THE TURKISH ONLINE JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY JANUARY Volume 4  Issue 1. Assoc. Prof. Dr. Aytekin İşman EditorinChief


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1 THE TURKISH ONLINE JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY JANUARY 2005 Volume 4  Issue 1 Assoc. Prof. Dr. Aytekin İşman EditorinChief Prof. Dr. Jerry Willis Editor Fahme Dabaj Associate Editor ISSN:
2 TOJET Volume 4 Issue 1 January 2005 Table of Contents An alternative approach to Logobased Geometry 1 Erol KARAKIRIK, Soner DURMUŞ Developing A Technology Attitude Scale for PreService Chemistry Teachers 2 Soner YAVUZ Dynamic Visualization and Software Environments 3 Nihat BOZ Improving Teacher Quality, a Keyword for Improving Education Facing Global Challenges 4 Husain JUSUF Parent s Views on Internet Use 5 H. Ferhan ODABAŞI Recommendations towards Developing Educational Standards to Improve Science Education in 6 Turkey Ömer Faruk KESER TeacherStudent Interactions in Distance Learning 7 Serdal TERZİ, Abdurrahman ÇELİK The Relations between Global Environmental Awareness and Technology 8 Nilgün SEÇKEN Toward an Effective Integration of Technology: Message Boards for Strengthening 9 Communication Arif ALTUN Understanding Faculty Adoption of Technology Using the Learning/Adoption Trajectory Model: 10 A Qualitative Case Study İsmail ŞAHİN User Satisfaction Evaluation of an Educational Website 11 Goknur Kaplan AKILLI Fen Bilgisi Dersinde Eğitim Teknolojisi Kullanılmasına İlişkin Öğrenci Görüşleri 12 Ercan AKPINAR, Hilal AKTAMIŞ, Ömer ERGİN Fen Eğitiminde Öğrencilerin Gelişimini Değerlendirmek için Elektronik Portfolyo Kullanımı 13 Üzerine bir İnceleme Hünkar KORKMAZ, Fitnat KAPTAN Gazi Üniversitesi nin Uzaktan Eğitim Potansiyeli 14 İrfan SÜER, Zeki KAYA, H. İbrahim BÜLBÜL, Hatice KARAÇANTA, Zihni KOÇ, Şaban ÇETİN Göçmen Türklere Yönelik Uzaktan Öğretim Uygulaması (F.Almanya daki Türklerin Eğitim 15 Sorunları ve Anadolu Üniversitesi nin Batı Avrupa Programları) Ahmet Atilla DOĞAN İnternet Destekli Öğretim Sistemlerinde Bilişim Gereksinimlerinin Belirlenmesi 16 Orhan TORKUL, Cemal SEZER, Tijen ÖVER İnternet Temelli Ölçmelerin Geçerliğini Sağlamada Yeni Yaklaşımlar 17 Çetin SEMERCİ, Cem BEKTAŞ İnternet Üzerinden Eğitim de Eğitim Platformu Geliştirme Kriterleri ve Uygulama Örneği 18 Caner AKÜNER Oluşturmacı Öğrenme Yaklaşımının Uzmanlaşmaya Etkisi 19 Mehmet GÜROL Organizasyonel Değişmede Eğitim Teknolojilerinin Rolü ve Önemi 20 Ayşen WOLFF Öğretim Elemanlarının Bilgisayar Programlarını ve İnterneti Bilme ve Kullanma Amaçları 21 (Pamukkale Üniversitesi Örneği) Sadettin SARI, Ali Rıza ERDEM Copyright The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology
3 AN ALTERNATIVE APPROACH TO LOGOBASED GEOMETRY Erol KARAKIRIK, Soner DURMUS Abant İzzet Baysal Üniversitesi, Eğitim Fakültesi ABSTRACT Geometry is an important branch of mathematics. Geometry curriculum can be enriched by using different Technologies such as graphing calculators and computers. Logobased different software packages aim to improve conceptual understanding in geometry. The goals of this paper are i) to present theoretical foundations of any compute software developed to enrich primary and secondary school geometry curriculum, ii) to introduce main features of Logo, iii) to introduce a new version of Logo called LogoTurk, and iv) to present some recommendations for future research. Keywords: Geometry, Logo, LogoTurk INTRODUCTION Geometry is an important branch of mathematics. Geometry is seen as the place in the school curriculum where students learn to reason and understand the axiomatic structure of mathematics (NCTM, 2000). Since current elementary school geometry curriculums focus on lists of definitions and properties of shapes, and learning to write the proper symbolism for simple geometric concepts (Carpenter et al., 1980; Flanders, 1987), it underemphasizes relational understanding that means knowing both what to do and why. For example, learning lists of properties of quadrilaterals and triangles is as important as being involved in the process of developing and using a propertybased conceptual approach for reasoning about these shapes (Battista, 2002). This approach uses such concepts as angles, sides, angle measure, length, area, congruency, and parallelism to describe and analyze spatial relationships in and among these shapes. In particular, when we define an equilateral triangle as being threesided figure that has three equivalent angles and all sides the same length, we are using the concepts of sides, length, and angle measure to describe the spatial relationships that differentiate equilateral triangle from other triangles. Current educational theories emphasize active involvement of students on teachinglearning process. Through abstraction and reflection during this process, students construct their mathematical knowledge. Mathematicsgeometry instruction should facilitate learning environment that support inquiry, problem solving and sense making in which students invent, test, and refine ideas to build complex, abstract, and powerful mathematical meanings (Battista, 2002). There are available computer software packages aiming to enrich learning environments to achieve these goals. This paper aims i) to present theoretical foundations of any computer software developed to enrich primary and secondary school geometry curriculum, ii) to introduce main features of Logo, iii) to introduce a new version of Logo called LogoTurk, and iv) to present some recommendations for future research. GEOMETRY Geometry as branch of mathematics that has special characteristics, those need to be taken into consideration. Objects and properties of objects in geometry are extremely abstract for primary school students. Students are expected to recognize shapes and comprehend their properties. Students developmental stage is the key that one should be aware of. There are theories developed based on studies of Piaget s and Pierre and Dina Van Hiele s to explain and help us on understanding of development of geometrical thinking. In Piaget s work, there are two major themes related to geometrical thinking. Firstly, development of geometric ideas follows a definite order which is more logical than historical. Topological relations (connectedness, continuity) develop first, followed by Euclidean (angularity, parallelism, area) relations. It develops over time by integrating and synthesizing these relations to their existing schemas. Secondly, mental representation of space develops through progressive organization of the student s motor and internalized actions. Ideas about space evolve as students interact with their environments. These two themes are supported by research (Clements & Battista, 1992). Van Hiele Theory proposes that students move through different levels of geometrical thinking. These levels are as follows: Level 0 (Prerecognition): Since students do not comprehend visual characteristics of shapes, they are unable to identify many common shapes. Level 1 (Visual): They can only recognize shapes as whole images. A given figure is square, for example, because it looks like a window. Students do not think of properties of shapes. Copyright The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology
4 Level 2 (Descriptive/Analytic): Students by observing, measuring, drawing, and model making can recognize and characterize shapes by their properties. For instance, a square can be thought as a figure that has four equal sides and four right angles. Students can not form classes of figures at this level. For instance, a student may not see a square as a rectangle. Level 3 (Abstract/Relational): Students can distinguish a shape based on certain properties which it has. They can provide logical arguments, for example, the sum of the angle measures of a quadrilateral is 360, because it consists of two triangles. As students discover such properties they go beyond definitions of certain figures, for example, a square can also be seen as a rectangle because a square satisfies all conditions for being a rectangle. Level 4 (Axiomatic): Students can establish theorems with an axiomatic structure. They recognize undefined terms, definitions, axioms, and theorems. They can produce certain number of statements to prove a statement. According to Van Hiele Theory, geometric thinking levels of students in elementary and middle school are at most level 3. Thinking at level 4 is necessary for high school geometry. According to the Van Hiele theory, the levels are progressive that students move from one level of thinking to the next. Curriculum developers and teachers should take these levels into consideration by enriching learning environment to help students to progress to a next level (Burger & Shaughnessy, 1986). There are numerous assessment reports revealing that students fail to learn basic geometric concepts especially geometric problem solving (Kouba et al., 1988; Stigler, Lee & Stevensen, 1990; the International Study Center, 1999). The current elementary and middle school geometry curriculum do facilitate opportunities for students to use their basic intuitions and simple concepts to progress to higher levels of geometric thought. Students going through such experience in elementary school do not have the necessary geometric intuition