Learning about heroes through legends

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1 Learning about heroes through legends

2 Made by: Maria Pirecka (Poland) In cooperation: Livia Dobrecsu(Romania) and Christos Ntolios(Greece) 2

3 Spis treści ENGLISH VERSION... 5 LEGEND ABOUT LECH, CZECH AND RUS... 6 ODYSSEY... 9 THE LEGEND OF STEPHEN THE GREAT AND VRANCIOAIA THE FOUNDATION OF ROME THE LEGEND OF THE RIVER GUADIANA FALSE DUCATS (OLD SLOVAK MONEY) POLISH VERSION LEGENDA O LECHU, CZECHU I RUSIE PRZYGODY ODYSEUSZA LEGENDA O STEFANIE WIELKIM I VRANCIOAIA LEGENDA O POWSTANIU RZYMU LEGENDA O RZECE GUADIANA GREECE VERSION ΘΡΥΛΟΣ ΓΙΑ ΤΟΝ ΛΕΧ, ΤΣΕΧ & ΤΟΝ ΡΟΥΣ(ΡΑΣ) ΟΔΥΣΣΕΙΑ Ο ΘΡΥΛΟΣ ΤΟΥ ΜΕΓΑΛΟΥ ΣΤΕΦΑΝΟΥ ΚΑΙ ΤΗΣ ΒΡΑΝΣΙΟΑΪΑΣ Η ΙΔΡΥΣΗ ΤΗΣ ΡΩΜΗΣ ROMANIAN VERSION LEGENDA LUI LECH, CZECH SI RUS ODISEEA LEGENDA LUI ȘTEFAN CEL MARE ȘI A VRÂNCIOAIEI INTEMEIEREA ROMEI TURKISH VERSION LEGEND ABOUT LECH, CZECH AND RUS

4 ODYSSEİA BÜYÜK STEPHEN VE VRANCOAIO EFSANESİ ITALIAN LEGEND GUADİANA NEHRİ EFSANESİ SAHTE DUKALAR (ESKI SLOVAK PARASI) KOROGLU LEGEND

5 ENGLISH VERSION 5

6 LEGEND ABOUT LECH, CZECH AND RUS to conceive farther. Once upon a time when all Slavs still inhabited shared land and they spoke one language, three brothers lived: Lech, Czech and Rus. They lived in harmony but by virtue of their wisdom they were conducted for individual families. But the time came, when the earth could not already maintain their people, in forests it was lack of game, in rivers lack of fish. Brothers got together. They sat down in the shadow of wide-stretching trees and they started giving some thoughts to what they are supposed First, the oldest, cloudy Rus started to speak: - Brothers! Things can't go on like this! Our lands are so populated, that hunger can look deep into our eyes. - You are right- an average brother agreed with him, Czech- but what are we supposed to do? - We should look for new premises for our tribes - said the youngest brother, Lech. - All right! We will set off to find new lands for our people - said Czech and Rus. How they decided that they had done. They called tribesmen in order to notify them of one's decision. They made an offering, they took statuettes of home deities and they set off on a journey. At the beginning guards and scout troops headed armed, behind them three brothers and the tribal elders went. In the middle of the procession- on carts - old men, women and children went. Then bovine herds were being driven, and warriors guarding the safety and keeping order closed of the huge column. Road was difficult. All along the way different dangers awaited them, but Slavs went fearlessly through thick forests, they forded rivers, they passed mountainous lands. They 6

7 sometimes come across human settlements. In spite of the tiredness, stubbornly headed ahead of themselves. A day of the parting came. As first Rus who chose the land of the endless steppes and extensive, fertile plains, cut through with the net of wide rivers said goodbye to brothers. - Goodbye brothers and remember about me! I wish you happiness - he said, he gathered his people together and went with them to the north. They rest walked farther. Soon Czech separated himself from the march. He headed with his tribe to the South and there near the top which Rzip was called on the fertile and rich earth, he established his state. Lech, the youngest of brothers strenuously headed ahead. However, the walk was coming up to the end. One day the procession stopped itself because people were tired and they wanted to rest. While men made camp and women dealt with preparing the meal, Lech closely looked around. Full forests were thick games, clean rivers abounded in fish and transparent lakes confirmed in convincing to settle above their edges. Lech deep thought about something. With late afternoon he called the tribal elders and when men seated themselves already at the bonfire,this way at them he started to speak: - We wandered long searching for the space for our new registered office and today we probably just found them. Willingly, I will stay here. Surroundings are beautiful, and the fertile land will maintain us everyone. However, I would like to listen to your advice. Silence only broke whispers. After a moment, the most experienced from the entire elders spoke - The wisdom is starting to speak by you Lech. Your brothers Rus and Czech a long time ago founded registered offices but we still are on our way. Let us stay here and let us build the castle! - If only gods were still willing to signal to us where to begin construction! - Lech sighed. 7

8 Then again silence fell. Suddenly some noise broke the silence and the intense shadow moved above the forest clearing. People raised the interest heads. They saw the eagle which slowly fell on the nest of the large oak being in a crown. Relating to the red early evening sky the silhouette of the bird cut itself away with sharp white. - It is a sign from gods! - shouted with harmonious choir people. - It is a good omen - smiling Lech said. - Here we will settle and this wonderful bird will be protecting us. It so also happened. In a clearing a castle was built and to the souvenir of an eagle's nest he was called Gniezno. The white eagle on the red background became the emblem of the Polish state which the beginning overcome from Lech. 8

