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1 101-BURGER TO GO = HOLD THE PLASTIC foam disposable bulky stuff decompose Polystyrene (1) is one of the great success stories of modern Industry. Light, shock-resistant, insulating and cheap to make, it shows up everywhere: in (2) coffee cups, in boxes that hold fast-food hamburgers, as packing 'peanuts' for safe shipping. But the (3) has a serious downside as well. Polystyrene is (4), taking up space in landfills; as a plastic, it takes decades to (5) ; its manufacture causes the release of hazardous chemicals; and the market for recycling it is hopelessly limited. Environmentalists have argued for years that the foam should simply be banned. ally recycle chain protests They now have an unlikely (6) : McDonald's. America's largest fast-food (7) and frequent target of environmental (8) announced last week that it would begin phasing out foam packaging within 60 days at its 8,500 U.S. restaurants. The move came as a surprise. The company has long said the containers were not necessarily a problem and had planned a $100 million campaign to (9) them. But ecology-minded customers were increasingly unhappy with the packages. As a result, McDonald's is making the phaseout part of a broad pro-environment initiative that the company is developing in partnership with the Washington-based Environmental Defense Fund. solution wrap discarded landfills McDonald's will probably replace its foam hamburger boxes with material similar to the thin paper used to (10) its smallest sandwiches. That is not a perfect (11) either. The paper is not yet recyclable, and while it does break down in (12), its production requires cutting down trees. But it takes up 90% less space than foam when (13), and McDonald's is testing a paper-recycling technique in some of its California stores. If it can find alternatives, the chain may also replace its polystyrene plates and coffee cups. pellets substitute tends to rodents biodegradable edible innovations One possible (14) for some uses of polystyrene comes straight from nature. To replace the plastic-foam (15) that are used to protect delicate merchandise during shipping, at least two companies in California are trying to market a (16), in fact, (17), alternative: popcorn. The drawbacks are that it is more expensive to produce than polystyrene pellets and (18) attract (19) and Insects. Nonetheless, a handful of mail-order companies and other shippers in the U.S., Canada and Europe have begun packing with popcorn (butter and salt not included). Such small (20), along with dramatic shifts by companies like McDonald's, may someday eliminate a major insult to the environment.

2 KELİME ANLAM EŞ ANLAM foam köpük, sünger froth, lather, spume, suds, yeast disposable tek kullanımlık şey stuff şey, eşya, madde, hammadde, kumaş, yünlü kumaş [brit.], kereste, kâğıt hamuru, saçma, being, entity, individual, material, matter, object, substance zırva, saçmalık, hamur, öz, bulky iri, kocaman, büyük, hantal decompose çürütmek, çürümek; ayrıştırmak, dağıtmak, ayrışmak, dağılmak anatomize, break down, decompound, dissect, resolve ally birleştirmek, birleşmek, katmak, katılmak chain zincir, dizi, silsile, boyunduruk, sınırlama, bond(s), fetter(s), gyve(s), iron(s) protests itiraz etmek, karşı çıkmak, protesto etmek, reddetmek, protesto çekmek, iddia etmek, affirm, aver, avouch, avow, constate, declare, depose, predicate, profess teminât vermek recycle değerlendirmek, geri dönüşümünü sağlamak, yeniden kullanıma sokmak wrap sarmak, dolamak, örtmek, paketlemek, hap, muffle bürümek, sarınmak, paketlenmek, bürünmek solution çözelti, solüsyon, çıkar yol, eriyik, çözüm, result çare, halletme, çözünme, ara verme landfill a place where waste is buried under the ground discard ıskartaya çıkarmak, ayırmak, bir köşeye get rid of atmak, ıskartaya ayırmak, kurtulmak, terketmek, kâğıt atmak, boş kâğıt oynamak substitute yerine geçirmek, yerine kullanmak, yerine geçmek, yerini almak alternate, backup, fill-in, locum tenens, pinch hitter, replacement, stand-in, sub, pellet ufak top, top, yumak, hap, topak, saçma tanesi biodegradable bakterilerle ayrışabilen; geri dönüşümlü edible yenir, yenilebilir, yemeklik comestible, eatable, esculent tend to yönelmek, eğilimi olmak, yatkın olmak, çalmak (yeşile vb.), yüz tutmak, bakmak, hizmet etmek, gözetmek cultivate, dress, attend, care (for), mind, watch rodent kemirgen innovations yenilik, değişiklik, icat, buluş mutation, novelty, permutation,

3 102-ANTIQUES REPAIRS charming hall foresee politer Some time ago, I discovered that one of the chairs In my front (1) had a broken leg. I didn't (2) any great difficulty in getting it mended, as there are a whole lot of antique shops in Pimlico Road, which is three minutes walk from my flat. So, I set forth one morning carrying the chair with me. I went into the first shop confidently expecting a friendly reception, with a kindly man saying: "What a (3) chair. Yes, that's quite a simple job. When would you want it back?" I was quite wrong. The man I approached wouldn't even look at it. I wasn't too concerned; after all, It was only the first try and there are many more shops on both sides of the road. The reaction at the second shop, though slightly (4), was just the same, and at the third and the fourth, so I decided that my approach must be wrong. fierce disturb concocted I entered the fifth shop with some confidence because I had (5) a plan. I placed the chair gently on the floor so as not to (6) the damaged leg and said "Would you like to buy a chair?" The rather (7) (8) looked it over carefully and said, "Yes, not a bad little chair. How much do you want for it?" " 20," I said. "OK," he said, "I'll give you 20." "It's got a slightly broken leg," I said. "Yes, I saw that; it's nothing. Don't worry about it." velvet proprietor episode quid dye nuisance Everything was going to plan and I was getting excited. "What will you do with it?" I asked. "Oh, it will be very (9) once the repair is done. I like the bit of old green (10) on the top. I shall leave that yes, very saleable." "I'll buy it," I said. "What (11) mean? You've just sold it to me," he said. "Yes I know, but I've changed my mind. As a matter of fact, it is just what I'm looking for - I've got its pair at home. I'll give you 27 (12) for it." "You must be crazy," he said. Then suddenly the penny dropped and he smiled and said, "I know what you want. You want me to (13) your chair, don't you?" "You're (14) right," I said. "And what would you have done if I had walked in and said, 'Would you mend this chair for me?' Would you have repaired it?" "No, I wouldn't have done it," he said, "We don't do repairs - not enough money in it and too much of a (15). However, I'll mend this chair for you - shall we say a fiver?" He was a very nice man and thought the whole (16) rather funny.