and background for a formal deductive geometry course in high schools (Hoffer, 1981; Shaughnessy & Burger, 1985). Deficiencies on conceptual and procedural understanding of students cause problems for the later study of important ideas such as vectors, coordinates, transformations, and trigonometry (Fey et al. 1984). GEOMETRY AND TECHNOLOGY NCTM s (2000) geometry standards put emphasize on focusing on the development of careful reasoning and proof using definitions and established facts. Geometric shapes and their properties can be visualized by manipulatives. Students at level 0, 1 and 2 need to experience with concrete materials. Concrete materials such as geometry rods, geobord, isometric papers, symmetry mirrors etc. are supposed to help students construct geometric ideas. Using manipulatives benefits students across grade level, ability level, and topics which using manipulative makes sense for that topic (Driscoll, 1983; Sowell, 1989; Suydam, 1986). Clements and McMillen (1996) proposed that using Manipulatives does not always guarantee conceptual understanding: In one study, students not using manipulatives outperformed students using manipulatives on a test of transfer (Fennema, 1972). Students sometimes used manipulatives in a rote manner (Hiebert & Wearne, 1992). Clements and McMillen (1996) claims that student often fail to link their action with Manipulatives to describe the actions. Some computer manipulatives may be more beneficial than any physical manipulative. Any program having the following features can be thought as beneficial computer manipulative (Clements & McMillen, 2001, p.76). They have uncomplicated changing, repeating, and undoing actions, allow students to save configurations and sequences of actions, dynamically link different representations and maintain a tight connection between pictured objects and symbols, allow students and teachers to pose and solve their own problems, and allow students to develop increasing control of a flexible, extensible, mathematical tool. Such programs also serve many purposes and help form connections between mathematical ideas. Selecting and using proper computer manipulative in learning environment should consider the following recommendations (Clements and McMillen, 2001, p.77): Use computer manipulatives for assessment as mirrors of students' thinking, Guide students to alter and reflect on their actions, always predicting and explaining, Create tasks that cause students to see conflicts or gaps in their thinking, Have students work cooperatively in pairs, If possible, use one computer and a largescreen display to focus and extend followup discussions with the class, Recognize that much information may have to be introduced before moving to work on computers, including the purpose of the software, ways to operate the hardware and software, mathematics content and problem solving strategies, and so on, Copyright The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology
5 Use extensible programs for long periods across topics when possible. LOGO GEOMETRY Elementary school geometry should focus on the study of objects, motions, and relationships in a spatial environment (Clements & Battista, 1986; Trafton & LeBlanc, 1973). First experiences with geometry should emphasize informal study of physical shapes and their properties and have as their primary goal the development of students' intuition and knowledge about their spatial environment. Subsequent experiences should involve analyzing and abstracting geometric concepts and relationships in increasingly formal settings. Because current elementary geometry curricula focus only on identification of figures and the use of geometric terms (Kouba et al., 1988), little opportunity arises for geometric problem solving. Students have little chance to develop their spatial thinking, a skill that should have primary importance in the geometry curriculum. Students encounter little opportunity to analyze and reconceptualize substantive geometric ideas. Another deficiency in the current curriculum is that it does not always emphasize conceptualizations of topics that are most useful in the later learning of mathematics. For instance, the concept of angle normally encountered in elementary school is that of a union of two rays with a common endpoint, the same formal definition used in high school geometry. However, in trigonometry and calculus, an angle is thought of as a rotation. Existing elementary school geometry curricula do not address this second aspect of the angle concept, even though the latter aspect seems more closely related to navigation, "one of the most widespread representations of the idea of angle in the lives of contemporary Americans" (Papert, 1980, p.68). Logo geometry is developed to achieve three major goals (Clement & Battista, 2001, pp.1415): i) achieving higher levels of geometric thinking, ii) helping students learn major geometric concepts and skills, and iii) developing power and beliefs in mathematical problem solving and reasoning. Developers of Logo Geometry have assumed that curriculum has three strands: Paths, shapes, and motions. Relational understanding can be based on these three strands. Students movements are recorded as paths and Logo has special commands to simulate the same movements. For instance, a command such as FD 40 draws a straight path 40 units long. Logo has also commands that inverse this process. For instance, a command such as BK 40 draws a straight path 40 units long in the opposite direction of previous direction which is a sort of undoing of the command FD 40. Logo commands help students learn to connect the idea of undoing a sequence of turtle commands to the related idea of undoing a sequence of arithmetic operations. For example, questions like A number multiplied by 3, then added 4, if the result is 19, what should be this number? can be solved by reversing operations addition and multiplication. Students can write different procedures to move the turtle to draw closed or nonclosed, straight and nonstraight, simple and nonsimple paths. As paths are drawn, need for turning, which is a basis for understanding angle, may arise. Students develop conceptual understanding by relating turn and angles. Students apply series of commands to draw a path. During this process, they i) learn to reflect on the Logo commands and correspondence path these command produce, ii) also correct commands related to these paths, iii) correct the procedures, iv) gain an insight of nature their errors and the ways they correct them, and vi) learn to apply this problem solving approach to different context. Second strand of Logo geometry is shapes. Shapes can be constructed by using simple paths. Logo helps students see shapes as combinations of paths. Students start to analyze shapes in terms of their components and properties. First, students identify shapes in their environment and describe and classify regions, including faces of solids. Second, students discuss properties of shapes. Finally, Students plan and write several Logo procedures to draw shapes that they observed in their environment. As Van Hiele levels are taken into consideration to help students construct the shapes by using their attributes, they can construct squares, rectangles, equilateral triangles, and regular polygons in an order by Logo procedures. Constructing regular polygons requires knowing the angle concept. Angle can be thought as a path created by a forward move, a turn, and another move. As angle concept is formed, students need to consider amount of turn which is called an angle measure. Number of sides and measure of interior angles of polygons are key attributes to distinguish regular polygons. Students need to develop conceptual understanding of these attributes before writing procedures on Logo. Differences among regular polygons once reduced to number of sides and angle measures, it may not be difficult to write Logo commands. For example, square, hexagon, and octagon can be drawn by following Logo procedures: Copyright The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology
6 Square Octagon Hexagon To square Repeat 4 [ forward 40 right 90] End. To octagon Repeat 6 [ forward 40 right 60] End. To hexagon Repeat 8 [ forward 40 right 45] End. In the above example, number of repetitions and the measure of the angle used to make a turn after each forward movement determines the geometric shape constructed. For instance, 4 repetitions and 90 degree turns construct a square while 8 repetitions and 45 degree turns construct a hexagon. The total degree of the turn made in each repeat block is equal to 360 degrees. This, by itself, denotes that the constructed figure is a regular polygon. Last strand of Logo geometry is motions. The main idea of motion (transformational) geometry is that there are an infinite number of figures congruent to a given figure and that these figures may be related by a combination of geometric motions. Fundamental motions are slide, turns, and flips. The concept of congruence is base on these three motions. Any combination of these motions applied to any figure preserve the main attributes of this figure. Prior to using these concepts on Logo, students need to know that two figures are concurrent if they have the same size and shape (i.e., if and only if one fits on top of the other exactly). Two congruent figures are constructed if, and only if, there is a sequence of slides, flips, or turns that moves one onto the other. Logo commands are available to help student develop these related motion concepts. Logo "provides an operational universe within which students can define a mathematical process and then see its effects unfold. It is accessible to very young children for simple tasks, yet its operations can be systematically extended to express problems of considerable complexity" (Feurzeig & Lukas, 1972, p.39). To draw a figure in Logo, students devise a set of movement instructions for the turtle. They must determine angle measures and lengths of line segments. They can be asked to analyze the figure and break it into smaller parts that are more easily constructed. Thus, they are constantly involved in geometric problem solving. Such Logo activities encourage students to identify goals and strategies before making overt moves toward a problem solution, create efficient problem representations, make executive decisions, and debug algorithms all of which are problemsolving skills too seldom explicitly taught in the schools. In the words of Papert, "The computer allows, or obliges, the child to externalize intuitive expectations. When the intuition is translated into a program it becomes more obtrusive and more accessible to reflection" and can thus be used as material "for the work of remodeling intuitive knowledge" (1980, 145). Therefore, in the context of Logo, the teacher can help students elaborate their intuitions about the concept of rectangle by focusing their attention on its properties and by embellishing those intuitions with verbal labels and descriptions. Such elaboration is essential for progressing toward level 2, the descriptiveanalytic level, in the Van Hiele hierarchy. Moreover, by designing a rectangle procedure with inputs, students begin to build intuitive knowledge about the concept of defining a rectangle. Through such a sequence of Logobased experiences, not only are students progressing into higher levels of geometric thinking in the Van Hiele hierarchy, but also they are building conceptual structures about rectangles that can be useful in other situations, such as drawing quadrilaterals, triangles, or regular polygons. They are thus learning geometry relationally. CONCRETE TO ABSTRACT According to Piaget & Inhelder (1967), action is of paramount importance in the development of geometric conceptualizations. The child "can only 'abstract'... the idea of a straight line from the action of following by hand or eye without changing direction, and the idea of an angle from two intersecting movements" (p.43). Indeed, physical actions on concrete objects are necessary. But students must internalize such physical actions and abstract the corresponding geometric notions. Logo can facilitate this process, thus promoting a transition from concrete experiences with geometric ideas to abstract reasoning. For example, by first having children form paths by walking, then using Logo, children can learn to think of the turtle's actions as ones that they themselves could perform. They seem to project themselves into the place of the turtle. In so doing, they are performing a mental actionan internalized version of their own physical movements. Because children understand beginning spatial notions in terms of action and because the mathematical concept of path can be thought of as a record of movement, it seems natural to emphasize this concept in the beginning study of geometry. For example, having students visually scan the side of a wall, run their hands along the edge of a rectangular table, or walk a straight path will help them develop an intuitive concept of straightness. But in Logo, the essence of this abstract concept can be brought to a more explicit level of awareness as a "turtle path that has no turning." Because the concept is explicit and reformulated in a more formal and precise language, it can be internalized in a more abstract form. Thus, we believe that the concept of path should be taught explicitly, Copyright The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology
7 that the concept of path can be used to organize beginning geometric notions, and that appropriately connected physical and Logo activities offer an ideal environment for studying paths and related geometric notions. The Logo philosophy and the constructivist philosophy of the curriculum standards have the same two major goals (Clements & Battista, 1990). First, students should actively experience building ideas and solving personally meaningful problems. Second, students should become autonomous and selfmotivated. Taylor (1980) distinguish the traditional geometry curriculum from a Logo geometry curriculum by stating that children who are engaged in Logo activities will invent basic concepts in mathematics, thereby learning "to be mathematicians" versus learning "about mathematics." Furthermore, Logo based geometry activities can promote substantive rather than factual learning, helping students progress to higher levels of thinking in geometry. As an example, consider the concept of rectangle. In the usual elementary school geometry curriculum, students are required only to be able to identify a visually presented rectanglea level1, visual activity in the Van Hiele hierarchy. In Logo, however, students can be asked to construct a sequence of commands, a procedure, to draw a rectangle. This process forces them to make their concept of rectangle explicit. They must analyze the visual characteristics of the rectangle and establish relations among its component parts. For example, students who think of a rectangle as "a figure with two long sides and two short sides" must be more precise and complete to write a Logo procedure for a rectangle; they must explicitly address properties of rectangles, such as opposite sides being equal in length and adjacent sides being perpendicular. For instance, to draw 80 unit by 40 unit rectangle, students have to apply numbers to the measures of the sides and angles, or turns (Figure 1). This process helps them become explicitly aware of such characteristics as "opposite sides equal in length." If instead of fd 60 they enter FD 90, the figure will not be a rectangle. The link between the symbols and the figure is direct and immediate. Studies confirm that students' ideas about shapes are more mathematical and precise after using Logo (Clements & Battista 1989, 1992). Figure 1. A procedure to construct a 40 by 80 unit rectangle RESEARCH ON LOGO Many Logo projects have attempted to explore the benefits of Logo programming for mathematics learning. In most, the instructional focus has been on Logo as a programming language and environment for exploration. Evaluation of these projects has indicated that this approach to increasing mathematics achievement is generally ineffective (Akdag, 1985; Blumenthal, 1986). However, it is possible that the students in these projects learned concepts that were not part of the standard curriculum and thus were not assessed, or that their teachers did not lead them to see the connections between the Logobased concepts and other mathematical tasks. In a few studies that attempted to make connections between students' work with Logo and textbook it was found significant increases on tests of geometric achievement (Howe, O'Shea, & Plane 1980; Lehrer & Smith, 1986). Proper Logo environments may help students make the transition from the visual to the descriptive level of thought in the Van Hiele hierarchy. In fact, after working with the Logo activities, students attempting geometric tasks were less likely to conceptualize shapes on the basis of their visual appearance, and more likely to conceptualize them in terms of their properties (Battista & Clements, 1988). Some students understand certain ideas, such as angle measure, for the first time only after they have used Logo. They have to make sense of what it is being controlled by the numbers they give to right and leftturn commands. The turtle immediately links the symbolic command to a sensoryconcrete turning action. Receiving feedback from their explorations over several tasks, they develop an awareness of these quantities and the geometric ideas of angle and rotation (Kieran & Hillel, 1990). Copyright The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology
8 OUR EXPERIENCES WITH LOGOTURK There are some difficulties on using Logo. Although Logo commands are in intuitive nature, nonenglish users may have difficulties on the usage of these commands. WinLogo has been partly used in some computer related courses in Faculty of the Education at Abant Izzet Baysal University in the spring semester year of WinLogo was chosen as our Logo platform since it was the windows version since it was free and could be downloaded form Internet. Firstly, basic Logo commands were introduced to students and they were instructed on the rationale behind how to use these commands to construct complex geometric shapes. Since commands were in English, students were required to memorize the commands. After students made some practice on basic Logo commands such as moving turtle one point to another, they were given instruction on how to incorporate these commands together to construct certain geometric figures. They were given a task of drawing a simple house by the help of the basic logo commands. Although most students were able to draw a simple house at the end of certain time period, the way they produced the houses suggested that they had difficulty of grasping the working mechanism of the Logo. They mostly preferred to imitate instructor s way of drawing a house instead of trying out other possibilities for complex house structures. The Figure 2 shows a simple house most students were able to design. Figure 2. A house figure created with Logo commands After several interviews and our observations with the students, it was discovered that Logo commands being in English created a big hurdle for students to internalize Logo commands. Furthermore, two separate windows of Winlogo interface designed for editing procedures and running them were not seen appropriate for Turkish students since it is not found userfriendly. Most students had difficulties in saving their work and lost their work since using save command in the main window did not save the program content in the edit window. Winlogo Editing window required procedures to be entered within a to and end block. Some students also mistakenly deleted the procedure name after to. Hence, procedures were not defined properly although the correct command sequences were typed. Moreover, simple typing errors on writing commands such as omitting to put a space between two commands or a command and its argument or misspelling an English word caused problems. Not being able to save the procedures correctly was the most significant problem as mentioned above. The latest mode of the program, namely pen s being down or the elements already drawn on the screen, also caused confusion. Although some students were able to draw a house, it became apparent later that they entered commands line by line instead of writing them inside a procedure. This has lead to not being able to reproduce what has been done in another computer since it was not saved properly. Thus, a Turkish version of the Logo was designed and LogoTurk was developed by Erol KARAKIRIK and Soner DURMUS at the later stage of the semester. The main concern of Turkish design is to minimize Turkish students problems with the interface and direct them to more conceptually favorable experiences with Logo commands by eliminating the language barrier, since students main problem is language barrier. Main goal is to eliminate language barrier and take advantage Copyright The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology
9 of conceptual part of original Logo. Proposed Logo (LogoTurk) has considered these difficulties. It is designed in a way that commands can be entered in Turkish. This has enabled students to use their own language to move the turtle in any direction they want. For example, instead of using fd command, students could use ig. Students can use English, Turkish or combination of both in LogoTurk. LogoTurk design included both Turkish and English commands in both long and short forms. Table 1 shows LogoTurk commands that are all equivalent and could be used interchangeable. Table 1. Some LogoTurk commands Explanation Turkish Short Turkish Long English Short English Long Moves turtle 40 ig 40 Ileri 40 Fd 40 Forward 40 Pixels Forward Moves turtle 40 gg 40 Geri 40 Bk 40 Back 30 Pixels backward Set the pen mode Ka kalemaşağı pd Pendown down, it paints Set the pen mode Ky kalemyukarı pu Penup up, it does not paint All forms of all commands were implemented in LogoTurk. One can easily change from one mode to another by related language menu commands. For instance, all commands could be change from Turkish short form to English long form or from English long form to Turkish short form. Screenshots in Figure 3 show four different modes of the program for the same commands. This language feature is aimed to teach students English versions of the commands in order to be used in classical Logo packages if needed. Using Turkish equivalent of basic commands seemed to relieve students anxiety towards Logo. Hence, it is suggested that English version of Logo should not be seen as a standard and the development of local versions of logo should be supported. Figure 3. Screenshots from LogoTurk showing four different modes for the same commands Taking students difficulties into account, it is also decided to put editing window inside the main window. It was observed that students had fewer difficulties with this sort of interface design than WinLogo. In classical Logo packages, a procedure starts with to and ends with end. All commands of a procedure are between to and end. The procedures name must be entered after to. All commands can be written in one line by separating them with a space. For example, to construct a square, a procedure could be written as follows: Copyright The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology
10 To square fd 40 rt 90 fd 40 rt 90 fd 40 rt 90 fd 40 end Or To square repeat 4 [fd 40 rt 90] end To run a procedure, students need to select all lines of commands and select Test on toolbar. If students want to use a procedure on main screen, they need to enter name of the procedure. Each procedure can be tested separately on procedure screen. Main problem with using procedures is that students need to save each procedure to use on main screen even if a procedure screen is open. LogoTurk has a different approach to procedure definition. Although, LogoTurk supports classical procedure definition, the programmatic nature of the procedure definition were left and to and end block was eliminated. Instead, a procedure combo box was employed in order to be able to move among procedures. The procedure combo box eliminated some of the problems students experienced with Winlogo. The simplification of procedure definition has lead students defining several different procedures instead of putting all the commands in a procedure. Furthermore, save command was implemented in a way that all the procedures students working on were saved at the same time. This has minimized the students loss of data. This design also enabled testing of each procedure separately by the help of several commands. It is possible to add, delete, rename, run and stop each procedure separately by related menu items and shortcuts in LogoTurk. LogoTurk has a MainScreen procedure by default. It was considered as the main procedure of the program. However, one could rename this procedure or assign another procedure as the main procedure if needed. Several procedures can be written on procedure screen and any procedure could be used in another procedure. Recursive procedure definition is also accepted. However, this feature should be used with caution in order not to put the program into infinite loop or not to crash the program. Procedures can also be defined with arguments. Table 2 shows a procedure that defines a square with a varying length meaning with an argument. To square _length Repeat 4 [ fd _length rt 90 ] end To polygon _length _side Repeat _side [ fd _length rt 360/_side ] end Table 2. Examples of procedures in LogoTurk Square 40 draws a square with length 40 unit Square 100 draws a square with length 100 unit Square 40*sin(45) draws a square with length 40*sin(45) unit Polygon 40, 4 Polygon 100, 8 draws a square with side length 40 unit draws a hexagon with side length 100 unit It is also possible to use arithmetic operations and mathematical functions while entering the arguments of the functions. This enables to define more complex functions. For instance, instead of defining square and hexagon separately, a regular polygon of any number of sides could be defined by two arguments, namely length and the number of sides. In order to draw a regular polygon, the number of repetition to make is equal to number of sides of the polygon and the angle measure of each turn could be found by dividing 360 to number of sides as shown above. Another advantage of LogoTurk is its ability to detect simple typing errors and automatically correct them. Any simple typing error on writing commands can cause a program not executing the command or procedure which might be crucial part of the intended end figure. For instance, to move the turtle 40 unit forward, students need to enter Forward 40. If one forgets to put space between Forward and 40, this command is not going to be executed. Classical Logo shows an error message but does not show where the errors come from and ignore the errors. However, this might confuse students since they expect those commands to be executed and not knowing why the commands are erroneous and not getting any feedback and correction of the errors is not educationally favorable. LogoTurk also suggests a solution for this confusion. The difficulty of any program of detecting possible typing errors is very important for users to know where errors begin and end. High level programming languages, such as C++, try to overcome this problem by requiring users to enter semicolon ; after each separate command. Hence, this approach was adapted for LogoTurk design. LogoTurk could easily detect the aforementioned typing errors if semicolons are put after every command. However, when spaces are used to separate commands LogoTurk has difficulty of detecting this sort of errors although it could also detect some typing errors of this sort. If every command is written on a separate line, LogoTurk could always detect typing errors related to space usage whether or not a semicolon used or not. Hence, students can write commands without worrying about putting space between commands. LogoTurk can recognize erroneous commands in both English and Turkish. For example, command fd50 is same as the command fd 50. Similarly, command ig50 is same as the Copyright The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology
11 command ig 50. Any mistake in writings is being detected and corrected if auto correct mode was selected. If the stop on error option was selected, the program execution stops after encountering a typing error. LogoTurk places the cursor to the first error encountered during execution after executing all commands. This feature has helped students on detecting their own errors and focusing on analyzing different attributes of figures (Figure 4). Figure 4. Screenshots from LogoTurk showing errors. In addition, LogoTurk displays information about the current state of the program at the top of the screen with the help of a statusbar including the current position of the turtle, whether the pen is down or up, the direction of the turtle, the pen color, screen color and fill color, the current location of the mouse and the current position of home. The status bar (Figure 5) can also be hided if needed. In classical Logo, these type of information can be obtained by writing some commands including Print?, print xcor, print ycor, etc. Figure 5. A view of Status bar in LogoTurk Other classical Logo commands related to making loops and conditional executions are also included in LogoTurk but they are out of scope of this paper. Students felt much more comfortable ith LogoTurk than WinLogo because of the differences outlined in this paper. After getting used to logoturk, students begin to enjoy their Logo experiences and they were able to produce several complex figures such as houses, cars etc. Figure 5 shows a complex house students could produce after LogoTurk was employed in the course. Another example is given in Appendix A with necessary LogoTurk commands. Appendix A has also commonly used LogoTurk commands. Copyright The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology
12 Figure 4. A house figure created with LogoTurk commands. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH It is proposed that designing user friendly interfaces for Logo may change dramatically students perception of Logo and made them focus on more conceptual oriented geometrical tasks. There is still room for making changes in the graphical interface of LogoTurk to have students much better experiences and interactions with Logo geometry. It is proposed that LogoTurk enhanced Turkish students Logo geometry experiences by removing the English language barrier. Requiring students to type Logo commands line by line is not seen proper in Windows environment. Hence, there is need for improvement in graphical interface. It is suggested that replacing some basic commands of Logo with userfriendly graphical elements might improve students interaction and help them understand better the geometrical concepts and relations. There is also a need to investigate the effects of a Logobased learning environment on students attitudes and problem solving performances at the primary grades in general towards geometry. Logo environments have the potential to transform both the method and content of the elementary geometry curriculum. Our experience with LogoTurk suggests that Logobased learning environments have the potential to enhance students geometry experiences and facilitate constructing their geometrical concepts and relations. This might also have consequences for changing the methods and the content of the current elementary geometry curriculum. REFERENCES Akdag, F. S. (1985). The effects of computer programming on young children s learning. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Ohio State University. Battista, Michael T. (2002). Learning Geometry in a Dynamic Computer Environment. Teaching Children Mathematics, 8 (6): Battista, M. T., & Clements, D. H. (1988). A case for a Logobased elementary school geometry curriculum. Arithmetic Teacher, 36: Blumenthal, Wendy. (1986). The Effects of Computer Instruction on Low Achieving Children's Academic Selfbeliefs and Performance. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Nova University. Copyright The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology
13 Burger, W. F., & Shaughnessy, J. M. (1986). Characterizing the Van Hiele levels of development in geometry. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 17: Carpenter, Thomas P., Mary, K., Corbitt, Henry S., Kepner, Mary M. Lindquist & Robert, E. Reys. (1980). National Assessment. In Elizabeth Fennema (ed.), Mathematics education Research: Implications for the 80s, Alexandria, Va.: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. Clements, D. H., & McMillen, S. (2001). Logo and Geometry. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education Monograph Series, Arlington, VA: National Science Foundation. Clements, D. H., & McMillen, S. (1996). Rethinking Concrete Manipulatives. Teaching Children Mathematics, 2(5), Clements, Douglas H., & Battista, Michael T. (1992). Geometry and Spatial Reasoning. In Douglas A. Grouws (ed.), Handbook of Research on Mathematics Teaching and Learning, New York: Macmillan. Clements, Douglas H., & Battista, Michael T. (1990). Research into Practice: Constructivist Learning and Teaching." Arithmetic Teacher, 38: Clements, Douglas H., & Michael T. Battista. (1989). Learning of Geometric Concepts in a Logo Environment. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education 20: Clements, Douglas H., & Battista, Michael T. (1986). Geometry and Geometric Measurement. The Arithmetic Teacher, 33: Driscoll, Mark J. (1983). Research within Reach: Elementary School Mathematics and Reading. St. Louis: CEMREL. Fey, James, Atchison, William F., Richard, A. Good, Heid, M. Kathleen, Johnson, Jerry; et al. (1984). Computing and Mathematics: The Impact on Secondary School Curricula. College Park, Md.: University of Maryland. Flanders, James R. (1987). How Much of the Content in Mathematics Textbooks is New. Arithmetic Teacher 35: Feurzeig, Wallace & Lucas, George. (1972). LogoA Programming Language for Teaching Mathematics. Educational Technology 12: Hoffer, Alan. (1981). Geometry Is More than Proof. Mathematics Teacher, 74: Howe, J. A. M., O Shea, T., & Plane, F. (1980). Teaching mathematics through Logo programming: An evaluation study. In R. Lewis & E. D. Tagg (Eds.), Computer assisted learning: Scope, progress and limits, pp Amsterdam NY: NorthHolland. Kieran, C., & Hillel, J. (1990). It s though when you have to make the triangles: Insights from a computerbased geometry environment. Journal of Mathematical Behavior, 9: Kouba, V. L., Brown, C. A., Carpenter, T. P., Lindquisti M. M., Silver, E. A., & Swafford, J. O. (1988). Results of the fourth NAEP assessment of mathematics: Measurement, geometry, data interpretation, attitudes, and other topics. Arithmetic Teacher, 35(9): Lehrer, R., & Smith, P. C. (1986). Logo learning: Are two heads better than one? Paper presented at the meeting of the American Educational Research Association, San Francisco, CA. The International Study Center. (1999). TIMMS report. This report is available at National Council of Teachers of Mathematics. (2000). Principles and Standards for School Mathematics, Reston: The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, Inc. Papert, Seymour. (1980). Mindstorms. New York: Basic Books. Shaughnessy, J. Michael & William, F. Burger. (1985): Spadework Prior to Deduction in Geometry. Mathematics Teacher, 78: Piaget, Jean & Inhelder, Barbel. (1967). The Child's Conception of Space. New York: W. W. Norton & Co. Sowell, Evelyn J. (1989). Effects of Manipulative Materials in Mathematics Instruction. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 20: Stigler, J. W., Lee, S. Y. & Stevenson, H. W. (1990). Mathematical knowledge of Japanee, Chinese, and American elementary school children. New York: The Free Press. Suydam, Marilyn N. (1986). Research Report: Manipulative Materials and Achievement. Arithmetic Teacher, 10: Taylor, Robert P. (Ed.). (1980). The Computer in the School: Tutor, Tool, Tutee, New York: Teacher's College Pres. Trafton, Paul R,. & LeBlanc, John F. (1973). Informal Geometry in Grades K6." In Kenneth B. Henderson (ed.), Geometry in the Mathematics Curriculum, Thirtysixth Yearbook of the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, Reston, Va.: The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, Inc. Copyright The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology
14 APPENDIX A A car drawn in LogoTurk Procedure AnaEkran et;ky;sağ 90;ig 200;gg 90;ka;sağ 180 ; ig 40;sol 35;ig 161;sol 145;ig 40;sol 35;ig 31;sol 145; ig 15;sağ 145;ig 30;sağ 35;ig 15;sol 35;ig 100 ;sol 25;ig 20;sol 30;ig 10;sol 90;ig 49 sol 90;ig 28;gg 28;sağ 55;ig 161;sol 55;ig 28;ky ;gg 28;sağ 90;ka;ig 60;sağ 143;ig 100;sağ 21 ig 120;gg 120;sol 74;ig 50;sol 127;ig 100;sol 53;ig 50;ky;sol 90;ig 60;sol 35; ig 15;sol 145; ka;ig 25;sağ 145;ig 40;sağ 35;ig 25;sol 35;ky ig 51;sol 145;ka;ig 25;sağ 145;ig 31;ky;ig 9 ;sağ 35;ig 8;ka;ig 18;ky;gg 179;sağ 90;ig 34 sol 160;ka;ig 46;sol 20;ig 100;sol 23;ig 200 ;sağ 23;ig 20;sağ 55;ig 90;sağ 40;ig 100;sağ 85 ig 50;sağ 111;ig 108;sağ 70;ig 20;ky;gg 20;ka ;sol 127;ig 90;ky;sol 149;ig 175;sağ 95;ka;ig 240 sağ 40;ig 53;ky;sağ 13;ig 60;sağ 90;ka;ig 25;ky ;sağ 36;ig 102;sağ 90;ig 2;sol 45;ka;ig 102 sol 32;ig 125;sol 12;ig 220;ky;ig 20;ka;ig 20; sol 135;ig 150;sağ 45;ig 5;sol 45;ig 100; sol 45;ig 10;sol 125;ig 150;sol 55;ig 37;ky; gg 33;sol 125;ka;ig 145;ka; sağ 170;ig 98;ky sağ 45;ka;ig 5;sol 45;ig 147;sol 45;ig 6;sol 90; ig 20;sol 37;ig 80;sol 15,5;ig 160;ky;gg 160; sağ 165;ka;ig 150;sağ 15;ig 145;sağ 52;ig 25; sağ 90;ig 20;sağ 90;ig 20;sağ 90;ig 20;sağ 90; ky;ig 20;sağ 23;ka;ig 25;sol 23;ig 20;sağ 90,5;ig 60;sağ 90 ;cember 9,8; sağ 110;ig 330;sağ 90; ccember 9,8 ;sağ 86 ;ig 110;ky;sağ 90;ig 35;sağ 90;ig 25 ka;ig 40;sol 90;ig 40;sol 90;ig 40;sol 90;ig 40;ky ;gg 91;sol 90;ig 275;sağ 70;ka;ig 125;sol 70 ig 200;sol 90;ig 117;ky;sol 90;ig 5;sağ 45;ka;ig 30 ;sol 135;ig 40;sol 90;ig 20;sol 90;ig 20;ky;ig 58;sol 90 ig 80;ka;ig 105;ky;ig 5;sol 90;ig 20;sol 90;ig 5; ka;ig 10;sağ 80;ig 42;ky;sağ 10;ig 20;ka ig 10;sağ 90;ig 30;sağ 90;ig 10;sağ 90;ig 30 ;ky;sol 90;ig 22;sağ 90;ig 185;ka;ig 130;ky sağ 90;ig 130;sol 90;ky;gg 55 ;teker ;ky;sol 68;ig 67;sağ 90;ka;ky;ig 445;sağ 180 teker ;ky;sağ 90;ig 40;degdr 215,50,80;doldur; sol 80;ig 80;degdr 215,50,80;doldur ;ig 80;degdr 215,50,80;doldur sağ 90;ig 8;degdr 215,50,80;doldur ;sol 90;ig 15;degdr 215,50,80;doldur ; gg 32;degdr 215,50,80;doldur ;sağ 90;gg 3;degdr 215,50,80;doldur sol 10;ig 25;degdr 250,200,100;doldur; ig 60;degdr 215,50,80;doldur ;sol 25;ig 50;degdr 250,200,100;doldur sağ 90;ig 50;degdr 215,50,80;doldur ;ig 30;degdr 190,30,50;doldur;sağ 80;ig 50;degdr 215,50,80;doldur; sol 40;ig 150;degdr 50,50,70;doldur sağ 40;ig 170;degdr 215,50,80;doldur; ig 40;degdr 50,50,50;doldur;sol 130;ig 40;degdr 215,50,80;doldur; sağ 5;ig 100;degdr 215,50,80;doldur; sağ 90;ig 100;degdr 215,50,80;doldur; gg 15;degdr 50,50,70;doldur ; ig 30;degdr 50,50,70;doldur ;sağ 140;ig 145;degdr 140,140,120;doldur ;gg 40;degdr 100,100,100;doldur;sol 115;ig 155;degdr 215,50,80;doldur; sol 80;ig 60;degdr 215,50,80;doldur ;sağ 85;ig 222;degdr 250,200,100;doldur ;sağ 120;ig 92;degdr 0,0,0;doldur; ig 8;degdr 220,220,220;doldur ;ig 8;degdr 160,160,160;doldur ;ig 30;degdr 160,160,160;doldur; sağ 70;ig 35;degdr 160,160,160;doldur ;sağ 80;ig 30;degdr 160,160,160;doldur ;sol 35;gg 35;degdr 160,160,160;doldur ;sol 85;ig 405;degdr 0,0,0;doldur;ig 15;degdr 220,220,220;doldur;sağ 5;ig 15;degdr 160,160,160;doldur; ig 40;degdr 160,160,160;doldur ;sağ 135;ig 25;degdr 160,160,160;doldur; sol 45;gg 35;degdr 160,160,160;doldur;gg 70; Procedure cember _a _b tekrar 25[ig _a;sol _b] Procedure cember _c _d tekrar 22,9 [ig _c;sol _d] Procedure teker ka;tekrar 36[ig 1;sol 10];sk;gg 4;ky;sağ 90;ig 4;sağ 22;ka;ig 10; tekrar 15[ig 3;sol 15] ;sol 10;ig 14;sol 55;ig 10 ;ky;gg 15;sağ 90;ig 7;sağ 90; sağ 22;ka;ig 10;tekrar 15[ig 3;sol 15] ;sol 10;ig 14;sol 55;ig 10;gk;ky ;gg 15;sağ 80;ig 7;sağ 95; sağ 22;ka;ig 10 ;tekrar 15[ig 3;sol 15] ;sol 10;ig 14;sol 55;ig 10;sk ;gk;ky;gg 15;sağ 90;ig 7;sağ 90 ;sağ 22;ka;ig 10 ;tekrar 15[ig 3;sol 15] ;sol 10;ig 14;sol 55;ig 10;sk;gk;sol 5;ky;ig 38; sol 90;gg 12;ka ;tekrar 46[ig 6;sol 8]; ky;sağ 120;ig 12;sol 117;ka ;tekrar 50[ig 7; sol 7,5] Copyright The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology
15 Commonly Used LogoTurk Commands English Long English Short Turkish Turkish Long Turkish Long Short ClearScreen CS ET EkranTemizle Clears the Screen CLEAN CLEAN Temizle Temizle Clears the Screen FORWARD? FD? İg? İleri? Moves Turtle? pixel forward BACK? BK? Gg? Geri? Moves Turtle? pixel backward RIGHT? RT? Sağ? Sağ? Turns Turtle s direction? angle to right LEFT? LT? Sol? Sol? Turns Turtle s direction? angle to left REPEAT? [] REPEAT? [] Tekrar? [] Tekrar? [] Repeats the command block? times HIDE TURTLE HT SK SaklaKaplumba Hides the turtle figure ğa SHOW TURTLE ST GK GösterKaplumb Show the turtle figure ağa PEN UP PU KY KalemYukarı Set pen up  it does not paint PEN DOWN PD KA KalemAşağı Set pen down  it paints PEN PAINT PPT Kyaz KalemYaz Set pen writing mode to paint PEN ERASE PE Ksil KalemSil Set pen writing mode to erase PEN REVERSE PX Kters KalemTers Reverse the pen writing mode SETPENCOLOR[? SETPC [?? Degkr DegiştirKalemR Change turtle s pen color??]?] enk SETSCREENCOLO R[???] SETSC [???] Deger DegiştirEkranR enk Change screen s background color SETFLOODCOLOR SETFC [?? Degdr DegiştirDoldur Change filling color [???]?] Renk FILL FILL Doldur Doldur Fills a closed region with fill color SETX? SETX? KurX KurX Set the new x coordinate of the Copyright The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology
16 turtle SETY? SETY? KurY KurY Set the new y coordinate of the turtle SETPOS [??] SETPOS [??] KurPos KurPos Set the new x,y coordinates of the turtle HOME HOME Ev Ev Set the turtle to initial position LABEL [?] LABEL [?] Yaz? Yaz? İnsert a text to turtle s current position PRINT HEADING PRINT YazY YazYön Prints Turtle s direction HEADING SET HEADING? SetH? SetY SetY Set turtle s new direction to?angle WAIT? WAIT? Bekle? Bekle? Wait for?/60 seconds before next command SETPENWIDTH SETPW KK KalemKalınlık Sets the pen width FONTSIZE? FS? YazıBoyu? YB? Sets the font size for text input FONTNAME? Fn? YazıAdı? YA? Sets the font name for text input STOP STOP DURDUR DURDUR Stops the execution of a procedure RESET RESET SIFIRLA SIFIRLA Resets alll paramters of the program IFTRUE IFTRUE EĞERDOĞ EĞERDOĞRU Executes if true RU IFFALSE IFFALSE EĞERYAN EĞERYANLIŞ Executes if false LIŞ UNTIL UNTIL KADAR KADAR Executes till cetain conditions are met WHILE WHILE İKEN İKEN Executes while conditions are met FOR FOR DÖNGÜ DÖNGÜ Executes a loop Copyright The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology
17 DEVELOPING A TECHNOLOGY ATTITUDE SCALE FOR PRESERVICE CHEMISTRY TEACHERS Soner YAVUZ Department of Chemical Education, Hacettepe University, Ankara/Turkey ABSTRACT Technological tools, which meet the needs of the society, have become more addictive for people with the rapid development of technology. These tools have also been used in the field of education and improved through the Internet where there is continuous information exchange. Educators needed the attitudes of the students towards technological tools, especially the Internet, and have developed scales in various structures. The aim of this study is to develop a the scale of attitude towards technology in order to assess the attitudes of preservice chemistry teachers towards technological tools. In the light of the examined data, a 5point Likert type scale consisting of 50 items was developed and administered to 162 students, who formed the sampling. At the end of the analysis, a scale with a reliability coefficient of 0,8668 consisting of 19 items and 5 subscales called not using technological tools in education, using technological tools in education, the effects of technology in educational life, teaching how to use technological tools and evaluating technological tools. Keywords: Technology attitude scale, attitude towards computer assisted instruction, attitude towards internet ÖZET Toplumun ihtiyacı olan gereksinimlerini karşılayan teknolojik araçgereçler, teknolojinin hızlı ilerlemesiyle insanları kendilerine daha da bağlamaktadır. Bu araçlar yıllar boyunca eğitim alanında da kullanılmış ve sürekli bilgi alışverişinin sağlandığı internet ortamıyla daha da gelişmiştir. Eğitimciler tarafından öğrencilerin teknolojik araçlara, özellikle de internete karşı tutumlarına ihtiyaç duyulmuş ve çok farklı yapılarda ölçekler geliştirilmiştir. Bu çalışmanın amacı hizmet öncesindeki kimya öğretmenlerinin teknolojik araçlara karşı tutumlarını değerlendiren teknoloji tutum ölçeği nin geliştirilmesidir. İncelenen kaynaklar ışığında 50 maddelik 5 li likert tipi ölçek oluşturulmuş, örneklem olarak seçilen 162 öğrenciye uygulanmıştır. Yapılan analizler sonucunda teknolojik araçların eğitim alanında kullanılmama durumu, teknolojik araçların eğitim alanında kullanılma durumu, teknolojinin eğitim yaşamına etkileri, teknolojik araçların kullanımının öğretilmesi ve teknolojik araçların değerlendirilmesi isimli 5 alt başlık içeren ve 19 maddeden oluşan, güvenirlik katsayısı 0,8668 olan ölçek geliştirilmiştir. Anahtar Kelimeler: Teknoloji tutum ölçeği, bilgisayar destekli öğretime karşı tutum, internete karşı tutum INTRODUCTION The developing technology has constructed a bridge between science and tools that meet the human needs. Improving knowledge has created the life facilitators with the help of technology and technology has affected all aspects of human life (İşman and Dabaj, 2004). Technological tools are also used in the field of education. Therefore, there as been a need for determining the student attitudes towards the technological tools that are used in education. Educators have developed various scales in order to asses the attitudes of the students towards the Internet (Tsai, Lin and Tsai, 2001). There has been a lot of research on this issue. In a study where the students attitudes towards the Internet was assessed, 173 students were randomly chosen among the 2003 fall students of East Mediterranean University and were administered a 5point Likert type