9 ODYSSEY Odysseus was the King of Ithaki and after the war of the Greeks against Troy, he sets off to go back to his homeland with twelve ships. On his return voyage he lived many adventures for ten years. He fought with Kikones in Trace but many of his fellow-warriors were killed. In the country of the Lotofagi, some of his fellows were in danger of forgetting their home land, but he took them with using violence. In the country of the savage Cyclopses, the son of Poseidon, Polyphimos ate six of his fellows, so Odysseus blinded him to save the rest of them. In his way however, he caused the wrath of the God of the sea. In Eolia, he was provided with hospitality for one month and when he left he was gicen a sack with the unfavorable winds. However when his fellows opened them a storm broke out and were taken to the country of the savage Lestigones who his eleven ships and ate up the shipwrecked sailors. Odysseus having only his own ship and his sailors, arrived in the island of Kirki, who transformed his fellows into animals but Odysseus made her give them back their human form. He also went down to the underworld (Hades) to take an oracle from the foreteller Tiresias. He listened to the song of the Sirens, - tied up on his ship s mast, passed through Skilla, losing again some of his fellows and reached Thrinakia where the Helios oxen were grazing. There, despite his advice for the contrary, his fellows killed and ate some of the oxen. As a result of this, in the shipwreck that followed, all of them were lost except Odysseus himself. He alone, passed through Harivdi and reached, shipwrecked, Ogigia the island where Kalypso lived. He stayed there for seven yearswithout wanting it- feeling homesick for Ithaki and his wife Penelope. 9

10 Meanwhile in Ithaki, Penelope s suitors where feasting over his fortune, trying to get married to his wife. One day however, when Poseidon was absent from mount Olympus, the other Gods decided to help Odysseus return to his homeland. So goddess Athena went down to Ithaki, to encourage Odysseus son Tilemachos to look for his father. Meanwhile Calipso helped Odysseus to make a raft for his return journey. On this raft, Odysseus travelled for 17 days, without sleeping. On the 18 th however, Poseidon noticed him and made a storm that destroyed the raft. Our Hero, after fighting with the waves for three days, went out shipwrecked for one more time, in the country of Feakes, Sheria, where he met the King s daughter Nafsika, who led him to the palace. Feakes provided hospitality to him, listened to his adventures with interest, gave him many presents and with one of their ships sent him to Ithaki. In Ithaki, Odysseus found Athena in front of him and she helped him to face the situation in his palace with success: She transformed him into a beggar and she advised him to go first to the hut of the pigshepherd Evmeos. Then, the goddess made Tilemachos go to the same hut after his return from Sparta. There father and son made a plan to kill the suitors. After that, they went to the palace where the beggar was insulted by the suitors, while Tilemachos protected him. Odysseus, still in disguise, talked with Penelope who announced him she intended to proclaim an archery competition among the suitors and marry the winner. So the competition was held and Odysseus took part in it. He beat the suitors and then moved against them. With the cooperation of Tilemachos and a few loyal servants, he killed them all and promised to rule with wisdom. Odysseus is the symbol of courage, intelligence, patience and infinite love for his homeland. Having fought against thousands of hardships he didn t take out of his mind his only wish: to return to his homeland. 10

11 THE LEGEND OF STEPHEN THE GREAT AND VRANCIOAIA They say that once upon a time, when Stephen the Great and the Saint was ruling Moldavia, while fighting the Turks, there was a hard working woman named Tudora Vrancioaia and she had seven sons: Bodea, Spirea, Negrila, Barsan, Spulber, Pavel and Nistor. All seven of them were sheperds in Vrancea s mountains, like most young men in that region. It happened that in one battle Stephen the Great was defeated, not having enough army. Alone, hungry, tired and sad, he knocked at Vrancioaia s door and asked for shelter for the night. She took him in, this being an unwritten law of hospitality to strangers, and offered him food and drink. Soon after that the king fell asleep, without revealing his true identity. Vrancioaia guessed who he was by looking at his clothes and face. She had heard that the king was in trouble, so she called her sons from their work and asked them to raise a small army in the mountains and go to war. The young men did what their mother had told them and in the morning, when the king woke up, the army was waiting for him in front of the house. He gladly went to battle, with Vrancioaia s sons beside him, and vanquished his foes that time. None of the seven brothers were in that battle, and at the end of the fight Stephen called them and rewarded them. Each brother received one of Vrancea s mountains along with a royal deed for it. And thus the seven brothers went back to their businesses, its of them founding a village named after him. An their mother remained a legend for her hard work and courage, for her generous heart and love for her country. 11

