1 THE LEADER PHOTOGRAPHS IN THE PRESS IN NOVEMBER 3, 2002 GENERAL ELECTION PERIOD IN TURKEY Assoc. Prof. Dr. Hülya Yengin Kocaeli University, Communication Faculty Kocaeli, Istanbul 2.Pictures Political Leaders on Posters 3.Photograph taken during meetings 4.Photographs with the public and especially with children 5.Pictures of leaders with local customs taken during political campaigns. 6.Photographs taken during stars activities practiced by leaders Introduction This study focuses on the photographs, the text under the pictures and the title of the news items related to the general elections in Turkey held on November 3, Our study analysed the photographs of political leaders which appeared during the dates of June 16 and November 4 in seven major papers. They were Cumhuriyet with a daily avarege circulation of Hürriyet, Sabah, Milliyet, Vatan, Akflam, Star. The photographs were categorized according to the topical content of the news item. 1.Photographs of Prime Minister Bülent Ecevit Prior to Elections 7.Pictures of leaders together with famous individuals who have joined their party 8.Other pictures taken during the political campaign which were newsworthy 9.Picture of political leaders appearing in the press after a television programme involving his views 10.Pictures of leaders published after the election results were announced Anaysis
2 1. Photographs of Prime Minister Bülent Ecevit Prior to Election In June 2002 The Turkish Media started to discuss the issue of the Prime Ministers Health. Since Turkish political activities are centered around leaders the discussions focused on whether he was able to lead the country and the government or not due to his illness. Bülent Ecevit s previous images focused on wearing a blue shirt, having white pigeons in the shots and wearing a captains hat. Turkish media changed this image to one of a sick man. These pictures were a clean indication of his illness. These pictures can be considered the begining of the media attention on the elections which followed in November. 2. Pictures of leaders on posters Today it is diffcult to imagine a succesful political candidate whose face is not known to the public-atlarge. This has not always been true. The visual packaging of politicans only dates back to the midnineteenth century, when photograph began to allow physical appearances to circulate as never before. The first presidental candidate to benefit from this development was Abraham Lincoln. Lincoln s election prospects were enchanced by an 1860 campaign photo portrait of him, made by the prominent New York studio photographer Matthew Brady. (Ewen: 1996: 151) Murat Bardakç in the article appearing in Hürriyet Newspaper on July 7, 2002 started off with the following title. 90 years later same picture of a sick man. He made a connection between the sick Sultan Reshad of 1912 with the ill Bülent Ecevit of In another article titles A Sad Sitution published on August 28, 2002 in the Star Newspaper a picture showed Ecevit losing his balance while trying to stand up during an army ceremony. Photographic historian Suzan Kismaric describes the process: In preparing his subject for the shoot,
3 Brady modified Lincoln s gangling appearance by pulling up the candidate s collar to make his neck look shorter, he also retouched the photograph to remove the harsh lines in Lincoln s face. (Ewen: 1996: 151) Pictures of leaders appearing in the printed media are primarily portraits emphasizing a smiling face. Some pictures show half a body above the belt. The prototype of clothes is usually a dark coloured suit, light coloured shirt and a blue or red neck tie. They exhibit the image of a serious person. smail Cem, Devlet Bahçeli, Do u Perinçek, Sadettin Tantan, Deniz Baykal fit this prototype of a leader. Tansu Çiller being a woman and prefering to wear white clothes is different from other leaders. Cem Uzan also exhibits a different image than all the others. He prefers white shirts and projects an active image as he is trying to reach the hands that are extended towards him. Most of his picture he is shown using his rigth arm as an ambitious, dynamic and challenging individual with matching facial expressions. 