4 KELİME ANLAM EŞ ANLAM hall hol, salon, antre, kabul salonu, koridor, konak, yurt, yemekhane hallway, corridor; large room (used for parties, meetings, etc.) foresee ileriyi görmek, önceden görmek, geleceği foreknow, divine, anticipate görmek charming çekici, büyüleyici, cazibeli, sevimli, hoş, alımlı alluring, attracting, captivating, drawing, enchanting, glamorous, magnetic, seductive, siren polite kibar, nazik, terbiyeli, ince courteous, genteel, mannerly, well-mannered concoct karıştırmak, hazırlamak, uydurmak, uyduruvermek cook (up), devise, dream up, formulate, frame, hatch (up), invent, make up, vamp (up) disturb endişelendirmek, rahatsız etmek, huzursuz dislocate, remove, shift, ship, transfer etmek, rahat vermemek; aksatmak; altüst etmek, karıştırmak; bozmak fierce azılı, azgın, sert, kızgın, ateşli, kötü, berbat barbarous, cannibalic, cruel, fell, ferocious, grim, inhuman, inhumane, savage, truculent, wolfish proprietor sahip, mal sahibi, mülk sahibi owner, holder, possessor saleable satılabilir, satılır, alıcısı olan marketable velvet kadife gibi, yumuşak, kadife dye boyamak, boyanmak colorant, dyestuff, pigment, stain, tincture quid çiğneme tütünü, çiğnenen şey, sterlin, pound mend onarmak, tamir etmek, düzeltmek, düzelmek, repair, patch, rebuild iyileşmek plumb dikine, düşey olarak, tam olarak, adamakıllı, vertical gayet nuisance sıkıntı, dert, belâ, baş belâsı, sıkıcı tip, pest, annoyence rahatsızlık episode olay; bölüm, perde, kısım circumstance, event, go, happening, incident, occasion, thing

5 103-ALEXANDER THE GREAT plant coastal defeated impregnable terrain fleeing In 334 B.C., with an army of 35,000 men, Alexander crossed Into Asia Minor. In addition to soldiers, the former student of Aristotle brought along scientists to study (1) and animal life and to chart the (2). After capturing the coast of Asia Minor, Alexander marched into Syria and (3) the Persian army at the battle of Issus. Rather than pursuing the (4) Persian king, Darius III, Alexander stayed with his master plan, which included the capture of (5) ports in order to crush the Persian navy. He captured Tyre, thought to be an (6) city, and advanced into Egypt. Grateful to Alexander for having liberated them from Persian rule, the Egyptians made him pharaoh. Alexander appointed officials to administer the country and founded a new city, Alexandria. conspirators chase fleet Babylon stopovers Having destroyed or captured the Persian (7), Alexander moved into Mesopotamia in pursuit of Darius in 331 B.C. The Macedonians defeated the numerically superior Persians at Gaugamela, just east of the Tigris River, but Darius escaped. After (8) at (9) and at Persepolis, which he burned in revenge for Xerxes destruction of Athens more than 150 years earlier, Alexander resumed the (10). When he finally caught up with Darius, the Persian king was already dead, killed by Persian (11). superb fascination conquerors Alexander relentlessly pushed deeper into Asia, crossing from Afghanistan into north India, where he defeated the king of Pontus in a costly battle. When Alexander announced plans to push deeper into India, his troops, exhausted and far from home in a strange land, resisted. Yielding to their wishes, Alexander returned to Babylon in 324 B.C. In these campaigns, Alexander proved himself to be a (12) strategist and leader of men. Winning every battle, Alexander's army had carved an empire that stretched from Greece to India. Future (13), including Caesar and Napoleon, would read of Alexander's career with (14) and longing.

6 KELİME ANLAM EŞ ANLAM plant dikmek, ekmek, koymak, yeşillendirmek, ağaçlandırmak, kurmak, dikmek (bitki), ağaç implant establish, institute colonize, settle olmak, kök salmak, aşılamak (fikir), indirmek, yapıştırmak, çarpmak, vurmak, adam koymak, saklamak, gizlemek, yüklemek, yutturmak, bırakmak terrain yer, arazi field defeat yenmek, aşmak; engellemek; devirmek; boşa çıkarmak, iptal ettirmek destroy, nullify, frustrate, beat, conquer flee kaçmak, sıvışmak, tüymek, aceleyle çıkmak, escape,run akıp gitmek, kaçınmak, terketmek coastal sahille ilgili, kıyı ile ilgili, sahil seashore, border, frontier impregnable zaptedilemez, ele geçirilemez, etkilenmez, invincible dayanıklı, içirilebilir fleet filo, donanma, alay stopovers mola, konaklama, ara istasyon tarriance, visit Babylon büyük ve gösterişli şehir chase kovalama, takip, iz sürme, av; avlanma bölgesi; pursue, follow, trail dizilmiş harfleri tutan demir çerçeve, oluk, yiv conspirators suikâstçi, komplocu abettor, accessory, accomplice, coconspirator superb mükemmel, muhteşem, harikulâde, müthiş, alâ magnificent, outstanding, standout, superexcellent conquerors fatih, fetheden kimse; kazanan; final maçı vanquish, defeat, subdue reduce, overcome, overthrow fascination cazibe, çekicilik, büyü, sihir allure, appeal, charisma, glamour, magnetism, witchcraft, witchery

