Strategic Defamation of Fethullah Gulen: English vs. Turkish

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1 European Journal of Economic and Political Studies Strateic Defamation of Fethullah Gulen: Enlish vs. Turkish Doan Koc 1 Abstract: Fethullah Gulen is a moderate Turkish Muslim scholar known for his educational and interfaith dialoue activities. While Gulen s efforts are applauded by many in every corners of the world, a small roup of authors try to defame Gulen and the Movement named after him. This paper shows Gulen s defamers act strateically. While Gulen is portrayed as Gulen1: American/Zionist/Vatican aent in Turkish versions of defamin articles, he is presented as Gulen2: Islamist/Khomeini/New Ottoman/Caliphate in the Enlish versions. Statistical analysis and literature review show that Gulen s defamers act accordin to audiences. Keywords: Gulen, Gulen Movement, Fethullah Gulen, Defamation Introduction Fethullah Gulen is a moderate Turkish Muslim scholar who is mostly known for his education and dialoue activities. Gulen Movement, named after him, has established hundreds of education and dialoue institutions throuhout the world. 1 University of Cairo, 189

2 Doan Koc Several books, hundreds of articles and news reports have been written about Gulen himself and the Movement. Some of these books and articles defame Gulen and the movement. In these defamatory articles, Türker (2009) points out that there are different strateies used in different lanuaes. Accordin to Türker, there is a bi contradiction between the Enlish and Turkish versions of articles defamin Gülen. While, in Turkish-lanuae accounts, Gulen is portrayed as a CIA/Zionist aent, a US puppet, a secret cardinal of the Pope and a Western Trojan horse in the Muslim world who is tryin to either Christianize Muslims or makin it easy for Western powers to exploit the Muslim world throuh his moderate Islamic teachins; on the other hand, in the Enlish versions of the critiques, he is portrayed as anti-semitic, anti-western and tryin to Islamize Christians, and as a second Khomeini who is tryin to establish an Islamic caliphate in the world (Türker, 2009). This paper analyzes articles and books Gulen both Turkish and Enlish that are critical of Fethullah, and illustrates that these defamations are not random, they appear accordin to audiences. In other words, as Türker (2009) points out:.they are addressin different audiences. It makes more sense to warn Turkish speakers of an American imperialist daner which is supported by Zionists. But, on the other hand, for Enlish speakers, you will find more buyers if you use an Islamic daner arument. Hikmet Cetinkaya, one of Fethullah Gulen's most relentless enemies, is a very ood example of this strateic defamation. Hikmet Cetinkaya has written many articles and 10 books defamin Gulen in Turkish. Thouh he also claimed that Gulen is tryin to establish an Islamic state in Turkey, his main arument in these articles and books is that Gulen an American puppet and he is controlled by America (see section Defamation of Gulen in Turkish and Appendix for more information). However, the same Hikmet Cetinkaya appears several times in a Dutch TV documentary (NOVA, 2008) and warns Dutch people. The main arument in the documentary is that the Gulen Movement is a danerous radical Islamist movement which is tryin to Islamize the West while usin reliiously-sanctioned dissimulation in its interaction with the Western world (Sharon-Krespin, 2009). In other words, while in his writins in Turkish, Hikmet Cetinkaya mainly portrays Gulen as an American puppet, when addressin a Western audience he shows Gulen as an Islamic daner to the West. 190

3 European Journal of Economic and Political Studies This paper shows that Hikmet Cetinkaya is not alone in these defamation campains, there is a wide roup of people who act strateically when defamin Fethullah Gulen and the Gulen Movement. Both in data collection and the discussion of the subject, I use the term defamation as the act of defamin; false or unjustified injury of the ood reputation of another, as by slander or libel (dictionary.com, 2). Defamation of Gulen in Enlish: Althouh, there are exceptions, in the Enlish versions, in brief, Gulen is portrayed as an Islamic daner to the Western world who is tryin to establish an Islamic caliphate by usin reliiously-sanctioned dissimulation (taqiyya) as his main stratey. Accordin to these articles Gulen is anti-western, anti-semitic. Most of these articles in this cateory arue that while Gulen is promotin tolerance, understandin, and interfaith dialoue, in reality, he is establishin his caliphate secretly. There are several themes which are used systematically over and over in these Enlish versions of defamin articles, includin the Trojan Horse; the uise of moderate Islam and interfaith dialoue; similarity to Khomeini; overthrowin the Turkish secular overnment and establishin an Islamic state; resurrection of a New Ottoman Empire, and universal caliphate; infiltration into the United States; and recently, trainin Islamist militia in the United States. While most of these defamatory articles cover almost identical themes, and often refer to each other, one or more themes are also selected and underlined in each article. In the sections below, a few leadin authors and their articles are presented for each theme, for the complete list of the articles and themes see Appendix. Islam s Trojan Horse: Moderate Islam as Taqiyya One of the earliest defamatory articles was written by Paul Stenhouse at Quadrant. On the establishment of the Fethullah Gülen Chair of Islamic Studies and Interfaith Dialoue, within the Centre of Inter-Reliious Dialoue at the Fitzroy campus of the Australian Catholic University in Melbourne, Stenhouse (2007) raised questions about Gulen, and implied that the Gulen Movement is a roup that is ex professo dedicated to promotin an Islamist ideoloy. As can be understood clearly from his title of the article, Islam's Trojan Horse 2? Turkish Nationalism and the Nakshibendi Sufi Order, 2 The term Trojan Horse has been used by almost all of the roups that are strateically tryin to defame Gulen. It appears both in Enlish and Turkish versions of the defamation articles. While Gulen is accused of bein Islam s Trojan Horse in the Western World/Christianity, in Turkish versions, he is accused of bein West s/pope s Trojan Horse in Muslim World. 191