3. Leader Photographs in political meetings Public meetings during an election campaign usually held in the open air give the impression of a carnaval or fair. The leader is on stage as the principal action. An artificial world of entertainment different from the real world is presented. Political messages are given as a pill. Leaders are usually placed in a high platform faceing the people. As in a stage. A second location where campaign speeches are given is the roof of a bus.the leaders usually are far from the people in such meetings. In the star system of political leadership a leader is attractive if he addressess the maximum number of people as infrequently as possible. (Sennett: 1996: 363) Bülent Ecevit has used his pictures taken during mass gathering in the ads publiched in newspapers. The pictures showing him hand in hand with his wife Rahflan Ecevit elicits the desired response from his audience. The large banners used in this meetings are Turkish flats, photographs of Atatürk, photographs of Ecevit, picture of a white pigeon when is the party a m b l e m. Others leaders address the public in a high platform or the roof of a bus wearing white shirts and full body pictures. According to Sennett leaders do not develop interactive relations with their public but prefer to control them. The people have lost their self confidence in terms of their ability to evaluate the leaders consequently, the voter has eroded its ability to become part of a public (Sennett: 1996: 326) The carnaval atmospheres and the colorful scenes increase its effectiveness as the education level of the audience decreases. 4. Pictures of leaders meeting the public and especially hugging children. The distance between a leader and the public narrows down as he mingles with his audience where he can
4 express emotions through hugging babies, children, women and handcapped individuals. 5. Pictures of leaders in local costums Leaders who travel throughout the provinces in Turkey wear local costumes to become part of their public. This behaviour is used to elicit emotional reactions. 6. Pictures of leaders doing sports Leaders wearing sweats or shorts project an image of dynamism and youth and is therefore an important factor in image formation. 7. Pictures of leaders with famous people who have joined their party. News photographs showing movie and entertainment stars famous academics joining a leaders party with a ceremony are also an important component of image making. During the political campaigns all parties used meetings, songs, jingles, press conferences, billboards, posters, newspapers ads, internet ads, mobile phone messages, brochurs, booklets, party banners, concerts, television and similar means to communicate their messages. In fax political campaigns which were staged around a single indivudual led to the creation of star industry. The television channel Kanal D broadcasted a discussion with Recep Tayyip Erdo an the current Prime Minister and Deniz Baykal, leader of the opposition party on October 25, Other pictures by leaders that are newsworth during an electoral campaign. Leader visits to Atatürk mousoleum accompanied by other members of his party and giving speeches from a podium are the other subjects of photographs appearing in the media. 9. Pictures of leaders appearing in the press after politically oriented television programs. Political parties in Turkey started receiving assistance from advertising agencies after 1983 Elections. The Republican Peoples Party (CHP) retained the services of Kanguru and IRA, two Turkish Advertising Agencies. Motherland Party (Anap) worked with the stanbul Agencies, True Path Party (DYP) worked with Cenajans. The Demokratic Left Party (DSP) worked with Klan Ajans, The Justice and Development Party (AKP) with Arter Ajans, The National Movement Party (MHP) with Advise Ajans, The Youth Party (Genç Parti) worked with Ali Taran in managing their electoral campaigns. Three works before elections. In the program titles Elections Arena hosted by U ur Dündar. Both candidates wore dark suits with Baykal prefering a red necktie and Erdo an wore a wine colored necktie. These details are indicative of the importance placed on non-verbal communication by political leaders. Leaders that don t get into a fight on polemics are found to be successful speakers. Media determined these two leaders as favorites and thereby was able to guide the electrote. 10. Leaders pictures published after election results were announced on November 4, 2002.
