in Education: Principles, Police & Practice, 5 (3), Kuhs, T., Portfolio Assessment: Making It Work For The First Time, The Mathematics Teachers, Vol: 87(5). Lambdin, D.V. ve Walker, V.L., Plannig For Classroom Portfolio Assessment, Aritmetic Teacher, 41 (6), Lankes, A.M.D., Electronic Portfolios: A New Idea in Assessment, Eric Digest, ED Lustig, K., Portfolio Assessment: A Handbook for Middle Level Teachers, National Middle School Association, Columbus, Ohio. M.E.B, İlköğretim Matematik Programı, Milli Eğitim Basımevi, İstanbul. Micklo, S. J., Math Portfolio in The Primary Grades, Childhood Education, Summer 97, Motlomelo, S.T., The Applicability of The Portfolio Assessment in Lesotho Primary Schools As Perceived By Teachers, Teacher Educators And The Ministry Of Education In Lesotho. Yayınlanmamış Doktora Tezi, Ohio University. Mumme, J., Portfolio Assessment in Mathematics, California Mathematics Project, University of California, Santa Barbara. NCTM, Curriculum and Evaluation Standards for School Mathematics. (Available online document). NCTM, Assessment Standard for School Mathematics, (Available online document). Norman, K.M.,1998. Investigation of The Portfolios As An Alternative Assessment Procedure. Yayınlanmamış Doktora Tezi, The University of Memphis. Romberg, T.A., How One Comes to Know Models and Theories of the Learning of Mathematics, In M. Niss (ed). Investigations into Assessment in Mathematics Education, , Kluver Academic Publishers, Netherlands. Ryan, P.J., Teacher Development and Use of Portfolio Assessment Strategies and The Impact On Instruction In Mathematics. Doctoral dissertation, Stanford University School of Education, Stanford, CA Sadler, D.R., Formative Assessment and The Design of Instructional Systems, Instructional Science, 18(2), Shepard, L.A., Why We Need Better Assessment? Educational Leadership, 46(7), 4-9. Shepard, L.A., The Role of Assessment in a Learning Culture. Educational Researcher, 29(7), Simon, M. ve Forgette-Giroux, R., Impact of a Content Selection Framework on Portfolio Assessment at The Classroom Level. Assessment in Education, 7(1), Copyright The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology

99 Stecher, B.,1998. The Local Benefits and Burdens of Large-Scale Portfolio Assessment, Assessment in Education; Principles, Policy & Practice, Vol. 5, Issue 3, Stiggins, R.J., The Unfulfilled Promise of Classroom Assessment, Education Measurement: Issue and Practice, Fall 2001 Türüklü, E.B., Matematik Öğretmenlerin Ölçme ve Değerlendirme Pratikleri ve Öğrencinin Öğrenmesini Geliştiren Değerlendirmeleri: Türkiye ve İngiltere deki11-14 Yaş Grubu Öğretmenleri İle Çalışma.(Available online document). Weldin, D.J. ve Tumarkin, S.R., Parent Involvement: More Power in The Portfolio Process, Childhood Education, Vol.75, Issue.2, Wolf, D.P., Portfolio Assessment: Sampling Student Work, Educational Lidership, 46(7), Copyright The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology

100 Ayrık Matematik Program Paketi ve Bir Uygulama Y.Doç.Dr. Mustafa Murat İNCEOĞLU Ege Üniv. Bilgisayar Müh. Böl. Bornova İZMİR Tel: (232) Faks: (232) ÖZET Bu bildiri de, TÜBİTAK Bilgisayar Olimpiyatlarına hazırlanan öğrenciler için geliştirilen Ayrık Yapılar Program Paketi (AYPP) ve bu paketin avantajları incelenmektedir. AYPP, mantıksal ifadelerin yazım denetimlerini yapmak, doğruluk tablosu çıkarmak, mantıksal sadeleştirme yapmak ve tüm kullanıcı işlemlerini takip etmek gibi işlevleri içermektedir. Discrete Structures Program Package (DSPP) and An Application ABSTRACT This paper gives detailed information about Discrete Structure Program Package (DSPP) and some statistics about application of DSPP. The functions of the DSPP include, syntax checking of the prepositional statements, truth table generation, logical simplification and log all of the student activities. GİRİŞ Ayrık matematik, bilgisayar bilimleri ve bilgisayar mühendisliği bilim dalları içerisinde önemli bir yere sahiptir. Ayrık matematik, bilgisayarların donanımının temel çalışma prensiplerinin açıklanması, programlama dilleri, otomata ve sonlu makineler, veri yapıları ve veri tabanları, şifreleme, şifre çözme gibi konular için temel ve başlangıç bilgilerini içermektedir. Ayrık matematik (Discrete Mathematics) bilim dalı içerisinde, mantıksal önermeler konusu oldukça önemli bir yer tutmaktadır. Mantıksal önermeler, özellikle, matematiksel çıkarsama konusunu anlamakta, bilgisayar devrelerinin tasarımının ve çalışmasının öğrenilmesinde, bilgisayar programlarının doğruluğunun denetlenmesinde önemli bir yer tutmaktadır. Konunun öneminden yola çıkılarak gerçekleştirilmiş olan Ayrık Matematik Paket programı, mantıksal önermeler üzerinde gerçekleştirilecek işlemlerin öğrenciler tarafından daha iyi anlaşılabilmesi için önemli bir yer tutmaktadır. Ayrık Matematik Program Paketi, öğrencilerin ayrık matematik dersinin mantıksal önermeler (proposition) konusunu daha iyi anlayabilmeleri ve kendilerini mini sınavlarla değerlendirebilmeleri için geliştirilmiş bir programdır. Program, p, q, r, ve s olarak isimlendirilen 4 adet mantıksal değişkeni, VE (AND), VEYA (OR), DEĞİL (NOT), XOR, EQU, IMP, NAND ve NOR olarak adlandırılan 8 adet mantıksal işlemciyi ve D (doğru- TRUE), Y (yanlış-false) olarak adlandırılan 2 adet mantıksal sabiti desteklemektedir. Mantıksal ifadelerin önceliklerine göre sıralayabilmek için parantezler de kullanılabilmektedir. Kullanıcı, bilgisayarın klavyesini ya da programla kendisine sunulan tuşları kullanarak, GİRDİ-1 ve GİRDİ-2 olarak adlandırılmış satırlara istediği mantıksal ifadeyi yazmaktadır. Yazılan mantıksal ifadeler üzerinde, YAZIM KONTROLÜ, TOTOLOJİ Mİ?, EŞİT Mİ?, ÇELİŞKİ Mİ?, DOĞRULUK TABLOSU ve İNDİRGE olarak adlandırılmış 6 adet işlev gerçekleştirilebilmektedir. Bunlardan ayrı olarak, kullanım dilinin değiştirilmesini sağlayan bir tuş ile (ENGLISH), mini sınav yapılmasını sağlayan bir tuş (MİNİ SINAV) ile kullanıcının istediği herhangi bir anda yardım almasını sağlayacak bir tuş (YARDIM) da yer almaktadır. Program çalıştırıldığında ilk olarak kullanıcıdan, kullanıcı adını ve şifresini isteyen açılış penceresi görüntülenecektir (Şekil-1). Copyright The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology

101 Şekil-1: Ayrık Matematik Program Paketi için açılış ekranı Kullanıcı geçerli bir ad ve şifre verdikten sonra, program, ayrı bir sunucu bilgisayar üzerinde bulunan KULLANICI veri tabanına bağlanmakta ve Şekil-2 deki sunulan çalışma ekranı oluşmaktadır. Şekil-2: Ayrık Matematik Program Paketi için çalışma ekranı Yapılan araştırmalar sonucunda İnternet te doğruluk tablosu gerçekleştirmek ve diğer mantıksal işlevler için geliştirilmiş dört adet program bulunmuştur. İlk uygulama, Joe TRISCARI (Triscari, 2004) tarafından Java programlama dilinde applet ler kullanımı yoluyla gerçekleştirilmiştir. Bu programda, en fazla 26 adet mantıksal değişken, AND, OR, NOT, CONDITIONAL, BI- CONDITIONAL, XOR, NOT, NAND ve NOR olmak üzere 8 adet mantıksal işlemci ve T (true), F (false) olmak üzere iki mantıksal sabit kullanılabilmektedir. Program herhangi bir İnternet tarayıcı yazılımı kullanılarak çalıştırılabilmektedir. Programın İnternet sayfasında da (Triscari, 2004) sunulduğu gibi, mantıksal ifadeleri Copyright The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology

102 yorumlamak için herhangi bir denetleyici yazılmamış, kullanıcının ifadeyi doğru olarak yazacağı varsayılmıştır. Mantıksal işlemciler için standart olmayan sembollerin kullanılması ve mantıksal ifadenin tamamıyla doğru olarak yazılmasının gerekmesi, bu yazılımın en zayıf yönlerini oluşturmaktadır. İncelenen ikinci program yine bir Java applet i olarak çalışmaktadır. Program doğruluk tablosu yapmanın yanında mantıksal çıkarsama yapabilme yeteneğine de sahiptir. Program da, AND, OR, NOT, IMPLICATION, EQUIVALENCE olmak üzere beş adet mantıksal işlemci, T (true) ve F (false) olmak üzere iki adet mantıksal sabit, p, q ve r olmak üzere 3 adet mantıksal değişken bulunmaktadır. Bu yazılımda da kullanıcı mantıksal ifadeyi doğru olarak girmek zorundadır (Oursland, 2004). Yine bir Java applet i olan üçüncü program, hem bir tamsayı hesap makinası ve hem de mantıksal bir hesaplayıcıdır (McPhail, 2004). Program da NEGATION (NOT), AND, OR, IMPLICATION, BIJECTION olmak üzere beş mantıksal işlemci, 0 (yanlış-false), 1 (doğru-true) olmak üzere iki adet mantıksal sabit ve en fazla üç adet mantıksal değişken kullanılmaktadır. Program, kullanıcıdan bir mantıksal ifade girmesini beklemekte ve bunun sonucunda girilen mantıksal ifadeye ilişkin doğruluk tablosunu hesaplamaktadır. Girilen mantıksal ifadenin yazımının denetimi tamamıyla kullanıcıya bırakılmıştır. Javascript dili ile yazılmış dördüncü (Silverberg, 2004) ve son program da, NOT, AND, OR, IMPLICATION, EQUIVALENCE olmak üzere beş adet mantıksal işlemci ve en fazla 10 adet mantıksal değişken kullanılabilmektedir. Program kullanıcıdan yazım kontrolü yapılmış bir mantıksal ifade girmesini beklemekte ve bu mantıksal ifadeye ait doğruluk tablosunu listelemektedir. Bu programda da yazım denetimini yapmak kullanıcıya bırakılmıştır. Anılan uygulamalar ile, Ayrık Matematik Program Paketinin karşılaştırılması Tablo-1 de verilmiştir. İlgili programların kaynakça içindeki yerleri köşeli parantezler içinde sunulmuştur. Bu yazılımların tamamında kullanılan mantıksal işlemcilerin ayrıntılı açıklamalarına (Rosen, 1995) ve (Johnsonbaugh, 1997) dan erişilebilir. Ayrık Matematik Program Paketinin Çalışma Yöntemi Program çalışmaya başladığında, ayrı bir sunucu bilgisayar üzerinde bulunan KULLANICI adlı veri tabanı için bağlantı gerçekleştirilmekte ve böylece, kullanıcının yaptığı bütün işlemler kendisinin bilgisi olmaksızın takip edilebilmektedir. Veri tabanı, kullanıcının yaptığı bütün işlemleri depolamakta ve kullanıcının yapmaya çalıştığı (ya da yaptığı) işlemlerle ilgili istatistiksel bilgiler elde edilebilmektedir. Elde edilen istatistiksel bilgiler, hem programın daha da geliştirilebilmesi için ipuçları vermekte ve hem de kullanıcıların yaptıkları hatalar ile eksik ya da zayıf oldukları konular hakkında önemli bilgiler içermektedir. Kullanıcı ÇIKIŞ tuşuna bastığında ise, ilk olarak veri tabanı bağlantısı kesilmekte ve ardından program sona erdirilmektedir. Tablo-1: Doğruluk Tablosu Geliştirme Araçlarının karşılaştırılması Kullanılan Karşılaştırma Parametreleri [1] [2] [3] [4] Ayrık Matematik Program Paketi Mantıksal Değişken Sayısı Mantıksal İşlemcilerin Sayısı Mantıksal Sabit Kullanımı Var Var Var Var Var Mantıksal Fonksiyon İndirgeme Yok Yok Yok Yok Var Girdi Hata Kontrolü Yok Yok Yok Yok Var Yardım Kullanımı Yok Yok Yok Yok Var Mini Sınav Yok Yok Yok Yok Var Kullanıcı İşlemlerini Takip Yok Yok Yok Yok Var Kullanım Tarzı Geliştirme Aracı İnternet Gezgini JAVA Applet İnternet Gezgini JAVA Applet İnternet Gezgini JAVA Applet İnternet Gezgini JavaScript Masaüstü Uygulaması Visual Basic Ayrık Matematik Program Paketi, yazım motoru ve gerçekleştirim motoru olmak üzere iki ana modülden oluşmaktadır. Yazım Motoru: gerçekleştirilecek işleme göre GİRDİ-1 ve/veya GİRDİ-2 satırlarına yazılan mantıksal ifadelerin doğru yazılıp yazılmadıklarını denetlemek amacıyla geliştirilmiş bir program parçasıdır. Yazılan mantıksal Copyright The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology

103 ifadeler içerisindeki parantezlerin sayısı, mantıksal işlemcilerin, mantıksal önermelerin, sabitlerin doğru kullanılıp kullanılmadığı, bir ya da iki adet girdi satırı kullanılması gereken durumlarda yeterli sayıda girdinin verilip verilmediği gibi yazım ve kullanım hataları denetlenmektedir. Gerçekleştirim Motoru: yazım motorundan çıkan hatasız bir mantıksal ifadenin, mantıksal değişkenler, işlemciler ve sabitler kullanılarak gerçekleştirilmesi için gereken adımların sırasının, bir gerçekleştirim ağacına yüklenmesi işlemini yapan programdır. Gerçekleştirim ağacı, kök ortada (inorder) algoritmasına (Tremblay, Sorenson, 1976) göre oluşturulmaktadır. Şekil-3 de örnek bir mantıksal ifade için gerçekleştirim ağacının yapısı sunulmaktadır. Gerçekleştirim ağacı oluşturulduktan sonra, bu ağaç kök ortada algoritmasına göre gezilmektedir. N AN D V E Y A XO R p q r q Şekil-3: (p VEYA q) NAND (r XOR q) mantıksal ifadesi için gerçekleştirim ağacı. Gerçekleştirim ağacında, her bir alt ağaç, ayrı bir değişkene aktarılarak işlemler sırayla yapılır. Bu değişkenler ve alt ağaç ifadeleri program çalışırken KISALTMALAR bölümünde sunulmaktadır. Şekil-3 de verilen mantıksal ifadenin gerçekleştirim sırası, A = p VEYA q B = r XOR q C = A NAND B şeklinde olmaktadır. Burada, A ve B değişkenleri ara değişkenler ve C ise sonuç değişkenidir. Ayrık Matematik Program Paketi içinde yer alan komut tuşlarının kısa tanımlamaları izleyen bölümde yapılmaktadır. YAZIM KONTROLÜ tuşuna basıldığında, GİRDİ-1 satırına yazılan ifadenin yazımı yazım motoru aracılığıyla denetlenmektedir. Eğer, yazımda bir hata bulunursa, bu durumda SONUÇ/HATA satırına hatanın nedeni, eğer yazımda herhangi bir sorun yoksa SONUÇ/HATA satırına herhangi bir mesaj yazdırılmamaktadır. TOTOLOJİ Mİ? tuşuna basıldığında öncelikle GİRDİ-1 satırına yazılan mantıksal ifadenin yazım motoru aracılığıyla yazım kontrolü yapılmakta, mantıksal ifade de bir yazım hatası var ise SONUÇ/HATA satırına hatanın nedeni yazdırılmakta, eğer mantıksal ifade doğru yazılmışsa, ilgili ifade gerçekleştirme motorundan geçirilmekte ve ardından bu ifadenin sonucunun TOTOLOJİ olup olmadığı kontrol edilmektedir. Eğer, sonuç TOTOLOJİ ise, SONUÇ/HATA satırına TOTOLOJİ yazdırılmakta ve aynı zamanda ifadenin doğruluk tablosu da yazdırılmaktadır. EŞİT Mİ? tuşuna basıldığında, GİRDİ-1 ve GİRDİ-2 satırlarına yazılan ifadelerin