12 THE FOUNDATION OF ROME. Alba Longa was a town in Central Italy. In the 8 th century B. C. the king of this town was Numitore, he was good, wise and beloved by his people. Numitore had a brother, whose name was Amulio. Amulio hated Numitore because he was envious and wanted to be king on his place. So Amulio conspired against Numitore, who was taken prisoner in a land far from Alba Longa. In order to be sure to be the only king of Alba Longa, Amulio forced Rea Silvia, Numitore s daughter, to become a Vestal virgin, so that she couldn t marry and have children. But Amulio s plot failed, because Rea Silvia was in love with Mars, one of the Latin Gods, and after a short time she gave birth to two twins. When Amulio knew that he arrested Rea Silvia and sentenced her to death. He ordered one of his servants to get the twins and throw them into the river Tiber but thanks to Mars the two babies were rescued by a she-wolf who fed them. The morning after, a shepherd, named Faustolo, found the twins and brought them to his house. Faustolo and his wife, Acca Larenzia, agreed to bring them up as if they were their sons, since they had lost their only child. Time passed and the twins, named Romolo and Remo, grew up; they were told their whole story and decided to take revenge. It happened that Remo was wrongly charged with cattle stealing and for that reason he was taken to Amulio, but, since it was Numitore s cattle, Amulio ordered to take him to Numitore in order to decide what to do. When Numitore listened to Remo s storytelling and recognizing in his face some resemblance to his daughter, Rea Silvia, he understood everything and asked for meeting Romolo and Faustolo, the shepherd. Romolo and Remo promised their grandfather he would be king of Alba Longa once more, so they killed Amulio. Numitore asked the twins to stay with him and help him in ruling the town, but Romolo and Remo answered they wanted to build a new town, allied to Alba Longa. They had to choose where to build the town but they couldn t agree on the site, so they asked the augurs for help. The augurs replied that the Gods would reveal their will in the flight of birds. The two brothers had chosen two hills, Aventino and 12

13 Palatino, as sites for building. They both climbed up the hills and it was established that the one who saw the largest flight of birds he would give the name to the town. It was Romolo who saw the largest number of birds, therefore Romolo named the town Roma. He marked the borders of the future town with a plough and ordered that no one had to pass them. But Remo dared his brother and jumped over the borders; Romolo got angry and killed his brother because he had violated the sacred majesty of the town they were building and warned those, who were present, not to do the same thing, otherwise they would die like Remo. 13

14 THE LEGEND OF THE RIVER GUADIANA. Ladies and gentlemen, girls and boys come closer. I am going to tell you the story of how the river Guadiana was born. Once upon a time, a young man called Batalius lived with his parents in a castle. Father: My dear son, you have worked very hard all these years. But now, it is time for you to have your own family. Mother: Go and look for a nice wife! Batalius rides his horse. He speaks to many different women, but he doesn t like any of them. Narrator: The days went by, day after day and night after night. Batalius was very sad. He decided to go back home to his parents. Suddenly just near his home, he saw a beautiful woman who was looking after chickens Batalius: Beautiful lady, what s your name? Guadiana: My name is Guadiana. Narrator: Batalius got off his horse and moved towards the lady. He held her hand. He felt in love. Guadiana: Batalius, wait here for me. I will go to my parents home to tell them about you. Narrator: Batalius mounted his horse and happily galloped to his parents house. But, a wicked wizard had seen the young lady talking and he also felt attracted by the beauty of the young Guadiana. Wicked wizard: Beautiful lady, what s your name? Guadiana: My name is Guadiana. Wicked wizard: Would you like to marry me? Guadiana: No! My heart belongs to Batalius. Narrator: The wicked wizard was very angry and he cast a spell. Wicked wizard: Abracadabra, abracadi. A hen you will be! And that you will be until a man wants to marry you, although you are a hen. Suddenly, the young Guadiana disappeared and she became a hen. 14

15 Narrator: When Batalius came back, he looked for Guadiana. Batalius: Guadiana! Guadiana! Narrator: But Guadiana wasn t there. There was only a hen, that moved towards the young Batalius. He ignored the hen, he was only interested in his love. Batalius: Guadiana! Guadiana! Narrator: The young Batalius was desperate and rode to his horse. When he arrived, he told to his parents that the young lady had disappeared. Mother: Batalius, if you find out who the owner of the hen is, you can ask him about Guadiana. Narrator: Batalius looked for the owner of the hens in all the countryside, until he found the owner. Batalius: Lord, do you know where I can find the young lady who used to look after your hens? Farmer: Oh! What a pity! She was my daughter and one day she disappeared. We don t know where she is. Narrator: Batalius felt very sad for Guadiana s parents. It got dark and it was too late to go home, so Batalius was invited to spend the night there. At midnight, Batalius woke up because some noise were coming from the kitchen.batalius got out of bed silently, he leaned out the window and he was very surprised when he saw Guadiana. He held her wrist and Guadiana told him. Guadiana: I am under a spell. The wicked wizard changed me into a hen, and I can only recover my body for five minutes at midnight in order to eat. She cried, and big tears came from her eyes. I will be a hen until a man will marry me. Narrator: Batalius took the hen and brought her home. Batalius: Father and mother, this is Guadiana, the woman with who I will get marry. Narrator: When his parents saw their son, they thought he had gone crazy. The days went by, and people laughed at him. The children shouted at him. Crazy, crazy! But Batalius went with his hen everywhere. Batalius: Have you seen a hen? Cook: Is this it? (Showing a hen without feathers) 15

