1 41-KEYS TO QUICKER LEARNING comments stuff picked up intelligent At a dinner party two men were discussing The Right (1), a book about the Mercury space programme. While Ted went on and on about the technical details he had (2) from the book, Dan offered only a few (3). "Ted got so much more out of the reading than I did." Dan later said "Is he more (4) than I am?" absorbent backgrounds skills The two men had similar educational (5) and intelligence levels. it was later discovered that Ted just knew how to learn better than Dan did. Ted had made his brain more (6) by using a few simple (7). cognitive individual's fixed expandable proper For years, experts had believed that an (8) ability to learn was a (9) capacity. During the last two decades, however, leading psychologists and educators have come to think otherwise. "We have increasing proof that human intelligence is (10)," says Jack Lochhead, director of the (11) Development Project at the University of Massachusetts in Amherst. "We know that with (12) skills people can actually improve their learning ability." master moreover gathered proven (13), these skills are basic enough so that almost anyone can (14) them with practice. Here, (15) from the ideas of experts across the country, are several (16) ways to boost your learning ability. subheads anchor previewing Skim 1. Look at the big picture first. When reading new, unfamiliar material, scan it first. (17) (18), photocaptions and any available summaries. This (19) will help (20) in your mind what you then read. boosting enhancing retain rat 2. Practise memory-(21) techniques. These techniques, also called mnemonics, transform new information into more easily remembered formulations. For instance, to a student who cannot spell the word arithmetic, a teacher can teach a sentence that remains locked in mind for years: "A (22) in Tom's house may eat Tom's ice cream." The first letters of each word spell arithmetic. Although mnemonics were once dismissed by researchers, they are now considered an effective means of (23) memory - doubling or even tripling the amount of new material that test subjects can (24). recalling consistently random occupations former logical permanent cluster 3. Organise facts into categories. In studies at Stanford University, students were asked to memorize 112 words. These included names of animals, items of clothing, types of transportation, and (25). For one group, the words were divided into these four categories. For a second group, the words were listed at (26). Those who studied the material in organised categories (27) outperformed the others, (28) two to three times more words. For example, to remember the names of all (29) U.S. presidents in proper order, (30) the leaders into groups - those before the War of 1812, those from 1812 until the Civil War, those from the Civil War to World War I, and those after World War I. By thus organising complex material into (31) categories, you create a (32) storage technique. fuller unassembled concentrate 4. Discover your own learning style. What's your style? Try some self-analysis. What, for example, is your approach to putting together an (33) item? Do you (34) better in the morning or in the evening? In a noisy environment or a quiet one? In a library or in your own room? Make a list of all the pluses and minuses you can identify. Then use this list to create the learning environment best for you. Whichever style works for you, the good news is that you can expand your learning capacity. And this can make your life (35) and more productive.
2 KELİME ANLAM EŞ ANLAM absorbent emici absorptive anchor çapa, demir, lenger; güven kaynağı, dayanak noktası; sunucu (haber); açık mainstay, keystone, backbone, linchpin, lynchpin oturum yöneticisi backgrounds özgeçmiş, geçmiş deneyimler; sosyal çevre; inheritance, heritage, background boosting arka plân, geri plân; fon, zemin; geçmiş yukarıya itmek, kaldırmak; yükseltmek, artırmak, övmek, reklâmını yapmak; voltajını yükseltmek knowledge, setting, scope hike, hike up, promote, advance, further, encourage cluster salkım, hevenk, demet, tutam, küme; oğul bunch, clump, clustering (arı); dizi cognitive kavrama ile ilgili, idrak ile ilgili comments yorum, açıklama; eleştiri; gevezelik, boş lâf remark, commentary, gossip, scuttlebutt concentrate konsantre etmek, yoğunlaştırmak, toplamak, dikkatini vermek, konsantre olmak, yoğunlaşmak focus, center, centre, pore, rivet consistently tutarlı olarak, uyumla, kalıcı biçimde, sürekli systematically, usually enhancing artırmak, yükseltmek, büyütmek; abartmak heighten, raise expandable genişleyen, yayılan, geniş, yaygın, açık, expandible, expansible taşkın, açık sözlü fixed oynamaz, sabit, değişmez, kararlaştırılmış, solmaz, önceden ayarlanmış, belirlenmiş, sağlanmış, uçmaz, tamir edilmiş repair, mend, bushel, doctor, furbish up, restore, touch on, fasten, secure former önceki, eski, geçen, sabık, geçmiş preceding fuller dolu, tam, tok, etine dolgun, balıketi, bol, geniş, meşgul, öz, elinden gelenin en iyisi, son full, complete, plenary, replete gathered büzmek, toplamak, bir araya getirmek, tutmak, biriktirmek, büzgü yapmak, kazanmak, büzmek (dikiş), toplanmak, toparlanmak, kendini toplamak, iltihaplanmak, irin toplamak garner, collect, pull together, accumulate, cumulate, conglomerate, pile up, amass individual's birey, fert, kişi, şahıs person, someone, somebody, mortal, human, soul intelligent zeki, akıllı, yetenekli, kabiliyetli, usta, clever, alert, quick-witted kültürlü logical mantıksal, mantıklı, makul, tutarlı legitimate, consistent, ordered, orderly master baş, ana, esas, asıl overlord, lord, victor, superior, headmaster, schoolmaster moreover occupations permanent picked up previewing bundan başka, dahası, üstelik, bir de, diğer taraftan oturma, işgal, kullanan, uğraş, iş, meşguliyet, uğraşı daimi, devamlı, sürekli, kalıcı, baki, sabit, değişmez toplamak, koparmak, yolmak, ayıklamak, didiklemek, karıştırmak (burun), kemirmek, seçip almak, seçmek, küçük küçük yemek, gagası ile toplamak, delmek, kazmak, çapalamak, sivri bir şeyle açmak (kilit vb.), yankesicilik yapmak, çekiştirmek önceki furthermore, what is more business, job, line of work, line lasting choice, selection, woof, weft, filling, pluck, cull, blame, find fault, break up
