1 The first photograph ever taken of an "Earthrise," on Apollo
2 1966- The Economics of the Coming Spaceship Earth, Kenneth E. Boulding «The closed economy of the future might similarly be called the 'spaceman' economy, in which the earth has become a single spaceship, without unlimited reservoirs of anything, either for extraction or for pollution, and in which, therefore, man must find his place in a cyclical ecological system» Operating Manual For Spaceship Earth, R. Buckminster Fuller «I ve often heard people say, I wonder what it would feel like to be on board a spaceship, and the answer is very simple. What does it feel like? That s all we have ever experienced. We are all astronauts.» «In this literature, space colonies came to represent a rational, orderly, and wisely managed contrast to the irrational, disorderly, and ill-managed state of affairs on Earth.» the U.S. Pavilion for the 1967 Montreal World's Fair.
3 Vulnerability Interrelatedness The Population Bomb- (1968) by a biology professor at Stanford University, Paul Ehrlich The Limits to Growth- (1972) by a group of researchers from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology working under the label of The Club of Rome «resource crisis» Vulnerable: exposed to the possibility of being attacked or harmed, either physically or emotionally.
4 a future where the environment has collapsed and there's no more food. «Climate Change» «Global Warming» optimistic apocalypse
5 Survivalism- nature is seen as a finite source with a carrying capacity threatened by economic growth and human population URGENCY the environmental crisis is not something for architects to think about only in their spare time. IT IS A QUESTION OF SURVIVAL Architectural Design Magazine had published an issue titled Designing for Survival
6 Architecture as a closed, autonomous system ecological buildingas a self-sufficient, autonomous unit capable of harnessing its waste and providing its own energy. Ecological House, Graham Cane, 1972.
7 BIOSHELTERS In 1969, John and Nancy Todd and William McLarney co-founded the New Alchemy Institute and began designing miniature, largely self-sufficient ecosystems, which they called a bioshelter.
8 Earth Day Rally on Belmont Plateau in Fairmount Park, Apr. 22, ETHICAL AGENDA Concerns about technological progress Criticism of life-styles: consumption Criticism of human/ nature relations
9 Drop City, a community formed by artists in Colorado in Known as the first rural "hippie commune", Drop City was composed of domes constructed by its residents out of geometric panels made from a combination of materials including auto windshields, stolen items and garbage. Drop City, Colorado/ USA. A dome in Drop City utilizing a solar-panel mechanism.
10 globalization of the environmental movement 1972 United Nations Conference on the Human Environment taking place in Stockholm 1987 United Nations World Commission on Environment and Development Conference (also referred as Brundtland Conference or Report) 18th World Congress of Architects that was organized by the International Union of Architects (UIA) in Stockholm Conference
11 Turkey attended the «1972 Stockholm Conference» Environmental issues was incorporated into the third Five- Year Plan ( ): primacy was given to industrialization and development, and only those environmental policies that would not interfere with those goals were declared acceptable. DEVELOPMENTAL AGENDA developed versus developing development versus environment
12 The petroleum crises of 1973 and 1979 The economic, political and social consequences triggered by this crisis have revealed a bias towards energy, with an increasing interest in «energy efficiency, solar technologies, retrofitting homes and commercial buildings with insulation, and energy recovery systems.» ENERGY EFFICIENCY
13 Middle East Technical University Solar House, Ankara Marmaris MTA (Mineral Research and Exploration Center of Turkey) Solar Energy Laboratory, Muğla Ege University Solar Energy Institute, İzmir. METU Solar House Çukurova University Solar House, Adana. Ege University Solar Energy Institute
14 Pamukkale University Solar House, 2007
15 TURKISH ENVIRONMENTAL MOVEMENT 1980s in Turkey- Threshold to embrace the dynamics of the free market economy the deepening and widening of the effects of problems related to industrialization and urbanization First Environment Law in 1983 the emergence and development of nongovernmental organization in Turkey
16 Environmental conflicts against: the Gökova (1984) and Yatağan (1984) thermal power plants tourism facilities to be built on the breeding grounds of the caretta carettas in Dalyan (1984) the municipality project in Ankara which aimed to convert Güven Park into a parking lot (1987) Green Party was founded Bergama movement A village movement succeeded to obtain public support with the help of some local representatives of political parties, national environmental organizations and international environmental networks and organizations. This was a considerably significant support given that public opinion in Turkey considers environmental issues to be of secondary importance.