scale consisting of 30 items, 7 of which were about personal details and 23 of which were about attitudes towards the Internet. According to the results, the students who had computers at home thought that the friendships establish on the Internet were temporary and the contents in foreign languages did not make an obstacle, in opposition to the ones who did not have computers at home (İşman and Dabaj, 2004). The aim of the study, where Becker and Maunsaiyat (2002) examined the technological concepts and attitudes of Thai students, was to develop the Technological Concepts and Attitudes Scale through interpreting the American Technology Attitude Scale and calculating its reliability. This scale was administered in order to determine the technological concepts and attitudes of yearold secondary school students near Bangkok. It was also examined by Thai teachers and found to be useful for the secondary school Thai students with respect to program planning, curriculum development and application. Differences were found between the American and Thai students in their technological attitudes. These differences were thought to stem from the differences between the educational systems and cultures and the teachercentered method used by the Thai teachers. In another study where a scale was developed in order to assess the attitudes of high school students towards technology, new items were added to the computer attitude scale suggested by Selwyn for ages and an Internet Attitude Scale of 18 items was created. The scale consisted of four subscales: perceived usefulness, affection, perceived control and behavior. The influences of gender and Internet experience on attitudes and their relationship were examined. Seven hundred and fiftythree Thai high school students who participated at the study did not show any statistical difference in their ideas Copyright The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology
18 about usefulness despite their different gender and Internet experiences. However, male students were found to have more positive feelings, less anxiety and more self confidence than female students. The students with more Internet experience were confirmed to have more positive feelings than the ones with no experience (Tsai, Lin and Tsai, 2001). In a study where the attitudes of children towards technology were analyzed, a scale was developed after the oral research and was administered to 574 students. At the end of the analysis a scale with two factors was created: interests/aptitudes and alternative preferences. The scores of primary and secondary school children for these two subscales were compared and significant differences were found. Additionally, attitude differed according to the gender (Frantom, Green and Hoffman, 2002). In the study that was conducted in order to assess the reliability of 14 previously made computer attitude scales, included 621 teachers from Texas, Florida, New York and California in There were 284 items in 14 scales with 32 subscales and was named as Teachers Computer Attitude Scale. These scales were prepared in 10 years. There were some problems at the beginning but the original versions were found to be reliable (Christensen and Knezek, 2000). In the study where the influence of gender effect on the computer usage and attitudes of the students from the ubiquitous computing campus, all students at the social sciences university were given laptop computers and a technology program was administered. All students at this university used these computers that involved the activities, in their social and academic life at the campus. The male and female students were examined with respect to their experiences, computational skills and attitudes in their fouryear technologically rich environment. In 2000, reports on the computer usage and attitudes of 800 students from the ubiquitous computing campus were analyzed and the collected data showed that the students used the computers in different ways: 97 % for word processing, 98 % of them for for pleasure, 73 % of them for for classes, 50 % of them for web resources. At the end of the analysis, the categories of tool, communication, resource, entertainment and total usage were determined. When the ttest was applied to these categories on male and female students; male students were found to use the computers for resources, entertainment and total usage and no significant difference was found between the female and male students computer usage as a tool and for communication. The results of the attitude analysis showed that 73 % loved, 23 % liked, 4 % disliked and 1 % hated computers. Among the students, 48 % thought that computers had effects on campus life, 75 % considered as a facilitator for educational life and 48 % thought it helped their social lives (McCoy, Heafner, Burdick and Nagle, 2001). Tanguma, Martin and Crawford (2002), in their study called the integration of higher education and technology in learning environment, examined the technology using models in classrooms with a program prepared by 26 lecturers form a southeastern university. It was found that they used hardware and software, made effective applications using technology (scanner, digital camera, and voice recorders), integrated technology (video conference) and the Internet (for lesson planning) in their classrooms. In this study where the technological views of college students were investigated, possible risks caused by the increasing tendency towards , instant messages and cellular phones. 40 students form Pennsylvania Social Sciences College between the ages 17 and 29 were chosen as the sampling. The usage of cellular phones and messages and their affects on the working and daily programs were evaluated. Attitudes towards the comfort that and technology provided were examined. The conscientiousness and agreeableness dimensions of the scale produced significant results. Differences were found between the and cellular phone usage of the interpersonal and intrapersonal individuals. Significant results were determined in communication characteristics and behavior according to the gender effect (Vicario, Henniger, Austin and Chamblies, 2002). Another study aimed to determine the attitudes of the primary school children towards technology and computer experiences and their relationships. 124 students from a public school in Antalya participated in the study. In the end, although the students were indecisive about the usage of technology, they expressed positive feelings toward technology and its applications. No significant difference was found between the computer experiences basic attitudes of the students towards technology (Akbaba, 2001). In a study, which aimed to develop a questionnaire on assessment of the effects of computers on education, the effects of technology on social sciences education was evaluated in a nontechnical private university in the USA. The answers to the questionnaire were collected via for four academic years. The questionnaire consisted of 50 attitude items in 5point Likerttype Scale. At the end of post hoc analysis, taking the 25 items of the questionnaire into consideration, a scale with 4 factors was developed (Mitra, 2001). Duggan et.al. (1999) developed a scale in order to determine the students attitudes towards the usage of the Internet in education and the students attitudes were evaluated using some forms of the scale. The Thurstone equal appearing interval scale and Likert summated rating scale were the two different forms in the scale to be used. This form was administered to 188 students and with the very decisive Likert format consisting of 18 items; an Attitude scale towards the usage of the Internet in education was developed. At Florida College University, in 1997, at the beginning and end of the computers in technology education classes, variables of the effects of the preservice teachers attitudes towards studying and learning on computers were investigated. The variables in this study were attitude towards computers, computer anxiety, confidence in computer, computer tendency, and computer usefulness and student perceptions. At the end of the class, the scale of attitude towards computers was administered to 22 students as pre and posttests. It was found at the end that the students attitudes turned out to be more confident and positive after the lessons were completed Copyright The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology
19 (Gunter, Gunter and Wiens, 1998). According to Selwyn (1997), both educators and researchers needed the attitudes of year old students attitudes towards using computers in education and their relationships. Therefore, Selwyn developed a scale in order to determine the attitudes of students towards information technology and computers. 49 items of the pilot scale were administered to 266 students. A scale of 21 items was constructed after the factor analysis. The reliability coefficient of the scale was found to be 0,90 and testretest reliability was found to be 0,93. The structural validity was found significant at p<0,001 level. In a study where the attitudes of teachers towards technology were psychometrically evaluated, a technological attitude scale was developed in order to evaluate the attitudes of teachers towards using technology as a teaching tool in the classroom. The reliability and validity of the scale was calculated through the data collected form 86 foreign language teachers (McFarlane, Hoffman, Green, 1997). Metu (1994), in his MS dissertation, made a research on the level of computational attitudes of Nigerian teachers towards their computer knowledge and skills. There were positive and negative attitude items in the scale. In the summer program of Alva Ikoku College, a Likerttype questionnaire was administered to 56 teachers. The teachers with no or little computational knowledge or skills were found to have more positive attitudes towards computer education. According to the research on Israelite students attitudes towards computers and relationships between their personalities, the Eysenck model of personality explained the individual differences with the concepts of neuroticism, extraversion and psychoticism. Upon the analysis of the data collected form 298 female students, the ones with high psychoticism and extraversion were found to have more positive attitudes towards computers. The relationship of neuroticism scores was found to be statistically insignificant (Francis, Katz and Evans, 1996). In another study where the attitude towards computers was examined, the relationship between age, education and gender was stressed. An 5point Likerttype scale was developed and the direct effects of using computers in education were determined (Morris, ). The study, conducted over 60 college students from the South Illinois University, focused on the attitudes of preservice teachers towards using computers. Age, previous computer experience and computational attitudes (anxiety, confidence, tendency) were chosen as variables and their relationships were investigated (Koohang, 1987). The effects of video, computerassisted education and interactive video applications on learning performance and attitude were evaluated in a study where the pretest results were used for the randomly placement of 134 students according to their high or low levels of previous experience in 3 treatment groups. The analysis focused on achievement, gender and previous achievement levels (low, medium, high). The performance assessment means of these three treatment groups (video, computerassisted instruction and interactive video) were 64,98 %; 73,54 % and 70,48 %. The results of the attitude scale were 75,07 %; 74,26 % and 82,87 %. The computerassisted instruction was found to be the most effective teaching system and there was no need for additional tools like interactive videos. However, when interactive video education was compared to the computerassisted education and video, it was found to have significant effects on the attitudes of less talented students (Dalton and Hannafin, 1986). In a study where the technological conceptions and attitudes of 13yearold male and female students were examined, firstly 12 students were interviewed on what technology had taught them and how important it had been for them. The other 48 students were asked 10 openended questions on their opinions on technology. A Likerttype questionnaire of 80 questions was developed after the evaluations. The questionnaire was administered to yearold students form different schools in different districts of the Netherlands. The collected data were analyzed and 12 factors were determined. Significant results were found between the female and male students. Students thought that technology covered a wide range of important but not very difficult subjects. Both female and male students found to have thoughts that, female students were more talented in the field of technology however, female students appeared to have less interest in technology than male students. Page (1979) developed a Likerttype scale of 40 items in order to evaluate the attitudes of yearold students towards science and technology. This scale consisted of four subscales, namely, technology, technical education, its industrial position and attitude towards technology. In another study, in order to assess the stereotypes of attitude towards technology, the mechanization scale was thought to be modified and administered to 89 students each of who belong to a private occupational group. The answers to the questionnaire were evaluated according to gender and target occupational group after the target occupational group was determined (Goldman and Kaplan, 1973). THE PURPOSE OF THE STUDY The advancements in science and technology result in developments in education field as in every field. These advancements require the utilization of various technologies in education. However, it is important to examine the appropriateness of these educational technologies to the subject. First it is necessary to determine the students interests and attitudes towards to technological tools and then it is crucial to study how practical, applicable, and economic these technological tools are. Therefore, this study aims to develop an attitude scale in order to investigate students attitudes towards technological tools. According to the data gathered by this scale, the usability, feasibility, and financially viability of the educational technologies can be determined more effectively. These tools have also been used in the field of education and have improved through the Internet where there is continuous information exchange. Educators have needed to find out the attitudes of the students Copyright The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology
20 towards technological tools, especially the Internet, and scales of various types have been developed. The purpose of this study is to develop the the scale of attitude towards technology in order to evaluate the attitudes of the preservice chemistry teachers towards technological tools. EXPERIMENTAL DETAILS THE SUBJECT A total of 162 students from Hacettepe University, Faculty of Education, Department of Chemistry Education participated in the study during the Spring semester. Of the 162 students, 46 were from the 1 st grade, 36 were from the 2 nd grade, 20 were from the 3 rd grade, 23 were from the 4 th grade and 37 were from the 5 th grade. THE TEST INSTRUMENT A scale of attitude was thought to be developed as a datacollecting tool in order to evaluate the interest and tendencies towards the usage of technological tools by the preservice chemistry teachers. THE SCALE OF ATTITUDE TOWARDS TECHNOLOGY In order to develop a valid and reliable assessment tool to be used for the assessment of the attitudes of preservice chemistry teachers towards technology, a pilot attitude scale of 50 attitude items was prepared. For the preparation of the attitude items, first, various resources were examined in order to determine the concepts that involve attitudes towards technological tools. Next, the field expert created positive and negative attitude items with the content validity. Students views about the items were assessed through the 5point Likerttype scale in the form of strongly agree, agree, undecided, disagree and strongly disagree. The pilot attitude scale is displayed on Table 1. Table1: The Pilot Scale of Attitude towards Technology Dear Student, In this scale, purpose is to determine preservice chemistry teachers attitude towards technology. There are no right or wrong answers in this scale. Please, mark the blank that represent your stance toward each item in the scale. Thanks for your contribution. 1. Daily and yearly plans should be prepared by teachers using computers. 2. Teachers do not need to use computers for preparation. 3. Lessons should often include computerassisted instruction. 4. Technological tools do not need to be used in instruction. 5. Students should do their homework on computers using the Internet. 6. Using computers do not have any benefits for students in education. 7. Teachers should receive regular inservice training on new technologies. 8. Students should get advance information on the usage of new technologies. 9. The usage of new technologies in teacher training should be increased. 10. Learning is more permanent through television since it is both visual and auditory. 11. Using television with printed materials has no effects on education. 12. Through distance learning via television a wide range of people could be reached. 13. Because the videotapes could be watched again, students could get feedback. 14. Recording some parts of the lesson on videotapes could provide the students the opportunity to see their mistakes. 15. Computerassisted education should be teachercentered. 16. A minimum level of computer knowledge is enough to reach knowledge via the Internet. 17. On the Internet, one could reach unlimited information on any subject. 18. Some experiments that are difficult or dangerous to do could be taught through computerassisted instruction. 19. Foreign languages could be practiced through the computers or the Internet. 20. Computerassisted instruction increases students achievement. 21. Using technological tools does not affect students motivation is only for communication; it cannot be used in education. 23. OHP, slides and projection should not be preferred as they take too much time to be Strongly Agree Agree Undecided Disagree Strongly Disagree Copyright The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology
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