3 proper tam, doğru dürüst, uygun, terbiyeli, yerinde, özel, doğru, münasip, gerçek, adamakıllı, iyice applicable, appropriate, fitting, happy, just, meet, suitable, desired, correct, right, capable, competent, good, qualified, wicked,convenient, fit, useful, diacritic, diagnostic, distinctive, idiosyncratic, individual, peculiar absolute, arrant, blamed, complete, confounded, consummate, crashing, infernal, out-and-out accurate, exact, nice, precise, right, rigorous proven kanıtlanmış, suçu ispatlanmış, denenmiş turn out, turn up, demonstrate, establish, show, shew random rasgele, gelişigüzel, tesadüfi aimless, designless, desultory, haphazard, hit-or-miss, indiscriminate, irregular, objectless rat recalling retain skills skim stuff sıçan, fare, kalleş, hain, dönek, grev bozucu, parti değiştiren milletvekili, muhbir, ispiyoncu geri çağırmak, geri istemek, hatırlamak, anımsamak, hatırlatmak, uyandırmak (duygu), dönmek, geri almak, geri çekmek alıkoymak, tutmak, elinden kaçırmamak, unutmamak, kaybetmemek, parayla tutmak beceriklilik, yetenek, beceri, hüner, maharet, marifet, ustalık, kabiliyet kaymağını almak, yağını almak, köpüğünü almak, sıyırmak, sıyırıp geçmek, sektirmek, su üzerinde kaydırmak, göz gezdirmek, sekmek, kayar gibi gitmek şey, eşya, madde, hammadde, kumaş, yünlü kumaş [brit.], kereste, kâğıt hamuru, saçma, zırva, saçmalık, hamur, öz, uyuşturucu, kaçak içki subheads alt başlık, bölüm başlığı subheading unassembled birleştirilmemiş, toplanılmamış scab, strikebreaker, blackleg, rotter, dirty dog, skunk, stinker, stinkpot, bum, puke, crumb, lowlife, scum bag, so-and-so, git remember, retrieve, call back, call up, recollect, think continue, keep, keep on, keep going ability, accomplishment, acquirement, acquisition, attainment scan, rake, glance over, run down material, clobber, thrust, shove, squeeze
4 42-THE DISCOVERY OF THE ELECTRON properties indivisible In the mid-1800's scientists wanted to know whether the atom was really (1). They also wanted to know why atoms of different elements had different (2). wire solid invention turned conduct beam breakthrough A major (3) came with the (4) of the Crookes' tube or cathode-ray tube. What is a cathode-ray tube and how does it work? Everybody knows that some substances (5) electric current; that is, they are conductors, while other substances do not. But with enough electrical power, a current can be driven through any substance-(6), liquid, or gas in the cathode-ray tube a high voltage electric current is driven through a vacuum. The tube contains two pieces of metal, called electrodes. Each electrode is attached by a (7) to the source of an electric current. The source has two terminals, positive and negative. The electrode attached to the positive electric terminal is called the anode; the electrode attached to the negative terminal is called the cathode. Crookes showed that when the current was (8) on, a (9) moved from the cathode to the anode; in other words, the beam moved from the negative to the positive terminal. Therefore, the beam had to be negative in nature. straight composed wave rays favoured gravity observation The German physicists in Crookes's time favoured the (10) theory of cathode (11) because the beam travelled in (12) lines, like water waves. But the English physicists (13) the particle theory. They said that the beam was (14) of tiny particles which moved very quickly - so quickly that they were hardly influenced by (15). That was why the particles moved in a straight path. Notice how an experimental (16) led to two different theories. fundamental Deflect suggested dilemma proposed magnet Minus zeros exponent Crookes (17) a method to solve the (18). If the beam was composed of negative particles, a (19) would (20) thern. But if the beam was a wave, a magnet would cause almost no change in direction. Particles would also be more easily deflected by an electric field. in 1897, the English physicist JJ. Thomson used both these techniques - magnetic and electric - to show that the rays were composed of particles. Today we call these particles electrons. (The term electron was (21) by the Irish physicist George Stoney, in 1891, to represent the (22) unit of electricity.) in 1911, a young American physicist named Robert Millikan determined the mass of the electron: 9.11 x grams. (To get an idea of how small this is, notice that (23) sign up there in the (24), and think of all the (25) we would have to put before the 9 if we wrote the entire number as a decimal.) emit onto prove indicated Next, someone had to (26) that the electrons weren't coming from the electricity, but were being given off by the metal electrodes. Proof that metals do give off electrons came from the laboratories of Philipp Lenard, a German physicist. in 1902, he showed that ultraviolet light directed (27) a metal makes it send out, or (28), electrons. This effect, known as the photoelectric effect, (29) that atoms contain electrons.
5 KELİME ANLAM EŞ ANLAM beam ışımak, ışık saçmak, parlamak, sinyâl vermek, yayın yapmak, gözleri parlamak, shine, air, send, broadcast, transmit, glow, radiate gözlerinin içi gülmek breakthrough cepheyi yarıp geçme, buluş boost, hike, increase, upgrade, wax, composed oluşturmak, meydana getirmek; yaratmak, yazmak; bestelemek; düzenlemek, toparlamak; arabuluculuk yapmak, yatıştırmak; şiir yazmak, eser yaratmak, discovery, find consist (of) conduct hareket, davranış, yönetim, idare, gidiş behavior, behaviour, doings deflect saptırmak, sapmak; döndürmek, dönmek; çevirmek; caymak debar, obviate, avert, head off, stave off, fend off, avoid, ward off dilemma çıkmaz, ikisi de birbirinden zor iki seçenek, quandary ikilem emit çıkarmak, yaymak, yayınlamak; belirtmek, ifade etmek breathe, pass off, give out, give off, utter, let out, let loose exponent yorumcu, ifade eden şey, beyan eden kimse; üs [mat.], kuvvet [mat.], katsayı advocate, champion, expounder, proponent, supporter favoured ayrıcalıklı, özellikli, avantajlı, kayırılan privilege, favor fundamental esas, temel, ana basal, basic, bottom, foundational, primary, gravity ağırlık, çekim, önem, ciddilik, ağırbaşlılık, peslik, yerçekimi gravitation, gravitational attraction, gravitational force indicated göstermek, belirtmek, işaret etmek, point, show, bildirmek, çıtlatmak, gerektirmek indivisible bölünmez, bölünemez invention bulma, icat, buluş, yalan, yaratıcılık, innovation, excogitation, conception, design uydurma magnet mıknatıs, magnet minus eksi, negatif, eksik, aşağı, sıfırın altında negative observation gözetim, gözetleme, seyretme, gözlem, attention, cognizance, heed, mark gözlem sonucu, gözleme, yorum, rasat onto üstüne, üzerine, e properties eşya, emlâk, mal, mülk, varlık, servet, sahne eşyaları, sahne elbiseleri, özellik, nitelik place, belongings, holding, material possession proposed önermek, teklif etmek, evlenme teklif etmek, sormak, getirmek (çözüm), ileri sürmek, içmek (sağlığa vb.), niyet etmek, tasarlamak suggest, advise prove göstermek, kanıtlamak, ispat etmek, demonstrate, test, try denemek, ispatlamak ortaya koymak, rays ışın, ışık huzmesi, iz, zerre, kanat kılçığı, kedibalığı, tırpana beam, beam of light, light beam, ray of light, shaft, shaft of light, irradiation solid katı cisim, üç boyutlu cisim, üç boyutluluk hard straight düz, doğru, dümdüz, dosdoğru, dik olarak, doğruca, doğru olarak, doğrudan doğruya, düzenli biçimde, tam, consecutive, unbent, unbowed, upright suggested önermek, teklif etmek, akla getirmek, tavsiye connote, hint, imply, insinuate, intimate; etmek, fikir vermek, telkin etmek, aşılamak, turned dönük, katlanmış, kıvrık, tornada işlenmiş bout, round, twist wave dalga, hare, el sallama wire tel, telgraf, kukla ipi, nüfuz, idare, kontrol, kiriş, tuzak, kapan zeros sıfır, hiç, sıfır noktası, hiçlik nothing, nil, nix, nada, null, aught, cipher, cypher, goose egg, naught, zilch, zip