4 Doan Koc he asserts that despite the fact that the Gulen Movement is promotin tolerance and interfaith dialoue, in reality it has a hidden Islamist aenda. Articles which insist that Gulen has a hidden aenda and uses moderate Islam as a disuise very often refer to a doctored video recordin of Gulen 3. These articles claim that Gulen justifies this disuise by taqiyya (reliiously-sanctioned dissimulation), and is secretly infiltratin Western society (Fitzerald, 2008; Rubin, 2008; Sharon-Krespin, 2009; Stenhouse, 2007; Mitzell, The Rise of a New Ottoman Empire: The Trap of Interfaith Dialoue, 2008). These articles also commonly refer to the Gulen Movement as a secret cult rather than a social movement. America s Khomeini: Same Evil Different Beard Michael Rubin is a leadin fiure in the production of defamatory articles. In an earlier article at National Review Online titled Turkey s Turnin Point, Rubin (2008) states that Gulen eventually will establish an Islamic state in Turkey, just like Khomeini did in Iran. As Khomeini consciously drew parallels between himself and Twelver Shiism s Hidden Imam, Gülen will remain quiet as his supporters paint his return as evidence that the caliphate formally dissolved by Atatürk in 1924 has been restored. In a recent article, Rubin (2) repeats his claims and defines Gulen as a cult leader, and the closest thin Turkey has to Khomeini-in-exile. But this time, he takes it to a further stae and asserts that Gulen is an Islamist cult leader maintainin a compound staffed and secured by machine-un-wieldin thus in the mountains of Pennsylvania. Very similar to Rubin, Fitzerald (2008) also compares Gulen to Ayatollah Khomeini, and warns the Western world, especially the United States for hostin these moderate Islamists. Accordin to Fitzerald, Gulen is more danerous than Khomeini, because he is cunnin, clever, and very, very sinister. He states that Turkey is already taken by Fethullah Gulen, and he has no fear to o back to Turkey, yet Gulen chooses to stay in the United States for his bier plans: Now that Turkey is oin just as Fethullah Gulen wished, you may ask why he doesn't fly home to a hero's welcome. And the answer is that he now has other, and bier, fish to fry. He has the entire Western world to help conquer from within (Fitzerald, 2008). Overthrowin Turkish Secular Government and Establishin an Islamic State 3 See Abdullah Ademolu s (2) Defamation of Gulen as a Smoke Screen article for more information on these fabricated records. 192