16 Batalius: Killer! Killer! What have you done to my girlfriend? (The hen appeared) You gave me a fright! Narrator: Everybody thought he was crazy and the wedding was organized. Priest: Batalius, do you take this hen as a wife? Batalius: Yes, I do. Suddenly the hen became a beautiful young lady called Guadiana. They got married and lived happily ever after. Now everyday at midnight lady Guadiana cries big tears of happiness. And that is how the river Guadiana was born. That s all folks. 16

17 FALSE DUCATS (OLD SLOVAK MONEY) The boys from the forests always came down to the valleys one by one, stopping in the villages and collecting the news. They got to know about everything that was done there, because people trusted them and nothing was conceal from them. Thus Janosik learned about a rich butcher who goes to fairs and wants to buy everything without paying. Once, when the fair was held again, Janosik went there too. Along the way he met an old man, who was a bull breeder. The man was crying, so Janosik asked him: "What has happened to you old-fellow, why are you crying?" How couldn t I cry? "answered old man. When I sold my nice oxen for counterfeit money. "I do not have anything. How can I pay tax to the lord?"(feudal) And he started to cry even more. Show me those ducats, "said Janosik. The old man took out ducats of his pocket and spilled them into the Janosik s hands. He rattled them and listened to their jingling, then he put hem between the teeth and tested, if they were hard. The man was looking at him and said: "The salesman also tried them this way when I wanted to buy a scarf for my wife. Finally he told me that they are all false." "And he was right, "said Janosik. "Don t worry, I will give you good ones, but you have to tell me, what that bad butcher looks like. " Janosik gave to old man the cleanest ducats and the man was very happy. A description of the butcher was clear and Janosik immediately guessed who he was. It was that rich butcher, which got his property by fraud. The old man went happily home with money in his pocket and Janosik also went on his way. The next day when the rich butcher came out of his house, he suddenly saw something. On the gate, there was a letter pinned by a knife into the wood. He pulled it out and read: If you do not want to have any problems, exchange false ducats to the old breeder - now! Janosik But the butcher was only making fun of it. He hadn t even thought about exchanging counterfeit money. He hid the knife in his pocket and tore up the letter. A week later, the butcher found the second letter on his gate. It was pinned by a knife too and in it was written: You cheat, I will talk to you soon! After three days, remember, I will come for the money. 17

18 Janosik Well, this wasn t really funny. But the butcher was not afraid and thought: "There s no need to be afraid! I have a house full of the strong servants, they can defeat one highwayman. " On the third day at dawn he called the servants and commanded them: "Today the whole day you will guard outside. Don t let anyone come into my house!" And so it was like that. The servants guarded and the butcher felt like he was in a stone castle. The clock on the tower slowly showed twelve o clock and Jánošík hadn t been there yet. Butcher thought: "He heard what fortress I have made from my home and now he is afraid." However, when the clock on the tower showed two o clock a lordly carriage stopped in front of the butcher s house. Four horses were harnessed to the carriage. On the high seat of the carriage sat a handsome, rich young gentleman and headed straight to butcher s house. At first the guard did not know what to do. Although they could not allow anyone to enter to the house, this was the milord. The butcher was also surprised by the visit and apologized to milord, that there were guards is all around. But it was only because of bandit the Janosik, who sent him threatening letters. The milord forgave him and he was laughing heartily at it. Finally he said: "Give the bandit, what he deserves. Why should you, a wealthy butcher be afraid of him?" Then the milord explained that he is going to get married soon and he needs to buy some oxen for the wedding. He heard that the butcher s bulls are the nicest in the whole neighborhood. When the butcher heard that he can earn a lot of money he was very helpful to the milord. He went with him to his cowshed and showed him all his oxen. At the end of the cowshed he stopped before the last couple of oxen and said: "These two oxen I bought at a fair. Look, how nice they are! He who buys those will have made a good purchase." And those were oxen of the poor breeder. The milord looked at the oxen and said: "Well, butcher, I ll buy them." They agreed about the price although the butcher wanted a lot of money. The milord immediately 18

19 agreed with the price and the butcher regretted that he didn t ask for even more money. Then they went inside to complete their purchase. Hardly had they entered the room, when suddenly the milord locked the door, pulled out a gun and before the surprised butcher could react he pointed his gun at him and said: So here I am! I came for the money, as I wrote. Do not scream, because I will shoot. And it was Janosik. The butcher couldn t scream, even if he wanted. He lost his voice and his legs were shaking. And Janosik calmly continued: Give me all the money, genuine and false. The butcher wanted to unlock the drawer but couldn t hit into the hole. When it finally opened he took out all gold money and collected them. He put the genuine money in one heap and the false money in the other one. Janosik poured good ducats in one and false ducats in the second pouch and hid them in his pockets. Before he left, he turned to the butcher again and said: Well, remember! If I learn that you cheat to people again and pay them with these small metal plates it will turn out badly. The butcher knew that Janosik didn t make false promises. So Janosik left the way he came in the carriage pulled by four horses. When he was going over the bridge above the river Vah he stood up and threw all the false ducats into the water under the bridge. Nobody will cry over them anymore. Thus the famous Slovak highwayman Janosik defended the truth. The butcher was very ashamed so he didn t tell anybody about this visit. But after short time people talked about it all over the neighborhood. Grandmothers told it to their grandchildren, young men to maidens and everyone was laughing at the conceited butcher. But about Janosik and his forest friends highwaymen people were composing nice songs. 19