7 104-THE MIDDLE AGES IN EUROPE hampered fertilizers malnutrition severe Intermittent conservation shortage prolonged In the late Middle Ages, Latin Christendom was afflicted with (1) economic problems. The earlier increases in agricultural production did not continue. Limited use of (2) and limited knowledge of (3) exhausted the topsoil. As more grazing lands were converted to the cultivation of cereals, animal husbandry decreased, causing a serious (4) of manure needed for arable land. (5) bouts of (6) heavy rains and frost also (7) agriculture. From 1301 to 1314, there was a general shortage of food, and from 1315 to 1317, famine struck Europe. Throughout the century, starvation and (8) were widespread. peasants knights nobility dues plunder revenues Other economic problems abounded, A silver shortage, caused by technical problems in sinking deeper shafts in the mines, led to the debasement of coins and spiraling Inflation, which hurt the feudal (9) in particular. Prices for manufactured luxury goods, which the nobility craved, rose rapidly. At the same time, the (10) that the nobility collected from (11) diminished. To replace their (12), lords and (13) turned to (14) and warfare. swiftly bubonic plague mortalities. undernourished perished Compounding the economic crisis was the Black Death, or (15). This disease was carried by the fleas on brown rats, and probably first struck Mongolia in From there it crossed into Russia. Carried back from Black Sea ports, the plague reached Sicily in Spreading (16) throughout much of Europe, the plague attacked an already declining and (17) population. The first crisis lasted until 1351, and other serious outbreaks occurred in later decades. The crowded cities and towns had the highest (18). Perhaps twenty million people - about one-quarter to one-third of the European population - (19) in the worst human disaster in recorded history. Frenzied masses torments Flagellants hysteria desperate witchcraft morbid please ostentatious bizarre. cursed Deprived of many of, their intellectual and spiritual leaders, the panic-stricken (20) drifted into immorality and (21). (22) forms of religious life and superstitious practices became popular. (23) marched from region to region beating each other with sticks and whips in a (24) effort to (25) God, who they believed had (26) them with the plague. In addition to flagellation and superstition, black magic, (27), and sexual immorality found eager supporters. Dress became increasingly (28) and (29). Art forms concentrated on (30) scenes of decaying flesh, dances of death, and the (31) of Hell. Sometimes this hysteria was directed against the Jews, who were accused of causing the plague by poisoning the wells. Terrible massacres of Jews occurred despite the pleas of the papacy.

8 KELİME ANLAM EŞ ANLAM bizarre acayip, tuhaf, garip strange, unusual, outlandish bouts nöbet, süre, devre, müddet, zaman, kriz, yarışma, müsabaka session; fit of illness or drinking; athletic match bubonic plague hıyarcıklı veba, hıyarcık epidemic of, or a disease characterized by delirium and the formation of buboes conservation koruma, muhafaza, sahip çıkma guarding, preservation, cursed lanet olası, lanetli, allah'ın belâsı, melun, damned, under a curse; evil, wretched kahrolası, tâlihsiz, huysuz desperate çaresiz, umutsuz, her şeyi göze almış, gözükara; korkunç, vahim, azgın; aşırı dues aidat, ücret, vergi, resim owed fertilizers gübre, suni gübre fertiliser, plant food flagellants kendini kırbaçlayan kimse masochist hopeless, despairing; dangerous, violent; terrible, bad flesh et, vücut, beden, insan doğası, bedensel istekler, şehvet, insanlık human body, physical body, material body, soma, build, figure, physique, anatomy, shape, bod, chassis, frame, form Frenzied çılgın, çılgınca, coşkun, şiddetli crazed, violently agitated, wildly excited hampered engel olmak, engellemek, aksatmak, köstek hinder, impede, delay olmak, zorluk çıkarmak hysteria histeri, isteri, sinir bozukluğu craze, delirium, frenzy, fury Intermittent aralıklı, kesik kesik, gidip gelen not continuous, sporadic, fitful, alternately stopping and starting knights şövalye, silâhşör, at (satranç), kendini adayan kimse medieval warrior; man who holds an honorary nonhereditary rank; malnutrition yetersiz beslenme, gıdasızlık, beslenme bozukluğu undernourishment, inadequate nutrition, malnourishment masses yığmak, toplamak, kümelemek large amount of unspecified size; greatness of size, bulk, magnitude; lump; crowd, common people; abundance, overflow morbid hastalıklı, marazi, marazi şeylere ilgi duyan depressed, sad; depressing; gruesome, repugnant; sickly, afflicted; mortalities ölümlülük, ölüm oranı, insanlık, insanoğlu deathrate, death rate, morbidity, mortality rate, fatality rate nobility yücelik, asillik, soyluluk, soylular nobleness; aristocracy ostentatious gösterişli, azametli, havalı, fiyakalı showy, pretentious; bombastic, pompous; garish peasants köylü, cahil tip farmer, agriculturalist; rustic, person who lives in a rural area; hillbilly, ignorant person perished mahvolmuş be destroyed; die; expire; wither, wilt; spoil pleas bahane, mazeret, savunma, dava, rica, supplication talep, yalvarma plunder yağmalamak, talan etmek, soymak, çalmak steal, rob, pillage; embezzle, defraud prolonged uzun, uzatılmış, uzatmalı extended, lengthened, made longer; protracted, drawn out, revenues aidat, gelir, kazanç, hasılat gross, receipts severe sert, haşin, ağır, acı, şiddetli, keskin, sade, yalın serious, grave; acute, critical; difficult, rigorous; simple, plain; harsh, strict shortage yokluk, eksiklik, açık, kıtlık lack, scarcity, deficit, deficiency swiftly hızla, süratle, çabucak, çabuk quickly, speedily; immediately, hastily; expeditiously, promptly torments eziyet etmek, işkence etmek, acı çektirmek torture, agonize, persecute undernourish yetersiz beslemek malnourish witchcraft büyücülük, sihirbazlık, büyü witchery, sorcery, magic; charm