5 European Journal of Economic and Political Studies This theme has been covered by almost all of the defamatory articles in Enlish. Gulen is accused first of tryin to overthrow the existin secular state in Turkey and establish an Islamic state, later spread all over the world. Rachel Sharon-Krespin s (Sharon-Krespin, 2009) article titled Fethullah Gulen s Grand Ambition: Turkey s Islamist Daner holds a unique place not only in this cateory but overall in defamatory Enlish articles. Sharon-Krespin s article was written carefully as if it is an academic paper and was published by Middle East Quarterly. While this article seems to analyze Fethullah Gulen and the Gulen Movement with data and references it consciously manipulates data and systematically defames Gulen 4. Another importance of this article is that it has been used by other defamatory Enlish articles as a main source. Sharon-Krespin(2009) states: Today, despite the rhetoric of European Union accession, Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdoğan has turned Turkey away from Europe and toward Russia and Iran and reoriented Turkish policy in the Middle East away from sympathy toward Israel and much more toward friendship with Hamas, Hezbollah, and Syria. Anti-American, anti-christian, and anti-semitic sentiments have increased. Behind Turkey's transformation has been not only the impressive AKP (Adelet ve Kalkinma Partisi- Justice and Development Party) political machine but also a shadowy Islamist sect led by the mysterious hocaefendi (master lord) Fethullah Gülen; the sect often bills itself as a proponent of tolerance and dialoue but works toward purposes quite the opposite. Today, Gülen and his backers (Fethullahcılar, Fethullahists) not only seek to influence overnment but also to become the overnment. Gurdoan (2) presents the Gulen Movement as a daner spreadin from Turkey to the world. He stronly emphasizes that Gulen Movement is a secret cult which is takin over the Turkish overnment slowly in partnership with the current overnin party AKP. He states: this cult [Gulen Movement] ensures that those members who join them end up pledin their alleiance while they are at youn aes, pavin the way for them to et a proper education and prepare them so they can et any position at overnment aencies. With this method, they avoid a direct conflict and arument between the state and themselves, and simultaneously place cult members into the various overnment aencies, also known as Trojan horses, and have them 4 Sharon-Krespin misquotes information from an article which I coauthored. I have written a whole article addressin manipulations, miscalculations, and other problems in Sharon-Krespin article. For more information see Fethullah Gülen's Grand Ambition : A Biased, Selective, Misleadin, Misrepresentative and Miscalculated Article (Koc D., 2) 193

6 Doan Koc act completely in the interest of the cult in order to help capture the aencies they are workin inside of. Resurrection of New Ottoman Empire, and Universal Caliphate The theme of a resurrection of the Ottoman Empire or establishin a new Ottoman Empire and universal caliphate is also covered by many defamatory Enlish articles. However, Aland Mitzell and Paul Williams 5 are the leadin fiures in this theme. Mitzell has written several articles related to Gulen and the Gulen Movement, and in all these articles he defames Gulen. In one of his early articles titled The Rise of a New Ottoman Empire: The Trap of Interfaith Dialoue, he writes: Gulen believes that since the Ottoman Empire ruled the world for many centuries with peace, he wants to brin it back aain. By creatin bi lobbies, Gulen moves toward his ultimate oal of dictatin American and Western social, political, and economic policies. He has recruited thousands of teachers and millions of students while raisin billions of dollars in economic support (Mitzell, 2008). In another article, Mitzell (2) repeats his claims: today, the Ottoman Empire is back. Now the Ottoman proponents--like Fethullah Gülen and his followers-- want to reverse everythin Ataturk did. A variety of Islamic roups have tried various platforms to impose their power over people, but today the twenty-first century tactic of raisin up leaders with a radical aenda of reinstatin the Turkish Ottoman s core of Islam under the uise of an educational system is reressin the country toward the pre-republic days. Despite his other accusations, Williams also arues that in his schools, Gulen is raisin a new eneration to restore the Ottoman Empire. Williams (2): The most danerous Islamist in the world is neither Afhani nor Arab. He comes from neither Sudan nor Somalia. And he resides in neither the mountains of Pakistan nor the deserts of the Palestinian territories. This individual has toppled the secular overnment of Turkey and established madrassahs throuhout the world. His schools indoctrinate children in the tenets of radical Islam and prepare adolescents for the Islamization of the world Dozens of his universities, includin the Faith University in Istanbul, train youn men to become lawyers, accountants, and political leaders so that they can take an active part in the restoration of the Ottoman Empire and the Islamization of the Western World. In the same article, Williams (2) claims that Gulen has amassed a fortune over $30 billion for the creation of a universal caliphate. 5 Paul Williams is an interestin fiure in this defamation campain, he is all over. For more information see section Paul Williams: A Defamation Machine. 194