20 POLISH VERSION 20

21 LEGENDA O LECHU, CZECHU I RUSIE Dawno, dawno temu, kiedy jeszcze wszyscy Słowianie zamieszkiwali wspólne Ziemie i mówili jednym językiem, było sobie trzech braci: Lech, Czech i Rus. Żyło im się dobrze i zgodnie, a z racji swej mądrości przewodzili poszczególnym rodom. Lecz nadszedł czas, kiedy ziemia nie mogła już wyżywić ich ludzi, w lasach zaczęło brakować zwierzyny, a w rzekach ryb. Zebrali się więc bracia na naradę. Usiedli w cieniu rozłożystych drzew i zaczęli zastanawiać się nad tym, co mają począć dalej. Pierwszy przemówił najstarszy, poważny Rus: Bracia! Tak dalej być nie może. Nasze ziemie są już tak zaludnione, że głód wkrótce zajrzy nam w oczy. Masz rację przytaknął mu średni brat, Czech. Ale cóż mamy robić? Powinniśmy poszukać innych siedzib dla naszych plemion odezwał się, milczący do tej pory, najmłodszy z braci, Lech. Dobrze radzisz! Wyruszymy, by znaleźć nowe ziemie dla naszych ludzi powiedzieli zgodnie Czech i Rus. Jak postanowili, tak uczynili. Zwołali współplemieńców, aby powiadomić ich o swojej decyzji. Złożyli ofiary, zabrali posążki domowych bóstw i ruszyli w drogę. Na czele podążały straże i hufce zbrojnych, za nimi jechali trzej bracia i starszyzna plemienna. W środku pochodu na wozach lub wierzchem jechali starcy, kobiety i dzieci. Na końcu pędzono stada bydła. Zbrojni wojownicy strzegli bezpieczeństwa i pilnowali porządku. 21

22 Niełatwa to była droga. Na każdym kroku czyhały na nich różne niebezpieczeństwa, ale Słowianie szli nieustraszenie przez gęste puszcze, przechodzili rzeki w bród, mijali górzyste krainy. Tylko z rzadka natrafiali na osady ludzkie. Mimo zmęczenia, uparcie podążali przed siebie. Nadszedł dzień rozstania. Jako pierwszy pożegnał się z braćmi Rus, który wybrał krainę bezkresnych stepów i rozległych, żyznych równin, poprzecinanych siecią szerokich rzek. Żegnajcie bracia i pamiętajcie o mnie! Życzę wam szczęścia rzekł, zebrał swój lud i skierował się na północ. Pozostali powędrowali dalej. Niebawem odłączył się od pochodu także Czech. Podążył ze swym plemieniem na południe i tam, nieopodal góry, którą zwano Rzip, na ziemi urodzajnej i bogatej, założył swoje państwo. 0Najmłodszy z braci, Lech, wytrwale podążał naprzód, ale i jego wędrówka zbliżała się do końca. Pewnego dnia orszak zatrzymał się, bo ludzie odpoczynku. i zwierzęta byli zmęczeni, potrzebowali Podczas gdy mężczyźni rozbijali obozowisko, a kobiety przygotowywały posiłek, Lech bacznie rozglądał się wokół. Tutaj gęste lasy pełne były zwierzyny, czyste rzeki obfitowały w ryby, a słońce odbijało się w przejrzystych taflach jezior. Wydawało się, że ta kraina aż się prosi, aby w niej zamieszkać. Późnym popołudniem Lech zwołał starszyznę plemienną, a gdy mężczyźni zasiedli przy ognisku, tak do nich przemówił: Wędrowaliśmy długo, szukając miejsca, które mogłoby stać się naszym nowym domem. Spójrzcie, okolica tutaj jest piękna, a żyzna ziemia wyżywi nas i nasze dzieci. Chciałbym tu pozostać, ale wcześniej wysłucham waszej rady. Przy ognisku zapanowała cisza. Widać było, że wszyscy głęboko zastanawiają się nad słowami Lecha. W końcu głos zabrał najstarszy i najbardziej doświadczony mąż: 22

23 Twoi bracia, Rus i Czech, dawno już założyli swe siedziby. Myślę, że i na nas przyszła wreszcie pora. Piękną ziemię wybrałeś, Lechu. Zostaniemy tutaj i zbudujemy gród! Gdybyż jeszcze bogowie zechcieli dać nam znak, gdzie rozpocząć budowę! westchnął Lech. Znowu zapadła cisza. Nagle jakiś szum przerwał milczenie i ogromny cień przesunął się nad polaną. Zaciekawieni ludzie podnieśli głowy. Ujrzeli orła, który powoli opadał na gniazdo, znajdujące się w koronie wielkiego dębu. Na tle czerwonego, przedwieczornego nieba sylwetka ptaka jaśniała ostrą bielą. To znak od bogów! zawołali zgodnym chórem ludzie. To dobra wróżba rzekł uśmiechnięty Lech. Tutaj się osiedlimy, a ten wspaniały ptak będzie nas zawsze ochraniał. Tak też się stało. Na polanie zbudowano gród, a na pamiątkę orlego gniazda nazwano go Gnieznem. Orzeł biały na czerwonym tle stał się herbem państwa polskiego, które bierze swój początek od Lecha. 23