9 105-PARENTAL AUTHORITY evaluation disillusionment inevitable touched adolescent resenting infallibility (1) with one's parents, however good and adequate they may be both as parents and as individuals, is to some degree (2). Most children have a very high ideal of their parents that can hardly stand up to realistic (3) unless the parents themselves have been unsatisfactory. Parents would be greatly surprised and deeply (4) if they realised how much belief their children usually have in their character and (5), and how much this faith means to a child. If parents were prepared for this (6) reaction, and realised that it was a sign that the child was growing up and developing valuable powers of observation and independent judgement, they would not be very hurt, so they would not drive the child into opposition by (7) and resisting it. cowed wiser passion dignity forgive unreasoning ignorant The adolescent, with his (8) for sincerity, always respects a parent who admits that he is wrong, or (9), or even that he has been unfair or unjust. What the child cannot (10) is the parents' refusal to admit these charges if the child knows them to be true. Victorian parents believed that they kept their (11) by retreating behind an (12) authoritarian attitude; in fact, they did nothing of the kind, but children were then too (13) to let them know how they really felt. Today, we tend to go to the other extreme, but, on the whole, this is a healthier attitude both for the child and the parent. it is always (14) and safer to face up to reality, however painful it may be at the moment. KELİME ANLAM EŞ ANLAM adolescent genç, yeniyetme, delikanlı young person; one who is at the stage between childhood and adulthood cowed korkutmak, yıldırmak, sindirmek frighten, intimidate dignity şeref, itibar, asalet, ağırbaşlılık, haysiyet, respected position, nobility; honor yücelik; temkin; yüksek makam disillusionment gözünü açma, gerçekleri görmesini sağlama; hayal kırıklığı release from misbelief, disenchantment, freedom from illusion evaluation paha biçme, değerlendirme, değer tahmini; appraisal, estimation, act of evaluating ölçüm affetmek, bağışlamak, kusuruna bakmamak, silmek forgive pardon, give amnesty to; cease to hold anger or resentment against; cancel a debt, release from a liability ignorant habersiz, cahil, bilgisiz, bilmez illiterate, lacking knowledge, uneducated; uninformed, unaware unavoidable, inescapable, certain; sure to happen inevitable kaçınılmaz, çaresiz, beklenen, malum, umulan infallibility şaşmazlık, yanılmazlık absolute reliability; quality of being incapable of making mistakes, quality of being unable to err passion tutku, aşk, ihtiras, arzu, tutkunluk, hırs, öfke ardour, fervor; zeal, enthusiasm; fury; desire, lust resenting alınmak, içerlemek, gücenmek, gücüne gitmek touched etkilenmiş, müteessir, deli, çatlak, bozuk make contact with, feel unreasoning mantıksız, akılsız, akıl almaz not thinking logically wiser bilge, bilgili, akıllı, anlayışlı, deneyimli, haberi olan, küstah, ukalâ, becerikli, usta begrudge, have a feeling of ill will, be displeased or bitter intelligent; clever; smart; cautious; skilled; learned; impudent (Slang)

10 106-TW0 VIEWS OF DIVORCE regulate divorce superstructure conflict wage aspirations Spouses normative contradiction subservient contradict The increasing (1) rate can be seen as a 'product of (2) between the changing economic system and its social and ideological (3) (notably the family)'. in advanced capitalist industrial societies, there is an increasing demand for cheap female (4) labour. Wives are encouraged to take up paid employment not only because there is a demand for their services, but also because the capitalist controlled media has raised 'material aspirations' which (5) the demand for desirable goods. These material (6) can only be satisfied by both (7) working as wage earners. However, conflict results from the (8) between female wage labour and the (9) expectations which surround married life. 'Working wives' are still expected to be primarily responsible for housework and raising children. in addition, they are still expected, to some degree, to play a (10) role to the male head of the household. These normative expectations (11) the wife's role as a wage earner since she is now sharing the economic burden with her husband. Conflict between the spouses can result from this contradiction, and conflict can lead to marital breakdown. commentators legislation sceptical permissive underlying leveling İnstability plausible While laws and procedures regulating divorce were altered, the divorce rate tended to increase quickly and since each new piece of (12) made divorce more readily available, the rate rose rapidly for a time before (13) off. Today there is one divorce in Britain for every three marriages. (in the USA the rate is one in two.) Many people have suggested that the higher divorce rates reflect an (14) increase in marital (15) ; the problem with this argument is that we have no way of knowing how many 'unstable' or 'unhappy' marriages existed before legislation made it possible to dissolve them in a public (and recordable) form. Some (16) have gone further and argued that more (17) divorce laws in themselves cause marital breakdown. But we can certainly be (18) of such a view, suggesting as it does that happily married couples can suddenly be persuaded to abandon their relationship, propelled by the attraction of a new divorce law. A more (19) explanation for rises in the divorce rate after the passage of a law is that unhappily married couples were for the first time given access to a legal solution to pre-existent marital problems; in other words, changes in divorce laws are less likely to cause marital breakdown than to provide new types of solutions where breakdown has already occurred.