6 43-INFLATION necessarily affected attracted aspect case occurrence Inflation has (1) more public interest than any other (2) of economics, for the simple reason that everyone finds himself immediately (3) by it. The common belief is that inflation is (4) a negative (5) but there are various reasons why this might not be the (6). Let us consider some of the arguments. afford demand wage spiral profit Simply described, inflation is the situation where increased (7) demands result in higher prices of consumer goods, which causes further increased wage demands. This is called an inflation (8). The following example will make this point clear. The workers in the car industry (9) and receive a wage increase. This causes producers to increase the market price of cars in order to make a (10). People see that they cannot so easily (11) to buy cars and, as a result, they ask for higher wages in order to maintain the same standard of living as before. These new wage increases result in rising prices for goods and services in all sectors of the economy. Car industry workers now face higher prices so they demand higher wages. A side effect of this spiral is that workers in other industries may ask for similar increases before any price rises occur, simply because they feel that they, too, should have more money. gaps loans considered Obviously narrowed The general effects of inflation can be discussed according to whether they are largely positive or largely negative. The positive effects will be (12) first and may be divided into two main groups: effects on prices and wages and effects on (13). The consumer discovers he has to pay more for goods and services although he can find himself better off than other groups of workers if his wages increase faster than theirs. in this way, income (14) between low-paid and high-paid workers can be (15) by allowing low-paid workers to have a larger increase. Everybody gets a rise, but some receive more than others. (16), if all wages are increased by the same percentage as prices in general, no change in standard of living takes place. qualified beneficial borrower nominal equivalent significantly The effect of inflation on loans is (17) to the (18). In other words, loans reduce in value so that a borrower only has to pay back the (19) value of the loan and not its true, or real, value. This benefits the borrower, as the following example shows. A student borrows 10,000 to study medicine and become a doctor. This is the amount that a (20) doctor earns in 1 1/2 years. When the student pays back the loan six years later, 10,000 is the (21) of only nine months' salary. Even if normal interest rates are added to the loan, this will not (22) change the final result.
7 KELİME ANLAM EŞ ANLAM affected etkilenmiş; sarsılmış, üzülmüş, etki altında stirred, touched kalmış; yakalanmış [tıp.]; yapmacık, numaracı, taklitçi, eğilimli, düşkün afford parası yetmek, gücü yetmek; bulabilmek; yield, give zaman ayırabilmek aspect görünüş, görünüm, görüş, bakım; hal, tavır, çehre, yön; cephe facet, view, prospect, scene, vista, panorama attracted çekmek, cezbetmek allure, bewitch, captivate, charm, draw, enchant, fascinate, magnetize, take, wile beneficial yararlı, hayırlı, faydalı; kârlı, kazançlı; good, salutary mülkten yararlanma hakkıyla ilgili (hukuk), borrower borç alan kimse case durum, husus, olay, sorun, dava, hukuksal lawsuit, suit, cause, causa olay, kanıt, delil, görüş, neden, hasta, tuhaf tip, kasa, kutu, çanta, valiz, kap, kılıf, mahfaza, kovan considered düşünülmüş, dikkate alınmış, saygıdeğer contemplate, excogitate, mind, perpend, ponder, study, think demand istemek, talep etmek; hak iddia etmek; need, want sormak equivalent eşit, denk, eşdeğer like, equal, same gaps boşluk, aralık, açıklık, geçit, ara, ayrılık, breach, break, discontinuity, hole, opening uçurum, fark loans ödünç verilen şey, borç, ödünç para, lend borçlanma, ödünç verme narrowed daraltmak, kısmak, daralmak necessarily ister istemez, zorunlu olarak, olmazsa needfully, inevitably, of necessity, needs olmaz, şart nominal nominal, düşük, sözde, itibari, sembolik, formal, so-called, titular göstermelik, ismen var olan obviously açık olarak, apaçık, belli ki evidently, manifestly, patently, apparently, plainly, plain occurrence oluş, olma, çıkma, olay circumstance, episode, event, go, happening, incident, occasion, thing profit kâr, kazanç, getiri, çıkar, menfaat, fayda gain, benefit qualified nitelikli, kısıtlı, vasıflı, kaliteli, yetkili, yeterli, belgeli, şartlı au fait, capable, competent, good, proper, wicked significantly esasen, özünde, gerçekte, aslında, oldukça considerably, far, quite, rather, somewhat spiral helezon, sarmal hareket, spiral yay, helix, coil, volute, whorl helozoni yay, bobin, enflasyon sarmalı wage ücret, haftalık, maaş, yevmiye pay, earnings, remuneration, salary
8 44-FRESH WATER constant contaminated sewage streams Today, finding a source of fresh water is becoming more and more difficult. Many of our (1), rivers and lakes have been (2) with (3), and many towns and cities obtain their drinking water from these same streams, rivers and lakes. To prevent this (4) contamination, sewage treatment plants are being built in many places. These are capable of converting sewage into pure drinkable water. dehydration proportion potable reverse abundant distillation steam condenses Another way to solve the problem of fresh water is to make use of the most (5) source of water we have: the sea. If we could learn to get (6) water from sea water easily and cheaply, we would solve the problem. Man cannot live on sea water directly because of the high (7) of minerals (mainly salt) in it. More than 2% of salt in a solution is dangerous for the human body. Sea water contains 3.5% of salt. Such a high quantity causes (8) in human body; that is, the body loses the liquids necessary for life. Thus, it is necessary to reduce the percentage of salt in sea water to an acceptable level before using it. A number of methods can be used to do this. The most common method is (9). Sea water is heated until the water evaporates and the salt is left behind. The (10) then (11) into pure water. Another method is freezing. When this is done, the water freezes first, leaving the salt behind. The ice is then removed and pure water is obtained. A third method is called (12) osmosis. Pure water molecules are separated from the salt molecules under great pressure. vapour unfortunately winds condenses mentioned Recently scientists have been working on a completely new idea: The idea of obtaining fresh water from the air. (13) coming from the sea carry a lot of water (14). This vapour (15) into water if it strikes something cold. If scientists can build a large condenser, then they can collect and store fresh water easily. (16), the main problem with all of the (17) methods is their high cost. That's why scientists are looking for ways of reducing the cost.