7 European Journal of Economic and Political Studies David Goldman (2) joins Mitzell and Williams and claims that Gulen s vision of moderate Islam is maical, a mystic's vision of Ottoman restoration and a pan-turkic caliphate. He also asserts that Gulen is a shaman, a relic of pre-history preserved in the cultural amber of eastern Anatolia, who inhabits the maical world of jinns and sorcery and sees science as a powerful form of maic of which Turks should avail themselves to enhance their power (Goldman, 2). Infiltration into the United States A wide rane of articles and internet comments, even blos and websites have been dedicated to this theme: that Fethullah Gulen is infiltratin the United States throuh charter schools, and he is pursuin Turkish reliious political indoctrination in publicly financed education (Schwartz, 2; Roders, 2). One of the very first articles was written by Guy Roders on Act for America website in early 2. In this article, Roders claims that Fethullah Gulen, a danerous Islamist leader, is Islamizin the United States under the uise of charter schools. He even claims that the Department of Homeland Security tried to deport him but could not succeed. Accordin to Roders, Fethullah Gulen Community runs over 90 public schools in at least 20 states. These schools are disuised as science academies (Schwartz, 2) and performin well academically but in fact doin an excellent job of heedin Gulen s exhortation and maskin their true intent (Roders, 2). Roders (2) states: In buildin a sophisticated and well-funded worldwide network, includin a substantial presence here in the U.S., Fethullah Gulen is followin in the footsteps and exhortations of Mohammed, who counseled patience and deception as a means of overcomin the infidel when the power of the infidel was reater than the power of the umma, the Muslim community. In a very real sense this is as or more sinister than the frontal assault stratey of Islamist oranizations such as al Qaeda and Hamas, because, like the proverbial fro in the kettle, we are incrementally boiled alive without realizin it. The FGC charter schools in America may outwardly appear innocuous, but they are servin a reater and lon-rane objective of Fethullah Gulen. Trainin an Islamist Militia in the United States Althouh it is not as common as other themes, the theme of trainin Islamist militia in the United States has also been addressed by several authors and repeated by several blos and websites. Paul Williams and Roberto Santiao are the first authors who claim that Gulen is trainin militias in a compound in Pennsylvania. Williams wrote: 195

8 Doan Koc Christian militias have been raided in Michian and Ohio, their members rounded up and tossed in prison and their caches of weapons confiscated. But a well-armed Muslim militia comprised not of American citizens but forein militants operates under the noses of federal and state law enforcement officials. If you don't it, pay a visit to Saylorsbur, Pennsylvania, in the heart of the Pocono Mountains (Williams, 2). Williams states that Fethullah Gulen also alleedly operates compounds to train jihadis in the tactics of uerilla warfare (Williams, 2). In another blo post, he states: powerful Turkish pasha Fethullah Gulen has established a 45 acre mountain fortress. The fortress remains protected by 100 Turkish uards and a sentry post. Local residents have complained of automatic unfire comin from the complex and of a low flyin helicopter that surveys the area for would-be intruders (Williams, 2). Paul Williams: A Defamation Machine Paul Williams is an interestin fiure in this defamation campain; he is ubiquitous and produces defamatory articles frequently. He emered on the scene in early 2, but has already written more defamatory articles in Enlish than anybody else. He is inconsistent in his writins and accuses Gulen of almost everythin imainable. It requires a separate article to examine only Williams himself. As presented above, Williams (2) claims that Gulen trains militia with uns in his compound in Pennsylvania and lives in a fortress protected by armed uards and helicopters. Accordin to him, Gulen works with the CIA, and the CIA uses Gulen. He claims that Gulen has money and that this money for his projects comes from dru traffickin. On the other hand, in William s world Gulen is also secretly tryin to establish a caliphate and resurrect the Ottoman Empire. In one of his article, Williams states: These uys use fully automatic weapons AK-47s for taret practice, one local businessman says. We called the FBI but nothin has been done to stop them. The Muslims have been here for years, another resident says. They ve been enaed in trainin for uerilla warfare. The Muslims in question are Turks who occupy a 45-acre compound that is owned and operated by Fethullah Gulen (Williams, 2). In another one, Williams states: He [Gulen] also alleedly operates compounds to train jihadis in the tactics of uerilla warfare. This individual has amassed a fortune over $30 billion for the creation of a universal caliphate. The Saylorsbur property consists of a massive chalet surrounded by numerous outbuildins, includin recreational centers, dormitories, cabins for visitin forein dinitaries, a helicopter pad, and 196

9 European Journal of Economic and Political Studies firin ranes. Neihbors complain of the incessant sounds of unfire includin the rat-tat-tat of fully automatic weapons comin from the compound and the low flyin helicopter that circles the area in search of all intruders. The FBI has been called to the scene, the neihbors say, but no action has been taken to end the illeal activity. Sentries stand uard at the ates to the estate to turn away all curiosity seekers (Williams, 2). He is full of self-contradiction. In some of these articles, he asserts that Gulen is backed and used by the CIA, and that Gulen s money comes from dru traffickin operations by the CIA (Williams, 2): Durin the Clinton administration, the CIA bean to fund Gulen and his movement with millions derived from dru traffickin includin the revenues amassed by Turkish underworld fiures (bubas) from the flow of heroin from Afhanistan throuh northern Iran to Turkey. With the money, Gulen established radical madrassahs (Islamic schools) and cemaats (Muslim communities) throuhout the Uzbekistan, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan and newly-formed Russian republics in order to ain control of the vast oil and natural as reserves of these developin countries. The movement rew to attract more than six million Muslim adherents, who supported Gulen s attempt to restore the Ottoman Empire and to establish a universal caliphate. Defamation of Gulen in Turkish: Unlike the Enlish versions of defamatory articles, in Turkish versions, Gulen is portrayed as an American/Zionist puppet who is bein used by westerners to destroy Turkey and Islam, and exploit Muslim populations. Some of these articles even arue that Gulen is not Muslim, and works for the papacy. Thouh there are articles which claim that Gulen is tryin to establish an Islamic state in the secular Turkish Republic, especially earlier ones, the majority of the writins run in the opposite direction. Similar to the Enlish versions, Turkish versions also present Gulen in several themes. Major themes that are used in these Turkish versions are: American puppet; servin the Vatican throuh interfaith dialoue; Zionist connections; damain Islam. American Puppet: Bi Middle East Project The most frequent theme is that Gulen is bein used by America. While some articles claim that Gulen directly works for the CIA or the American paramilitary oranization Super NATO, others claim that America is tryin to develop an Islam which 197