24 PRZYGODY ODYSEUSZA Tytułowy bohater Odyseusz jest królem Itaki. Po zburzeniu Troi, wraz z towarzyszami, szykował się do powrotu do domu. Trasa wiodła przez morze. Po drodze burza zagnała ich w strony zamieszkałe przez lud Kirkonów. Następnie przybili do wyspy i kraju Lotofagów jedzących lotos, który powodował utratę pamięci. Kolejną wyspa na którą trafił była zamieszkana przez Cyklopy. Odyseusz z towarzyszami wszedł do jaskini, gdzie mieszkał jednooki Polifem drwiący z greckich bogów. Przez czas pobytu w jaskini potwór zjadł kilku ludzi Odysa. Bohater upiwszy go winem wykłuł Cyklopowi jedyne oko. Potwór stał się ślepy. Cyklop jednak rzucił na ludzi klątwę. Odyseusz przez miesiąc przebywał na Eolii- wyspie nie zakotwiczonej w morzu. Mieszkał tu Eol- król wiatrów. Na pożegnanie dał Odyseuszowi worek, w którym uwięził złe wichry. Po dziewięciu dniach jego towarzysze rozwiązali wór z wiatrami, myśląc, że kryje on skarby. Złe wiatry zagnały ich z powrotem na wyspę. Eol tym razem rozgniewał się na Odysa i wyrzucił go z wyspy. Po siedmiu dniach żeglowania trafili na wyspę zamieszkałą przez olbrzymówludożerców. Mieszkała tu nimfa, która część załogi zamieniła w zwierzęta. Uratował ich Odyseusz nakazując Kirke odczarować swych towarzyszy. Po roku opuścili wyspę i popłynęli do krainy cieniów, by spotkać duszę wieszcza Terezjasza. Przepływając obok wyspy Syren Odyseusz zatkał woskiem uszy swej załogi, dzięki czemu bezpiecznie przepłynęli obok. Sam nie miał zatkanych uszu, jednak wcześniej przywiązał się do masztu. Gdyby nie ta przezorność, zginęliby na skałach przywabieni zwodniczą pieśnią Syren. Dopłynęli to jaskini gdzie po jednej stronie mieszkała Scyllia o dwunastu łapach i sześciu łbach. Z drugiej strony mieszkała Charybda na przemian połykająca i wypluwająca morze. Pewnego dnia Odysa zmorzył 24

25 sen, a jego towarzysze zabili jednego woła. Gdy odpływali od wyspy złapał ich cyklon. Z niego cało wyszedł tylko Odyseusz. Na paru belkach z okrętu, niesiony prądem, znalazł się u wejścia do cieśniny, gdzie Charybda prawie wciągnęła go w swe trzewia. Uratowały go gałęzie drzewa figowego zwisające ze skał nad Charybdą. Gdy potwór wypluł wodę wraz z belkami, bohater wskoczył na nie. Dryfował dziesięć dni. Na lądzie spotkał Kalipso, która zakochała się w nim. Utknął tu na kilka lat. Tymczasem w Itace nikt już nie wierzył w jego powrót. Do zamku zjechali się zalotnicy chcący poślubić Penelopę- domniemaną wdowę po Odysie. Odys zaś sposobił się do odjazdu. Zrobił mocną łódź i wypłynął w morze. Tu ujrzał go Posejdon. Zesłał nawałnicę i rozbił tratwę. Na ostatniej desce Odyseusz dopłynął do kolejnego lądu, gdzie spotkał Nafsike, która zaprosiła go do pałacu. Był na wyspie Teaków- narodu nieufnego wobec obcych. Atena pod postacią dziewczynki uczyniła go niewidzialnym dla ludzi. Dopiero u stóp królewskiej pary zobaczyli go wszyscy. Królowie przyjęli go miło. Ujawnił się tu jako bohater opiewany w pieśniach. Do Itaki przybył na okręcie wypełnionym darami. Atena przedstawiła mu zmiany w Itace i postanowili iż Odys będzie działał w ukryciu a następnie zmieniła go w starca w łachmanach. Przez parę dni przebywał u lojalnego mu pastucha Eumajosa. Jednego dnia do chaty zawitał syn króla, Odys dał się rozpoznać synowi. Zalotnicy już wiedzieli o powrocie Telemacha. Chcieli się go pozbyć. Wieczorem przybył Odys w postaci żebraka, znieważali go zalotnicy, nie wiedząc jeszcze, że to Odyseusz. On zaś cierpliwie znosił obelgi. Nazajutrz Penelopa miała wybrać jednego z zalotników na męża. Miał być nim ten, który z łuku Odyseusza wystrzeli strzałę przez ucha w szczycie stylisk dwunastu toporów. Nikt z zalotników nie mógł nawet naciągnąć łuku. Zrobił to wyśmiewany wcześniej starzec. Po wystrzeleniu, strzała przeszła przez wszystkie ucha. Po tym wyczynie Odys dał się poznać zalotnikom. Wraz z kilkoma wiernymi towarzyszami pozabijał ich wszystkich. Odyseusz jest symbolem odwagi, inteligencji, cierpliwości i bezgranicznej miłości za jego ojczyzną. Walcząc z tysiącami trudności, nie zrezygnował ze swojego jedynego marzenia: powrotu do domu. 25