5 The images become far more important than the substance. (Pratkanis; Aranson: 2002: 146) A political leader s image is central to the star system. The leader is a marketed product. His or her party and ideology has been pushed to the back burner. The leaders image has taken the place of the ideological contend of his party. In terms of influencing voting decisions there is a rapid change from a party to a leader. The results of this recent election indicated practicaly a landslide vote for AKP enabling its formation of a government by itself. CHP is the principal and only opposition party in the parliament. The other parties were unable to reach the minimum number of votes required to get into the parliament. When election results were announced pictures of the two leaders of AKP and CHP showed smiling faces, posing with self confidence which were reflected in the titles of news stories and the text underneath the photographs. In contrast the pictures of Tansu Çiller, Mesut Y lmaz and Devlet Bahçeli s pictures showed them with very sad faces indicating their loss. The press did not give much space to the pictures of the ex-prime minister Bülent Ecevit. Conclusions Photographs reflect the moment the picture is taken. t is open ended and provides multiple meanings. The text underneath the picture tells us why the picture was taken. It guides us in understanding and interpreting the picture. The text under the picture anchorage and description as denomination. In order to interpret leader s photographs we have used the different interpretations of non-verbal communication. (Fiske: 1996: 95-97) Body contact, closeness, direction, image, movements of the head, facial expressions, jests, position, eye movements and eye contact are components of nonverbal communication used effectivelly by political leaders. On the other hand Sampson defines the complete image formation with physical features, clothing and good looking clothes and accessories. (Y ld z: 2002: 23, 29) Journalists would be lost without the information and the angles they get from their opposite numbers in public relations practitioners need the journalistic apparatus to reach their audiences. Both occupations are storytellers engaged in fashioning moral discourse within certain frameworks. (Jackall; Hirota: 2000: 112) References a. Books -Sennett, Richard (1996) Kamusal nsan n Çöküflü, çev: S. Dural, A. Y lmaz, Ayr nt Yay, stanbul. -Fiske, John (1996) letiflim Çal flmalar na Girifl, çev: Süleyman rvan, Ark Yay., Ankara. -Y ld z, Nuran (2002) Türkiye de Siyasetin Yeni Biçimi: Liderler, majlar ve Medya, Phoenix Yay nlar, Ankara. -Yücel, Tahsin (1997) nsanl k Güldürüsünde Yüzler ve Bildiriler, YKY, stanbul. -Robert, Jackall; Janice M. Hirota (2000) Image Makers, Chicago Press, Chicago. -Ewen,Stuart, (1996), PR: A Social History of SPIN Basic Books, New York.
6 - rfan Erdo an (2002), letiflimi Anlamak, Erk Yay. Ankara. -Anthony Pratkanis; Elliot Aronson, (2000), Age of Propaganda, Freeman Com., New York. b. Newspapers -Ayfle Arman, Bülent Ecevit in hastal o tart flmay yeniden bafllatt : Gazetecilik mi? nsanl k m? Hürriyet Gazetesi, Pazar Eki, 16 Haziran, 2002, s Murat Bardakç, 90 y l sonra yine ayn hasta adam foto raf, Hürriyet Gazetesi, 7 Temmuz 2002, s. 7. -Cevheri Güven, Hazin bir durum, Star Gazetesi, 28 A ustos 2002, s. 1. -Milliyet Gazetesi, 4 Ekim 2002, s. 1. -Sabah Gazetesi, 4 Ekim 2002, s. 5. -Hürriyet Gazetesi, 13 Ekim 2002, s Sabah Gazetesi, 26 Ekim 2002, s Sabah Gazetesi, Ekonomi Eki, 26 Ekim 2002, s. 9. -Hürriyet Gazetesi, 25 Ekim 2002, s Sabah Gazetesi, Günayd n Eki, 26 Ekim 2002, s. 1. -Sabah Gazetesi, Pazar Eki, 20 Ekim 2002, s. 5. -Hürriyet Gazetesi, 25 Ekim 2002, s. 4. -Cumhuriyet Gazetesi, 24 Ekim 2002, s. 2. -Sabah Gazetesi, 25 Ekim 2002, s. 2. -Cumhuriyet Gazetesi, 15 Ekim 2002, s. 2. -Hürriyet Gazetesi, 20 Ekim 2002, s. 5. -Sabah Gazetesi, 21 Ekim 2002, s. 2. -Hürriyet Gazetesi, 19 Ekim 2002, s Cumhuriyet Gazetesi, 20 Ekim 2002, s. 3. -Sabah Gazetesi, 26 Ekim 2002, s. 5. -Cumhuriyet Gazetesi, 20 Ekim 2002, s Tufan Türenç, K sa f rt nadan sonra yükselifl, Hürriyet Gazetesi, 26 Ekim 2002, s TV ye ç kacaklar, Hürriyet Gazetesi, 22 Ekim 2002, s Hürriyet Gazetesi, Siyasetin Yeni Foto raf, 9 Eylül 2002, s Hürriyet Gazetesi, Meyve Sofras, 9 Eylül 2002, s. 1. -Ramazan Yavuz, Bu Kez fiiir De il Tasavvuf, Milliyet Gazetesi, 30 Eylül 2002, s Milliyet Gazetesi, Ac Ama Gerçek, 30 Eylül 2002, s AKP den Geri Ad m Yok, Sabah Gazetesi, 25 Ekim 2002, s Gaflar n Gaf : Allah size emanet ediyorum, Hürriyet Gazetesi, 13 Ekim 2002, s Fatma Can, Reklam ve Konserle Baraja Koflan Parti, Sabah Gazetesi, 7 Eylül 2002, s Ecevit YTP de: Bülent Ecevit in Kuzeni Siyasi Tercihini Yapt, Milliyet Gazetesi, 26 A ustos 2002, s Seçim Takvimi Belli Oldu, Milliyet Gazetesi, 6 A ustos 2002, s Akflam Gazetesi, 12 Temmuz Serhat O uz, Esra Kurt, Cem Coflkusu, Milliyet Gazetesi, 23 A ustos 2002, s Cem e Coflkulu Karfl lama, Cumhuriyet Gazetesi, 23 A ustos 2002, s. 1.