9 KELİME ANLAM EŞ ANLAM abundant bol, çok, dolu, bereketli, verimli plentiful condenses sıvı hale dönüşmek (gaz), yoğunlaşmak, distill, digest, concentrate koyulaşmak, yoğunlaştırmak constant daimi, sabit, değişmez, sürekli; ısrarlı, sebatlı, sadık, vefalı; durağan allegiant, ardent, fixed, immovable, immutable, inalterable, invariable, unalterable, unchangeable, unmodifiable, unmovable, consistent, invariable, unchanging, unfailing, unvarying equable, even, stabile, stable, unchanging, unfluctuating, uniform, unvarying, ceasele contaminated kirlenmiş, bozulmuş dirty, infected, pestiferous dehydration kurutma, suyunu çıkarma desiccation distillation damıtma, imbikten çekme, saflaştırma; öz, distillment ana fikir mentioned adı geçen, bahsedilmiş olan, sözü geçen advert, bring up, cite, name, refer potable içilebilir drinkable proportion miktar, nicelik, nispet, oran, orantı, pay, dimension, balance simetri, uyum reverse tersine çevirmek, tersini çevirmek, tersyüz change by reversal, turn etmek, döndürmek, bozmak, iptal etmek, geriye doğru döndürmek, ters yönde dönmek, geri çevirmek sewage lağım suyu, lağım pisliği, kanalizasyon steam buhar, istim, buğu, güç, enerji, öfke, hiddet vapor, vapour streams akıp gitmek, akmak, aralıksız sürmek, pour, swarm, teem, pullulate sürmek, dalgalanmak, uçuşmak, akıtmak unfortunately maalesef, ne yazık ki, aksi gibi unluckily, regrettably, alas vapour buhar, kuruntu, buğu steam, vapor winds çevirmek, sarmak, dolamak, kıvırmak, döndürmek, kıvrıla kıvrıla gitmek, dolambaçlı olmak, açmak (yol), sarılmak, dolanmak, kıvrılmak, bükülmek weave, thread, meander, wander
10 45-MINERALS vertebrate substances bony cells phosphorus phosphate nerves compounds Minerals are (1) which are crystalline solids and which occur naturally. There are more than twenty different minerals in the body. Three of the most important minerals are calcium, (2), and iron. Calcium and phosphorus work together. The (3) skeletons of (4) animals, including man, are composed of calcium (5). If people have enough calcium and phosphorus, their bones and teeth will be strong and hard. In addition, their muscles, (6), and heart will work properly. Calcium makes up about 2% of the human body. About 99% of that amount is contained in the teeth and bones. Milk and hard cheeses are the best sources of calcium. After the age of 19, people need only 400 to 500 milligrams of calcium a day. Phosphorus, on the other hand, makes up 1.1% of the human body. A number of high-energy (7) found in our bodies, such as adenosine triphosphate (ATP), contain phosphorus. ATP is capable of transferring as well as storing energy in living (8) and is responsible for energy necessary for physical activity. lean grains blood liver anemia deficiency tired rather Iron is a mineral which makes the (9) look red and which carries oxygen for our normal physical activities. All (10) meats - especially (11) -whole (12), nuts, some vegetables, and dried fruits are good sources of this mineral. Iron (13) results in a disease called (14). Anemic people do not have enough iron in their blood, and this causes their hearts to beat faster so that their bodies can get more oxygen. Such people, therefore, get (15) easily, and their skins sometimes look (16) white. KELİME ANLAM EŞ ANLAM anemia kansızlık, anemi genus Anemia blood kan; kan bağı; huy, yapı, akrabalık lineage, line, line of descent, descent, bloodline, blood line, pedigree, ancestry, origin, parentage, stemma, stock bony kemiksi, kemik gibi, kemikli, kılçıklı, angular, gaunt, lank, lanky, rawboned, cells compounds deficiency kemikleri çıkmış hücre; petek gözü, göz; pil; oda (manastır vb); toplumdan kaçan kimsenin kapandığı evi bileşik, bileşim, alaşım, karıştırma, karıştırılma, bileşik kelime, ağıl, mandıra, duvarla çevrili binalar topluluğu eksiklik, eksik, yetersizlik; yoksunluk; gereksinim; kusur, noksan, açık, gerilik; hesap açığı scraggy, scrawny, skinny, spare cadre, cubicle, jail cell, prison cell join, mix absence, default, defect, want grains tane, tahıl, tanecik, zerre, granül, damar, çizgi, damarlı yüzey lean eğilme, dayanma, meyil tilt, list, inclination, leaning liver nerves phosphate phosphorus rather substances karaciğer, ciğer asap, sinir, cüret, yüzsüzlük, cesaret, soğukkanlılık, çaba, gayret, damar (yaprak) fosfat, fosfatlı gübre fosfor, fosforlu madde tercihen, iyisimi, daha iyisi, daha doğrusu, oldukça, bayağı, az çok, aksine [brit.], madde, özlülük, cisim, öz, esas, içerik, ana fikir, asıl mesele, servet, zenginlik, sağlamlık, güçlülük boldness, brass, face, cheek instead, kind of, kinda, sort of, quite matter, material tired yorgun, bitkin, bıkkın, tembel, lâstik tekerli clapped-out, fatigued, jaded, wearied, weary, worn, worn-down, worn-out vertebrate omurgalı hayvan craniate
11 46-A MISUNDERSTANDING misunderstandings ultimate occurs residence misheard cooker One of those (1) which sometimes (2) when the gasman comes to call has brought puzzlement and (3) good fortune into the domestic lives of two Essex women. Mrs. May Bradbrook and Mrs. Brenda Kerr live in Alton Gardens, Westcliff-on Sea. Mrs. Bradbrook's home is number 40 and the Kerr (4) is number 14. The difficulties began when Mrs. Bradbrook decided that the time had come to purchase a new (5). She placed her order with the North Thames Gas Board, but the official who took the details (6) her address. duly paperwork relieved arrangements considerate assumed that taken away (7) (8) went through for the delivery and installation of a new gas cooker at number 14, Alton Gardens. When the gasmen arrived with it, there was nobody at home. They were (9), however, to find a (10) note saying, "Key next door." Mrs. Kerr was expecting a visit from the Eastern Electricity Board that day and had made (11) for a neighbour to let them in. When the gas board appeared instead, the neighbour (12) she had misunderstood Mrs. Kerr and handed over the key. The new cooker was installed and Mrs. Kerr's old one (13). afterwards gleaming aggrieved Inquiries amiss priority Shortly (14), an (15) Mrs. Bradbrook telephoned the gas board saying that she had waited in all day but the cooker had not come. (16) were started. Meanwhile, Mrs. Kerr got home to find the unexpected and (17) appliance in her kitchen. Clearly, something was (18) but before Mrs. Kerr could get down to deciding how to sort it out, she had an urgent (19). She had to cook her husband's tea. There was no other appliance in the house, so she used the new cooker. swift after all assured contacted The