yazım motoru aracılığıyla yazım kontrolleri yapılmakta, ardından her iki ifade de gerçekleştirme motorundan geçirilmekte ve daha sonra mantıksal olarak eşit olup olmadıkları sınanmaktadır. Eğer, yapılan işlemler sonucunda her iki ifadenin de doğruluk tabloları aynı bulunursa (yani ifadeler mantıksal olarak eşit bulunursa), SONUÇ/HATA satırına EŞİT, değilse EŞİT DEĞİL yazdırılmaktadır. ÇELİŞKİ Mİ? tuşuna basıldığında GİRDİ-1 satırına yazılan mantıksal ifadenin yazım motoru aracılığıyla yazım kontrolü yapılmakta, mantıksal ifade içinde bir yazım hatası var ise SONUÇ/HATA satırına hatanın nedeni yazdırılmakta, eğer mantıksal ifade doğru yazılmışsa, ilgili ifade gerçekleştirme motorundan geçirilmekte ve ardından bu ifadenin sonucunun ÇELİŞKİ olup olmadığı kontrol edilmektedir. Eğer, sonuç ÇELİŞKİ ise, SONUÇ/HATA satırına ÇELİŞKİ yazdırılmakta ve aynı zamanda ifadenin doğruluk tablosu da yazdırılmaktadır. Copyright The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology

104 ENGLISH tuşuna basıldığında ise, programın görüntüsünde yer alan tüm Türkçe kelimelerin İngilizce karşılıkları yazdırılmakta ve ENGLISH tuşu, TÜRKÇE şekline döndürülmektedir. MİNİ SINAV tuşuna basıldığında, şekil-4 de verilen ekran görüntüsü oluşmakta ve kullanıcıya üç adet soru sorulmaktadır. Sorulardan ilki, SORU_BANKASI veri tabanından çekilen bir mantıksal ifadenin sonucunu bulmakla ilgilidir. Kullanıcı mantıksal ifadenin sonucu totoloji ise, TOTOLOJİ seçeneğini, çelişki ise ÇELİŞKİ seçeneğini, eğer mantıksal ifadenin sonucu her ikisi de değilse DİĞER seçeneğini işaretleyebilmektedir. İkinci soruda, kullanıcıdan SORU_BANKASI veri tabanından çekilen bir mantıksal ifadenin sadeleştirme sonucunun ne olacağı istenmektedir. Burada mantıksal ifade ve yanıt seçeneklerinin tamamı SORU_BANKASI veri tabanından alınmaktadır. Üçüncü ve son soruda ise, SORU_BANKASI veri tabanından çekilen bir mantıksal ifadenin doğruluk tablosu sonuçlarının nasıl olacağı istenmektedir. Programda en fazla dört adet mantıksal değişken kullanıldığından, en fazla 16 adet kutu içerisine, 1-16 olarak numaralandırılmış mantıksal kombinasyonların sonuçlarının D ya da Y tuşlarından birine basılarak yazılması istenmektedir. Eğer, mantıksal değişken sayısı dörtten az ise (1 mantıksal değişken için 2 adet kombinasyon, 2 mantıksal değişken için 4 adet kombinasyon ve 3 mantıksal değişken için 8 adet kombinasyon bulunacağından) kullanılmayan kombinasyonlara karşılık gelen hücrelere değer girişine izin verilmemektedir. Kullanıcı mini sınav aşamasında, ana programa ait herhangi bir fonksiyonu kullanamamaktadır. Mini sınav aşamasında soruların doğru olarak yanıtlanması önemli olduğundan, kullanıcı YANITLA tuşuna basana kadar verdiği yanıtları değiştirme hakkına sahip olmaktadır. Kullanıcı YANITLA tuşuna bastığında ise, verilen üç adet yanıt SORU_BANKASI veri tabanında bulunan yanıtlarla karşılaştırılmakta ve doğru olan yanıtlar için her sorunun Sonuç çerçevesinde bulunan seçenek düğmesine işaretleme yapılmaktadır. Eğer, kullanıcı ilgili soruya boş yanıt vermek isterse, herhangi bir seçeneği işaretlemeden ya da klavyeyi kullanarak herhangi bir tuşa basmadan YANITLA tuşuna bastığında, değerlendirme bu sorunun boş olacağı şeklinde yapılacaktır. Yanlış yanıtlama yapıldığında ise, kullanıcı YENİDEN DENE tuşuna basarak, farklı sorularla tekrar mini sınav yapılmaktadır. Kullanıcının her mini sınavda verdiği tüm doğru ve yanlış yanıtlar