7 - Rakiplerimizi Korkuttuk Galiba, Hürriyet Gazetesi, 9 Eylül 2002, s Balçiçek Pamir, Tansu Çiller ve Kad nlar, Sabah Gazetesi, Pazar Eki, 20 Ekim 2002, s Ya Say Saymay Bilmiyorlar Ya da, Milliyet Gazetesi, 29 Ekim 2002, s Bahçeli nin A tak m Delege Vetosu Yedi, Hürriyet Gazetesi, 9 Eylül 2002, s Milliyet Gazetesi, 11 A ustos 2002, s Tufan Türenç, Çöküfl Gecesinden ktidar Aray fl na, Hürriyet Gazetesi, 25 Ekim 2002, s Derya Sazak, Devlet A dan Z ye De iflecek, Milliyet Gazetesi, 26 A ustos 2002, s Kot ve Topukla Sabah Sporu, Hürriyet Gazetesi, 21 Ekim 2002, s Sabah Gazetesi, 16 Ekim 2002, s. 5. -Zaman Gazetesi, 24 A ustos 2002, s Yeni Bir Türkiye Yarataca z, Hürriyet Gazetesi, 24 A ustos 2002, s Hürriyet Gazetesi, 5 Eylül 2002, s CHP de Türkçe Ezan Krizi, Hürriyet Gazetesi, 1 Ekim 2002, s. 1. -Akflam Gazetesi, 16 Eylül Me er Demokrasi Gelmemifl, Radikal Gazetesi, 17 Eylül 2002, s Seçim Arenas, Hürriyet Gazetesi, 25 Ekim 2002, s Gönüllerde ki Galip, Milliyet Gazetesi, 26 Ekim 2002, s Kavgas z da Oluyormufl, Milliyet Gazetesi, 26 Ekim 2002, s fiafl rtt lar, Vatan Gazetesi, 26 Ekim 2002, s Seviniyoruz Ama Göbek Atam yoruz, Hürriyet Gazetesi, 4 Kas m 2002, s Hürriyet Gazetesi, 4 Kas m 2002, s Sosyal Patlama Sand kta Oldu, Hürriyet Gazetesi, 4 Kas m 2002, s Anap Nas l Eridi, Sabah Gazetesi, 4 Kas m 2002, s DYP Nas l Eridi, Sabah Gazetesi, 4 Kas m 2002, s fiamil Tayyar, Bahçeli Çekiliyor, Sabah Gazetesi, 4 Kas m 2002, s Sa n Liderleri Tam Bir fiok Yaflad, Sabah Gazetesi, 4 Kas m 2002, s. 1. -Ayfle Arman, Baflkan n Bütün Zamanlar, Hürriyet Gazetesi, Pazar Eki, 10 Kas m 2002, s Nurcan m Vermedi Yeni Söz Yazd, Hürriyet Gazetesi, 24 A ustos 2002, s CHP Ata n n Huzurunda, Cumhuriyet Gazetesi, 10 Eylül 2002, s Modern Muhafazakar Yeni Sa, Hürriyet Gazetesi, 5 Eylül 2002, s Hürriyet Gazetesi, 30 Eylül 2002, s. 9.