11 KELİME ANLAM EŞ ANLAM aspirations istek, özlem, arzu, can atma, soluklu okuma, longing, ambition, goal, dream soluma, nefes alma, emme commentators yorumcu, maç spikeri, eleştirmen reporter; person who writes a commentary conflict çekişmek, anlaşmazlığa düşmek, savaşmak, oppose, disagree, quarrel, fight bağdaşmamak, tutmamak contradict yalanlamak, aksini iddia etmek, çelişmek, deny; refute; oppose ters düşmek divorce boşanma, boşama, ayrılma, ayrılık end a marriage; cut off, banish; be separated instability dengesizlik, değişkenlik, kararsızlık, dayanıksızlık unsteadiness, shakiness, lack of firmness; changeability, tendency to behave erratically legislation yasama, kanun yapma, mevzuat, yürürlükteki yasalar act of making or enacting laws; laws, statutes leveling düzeltmek, düzleştirmek, yıkmak, yerle bir etmek, eşitlemek, dengelemek, yöneltmek, hedef almak, nişan almak straighten, flatten, make even; equalize, adjust two or more things so they are level with each other; destroy, tear down; knock down; direct, aim (weapon, etc.); be open and honest, be frank; use a level normative örnek oluşturan, örneğe ait, düzgüsel, standard, normal normal permissive isteğe bağlı, seçmeli, serbest, hoşgörülü, tending to grant permission, allowing; plausible müsamahakâr, liberal akla yakın, makul, mantıklı, yüze gülücü, olası indulgent, lax conceivable, imaginable; believable, credible; superficially pleasing, making a good impression (about a person) regulate düzenlemek, düzenleme yapmak, ayarlamak, yoluna koymak control, govern, manage; adjust to a specific level or condition sceptical kuşkucu, şüpheci, inançsız, septik, şüpheli doubtful, hesitant spouses eş, hayat arkadaşı, koca, karı husband, wife, mate subservient hizmet eden, itaat eden, yararlı, yaranmaya çalışan, uşak ruhlu subordinate, secondary; obsequious, extremely submissive; useful, instrumental superstructure üstyapı, üst güverte, üst düzey ilişkiler part of a building located above the foundation; structure that is built on top of another; something that is based upon something else underlying belli başlı, temel, esas, altında yatan, lying beneath, forming the foundation of; öncelikli fundamental, basic; implicit; prior wage sürdürmek, devam ettirmek, yürütmek engage in, conduct (war, battle)

12 107-SUCCESS acumen best seller virtue distinction downfall acknowledged In our culture, success in itself implies no superior (1). A book is not necessarily a superior one because it makes the (2) lists. Most books that achieve this (3) appeal to the mass market and are generally supported by extensive publicity. While success in the business world may require a high degree of business (4), this quality has never before been considered a personal virtue. Today it is the achievement that counts, not the personal qualities of the individual. Sometimes success is achieved by qualities that are anything but virtuous. Until his (5), Hitler was considered a success by a great many people throughout the world. Of course, success may attend the individual with superior abilities; however, what is (6) is not the personal virtue of the individual but his achievement. subsequent accomplishment recognition stand out regarded fortune The actual (7) is often relatively unimportant. The author of six good books may be less of a success than the writer of one best seller. What does count is the (8). Without recognition one cannot be considered a public success. To achieve success means to rise above the crowd, to (9) from the mass of people and be recognized as an individual. For the writer, it means that what he says or writes is now (10) as important. "He counts" is the way one successful author was described. Before his success, he didn't 'count' although what he wrote before his success may have had greater value than his (11) work. Through success he had become important. We see this all the time. As soon as a person becomes successful, he is listened to with respect. Since he has 'made it,' his words may tell the rest of us who are still staiggling the secret of his good (12). The successful person is important to all who wish to be successful. KELİME ANLAM EŞ ANLAM accomplishment başarma, tamamlama, yapma, başarı, beceri, yetenek fulfillment, realization; performance; characteristic; virtue, merit acknowledged kabul edilen, tanınan recognized; received acumen zekâ, çabuk kavrama, sezgi shrewdness, discernment, astuteness best seller en çok satan kitap, liste başı kitap top-selling, very successful in the market distinction ayrım, ayırma, fark gözetme, fark, ayırt etme; açıklık; yükselme, rütbe, üstünlük; ün, şöhret (especially of a book) difference, uniqueness; excellence; honor, mark of honor downfall çökme, düşme, yıkılma, yağış, çöküş defeat, ruin; heavy rain, heavy snow fortune şans, tâlih, uğur, kısmet, kader, baht, servet, zenginlik luck, chance; good luck, success; wealth, riches; great wealth; fate recognition tanıma, tanınma, tanıtma, kabul, onaylanma, acknowledgment; identification onaylama, takdir, doğrulama regarded bakmak, göz önüne almak, dikkate almak, hesaba katmak, saymak, saygı duymak, takdir etmek, çok beğenmek, önem vermek, ait olmak, ilgili olmak gaze at, look at; concern, relate to; esteem, appreciate; consider; pay heed to; take notice, pay attention stand out fırlamak, atılmak, çıkıntı yapmak, direnmek, karşı koymak, göze çarpmak be conspicuous, be noticeable; project, protrude; persist in one's opposition to something; maintain an offshore course subsequent sonraki, daha sonraki, müteakip succeeding, following, ensuing, happening virtue iffet, namus, erdem, fazilet, meziyet, etki, üstünlük after goodness; uprightness, integrity; morality (especially in sexual conduct); good quality

13 108-JAPANESE FREEDOM expelled secure preserve banned foreigners forbidden commerce To (1) their political authority and to (2) peace, the Tokugawa shoguns isolated Japan from the rest of the world in Christianity was (3). Except for some Chinese and a small Dutch contingent, who lived closely supervised lives in Nagasaki harbour, all (4) were (5) from Japan. Not only were Christian books barred but also any book, even a Chinese translation, dealing with any Western subject. The Japanese were (6) on pain of death to leave their homeland. Vessels were restricted in size so that they could be used only in coastal trade and not in overseas (7). KELİME ANLAM EŞ ANLAM banned yasaklamak, menetmek, boykot etmek, prohibited afaroz etmek commerce ticaret, iş, alım satım; ilişki; cinsel ilişki trade, buying and selling expelled sürmek, sürgün etmek; kovmak, dışarı atmak; çıkarmak eject, chuck out, exclude, throw out, kick out, turf out, boot out, turn out forbidden yasak, yasaklanmış not allowed, banned, prohibited foreigners yabancı, ecnebi person from another country, stranger preserve korumak, muhafaza etmek, konserve yapmak guard, keep safe; keep, conserve; defend, protect; perpetuate, make everlasting secure sağlam, emin, güvenli, güvencede, güvenilir safe, free from danger; protected; strong, stable; closed, locked; confident, not worried or concerned; assured, certain