KULLANICI veri tabanında saklanmakta ve daha sonraki öğretim çalışmaları için geri besleme amacıyla kullanılabilmektedir. Ana programda olduğu gibi, kullanıcı, eğer isterse ENGLISH tuşuna basarak arabirimde bulunan tüm metinleri İngilizce olacak şekilde değiştirebilir. Şekil-4: MİNİ SINAV uygulaması DOĞRULUK TABLOSU tuşuna basıldığında, GİRDİ-1 satırına yazılan ifadenin yazım motoru aracılığıyla yazım kontrolü yapılmakta, ardından gerçekleştirme motoru aracılığıyla doğruluk tablosu, DOĞRULUK TABLOSU bölümüne yazdırılmaktadır. Bu tabloda yer alan kısaltmalar, A, B, şeklinde KISALTMALAR bölümünde listelenmektedir. Kısaltmalar, en fazla 6 adet olabilmektedir. Doğruluk tablosu uygulamasına ilişkin bir örnek Şekil-2 de sunulmuştur. Copyright The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology

105 İNDİRGE tuşuna basıldığında ise, GİRDİ-1 satırına yazılan mantıksal ifadenin yazım motoru aracılığıyla yazım kontrolü gerçekleştirilmekte, daha sonra KARNAUGH MAP (Mano, 1980) tekniği kullanılarak en fazla 4 mantıksal değişken için indirgeme yapılmakta ve indirgenmiş (sadeleştirilmiş) sonuç, SONUÇ/HATA satırına yazdırılmaktadır. Sadeleştirme sonucu, çarpımların toplamı (VE lenmiş mantıksal ifadelerin VEYA lanması ya da minterm ifadeleri) (Rosen, 1995), (Mano, 1980) şeklinde elde edilmekte ve bu işlemin sonucunda sadece VE (AND), VEYA (OR) ve DEĞİL (NOT) mantıksal işlemcileri kullanılmaktadır. Ayrık Matematik Program Paketi, öğrencinin hızlı bir şekilde mantıksal işlemcilerin doğruluk tablolarına erişebilmesini sağlamak amacıyla YARDIM tuşu da içermektedir. Bu tuşa basıldığında, mantıksal işlemcilerin doğruluk tabloları Şekil-5 de sunulduğu gibi kullanıcıya listelenmektedir. Şekil-5: YARDIM penceresi. YÖNTEM Ayrık Matematik Program Paketi nin eğitsel katkısı olup olmadığını anlayabilmek için ve eğitim yıllarında TÜBİTAK (Türkiye Bilimsel ve Teknik Araştırma Kurumu) Bilgisayar Olimpiyatı sınavına katılan ve katılacak olan lise öğrencilerinden iki grup seçilmiştir. Bu öğrencilerin sınıf, cinsiyet ve yıl dağılımları Tablo-2 de özetlenmiştir. TABLO-2: İki liseden TÜBİTAK Bilgisayar Olimpiyatı gruplarına katılan öğrencilerin dağılımı (K- Kız öğrenci, E Erkek öğrenci) yılı yılı Hazırlık 9. sınıf 10. sınıf Hazırlık 9. sınıf 10. sınıf K E K E K E K E K E K E A Lisesi B Lisesi TOPLAM Lise sınıflarında TÜBİTAK Bilgisayar Olimpiyatları için sadece, lise yabancı dil hazırlık, 9. ve 10. (Lise-1 ve Lise-2) sınıflar katılabilmektedir. TÜBİTAK sınavı iki aşamalı olup, birinci aşama da bilgisayar bilimlerinin teorisi, matematiksel yetenek ve temel bilgisayar programlama bilgisine ilişkin 50 adet çoktan seçmeli soru sorulmaktadır. Bu sınavı başaran öğrenciler iki hafta için yaz kampı çalışması yapmakta ve daha sonra her yıl Aralık ayında ikinci aşama sınavına alınmaktadır. İkinci aşama sınavında sadece belirli sorulara ilişkin bilgisayar programları yazdırılmakta ve bu aşamayı geçen öğrenciler madalya kazanmaktadır. Madalya kazanan bir öğrenci, kazandığı madalyanın derecesine (altın, gümüş, bronz) bağlı olarak ÖSS (Öğrenci Seçme Sınavı) için belirli bir puan katkısı sağlamaktadır. Bu açıdan bakıldığında, TÜBİTAK Bilgisayar Olimpiyatları, üniversitelerin Bilgisayar ve Elektronik ile ilgili bölümlerini kazanmak için önemli bir avantaj sağlamaktadır. Copyright The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology

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