26 LEGENDA O STEFANIE WIELKIM I VRANCIOAIA Dawno, dawno temu, kiedy Stefan Wielki i święci rządzili Mołdawią, podczas walki z Turkami, żyła sobie ciężko pracującą kobieta, którą nazwano Tudora Vrancioaiaand. Miała ona siedmiu synów: Bodea, Spirea, Negrila, Barsan, Spulber, Pavel i Nistor. Wszyscy byli pasterzami w górach Vranceas, jak większość młodych mężczyzn w tym regionie. Podczas jednej z bitew Stefan Wielki zastał pokonany, ponieważ nie miał wystarczającej ilości armii. Sam, głodny, zmęczony i smutny zapukał do drzwi Vrancioaia i poprosił o schronienie. Vrancioaia zaprosiła go do środka i zaoferowała mu jedzenie i picie. Wkrótce król zasnął, nie ujawniając swojej prawdziwej tożsamości. Vrancioaia rozpoznała po wyglądzie oraz ubraniach kim jest nieznajomy. Dowiedziała się, że król ma kłopoty, dlatego zwołała swoich synów i poprosiła aby zebrali małą armię i wyruszyli na bitwę. Młodzi mężczyźni uczynili tak jak poprosiła matka i z samego rana, kiedy król się obudził, wojsko czekało na niego przed domem. Król radośnie wyruszył na wojnę wraz z synami Vrancioaia. Rozgromili jego wrogów. Podczas tej bitwy żaden z siedmiu braci nie zginął. Stefan wezwał ich i nagrodził. Za ich królewski czyn każdy z braci otrzymał jedną z gór Vrancea. Bracia wrócili do swoich obowiązków. Każdy z nich założył wioskę i nazwał ją swoim imieniem. A po ich matce pozostała legenda o jej ciężkiej pracy i odwadze, o jej wielkim sercu i miłości do swojego kraju. 26

27 LEGENDA O POWSTANIU RZYMU Alba Longa to miasto w centrum Włoch. W VIII wieku przed naszą erą królem tego miasta był Numitore. Był on człowiekiem dobrym, mądrym uwielbianym przez swoich ludzi. Numitore miał brata Amulio. Amulio nienawidził Numitore, ponieważ był on zazdrosny o to, że nie został królem. Uknuł spisek przeciwko Numitore. Brat jego dostał się do niewoli z dala od Alba Longa. Aby mieć całkowitą pewność, że to on zostanie jedynym królem Alba Longa, Amulio zmusił Rea Silvia, córkę Numitore, aby została Westalską dziewicą. Nie mogła wziąć ślubu i mogła mieć dzieci. Niestety spisek Amulio się nie powiódł. Rea Siilvia była zakochana w Marsie jednym z łacińskich Bogów i po krótkim czasie urodziła bliźniaków. Kiedy Amulio się o tym dowiedział, aresztował ją i skazał na śmierć. Rozkazał zabrać bliźnięta i wrzucić je do rzeki. Ocalił je Mars, a wykarmiła wilczyca. Pasterz o imieniu Faustolo odnalazł bliźniaki. Zabrał je do swego domu. Faustolo i jego żona Acca Larenzia zgodzili się je wychować tak jakby byli ich synami, ponieważ swojego jedynego syna stracili. Czas mijał a bliźniacy Romolo i Remo dorastali. Opowiedziano im całą historię zaś oni zdecydowali się wziąć odwet. Remo został niesłusznie oskarżony o kradzież pieniędzy za bydło, które ciągle należało do Numitore. Zaprowadzono go do Amulio. Ten rozkazał zabrać go do miejsca, w którym był Numitore. Numitore wysłuchał 27

28 jego historii i rozpoznał w nim podobieństwo do swojej córki Rea Silvia. Zrozumiał wszystko i poprosił o spotkanie z Romolo i Faustolo. Romolo i Remo obiecali ich dziadkowi, że zostanie ponownie królem Alba Longa. Zabili Amulio. Numitore zaproponował bliźniakom aby z nim zostali i pomagali mu rządzić miastem. Romolo i Remo postanowili zbudować nowe miasto sprzymierzone z Alba Longa. Nie potrafili wybrać miejsca, dlatego poprosili o pomoc wróżbitę. Wróżbita odpowiedział, że Bogowie zostawiliby swoją wolę stadu ptaków. Dwaj bracia wybrali dwa wzgórza, Aventino i Palatino jako tereny pod zabudowę. Oboje wspięli się na szczyt i ustalili, że kto pierwszy zobaczy największe stado ptaków nada nazwę miastu. Romolo jako pierwszy zobaczył większą liczbę ptaków, dlatego też nazwał miasto Roma- Rzym. Zaznaczył granicę przyszłego miasta pługiem i rozkazał, aby nikt jej nie przekraczał. Remo chciał sprowokować brata i przeskoczył granicę. Romolo tak się zdenerwował, że zabił swojego brata ponieważ złamał on świętą majestatyczność miasteczka, które zbudowali i ostrzegł tych, aby nie powtórzyli tego samego czynu, ponieważ grozi im śmierć. 28