board, having heard from Mrs. Bradbrook and (20) its gasmen, was (21) to realise the error. It (22) Mrs. Bradbrook that there would be no further delay in getting the cooker to her. (23), it had only to travel a short way up the road. pointed out turned out pronto broken up scrap But - Mrs. Bradbrook (24) - it was no longer the new cooker she had ordered, was it? It had been used. The gas board saw her point and found that it also had a problem at number 14. It had assured Mrs. Kerr that her old cooker would be returned (25). But it (26) that the cooker had been (27) for (28) immediately after it was taken away. upshot acknowledged inconvenience intended for reconditioned out of pocket Both women had clearly suffered 'some (29),' as the board (30). The (31) of the affair is that Mrs. Bradbrook now has the cooker originally (32) her, but at a 20 per cent discount of 30. Mrs. Kerr has been given a (33) "good as new" cooker worth an estimated 350 to replace her scrapped one. And the North Thames Gas Board is some 380 (34).
12 KELİME ANLAM EŞ ANLAM acknowledged tanımak, kabul etmek, onaylamak, itiraf etmek, alındığını bildirmek; teşekkür etmek recognize, admit; confess; certify the receipt of after all nihayet, sonunda, en sonunda, yine de, subsequent to -, following buna karşın afterwards sonra, ondan sonra, sonradan, daha sonra subsequently aggrieved üzgün, dertli, incinmiş, haksızlığa uğramış, wrong, oppress; cause sorrow; offend mazlum, mağdur amiss yanlış, ters, hatalı mistaken, incorrect, wrong arrangements düzenleme, ayarlama; diziliş, düzen, tertip, organization; order sıra, sıralama, hazırlık, aranjman, anlaşma, plan assumed that farzedelim ki, farzederek under the premise that, supposing that assured sigortalı, önceden belli olan, emin, secure; self-confident; sure (of something) kendinden emin; inançlı broken up bitirmek, parçalamak, üzmek, ayrılmak, bitmek, bozulmak (nişan), tatile girmek, end a romantic or friendly relationship; disassemble, take apart eğlendirmek, ufalamak, parçalanmak considerate saygılı, düşünceli, nazik, anlayışlı thoughtful, respectful contacted temas etmek, dokunmak, ilişki kurmak, establish communication, connect irtibat kurmak, temasa geçmek, görüşmek cooker fırın, ocak; tencere, pişirme kabı; stove, oven pişirilmeye uygun meyve duly hakkıyla, gereken şekilde; beklendiği gibi; at the right time; rightfully, properly zamanında gleaming ışın yaymak, parıldamak, ışıldamak, shining, reflecting pırıldamak, parlamak, ışımak inquiries soruşturma, araştırma, soru, bilgi kaynağı, kaynak exploration, questioning, investigation; formal investigation, inquest; question inconvenience sıkıntı vermek, rahatsız etmek, zahmet cause discomfort, trouble, put out, disturb vermek intended for seçmek, ayırmak meant for, designed for misheard yanlış duyma hear incorrectly, err in understanding of what has been heard misunderstandings yanlış anlama, yanlış anlaşılma, anlaşamama, geçimsizlik incorrect understanding, incorrect interpretation occurs cereyan etmek, çıkmak, ortaya çıkmak, oluşmak, olmak, görülmek, akla gelmek, happen, take place, transpire; come to mind, suggest itself meydana gelmek out of pocket cepten, cepten çıkan, nakit ödenen, peşin calling for the spending of cash harcanan paperwork dokümantasyon work done on paper; office work, administrative work pointed out belirtmek, dikkatini çekmek, işaret etmek, indicate, draw attention to göstermek priority kıdem, öncelik, rüçhan hakkı preference, precedence; higher rank, privileged position; seniority, precedence pronto hemen, derhal, çabuk fast, quickly, swiftly, rapidly; immediately, right now, promptly reconditioned yenilenmiş, onarılmış fixed; repaired; restored to good condition relieved rahatlatmak, dindirmek, hafifletmek, kurtarmak, teselli vermek, avutmak, içini rahatlatmak, nöbeti devralmak, yardım ease, alleviate; offer assistance; release, liberate
13 residence scrap yapmak, sadaka vermek, renk katmak, belirginleştirmek, dikkat çekmesini sağlamak, çare bulmak, kabartma yapmak, torna etmek ev, konut, ikametgâh, mesken, konak, ikâmet, oturma, işyerinde yatıp kalkma parça, kırıntı, hurda, kırpıntı, bozuntu, paçavra, kupür, döküntü, kavga, dövüş residency, abidance piece, bit, fragment; clipping from a newspaper (or book, magazine, etc.); fight, scuffle; waste, leftovers fast, quick; immediate, hasty; prompt; smart, clever (Informal) take off, remove, dismiss swift çevik, hızlı, süratli, çabuk geçen, çabuk, tez canlı, eli çabuk taken away götürmek, alıp götürmek, paket yaptırıp götürmek, ortadan kaldırmak turned out tersyüz etmek, tersini çevirmek, içini dışına drive away; discharge; gather; remove; çevirmek, boşaltmak, dışarı çıkarmak, clear, evacuate kovmak, yataktan kaldırmak, söndürmek, kapamak, yapmak, üretmek, meydana getirmek, yetiştirmek, donatmak, giydirmek, toplamak, sıraya dizmek, otlamaya çıkarmak, toplanmak, sıraya dizilmek, dışa dönmek, hazır bulunmak, yataktan kalkmak, haline gelmek, olup çıkmak, sonuçlanmak ultimate son, en son, en uzak, esas, nihai, en final; extreme; greatest; fundamental; yüksek decisive upshot sonuç, netice, son result, consequence, outcome, effect
14 47-DOWNTOWN FIRE SURVIVOR inferno lucky survived blazing ravaged raged desperate 22-year-old Angela Medeiros was one of the (1) ones. She (2) the (3) (4) that (5) the forty-storey Torres building in downtown Sao Paolo yesterday. At least thirty people are known to have lost their lives in the fire that (6) for over twelve hours. The final count is expected to be far higher as (7) relatives try to locate missing members of their families. Angela was indeed lucky to survive. She worked on the twentieth floor, just three floors above where the fire is believed to have started as a result of an electrical fault in an air-conditioner. terrible cover screaming Her first impression that something was wrong was when she saw a column of thick black smoke rising past the window of her office. "There was no sound of an alarm or anything," she said. "Just the cries of people (8) and running all over the place. it was (9). My first thought was to (10) myself with water, and I rushed to the bathroom. it was a very strange reaction. When I came out there was no one in the office; I was the only one there." ledge nightmare struggle instinct What followed was a (11). She tried to get to the emergency staircase, but by this time the smoke was too thick and she knew that she could either stay where she was or make an attempt to reach the roof, twenty floors above, where there was a helicopter