17 1987 Brundtland Report (United Nations World Commission on Environment and Development Conference) SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT SUSTAINABILITY development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. «needs» «future generations» «limits»
18 «18th World Congress of Architects» International Union of Architects (UIA), Architecture at the Crossroads: Designing for a Sustainable Future «we commit ourselves, as members of the world s architectural and building-design professions, individually and through our professional organizations, to: Place environmental and social sustainability at the core of our practices and professional responsibilities...» «Second United Nations Conference on Human Settlements» (Habitat II) that was held in İstanbul in 1996 Lack of housing Poor sanitary conditions Affordability problems Lack of qualified labor «route for action»
19 GLOBALIZATION Expansion of digital domain has created a wealth of possibilities for architecture, including the rise of new modes of design (employing software and computing applications), fabrication (generating custom- built materials and building components) and representation (creating computer models and animated fly throughs). the World Wide Web was launched in 1991 and E-trading became possible and a new period of financial trading had begun
20 1998/Renzo Piano/ Jean- Marie Tjibaou Cultural Centre 1993/Norman Foster/ German Parliament
21 Bioclimatic Skyscrapers, Ken Yeang, 1994 A tall building whose built form is configured by design, using passive low energy techniques to relate to the site s climate and meteorological data, resulting in a tall building that is environmentally interactive, low energy in embodiment and operations and high quality in performance. 1992/Ken Yeang/Menara Mesiniaga
22 RATING SYSTEMS Building Research Establishment Environmental Assessment Method (BREEAM) the U.S. Green Building Council was formed by a consortium of building owners, suppliers, contractors, governmental agencies, architects, engineers, and others involved in the business of creating buildings Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED)
23 ECOVILLAGES Hocamköy Ecovillage Project, Kırıkkale «the aim was to find practical solutions to the immediate ecological problems of Anatolia in co-operation with local farmers»
24 To preserve the vanishing cultural and natural values, to reconstruct the alienation of humannature, human-human relations To creating a life experience based on volunteering, sharing and supporting principles. Eko Foça, İzmir, 2000
25 Karakaya, 1998 Victor Ananias- Buğday Ekolojik Yaşam Dergisi, 1998 PRIVATE HOUSES Sazlam, 1998
26 Eco-House, Çelik Erengezgin, 2000
27 «A self-sustainable training center for traditional construction techniques and organic agriculture facilities» ECO-TOURISM Pastoral Valley Project, Ahmet Kizen, Fethiye, 2002
28 SMART HOUSES Aqua Manors Sinpaş, Çekmeköy, İstanbul, 1998 «taking people away from the chaos of the city and bringing them close to nature while at time same time providing maximum home comfort» Flora Digital Housing, Akros Architecture, Çekmeköy, İstanbul, 2000
29 Naturland Eco Park & Resort Hotels, Antalya, 1999 Solar House in UN Tent City, 2000 Sponsors: UNDP- GEF/SGP (United Nations Development Program / the Global Environment Facility Small Grants Programme)
30 «Naturland Eco Park ı; 150 dönüm alanda, canlı cansız sayısız unsurla, ekolojik temaların somutlaştırıldığı bir eğlence ve ekolojiyi öğrenme parkıdır. Antalya bölgesinin dağ keçilerini, ala geyiklerini, kuşlarını ve tüm hayvanlarını, portakallarını, limonlarını, irislerini, kızıl çamlarını ve diğer tüm bitkilerini esas alarak, özetle tüm Antalya orman ekolojisine dayalı olarak oluşturulmuş. Forest Park ve bu parkın içine yerleştirilmiş 5 yıldızlı 170 odalı Forest Resort. Toprak ekolojisini ve bir organik çiftliği tüm boyutlarıyla yaşatan Country Park ve bu parkın içinde ekolojik bir çiftliğin bahçelerine, seralarına, hayvanlarına açılan 80 odalı Country Resort. Tatil ve eğlenceyle, doğal yaşam ortamını bir araya getiren Country Resort ta, yiyecekleriniz organik, ortamınız doğal ve son derece konforlu.» «Doğal yaşam doğal evlerde yaşanır. Villa Park bölümünde denize karşı bir çam ormanı içinde, tamamen taştan veya ahşaptan yapılmış 98 adet Naturvillas.»
31 CONSTRUCTION BOOM
32 «the impact of buildings and their construction on the environment» Consumption of energy Sustainable architecture- a series of techniques that seek to minimize our impact on environment «justification» ARCHITECTS AS PART OF THE PROBLEM AND (OR) SOLUTION
34 Marmariç Permaculture Community, Bayındır, İzmir, 2004 Permaculture Research Institute, 2010 The old and abandoned school building and the teachers lodge, rented from the Dernekli Village for 49 years, have been repaired and became the centre of the community. Other than those two buildings, the remnants of the abandoned stone buildings within the pieces of land bought from the villagers are being repaired or rebuilt with the help of local or volunteer labour. Traditional, ecological and permaculture design principles and materials are used in all construction work.
36 ECOCENTRIC LOGIC «The essential mission of sustainable architecture becomes that of noninterference with nature, the ultimate measure of sustainability is the flourishing of ecosystems, and the fundamental question is whether to build at all.» «The holistic design strategies that result tend to revolve around small-scale and decentralized techniques utilizing low and intermediate technologies. There is an emphasis on reducing, or severing dependency on centralized infrastructure services of water, energy, and waste.» ECOCULTURAL LOGIC «This unique sense of identity evolves subjectively from within nature and there is a concern for the continuity of meaning between tradition and the individual combined with the cultivation of an ecological consciousness. It implies both the development of a sense of being indigenous to a place and a responsibility for protecting landscape and ecosystems from disturbance.»