10 Doan Koc will not create any resistance to American exploitation in the Muslim world, and Gulen is workin for the creation of that American version of Islam which is moderate Islam. In the first roup, Dou Perincek and the maa he serves as the editor-inchief are the leadin fiures to claim that Gulen is a CIA aent and workin with Super NATO (Perincek, 2007; Perincek, 1996). In this theme America has established paramilitary oranizations in most of the NATO member countries, this oranization, known as Super NATO or Gladio, is actin behind the scenes to protect American interests in NATO member countries. Gladio is also behind most of the assassinations, murders, and coup d états (Perincek, 2007). Authors who claim that Gulen is workin for America claim that America s new project for the Middle East and Central Asia is called Buyuk Ortadou Projesi (BOP) (translated as Bi Middle East Project). By means of this project America is tryin to redesin the Middle East, includin some chanes in the borders of the countries. The authors allee that Fethullah Gulen and Turkish Prime minister Recep Tayyip Erdoan are co-presidents, but Fethullah Gulen is the most effective leader of this BOP project. Since Turkey s entrance to NATO, this Super NATO is supposedly rulin the country and it is behind every operation. Even today s Erenekon 6 case is explained as a Super NATO operation and Gulen is painted as an active part of this operation.(yanarda, 2007; Yanarda, 2006; Veren, 2007; Sezin, Zaman'cilar Ehli Kitap midir?, 2005) (Perincek, 2007; Perincek, 1996; Koc E., 2006; Koc E., 2006; Deniz, 2007; Kizilkan, 2008) (see Appendix for the full list of the references). Super NATO told to Tayyip Erdoan that it is oin make Diyarbakir center of the second Israel which is oin to be established in Northern Iraq. Erdoan s co-presidency for the Bi Middle East Project is duty iven in the Super NATO, and in the deep state. The leader of this deep state is Fethullah; Tayyip; and the Fethullahist an who are positioned in the police system are the members of this deep state (pae 3) (Perincek, 2007) In addition to newspaper and maa articles, several books have been published on this theme. Himet Cetinkaya, Merdan Yanarda and Erun Poyraz are leadin authors. In this theme, Hikmet Cetinkaya wrote Fethullah Gulen s 40 year Adventure-1 and 2 (Cetinkaya H., 2004; Cetinkaya H., 2005); Fethullah Gulen, USA and AKP (Cetinkaya H., Fethullah Gülen ABD ve AKP, 2007); Geese of Reliion Baron (Cetinkaya H., Din Baron'un Kazlari, 2006); Fethullahist Gladio (Cetinkaya H. 6 Erenekon is the name iven to an alleed clandestine, ultra-nationalist oranization in Turkey with ties to members of the country's military and security forces. Many security and military personnel includin retired enerals have been arrested and it is an onoin investiation. For more information see (Bozkurt, 2; Today's Zaman, 2009) 198