landing-pad. She decided to stay where she was and managed to open a window and (12) out onto a (13). it was then that she realised that she was probably safe. The fire had passed through her floor and although flames were everywhere, she could at least breathe. Her (14) told her to stay where she was and wait for rescue. "Somewhere I had read that the new ladders on the fire engines could be extended to reach the twentieth floor," she explained. "I hoped it was true!" desperately defies witnessed admits tempted prayed What happened over the next seven hours (15) description. She (16) people (17) throwing themselves out of the windows of the floors above her. She (18) that she was (19) to do the same. She was afraid that no one would see her and that she would not be able to hold on. "I just (20), and thought of my mother and father and the family, and about the holiday we were going to have in two weeks' time." recall consciousness huddled She was rescued after someone in the crowd below alerted firemen to the small figüre (21) against a ledge in a corner of the twentieth storey. "I saw the ladder moving up towards me," said Angela, "but I must have lost (22), because that's the last thing I remember. The next thing I (23) was waking up in the ambulance."
15 KELİME ANLAM EŞ ANLAM admits kabul etmek, itiraf etmek, almak, içeri almak, meydan vermek confess to something; allow entrance; accept as valid blazing alevlenmiş, yanan; belirgin, bariz; çarpıcı, burning, flaming; prominent; rude, vulgar keskin consciousness bilinç, şuur, idrak; zihin, akıl, his awareness, cognizance, cognisance, knowingness cover örtü; kapak, kap, kaplık, paket; zarf, kılıf; casing; lid; wrapper; binding; shelter; kuver; av yeri; sığınak, bahane insurance defies meydan okumak, karşılaşmaya davet etmek; oppose, resist; challenge karşı gelmek; küçümsemek; gücünü aşmak; kışkırtmak; alnını karışlamak desperate çaresiz, umutsuz, her şeyi göze almış, hopeless, despairing; dangerous, violent; gözükara; korkunç, vahim, azgın; aşırı terrible, bad desperately umutsuzca, can havli ile; vahim; tam; aşırı; hopelessly; very much, extremely son derece huddled sürü gibi toplanmak, bir araya toplamak, toplamak, tıkıştırmak, aceleyle giyinmek crowd together, gather together; snuggle; consult together secretly inferno cehennem Hell, perdition, infernal region, nether region, the pit instinct içgüdü, sezgi, yetenek, kabiliyet natural sense or impulse, natural tendency; innate behavioral patterns; talent, natural ability; intuition ledge çıkıntı, pencere pervazı shelf lucky şanslı, uğurlu, tâlihli fortunate, prosperous, successful; accompanied by good luck; bringing good fortune nightmare kâbus, karabasan frightening dream prayed dua etmek, yalvarmak, rica etmek, namaz beg, implore kılmak, ibadet etmek, af dilemek raged kudurmak, köpürmek, sinirinden kudurmak, be furiously angry, behave furiously, be irate şiddetli olmak, şiddetli esmek ravaged yıkmak, harap etmek, kırıp geçirmek rob, plunder, pillage; destroy, ruin, demolish recall geri çağırmak, geri istemek, hatırlamak, remember, recollect; call back, bring back; anımsamak, hatırlatmak, uyandırmak revoke, annul, cancel (duygu), dönmek, geri almak, geri çekmek screaming çığlık atan, bağıran, göz alıcı, cırtlak, çok komik, gülmekten öldüren struggle boğuşmak, savaşmak, mücâdele etmek, çabalamak, çalışmak, çırpınmak, debelenmek, uğraşmak survived hayatta kalmak, sağ kalmak, kalmak, geriye kalmak, daha uzun yaşamak, yadigâr kalmak, dayanmak, göğüs germek tempted baştan çıkarmak, ayartmak, özendirmek, kışkırtmak, meydan okumak terrible korkunç, berbat, çok kötü, müthiş awful, horrible witnessed şahit olmak, tanık olmak, şahitlik etmek, sahne olmak, onaylamak, kabul etmek shrieking, screeching; shouting, yelling; striking, noticeable; hilarious, extremely funny (Slang) endeavor, strive, try hard; fight, contend; advance with great effort last, live, live on, go, endure, hold up, hold out allure, entice, tantalize, seduce look on, see, observe; testify, vouch for, corroborate; be an eye-witness; note, notice
16 48-WAS IT SOMETHING THEY ATE? fatal heart Pirkko Mononen's father, aged 59, died of a (1) attack. He was one of nine children from a farming family; seven of them died the same way. Pirkko's husband, Heikki, knows how she feels. His father and mother had heart trouble and for both of them the third attack was (2). disease anymore unusual rate Their case is not (3) for Pirkko and Heikki, aged 46 and 47. They live in Finland, where the death (4) from heart (5) used to be the highest in the world. Not (6), though, as Scotland and Northern Ireland have taken over the lead. took part in swapped village saturated The Mononens (7) a novel expcriment. Their blood cholesterol levels were measured. They and 29 other families in their (8) then (9) their diet for the fresh vegetables and low (10) fat intake of an Italian community in the south of Naples. habits begging prematurely petition initial The expcriment changed their eating (11). It was part of a long-term state programme backed by the World Health Organisation. In 1971, MPs presented a (12) from local people (13) the government to do something about the alarming number of middle -aged men dying (14) from heart attacks. At the start of the project, there were about 250 fatal attacks in the area each year. Today, that number has been reduced by about 100. An (15) survey had showed smoking and diet to be the key factors. Sour and salty flavours were popular, meals were large, and milk was drunk at the table instead of water, wine or beer. confesses imagination lard halved switched trial The Finland-Italy expcriment caught people's (16). Pirkko laughs when she (17) they ate no spaghetti over the six-week trial. "I prepared all kinds of Finnish traditional dishes, but I used vegetable fat instead of (18)." The couple won a free trip to Poliçe, the village chosen for the other half of the expcriment, and saw a big difference. The Italians used the fat on meat to make soap instead of eating it as they do here," said Heikki. His cholesterol level almost (19) during the (20). Now, they have (21) to low-fat milk in spite of keeping a herd of dairy cows - and grow their own vegetables. preparation persuaded In the last ten years, people have been cleverly (22) not to eat high-fat food. Housewives were taught new methods of food (23), and special 'Long Life Parties' were organised where families would eat together. Between 1969 and 1979, deaths among middle-aged men in the area fell by 27%.