37 Güneşli Okullar, Sulu Tarlalar Project in Tatvan Solar panels placed on a school roof Sponsors: Özyeğin University, ANEL, IBM, Microsoft, Pearson ve YGA (Young Guru Academy)
38 When a nuclear plant was proposed for the Turkish village of Buyukeceli, the residents decided to demonstrate their resistance not through protest and petitions but by highlighting the viability of renewable energy. Using the support of Greenpeace, they decided to show the power of solar energy and installed photovoltaic panels on the local mosque. Mersin, Büyükeceli, local mosque
39 Diyarbakır Solar House, Çelik Erengezgin, 2008
40 Energy- Efficiency and Standardization Turkish Green Building Association (Çevre Dostu Binalar Derneği- ÇEDBİK) Energy Efficiency Law : «decreasing the energy intensity (energy consumption per capita) by 15% until 2020» 2008 Turkish Building Energy Performance Code this code is revised in National Energy-Efficiency Movement "Energy Efficiency Year" with the participation of public, private and non-governmental organizations for ensuring «efficient use of energy, and particularly electricity energy, at every point, and preventing its waste» combination of technology development, market mechanisms and government policies
42 Bu zirve ile yapı sektörü için bir sorumluluk ve zorunluluk halini alan sürdürülebilirlik ilkeleri doğrultusunda ürün ve hizmet sunmada dünyanın ve ülkemizin en ileri bilgilerini aktarabileceğiz. «Zirvemize katkı ve destekleri için T.C. Çevre ve Şehircilik Bakanlığı, T.C. Başbakanlık Sermaye Piyasası Kurulu, T.C. Başbakanlık Toplu Konut İdaresi Başkanlığı, Dünya Yeşil Binalar Konseyi (WorldGBC), ABD Yeşil Binalar Konseyi (USGBC), Urban Land Institute (ULI), AYD, GYODER, KonutDER, İNDER, İMSAD, TDUB, TTMD, YEM, tüm sponsorlarımız ve Zirvenin düzenlenmesinde emeği geçen herkese teşekkür ederiz.» Haluk Sur
43 «Green Building Industry» in Turkey International investors REDEVCO Gordon Shopping Center, Ankara, 2009, designed by Chapman Taylor Architects and RedevConcepts
44 Erzurum Shopping Center, Erzurum, 2009 «REDEVCO has long regarded sustainability as an important part of its business activities. As a responsible property owner and developer, and a founding member of the Turkish Green Building Council, it has felt duty bound to use technologies that are already available to bring about groundbreaking improvements in the energy efficiency of new shopping centres.»
45 BUILDINGS WITH CERTIFICATES Eser Holding Head Offices, Ankara, Haluk Pamir, 2009 First LEED Platinum
46 TBM Headquarters (Türkiye Müteahhitler Birliği Binası), Selçuk Avcı, 2013 LEED Platinum
47 ECOBUILD : GREEN BUILDING CONSULTANCY specialisation ECOBUILD, LEED Sertifikasyonu ve yeşil malzemeler konusunda tüm bileşenleri ile tam ve entegre hizmet sunmaktadır. ECOBUILD, verdiği hizmetlerde stratejik proje planlama süreci yönetmektedir. İşveren, yatırımcı, kamu yönetimi veya tasarımcılar için planlama ve tasarım ilkelerini ulusal ve uluslararası sürdürülebilirlik kriterlerine bağlı olarak belirlemekte, proje hedeflerini ortaya koymaktadır. LEED CERTIFICATION ENERGY-EFFICIENCY GREEN BUILDING MATERIALS
48 ABSTRACTION AND UNIVERSALITY National rating systems Ulusal Yeşil Bina Sertifikasyon Sistemi «SEEB-TR» (Mimar Sinan University) Türk Standartları Enstitüsü (TSE) ÇEDBİK Green Building Certificate To develop adaptable and context sensitive building rating systems First building with TSE certificate
49 site and land issues, water use and conservation, energy and atmosphere, building materials, interior space quality, innovative strategies LEED Brain encourage designers to score points rather than concentrate on designing appropriately for location and purpose GREEN- Transformation of environmental architecture from a sociocultural project into a technological specialisation
50 SUSTAINABILITY AND ARCHITECTURAL EDUCATION EDUCATE- (Environmental Design in University Curricula and Architectural Training in Europe) is an Action funded by the European Commission «the mission of EDUCATE has been to deconstruct the pedagogical barriers to the integration of sustainability and energy efficiency in university curricula» 1st prize, International Student Award, 2011
51 «MİMARLIK EĞİTİMİNDE SÜRDÜRÜLEBİLİRLİK» MİMARİST ARCHITECTURAL DEPARTMENTS IN TURKEY ANALYZED: In 33 universities there were must-courses related with environmental issues Within these 33 universities, in 24 of them the issue was taken in relation with the physical control of environment Only in 9 of them there were cources concerned with the theoretical and analytic aspects of sustainability Except from ODTU these cources were given in relatively new universities
52 Rönesans Tower Office Project Two design teams in America and Turkey Approx. 35 firms TECHNOLOGY SOCIETY ARCHITECTURE the critical, potential, practical, ethical, and philosophical implications LEED Platinum