14 109-THE HEALING POWER OF BELIEF surgery respond severe scrutiny fared For the past two years, I have been studying cancer survivors at UCLA, trying to find out why it is that some people (1) much better to their treatment than do others. At first, I thought that some patients did well because their illnesses were not as (2) as the illnesses of others. On closer (3), however, I discovered that severity of the illness was only one of a number of factors that accounted for the difference between those who get well and those who don't. The patients I am talking about here received, upon diagnosis, whatever therapy - medication, radiation, (4) - their individual cases demanded. Yet, the response to such treatments was hardly uniform. Some patients (5) much better in their therapies than others. joyous confidence persevere common What was it, then, that was different? Was there any one thing that all survivors had in (6)? Yes I have found that the major characteristics of these survivors were very similar. Among the similarities are: They all had a strong will to live. They were not panicky about their illness. They had (7) in their ability to (8). Despite all the forecasts to the contrary, they believed they could make it. They were capable of (9) response. They were convinced that their treatment would work. The Placebo Effect genuine complaints relieved placebos The mind-body effect should not be surprising in view of the experience over the years with (10). The term 'placebo' is used to describe a 'pill' that contains no medical ingredients but that often produces the same effect as (11) medication. Placebos provide ample proof that expectations can have an effect on body chemistry. According to a recent article on placebos in Medical World News, studies conducted over the past 25 years have shown that placebos satisfactorily (12) symptoms in an average of 35 per cent of patients tested. These symptoms include: fever, severe post-operative pain, anginal pain, headache, and anxiety, among other (13). vital accomplish phenomenon contend healing The explanation for this strange (14) is that the human mind can create actual changes in body chemistry as a result of what it believes. If, for example, a person believes that a certain medication contains a substance that can (15) a specific need, the body tends to move in that direction. An increasing number of scientists now (16) that the body's (17) system and its belief system are closely related. That is why hope, faith, and the will to live can be (18) factors in the struggle against disease. The belief system converts positive expectations into plus factors in any contest against illness.

15 KELİME ANLAM EŞ ANLAM accomplish başarmak, sonuçlandırmak, yapmak, yerine complete, finish; perform, execute getirmek, üstesinden gelmek; almak (yol, zaman) common ortak, müşterek, genel, yaygın; kaba saba, kaba, adi; sıradan, bilinen; bayağı, olağan, alışılagelmiş, alelâde shared, belonging to more than one; ordinary; usual, frequent; public; mediocre, of the masses complaints confidence contend şikâyet, sitem, ağlayıp sızlanma, yakınma; suçlama, iftira; dert, rahatsızlık, şikâyet sebebi güven, inanç, itimat, kendine güven; inanma; sır, sırdaşlık uğraşmak, savaşmak, çekişmek, tartışmak, yarışmak, rekabet etmek, iddia etmek, ileri sürmek finding fault, act of expressing displeasure; pleading entered by a plaintiff (Law) secret; trust; faith in oneself; certainty maintain, assert; compete; struggle, strive fared gitmek (iş), yola çıkmak, olmak, başından journey, go, travel; happen; eat and drink geçmek genuine hakiki, öz, gerçek, hilesiz, saf, içten, samimi, original; real, true; natural; honest, sincere özgün, içi dışı bir healing iyileşme, şifa curing, restoring to health; process of becoming well, recovery joyous neşeli, sevinçli, sevindirici happy, gay, jubilant, merry persevere sebat etmek, direnmek, azmetmek endure, continue; persist, insist phenomenon placebos relieved respond olgu, fenomen, algılanabilen şey, bilince yansıyan olay, doğal olay, harika, olağanüstü şey ilaçmış gibi verilen fonksiyonsuz madde, cenaze için yapılan akşam duasının açılış bölümü rahatlatmak, dindirmek, hafifletmek, kurtarmak, teselli vermek, avutmak, içini rahatlatmak, nöbeti devralmak, yardım yapmak, sadaka vermek, renk katmak, belirginleştirmek, dikkat çekmesini sağlamak, çare bulmak, kabartma yapmak, torna etmek cevap vermek, yanıtlamak, cevap yazmak, karşılık vermek, etkilenmek, ses vermek (motor) event or circumstance that can be observed; something unusual; something detected by the senses tablet that contains no medication but has medical effects due to purely psychological reasons ease, alleviate; offer assistance; release, liberate answer, reply; react scrutiny dikkatli inceleme, ince eleyip sık dokuma, oyların yeniden sayımı close examination, inspection; examining look, searching look severe sert, haşin, ağır, acı, şiddetli, keskin, sade, yalın serious, grave; acute, critical; difficult, rigorous; simple, plain; harsh, strict surgery cerrahlık, ameliyathane, muayenehane treatment of diseases and injuries by medical operation; operation performed by a surgeon; room in which surgical operations are performed vital yaşamsal, hayati, yaşayan, canlı, hayat dolu, öldürücü lively, living, animated, vigorous; crucial, critical, necessary