11 European Journal of Economic and Political Studies, Fethullahçı Gladyo, 2008); American Harmonica Players (Cetinkaya H., Amerikan Mızıkacıları, 2009); Soros Children (Cetinkaya H., 2008). Erun Poyraz published: Imam in America (Poyraz, Amerika'daki Ġmam, 2009); Those who do Wudu (ablution) with Blood (Poyraz, 2007); Real Face of Fethullah (Poyraz, 2000); From Said-I Nursi to Demirel and Ecevit: Fethullah s Real Face (Poyraz, 2000). Merdan Yanarda also published several books in this reard: How Turkey is Besieed: Backstae in the Fethullah Gulen Movement (Yanarda, 2006); AKP as a US Project (Yanarda, 2007) (see Appendix for the full list of the books). Some even claim that CIA aents are workin in Gulen Schools as Enlish teachers; they work especially in schools in Central Asian countries (Acik Istihbarat, 2). Duyar (1998) allees that America provided American passports to more than 1000 Turkish teachers who are workin at Gulen schools, and that these are not even reular passports, these were passports only iven to American diplomats (official passports). Moderate Islam: the Pope s Secret Cardinal The second most common theme in Turkish versions of defamatory articles is that Gulen works for the Pope, either as a secret cardinal, or he has a secret pact with the Pope. With his interfaith activities and moderate Islam, Gulen is alleed to be tryin to destroy Islam and Christianize Muslims (Yilan, 2006; Bala, 2006). Aziz Karaca and Emin Koc from Yeni Mesaj newspaper are the leadin authors who are committed to this theme. They have written numerous newspaper articles aruin that Gulen works for the Vatican to destroy Islam. Accordin to this theme, Gulen s meetin with Pope John Paul II in 1998 is official proof of this connection. Poyraz (2000) also claims that this meetin was set up by the CIA. Karaca (2006) states in his article titled Curse to those who opened this way : The children of the Muslim Turkish Nation, who have carried the fla of Islam for a thousand years, are movin to trinity and polytheism [Christianity] Polytheist, Crusader and Zionist unions who could not defeat this nation [Muslim Turkish Nation] in battle are workin to defeat this nation from the inside and make them their tool by destroyin their faith. Government s love of the EU, and the dialoue team [the Gulen Movement] that is part of the Vatican council s mission have prepared everythin for missionaries and with their treasonous plans, they push our people into the missionaries arms and have made our people an open market for them. 199

12 Doan Koc In his book Vatican and the Knihts Templar Aytunc Altindal claims that in the1990 s Pope John Paul II reactivated the dialoue project of Vatican. After discussin how Gulen s dialoue activities in Turkey and Vatican s dialoue projects match, he states: On February 21, 1998, Pope John Paul II appointed 20 new cardinals to Vatican Senate [In addition to these 20 cardinals] Pope John Paul II also used his riht to appoint in picture (secret cardinal), and appointed two secret cardinals. This riht has not been used by any pope for more than a hundred years. Only seven people know the identities of these two cardinals if they reveal their identities they will be killed in their countries It is uessed that one of these in picture cardinals (who belon to other reliions and hide their identities) is a reliious leader in China May the other one be a kin/leader or a reliious leader in the Muslim world? (Pae ) (Altindal, 2004) Zionist connections Similar to the American connection, in this theme, Gulen is portrayed as a Zionist comprador who works with MOSSAD and Israel. While some articles show Gulen as a crypto-jew (Jewish descendants who are hidin their identities) alon with the leadin members of the AKP overnment, others claim Gulen only works for Zionist roups (Poyraz, 2000; Eraydin, 2007; Biskin, 2007; Sezin, 2007). In 2007, Erun Poyraz wrote a series called Moses Children. In these books he proves that President Abdullah Gul, prime minister Tayyip Erdoan, AKP s leadin fiure Bulent Arinc, and Gulen are the descendants of Jews. These books are titled as Moses AKP, Moses Gul, Moses Children Tayyip and Emine 7, etc. (Poyraz, 2007; Poyraz, 2007; Poyraz, 2007; Poyraz, 2007). In his discussion of the ADL (Anti Defamation Leaue), Riza Zelyut (2007) describes the ADL as a Jewish oranization that protects and promotes Gulen. He also claims that the ADL arraned Gulen s meetin with Pope John Paul II and that Gulen s book on Islam was distributed by the ADL. In his article titled Gulen, RTE (Recep Tayyip Erdoan) and their Cohort are ADL Servants Emin Koc (2005) advances the same aruments and claims that the ADL distributed Fethullah Gulen s book Love and Tolerance all over the world. Some o further and claim that Bnai-Brith ives away all Gulen s books for free (Acik Istihbarat). Cozum s Reseach Team prepared a Gulen File and in this file they allee similarities between the Gulen Movement and the Unification Church 8, and claim that 7 Prime Minister Tayyip Erdoan s wife Emine Erdoan. 8 Known as also Moon Order. 200