17 KELİME ANLAM EŞ ANLAM anymore daha fazla, bundan sonra, artık any longer begging dilenme, yalvarma panhandling, publicly asking for handouts confesses itiraf etmek, kabullenmek, söylemek, günah çıkarmak admit (guilt, etc.); declare faith in; tell one's sins to a priest disease hastalık, rahatsızlık, illet sickness, illness fatal öldürücü, ölümcül, ölümle biten, mahvedici, kaçınılmaz, kaderde olan, kader, vahim deadly, causing death; destructive; critical, important, fateful habits alışkanlık, adet, huy, yapı, kafa yapısı, custom, something that one is used to doing bağımlılık, elbise, kıyafet, yaşam biçimi halved ikiye bölmek, yarıya bölmek, yarıya indirmek share equally, divide into two heart kâlp, yürek, gönül, can, vicdan, cesaret, orta bosom, pump, ticker kısım, göbek, kupa imagination hayal gücü, imgelem, hayal, hayal etme, imaginativeness, vision kuruntu, tasavvur initial baştaki, baş, ilk first lard domuz yağı persuaded kandırmak, inandırmak, aklını çelmek, ikna convince, induce, sway etmek, razı etmek petition talep, rica, istirham, dilek, dilekçe request, demand; plea, appeal prematurely çok erken, çok yakın, acelece too early, too soon; rashly, hurriedly, hastily preparation hazırlık, hazırlama, hazırlanma, hazırlık readying, formulation yapma, akort yapma, giriş müziği, hazırlanan ilâç, basur ilacı rate oran, kur, rayiç, değer, ücret, bedel, posta ücreti, derece, sınıf, emlâk vergisi ratio, proportion between two things; price, cost; speed, pace; tax, assessment saturated doymuş, koyu, canlı (renk) completely soaked, filled to capacity swapped değiş tokuş etmek, değiştirmek, karşılıklı trade, swop, switch bahsetmek switched vurmak, sallamak, yer değiştirmek, değiştirmek, makas değiştirmek, değişmek, dönmek took part in bir araya gelmek participated in trial dava, deneme, prova, test, duruşma, test, run yargılama, sınav, sınama, çile, dert, girişim, örnek unusual alışılmadık, nadir, ender, olağandışı, tuhaf, uncommon, irregular acayip village köy, köy halkı, küçük belediye small rural town substitution, permutation, transposition, replacement
18 49-TOWARDS A WORKING RENAISSANCE artisans emerged societies merchants wages In historical times, many (1) operated a two-tier (a tier is a level in a system or organisation) system made up of people who controlled and those who worked and were controlled. Work was not an activity to be enjoyed. However, another group of people (2) alongside this system. They were the (3) and (4). Merchants worked for profit, and artisans (people skilled in arts and crafts) worked for (5). These were the people who first gave us the idea of work as paid employment. beyond attitudes Today, people need to work in the same way they need to eat and drink. This is what we call the 'work ethic'. (An ethic is an idea or moral belief that influences the behaviour, (6) and philosophy of life of a group of people.) People work for the money they need in order to live well, but there is another reason (7) this basic motivation which makes people want to work. Work gives people a feeling of being useful. gossiping Revolution leisure In a pre-industrial society, the work ethic did not exist. Work and (8) went together and only part of Sunday was taken as time off. In this society, singing, talking, drinking and (9) went together with work. With the emergence of the work ethic, leisure and holidays were separated from work, thus changing the former ordinary social system of interaction. During the Industrial (10), for most people, work was so unpleasant that leisure was considered as a kind of freedom. Yet, in spite of the fact that life was hard and work was tiring, people slowly changed from having to work to wanting to work. Today, the work ethic is so strong that people feel it is their right to work. used up determines repetitive disappearing labour The questions we should perhaps be asking ourselves are, firstly, whether we really like our jobs and secondly, even if we like them, whether they are really necessary. Many kinds of work are (11) as natural resources are (12) and new technologies appear. For example, computers are already replacing people in order to do boring, (13) jobs and to improve efficiency. To a large extent, the price of (14), as compared with the cost of the new equipment, (15) which jobs will be replaced. However, the new technologies will create new jobs both in the computer field and in the leisure industry. predicted drop prosperity facilities significant It has been (16) that new technology could result in a period of growth and (17). This, however, does not mean that the ever-growing number of unemployed people will (18). What it means is that finance and resources will become available to improve social services, education and the health service. The quality of life can be improved with better (19) and a (20) increase in the workforce behind the services. expanded reduction achieve cater for It has taken more than a hundred years to reduce the working week from 60 to 55 hours, then 48, 44 and now 40. The next step will be a (21) to 35 and then, perhaps, to 32 hours. The current five-day working week will become a four-day or even a three-day event. in order to (22) this shortened working span, paid holidays will probably be increased and the age of retirement will be lowered. However, attitudes to work must change as well. Community life ought to become more important and the leisure industry needs to be (23) to (24) the needs of both young and old people, all of whom will have more spare time. in Europe, only France has taken this problem seriously enough to appoint a government official responsible for 'free-time'. sensibility creativity Making changes in the education system could solve a lot of problems. In fact, (25) and (26) could start a totally new period, perhaps a new 'Working Renaissance'.