16 110-MEMORY stimulus auditory storage short-term Memory, like sweatshirts, comes in three sizes. There is a sensory (1) system which can hold information for only a very brief time period. Next is a (2) storage which can hold a small amount of information. Finally, you have a long-term storage system which holds vast amounts of ieftimeperiod. What psychological processes are involved in remembering a (3) which is briefly perceived, such as the license number of a car? Psychologists have discovered that a stimulus is maintained in a sensory storage system which holds information for less than a second. The sensory storage system is called iconic memory if visual stimuli are involved or echoic memory if the stimulation is (4). rehearsal prolong distinguish retrieval voluntary assume that Your sensory storage system appears to operate in a fairly automatic way. There seems to be no (5) action you can take to (6) the life of information from sensory storage without using the next stage of memory, called short-term memory (STM), or primary memory. Information can be recycled in short-term memory by a process called (7). When rehearsal is prevented or disrupted, information in short-term memory is lost and so cannot enter long-term memory (LTM). However, once information has entered long-term memory, rehearsal is no longer necessary to guarantee that information is not forgotten. While preventing items from being forgotten is the major difficulty in short-term memory, long-term memory suffers from the opposite problem. There is so much information contained in long-term memory that locating and retrieving this information can be quite difficult. Indeed, psychologists (8) between information which is available in long-term memory and that which is accessible. All information in long-term memory is considered available; that is, it can be remembered under the proper circumstances. But only that information which actually is remembered is accessible. Thus, accessible information is always available, but available information cannot always be accessible. The process of obtaining memory information from wherever it is stored is called (9). In order for information to be accessible, it must fırst be retrieved. Retrieval of information from long-term memory is a difficult process and is not always successful. Retrieval from short-term memory is considerably easier, and many models of short-term memory (10) if an item is available in short-term memory, it is automatically.accessible. interference long-term features respective While information in short-term memory is coded primarily by acoustic (11) (how the words sound when spoken), information in (12) memory is organized primarily according to what the words mean. While (13) in short-term memory is based upon acoustic relationships, interference in long-term memory occurs among semantically related words. The most dramatic distinction between short and long-term memory systems lies in their (14) capacities - the number of items each system can store. Short-term memory has a very limited capacity compared to the almost unlimited storage capacity of long-term memory.

17 KELİME ANLAM EŞ ANLAM assume that farzedelim ki, farzederek surmise, suppose to be true auditory işitsel, işitme related to hearing, experienced through hearing distinguish ayırt etmek, ayırmak, ayrım yapmak; mark as different; see as different; discern, features interference seçmek; farketmek, anlamak; sivriltmek karakterize etmek, belirtmek, önem vermek, yayınlamak, başrolde oynatmak karışma, müdahale etme, burnunu sokma, kurcalama, tezat, engel, engelleme, parazit, girişim recognize characterize; depict, describe; star in a movie (or theatrical performance, etc.); present; emphasize, give prominence to; imagine act of impeding or obstructing; scrambling of waves or signals (Physics, Electronics); something which scrambles waves or signals (Physics, Electronics); blocking of an opposing player (Sports) long-term uzun süre long period, lengthy cycle, long range prolong uzatmak, sürdürmek, temdit etmek extend, lengthen, make longer rehearsal prova [tiy.], tekrarlama, sayıp dökme practice session for a performance respective herkes kendi, kendi, bir bir, sırasıyla pertaining to each person or item separately, relating individually to each; corresponding retrieval geri alma, yeniden alma act of retrieving; act of bringing back, restoration; act of finding information and sending it to the user as output (Computers) short-term kısa süreli, kısa vadeli short period of time stimulus storage voluntary uyarıcı, uyandırıcı, canlandırıcı, teşvik edici şey, ısırgan otu tüyü depo, ambar, depolama, saklama, ardiye ücreti gönüllü, istemli, isteyerek yapılan, fahri, özgür iradeli, kasıtlı stimulation, stimulant, input storehouse, depot, entrepot, store intentional, deliberate, willful, willing

18 111-EDUCATION IN BRITAIN comprehensive guidelines withholds pupils conservatives Education in Britain is primarily the responsibility of local educational authorities although the central government lays down (1) and provides or (2) money. From the end of the Second World War until the 1960's, education under state control depended on the '11-plus' examination, taken by all (3) between the ages of eleven and twelve. The most successful went to grammar schools or direct-grant schools, while the rest went to secondary modern schools. Since the 1960's, almost all local authorities have introduced (4) schools, where all pupils attend the same school, even though there is usually an attempt to separate them according to ability once they are there. Local authorities where the Labour Party is usually in control tend, by now, to be almost completely comprehensive; those where the (5) hold power have been more resistant to the change. independent examination refused Throughout this period, the public schools, which are private in all except name, have continued to exist, (6) of the state system. Some became direct-grant schools, accepting students who had passed the 11- plus (7) and were paid for by local authorities, but this system came to an end in many cases when a Labour-controlled local authority (8) to go on paying the grants because of its commitment to comprehensive education. prestigious revive unabated reluctance stems The public debate in England and Wales between the supporters of comprehensive schools and those who want to retain or (9) grammar schools continues (10). Every year statistics are produced to demonstrate that comprehensive schools provide better education than grammar schools (and in some cases, better than the (11) private sector). These statistics are immediately contradicted by others proving the opposite. The local authorities have, on the whole, been converted to the comprehensive system, in some cases with enthusiasm, in others with marked (12). Yet, the real complication of the debate (13) from the fact that although arguments are usually stated in educational terms, almost all of them are based on political opinions. discrimination associate abolished strengthens evidence inferior It is clear that those local authorities that have (14) grammar schools completely were determined that their experiment should succeed because of their belief that it is just as wrong to separate children by intelligence as by social class. Such authorities tend to (15) grammar schools with the private sector they would also like to abolish if they had the opportunity. In their view, any system that differentiates between children (16) class barriers, and the fact that more upper-class children tend to go to university is not (17) that comprehensive schools are (18) ; it is merely further evidence of the (19) that already exists in society. potential intelligence The defenders of grammar schools use examination results to show that children reach their maximum (20) when placed with others of similar (21) and point out that even in comprehensive schools they are put in different classes according to ability. it is difficult to believe, however, that this defence is inspired purely by a desire for academic excellence.