13 European Journal of Economic and Political Studies both roups are oranized by a Zionist oranization: CSIS (Center for Strateic and International Studies) ( Gorus Research Team, 2004). Destroyin Islam: Gulen is not a Muslim Althouh not frequent as other themes, but enouh to be included here as a separate theme, in Turkish defamatory articles, Gulen is portrayed as not bein a Muslim but a hypocrite who is destroyin and chanin Islam from inside (Poyraz, 2000; Koc E., 2006). In accordance with the other themes, in some articles Gulen is shown as a crypto- Jew, or an in picture secret cardinal of the Pope who corrupts Islam and influences the masses. In his new book Imam in America, Poyraz (2009) claims that Gulen s knowlede of Islam is limited and poor. Accordin to Poyraz, Gulen does not even know basic thins such as the essentials of salah (prayer), and he does not have any knowlede about the Islamic madhabs (schools of jurisprudence) and their imams. Senolu and Bolat (2007) imply that Fethullah Gulen ave a fatwa (rulin) that the name of the Prophet Muhammed be removed from the Shahada 9. In his book titled Fethullah Musluman mi? (translated as Is Fethullah Muslim? ), Semih Tufan Gulaltay claims that Fethullah Gulen is Bahai, and he presents evidence for his claim (Gulaltay). In addition to the above themes, some other articles claim that Gulen works with the Kurdish separatist roup -- the PKK -- and its leader Abdullah Ocalan (Akul, 2009; Ekmekci, 2008; Gozubuyuk, 2009). Data and Codin: In order to demonstrate strateic defamation, I defined two different Gulen: Gulen1 and Gulen2 and coded articles accordinly. Gulen1: American/Zionist/Vatican aent Gulen2: Islamist/Khomeini/New Ottoman/Caliphate Dataset includes 436 cases in both Enlish and Turkish. These cases include books, journals, newspaper and maa articles, and website postins. While Turkish versions appear more as printed material such as books, maas, and newspapers, Enlish versions mostly appear online, especially in s. 9 The Shahada is the Muslim declaration of belief in the oneness of Allah and acceptance of Muhammad as God's prophet. It reads as There is no od but God, and Muhammad is the messener of God. 201

14 Doan Koc Enlish versions in particular use very similar tactics. First a defamatory article appears on a, and then it spreads all over. Similar s post the article and increase the circulation on the web. After a while the same article reappears on the web as if it is a new one. Some websites even ive Goole advertisements on words Gulen, and Gulen Movement searches for these defamin articles, such as Middle East Forum. In codin, I only selected books/articles/news which try to show Gulen in either picture. In other words, articles that are criticizin Gulen or the Movement in a proper way are not included in the data set. For instance, Karaca s (2005) article titled Diyalo meyveleri zehirliyor translated as The Fruits of Dialoue are Poisonous is critical of Gulen, and especially the dialoue activities of the Gulen Movement. However, in this article, Karaca states his own opinions, and implies dialoue activities are harmin Muslim Turkish youth. Therefore, this article is not included in the dataset. On the other hand, in his article titled Diyaloa karģıyız, çünkü translated as We are aainst dialoue because Karaca (2005) not only criticizes the dialoue activities of Gulen, he implies that Gulen is a part of the Vatican s dialoue project (he defines this project as a project that is developed by the Vatican to Christianize Muslims throuh dialoue activities). Therefore, this article is included in the dataset. If an article includes both pictures of defamation, it is included twice and coded for each picture. For instance, in an article titled Gulen Movement Paves Way For New Islamic World Order, Billions Pour Into Gulen s Coffers From Dru Trade, Paul Williams says: Gulen is a Turk, who is intent upon the establishment of a universal caliphate, and a militant Islamist who seeks to indoctrinate youth in the political teachins of the Qu ran. Due to the above description, the article is coded as Gulen2. However, in the same article he also claims that: The CIA has allowed the flow of heroin from Afhanistan into Europe and the United States in order to fund the Gulen movement. Because of this claim, the same article is also coded as Gulen1. Especially in the Enlish versions of these articles, there is quite a lare amount of repostin the same article on different s. In data codin, if the same article is posted as exactly the same several times on different s, only the oriinal article is included in the dataset. However, if an article posted on different s with some additional comments, each article is included in the dataset and coded accordinly. 202

15 European Journal of Economic and Political Studies Data Analysis and the Results: Table-1: Descriptive Statistics of the Data #Gulen1 #Gulen2 %Gulen1 %Gulen2 Turkish %98 %2 Enlish %11 %89 TOTAL %80 %20 Graph-1: % Graph of Gulen1 and Gulen2 accordin to Lanuaes 120% 100% 80% 90% 98% 60% 40% Gulen1 Gulen2 20% 0% 10% Enlish 2% Turkish The above statistics and raph show that in 98% of the Turkish articles Gulen is portrayed as an American/Zionist/Vatican aent (Gulen1). In only 2% of the Turkish articles is Gulen shown as an Islamist/Khomeini/New Ottoman/Caliphate advocate (Gulen2). But in the Enlish articles, the case is the opposite. While Gulen is portrayed as Gulen1 in %11 of the Enlish articles, he is presented as Gulen2 in 89% of the Enlish articles. Overall, Gulen is presented as Gulen1 in 80% of the articles, and as Gulen2 in 20% of the articles. This is because the number of the Turkish articles is more than the number of the Enlish articles. When we look at the raphs below which show the time line of the articles, the Turkish defamations started earlier than the Enlish versions. However, there is hue jump in the number of defamations in Enlish in recent years. If this continues, the amount of defamation in Enlish will equal the amount of Turkish defamation in a short time. 203