19 KELİME ANLAM EŞ ANLAM achieve gerçekleştirmek, başarmak, elde etmek, obtain, attain; perform, accomplish kazanmak, ulaşmak, erişmek artisans esnaf, zanaatkâr artist, creator; craftsman, skilled workman attitudes tutum, tavır, davranış, poz, durum, konum, posture, policy; treatment, sentiment fikir, düşünce, duruş beyond aşırı, ötesinde, öte further, more distant cater for temin etmek, sağlamak, gereklerini hazırlamak provide food and supplies for; (British) cater to, pamper, satisfy desires, fulfill wishes creativity yaratıcılık innovativeness, inventiveness; artistry; ability to create determines kararlaştırmak, karara bağlanmak, karara decide, settle; conclude; cause, affect varmak; belirlemek; neden olmak; saptamak disappearing gözden kaybolan, yok olan, unutulan go out of sight; become extinct, cease to exist drop düşmek; düşürmek; alçalmak; kesilmek, fall; make fall; bring down; go down; kesmek; damlamak; bitmek; dalmak; tutulmak; parachute; omit; let go; abandon yavrulamak; damlatmak, atmak; söylemek; bırakmak, ilişkisini kesmek; görüşmemek; emerged ortaya çıkmak, çıkmak, doğmak; gün ışığına appear, come out, be revealed çıkmak; su yüzüne çıkmak; yücelmek expanded şişirmek, büyütmek, yayılmak, şişmek, widened, enlarged, increased büyümek; genişletmek, genişlemek; açılmak; gelişmek; dönüşmek; açmak facilities kolaylıklar, imkânlar, tesisler place used for a specific purpose; means, resources, tools, appliances gossiping dedikodu yapmak, çene çalmak, gevezelik talk about the private affairs of others, spread labour etmek çalışmak, uğraşmak, çaba harcamak, emek vermek, doğum sancısı çekmek, lafı uzatmak rumors work, toil; bother, take pains; become weary, become tired; make an effort; move heavily; be delayed; make weary, make tired leisure boş vakit, uygun zaman, acelesi olmama time free from work or other demands and duties, free time; rest; recreation merchants tacir, tüccar seller, marketer; trader, retailer predicted önceden haber vermek, kehanette bulunmak foretell, prognosticate, call, forebode, anticipate, promise prosperity başarı, gönenç, zenginlik, refah, bolluk success reduction indirim, düşürme, azalma, düşüş, dönüştürme, haline getirme, ayırma, indirgeme, iskonto, ergime, boyun eğdirme, negatifi zayıflatma, repetitive tekrarlayan, tekrarlı, tekrarlayıp duran, gereksiz tekrarlar içeren revolution devir, devrim, ihtilal, deveran, köklü değişiklik, gezegenin güneş etrafında dönmesi sensibility duygusallık, hassaslık, duyarlılık, duygululuk, alınganlık, içlilik, önsezi yeteneği, anlayış decrease, diminution, step-down recurrent, repetitious, repeating overthrow of the government; one spin, one full turn; circuit, course or procedure leading back to the starting point ability to perceive, ability to sense; sensitivity, capacity for emotional response; appreciation, capacity of refined distinction significant önemli, anlamlı, manâlı, kayda değer important, consequential; meaningful, having meaning; of a considerable amount societies toplum, topluluk, çevre, dernek, sosyete club, guild, gild, lodge, order used up harcanmış, bitmiş, tükenmiş, bitkin, yorgun second-hand, not new; usual, accustomed wages haftalık, yevmiye, bedel, ücret, işgücü maliyeti, karşılık salary, payment, earnings
20 50-CRIMES justice recognises punishments imposes Every community in the world (1) certain activities as crimes. Because of this, each has developed its own way of dealing with (2) and has chosen a number of different (3) to match them. So, society identifies crimes, administers (4), and then imposes suitable punishments. offence jaywalking petty It is surprising, however, how much the various societies of the world differ in the areas of crime, justice and punishment. What may be a crime in one country is often perfectly acceptable in another. For example, as you may know, (5), that is, not crossing the road at the proper crossing place, is illegal in areas of the world such as North America, but in other areas, quite legal. As well as deciding what is legal and what is illegal, societies must also decide whether a crime is (6) or serious. For example, carrying a gun is a very serious (7) in some countries, but a very petty one in others. committed innocent Similarly, the ways of administering justice differ from country to country. in some countries a person is considered (8) until he is proved guilty, but in others the opposite is true. In other words, in the former it is the job of the authorities to prove that the person has (9) a crime whereas in the latter it is the individual's task to prove his innocence. inmates convicted lenient Crimes vary, systems of justice vary, but the greatest variation between countries is in the methods of punishment that they use. For example, a person (10) of theft in some parts of the Middle East might face a severe penalty, whereas the same crime would receive a relatively (11) punishment in some Scandinavian countries. Denmark provides a good example of the more lenient approach to crime and punishment. About half the people sent to prison there go to what is called an 'open prison'. in these prisons, the (12) are allowed to wear their own clothes, provide their own food, bring in their own furniture and have their own radios or television in the cell. unsupervised entertain They are not locked in their cells at night, although each prisoner is given a key to his own cell and can lock the door at night if he wishes. Most open prisons in Denmark also have special rooms where prisoners can (13) friends, husbands or wives (14), in privacy and comfort, for at least an hour a week. circumstances entitled allowed After four weeks in a Danish open prison, a prisoner is normally (15) to a 'holiday' outside the prison. Usually he is (16) out of prison for one weekend every three weeks. Of course, prisoners do not have to leave the prison every three weeks - they can save up their weekends away and take a break of up to eight days if they prefer. Prisoners in open prisons in Denmark are also allowed out for a whole range of activities such as buying clothes, visiting the doctor or simply going for a walk with their visitors. If a prisoner needs to leave the prison for educational purposes - attending a course or receiving technical training - then, in certain (17), he may be allowed to spend the night outside the prison.