19 KELİME ANLAM EŞ ANLAM abolished kaldırmak, ortadan kaldırmak, feshetmek, cancel, revoke iptal etmek, bozmak associate birleştirmek, ortak olmak, ortak etmek, işbirliği yapmak, bağdaştırmak; benzetmek; çağrıştırmak; arkadaşlık etmek share company; connect; unite; be a partner; link a specific file type to a specific application (Computers) comprehensive geniş, kapsamlı, anlayışlı, etraflı, idrak extensive, including much, large in scope; edebilen, meslek ortaokulu [brit.], conservatives muhafazakâr partili, muhafazakâr, sağcı person who is resistant to change; cautious person discrimination ayırt etme, fark gözetme, ayrıcalık yapma, discernment; partiality, unequal treatment; evidence ayırma yetkisi şahit, ifade, tanık, delil, kanıt, ispat, bulgu; tanıklık, şahitlik, açıklık, belirginlik; göze çarpma, belirti, iz ability to choose well (in matters of taste) proof, something which proves or disproves examination sınav, muayene, kontrol, inceleme, yoklama, teftiş; soruşturma, tetkik, tahkikat test, quiz, exam, series of questions designed to gauge a person's knowledge of a particular subject (especially in school); investigation, inquiry guidelines ilke, prensip, ana hatlar, uçak kılavuz ipi outline or indication of acceptable conduct or procedure independent bağımsız, özgür, hür, serbest, kendi geçimini sağlayan, maddi yönden bağımsız free; autonomous, self-governing, sovereign; self-reliant, self-sufficient inferior aşağı derecede olan şey, ast olan kimse subordinate, of low rank; of lesser importance; near the bottom; poor in quality, intelligence anlayış, beyin, zekâ, akıl, akıllılık, zekilik, akıllı kimse, anlama, idrak, kafa, bilgi, ability to reason and understand; cleverness, brilliance; knowledge, information; potential potansiyel, olası, gizli, açığa çıkmamış possible, capable of becoming, able to be prestigious prestijli, saygın, tanınmış, ünlü respected, highly esteemed, favorably regarded, having a good reputation pupils öğrenci öğretmen, öğrenci, stajyer, çırak, vesayet altındaki çocuk, gözbebeği student; opening in the center of the iris of the eye (Anatomy) refused reddetmek, kabul etmemek, geri çevirmek, turned down, declined, rejected izin vermemek, ayak diremek, direnmek, reluctance isteksizlik, gönülsüzlük, direnç, ağırdan alma unwillingness, hesitance, averseness, disinclination revive yeniden canlandırmak, canlandırmak, diriltmek, hayata döndürmek, neşelendirmek, ihya etmek, gündeme getirmek, yeniden oluşturmak, uyandırmak (his), yeniden sahnelemek, tekrar yayınlamak, resuscitate, bring back to life; renew, restore; reactivate, put into action again stems strengthens sap, gövde, kadeh sapı, kol saati kurma düğmesi, kök [dilb.], pipo sapı, kelimenin kökü, pruva güçlendirmek, kuvvetlendirmek, sağlamlaştırmak, desteklemek, yükseltmek, takviye etmek, kuvvetlenmek central stalk of a plant; petiole; slender part which connects or supports; main part of a word to which affixes are added (Grammar); family line of descent, ancestry make strong, fortify, reinforce, toughen; become strong unabated şiddeti azalmamış, hafiflememiş at full force, with undiminished strength, not abated withholds alıkoymak, tutmak, vermemek, esirgemek hold back; restrain, keep in check; retain, deduct; refrain from giving

20 112-WHAT IS YOUR BEST TIME OF DAY? fluctuations flux believe stable Organisms exhibit biological rhythms. Some are short and can be measured in minutes or hours. Others last days or months. The idea that our bodies are in constant (1) is fairly new and goes against traditional medical training. In the past, many doctors were taught to (2) the body has a relatively (3), or homeostatic, internal environment. Any (4) were considered random and not meaningful enough to be studied. ultimately spread mice receives As early as the 1940's, however, some scientists questioned the homeostatic view of the body. Franz Halberg, a young European scientist working in the United States, conducted a series of experiments on (5) and noticed that the number of white blood cells in these animals was dramatically higher and lower at different times of the day. Gradually, such research (6) to the study of biological rhythms in human beings, and the findings were sometimes startling. For example, the time of day when a person (7) X-ray or drug treatment for cancer can affect treatment benefits and (8) mean the difference between life and death. rethink supporting persuasive literally enhance This new science, the study of biological rhythms in human beings, is called chronobiology, and the evidence (9) it has become increasingly (10). Along the way, the scientific and medical communities are beginning to (11) their ideas about how the human body works, and gradually what had been considered a minor science just a few years ago is being studied in major universities and medical centers around the world. With their new findings, they are teaching us things that can (12) change our lives - by helping us organize ourselves so we can work with our natural rhythms rather than against them. This can (13) our outlook on life as well as our performance at work. alertness detect obvious amid peak, take heed efficient Because they are easy to (14) and measure, more is known of daily - or circadian (Latin for 'about a day') - rhythms than other types. The most (15) daily rhythm is the sleep / wake cycle. But there are other daily cycles as well: temperature, blood pressure, hormone levels. (16) these and the body's other changing rhythms, you are simply a different person at 9 a.m. than you are at 3 p.m. How you feel, how well you work, your level of (17), your sensitivity to taste and smell, the degree with which you enjoy food or take pleasure in music - all are changing throughout the day. Most of us seem to reach our (18) of alertness around noon. Soon after that, alertness declines, and sleepiness may set in by mid-afternoon. Your short-term memory is best during the morning - in fact, about 15 per cent more (19) than at any other time of day. So, students, (20) : when faced with a morning exam, it really does pay to review your notes right before the test is given. the wee hours believe executives recall Long-term memory is different. Afternoon is the best time for learning material that you want to (21) days, weeks or months later. Politicians, business (22) or others who must learn speeches would be smart to do their memorizing during that time of day. If you are a student, it would be better for you to schedule your more difficult classes in the afternoon, rather than in the morning. You should also try to do most of your studying in the afternoon, rather than late at night. Many students (23) they memorize better while burning the mid-night oil because their short-term recall is better during (24) of the morning than in the afternoon. But short-term memory won't help them much several days later, when they face the exam.


81-PATTERNS OF OCEAN LIFE 81-PATTERNS OF OCEAN LIFE reproduce drastically otter urchins fur kelp interdependence starve predator prey A striking example of how man can (1) alter the (2) patterns of ocean life has occurred off the



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