16 Doan Koc Graph-3: Gulen1 in Enlish Graph-4: Gulen2 in Enlish 204

17 European Journal of Economic and Political Studies Graph-5: Gulen1 in Turkish Graph-6: Gulen2 in Turkish 205

18 Doan Koc Graph-7: Both Gulen1 and Gulen2 in both Turkish and Enlish Correlation between the lanuae and the picture of Gulen (obs=436) (t=38.093) (p<0.0001) Lanuae Gulen Lanuae Gulen Gulen1 is coded as 1, Gulen2 is coded as 2; Turkish is coded as 1, Enlish is coded as 2 Correlation for 436 cases is.8776 which is a very stron positive correlation. It means that most likely when the lanuae is Turkish, Gulen is defamed as Gulen1, when the lanuae is Enlish, Gulen is defamed as Gulen2. 206

19 European Journal of Economic and Political Studies Graph-2: Sunflower Graph of Lanuae and Gulen 1 Lanuae Gulen Lanuae 1 petal = 25 obs. 1 petal = 1 obs. Darker points show the concentrations of the observations. The above raph shows that the concentration of articles in Turkish are at the point where Gulen is Gulen1, and the concentration of articles in Enlish are at the point where Gulen is Gulen2. It is another way of sayin that Gulen is mostly portrayed as Gulen1 in Turkish and as Gulen2 in Enlish. Conclusion: Both literature review and the statistical analyses show that the defamation of Fethullah Gulen and the Gulen Movement is strateically operated. Gulen is simultaneously portrayed as an Islamic daner who is secretly tryin to resurrect the Ottoman Empire and Caliphate and as an American and Zionist puppet who is destroyin Turkey and Islam with his moderate Islam. It appears that these strateies have been developed over time in order to convince specific and different audiences. While the depiction of an Islamic daner who is secretly tryin to resurrect the Ottoman Empire and Caliphate is more alarmin for Enlish-lanuae readers, the depiction of an American and Zionist puppet who is destroyin Turkey and Islam with his moderate Islam is likely aimed at manipulatin Turkish-lanuae readers. It is difficult not to aree with Turker s (2009) claim that: One wonders how come these critics can contradict each other this much even thouh they use the same sources. How come they criticize Gülen for bein an American and Zionist puppet (Turkish versions) but at the same time as an 207

20 Doan Koc Islamic daner who is tryin to establish an anti-american, anti-semitic Islamic state (Enlish versions)? In fact, it is not that difficult to understand because they are addressin different audiences. It makes more sense to warn Turkish speakers of an American imperialist daner which is supported by Zionists. But, on the other hand, for Enlish speakers, you will find more buyers if you use an Islamic daner arument. However, those who can read both lanuaes will see the hypocrisy therein. References Acik Istihbarat.2. Retrieved Auust 15, 2, from Acik Istihbarat. n.d.. Fethullah Sebekinin Balantilari. Retrieved Auust 6, 2, from Acik Istihbarat: Ademolu, A. 2. April 5. Defamation of Gulen as a Smoke Screen. Retrieved Auust 19, 2, from Fethullah Gulen Forum: Akul, A September 19. PKK'ya sayi, TSK'ya Saldiri. Cozum. Altindal, A Vatikan ve Tapınak Şövalyeleri. Alfa Yayinlari. Bala, T September 1. Ilımlı İslam Tuzağı. Cozum. Biskin, N March 1. Masonluk ve Dinlerarası Diyalo İlişkisi Siyonistlerin Erbakan Endişesi Cozum. Bozkurt, A. 2. April 21. Erenekon Fact vs. Fiction - Unravelin the trial of the century. Today's Zaman. Cetinkaya, H Amerikan Mızıkacıları. Istanbul: Cumhuriyet Kitaplari. Cetinkaya, H Din Baron'un Kazlari. Istanbul: Gunizi Yayincilik. Cetinkaya, H Fethullah Gülen ABD ve AKP. Istanbul: Gunizi Yayincilik. Cetinkaya, H Fethullah Gülen'in 40 Yıllık Serüveni. Istnabul: Gunizi Yayincilik. Cetinkaya, H Fethullah Gülen'in 40 Yıllık Serüveni-2nd book. Istanbul: Gunizi Yayincilik. Cetinkaya, H Fethullahçı Gladyo. Istanbul: Gunizi Yayincilik. Cetinkaya, H Soros'un Çocukları. Istanbul: Cumhuriyet Kitaplari. 208

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