29 LEGENDA O RZECE GUADIANA Panie i panowie, dziewczęta i chłopcy podejdźcie bliżej. Chcę wam opowiedzieć ciekawą historię, o powstaniu rzeki Guadiana. Dawno, dawno temu, młody mężczyzna o imieniu Batalius mieszkał wraz z rodzicami w zamku. Ojciec: Mój drogi synu, bardzo ciężko pracowałeś przez te wszystkie lata. Ale teraz nadszedł czas, abyś ty założył swoją własną rodzinę. Matka: Idź i poszukaj jakiejś miłej żony! Batalius pojechał na swym koniu. Rozmawiał z wieloma kobietami ale żadna z nich mu się nie spodobała. Narrator: Dni mijały, dzień po dniu i noc po nocy. Batalius był bardzo smutny. Postanowił wrócić do domu do swoich rodziców. Nagle tuż obok jego domu, zobaczył piękną kobietę, która opiekowała się kurami... Batalius: Piękna Pani, jak masz na imię? Guadiana: Nazywam się Guadiana. Narrator: Batalius zsiadł z konia i ruszył w kierunku pani. Złapał ją za rękę i zakochał się od pierwszego wejrzenia. Guadiana: Batalius, poczekaj tu na mnie. Pojadę do domu moich rodziców i opowiem im o tobie. Narrator: Batalius dosiadł swojego konia i szczęśliwie pogalopował do domu jego rodziców. Ale, nikczemny czarnoksiężnik zobaczył, jak młoda dama rozmawiała z Bataliusem. Młodej Guadiana również przykuła swoją uwagę czarnoksiężnika. Nikczemny czarnoksiężnik: Piękna pani, jak masz na imię? Guadiana: Nazywam się Guadiana. Nikczemny czarnoksiężnik: Czy chciałabyś mnie poślubić? Guadiana: Nie! Moje serce należy do Bataliusa Narrator: Nikczemny czarnoksiężnik był bardzo zły i rzucił na nią z zły urok. Nikczemny czarnoksiężnik: Abrakadabra, abracadi. Stań się kurą! I będziesz nią tak długo dopóki jakiś człowiek nie ze chce cię poślubić. Nagle, młoda Guadiana zniknęła i stała się kurą. Narrator: Gdy Batalius wrócił, zaczął szukać Guadiany. Batalius: Guadiana! Guadiana! Narrator: Ale Guadiany nie było. Był tylko kury, które podążały w kierunku młodego Bataliusa. Batalius je zignorował, interesowała go tylko jego miłość. Batalius: Guadiana! Guadiana! 29

30 Narrator: Młody Batalius był tak zdesperowany i odjechał na swoim koniu. Gdy przybył, powiedział rodzicom, że młoda dama zniknęła. Matka: Bataliusie, jeśli się dowiesz, kto jest właścicielem kur, możesz go zapytać o Guadiane. Narrator: Batalius szukał tak długo właściciela kur we wszystkich wsiach, dopóki go nie znalazł Batalius: Panie, czy wiesz, gdzie mogę znaleźć młodą damę, która troszczyła się o twoje kury? Farmer: Oh! Jaka szkoda! Ona była moją córką i pewnego dnia zniknął. Nie wiemy, gdzie ona jest. Narrator: Batalius bardzo współczuł rodzicom Guadiany. Zrobiło się ciemno i było już za późno aby wrócić do domu, więc rodzice zaprosili Bataliusa aby został tam na noc. O północy Bataliusa obudziły jakieś odgłosy dochodzące z kuchni. Batalius wstał po cichu z łóżka, wychylił się przez okno i był bardzo zaskoczony, kiedy zobaczył Guadiane. Chwicili się za ręcę. Guadiana: Jestem pod zaklęciem. Nikczemny czarnoksiężnik zmienił mnie w kurę, i mogę tylko odzyskać swoje ciało na pięć minut o północy, aby zjeść. Płakała a duże łzy płynęły z jej oczu. Będę kurą tak długo,dopóki ktoś się ze mną nie ożeni. Narrator: Batalius zabrał kurę i przyniósł ją do domu Batalius: Tato i mamo, to jest Guadiana, kobieta z którą się ożenię Narrator: Gdy rodzice zobaczyli swojego syna pomyśleli że zwariował. Dni mijały, a ludzie śmiali się z niego. Dzieci krzyczały na niego. Wariat, wariat! Ale Batalius wszędzie chodził z swoją kurą. Batalius: Czy widziałeś kurę? Kucharz: Czy to prawda? (Wyświetlono kura bez pióra) Batalius: Morderca! Morderca! Co zrobiłeś z moją dziewczyną? (Pojawia się kura). Napędziłeś mi strachu! Narrator: Wszyscy myśleli, że był szalony organizując wesele. Kapłan: Batalius, czy bierzesz sobie tę kurę za żonę? Batalius: Tak. Nagle kura stała się piękna młoda damą nazywaną Guadiana. Pobrali się i żyli długo i szczęśliwie. 30

31 Teraz codziennie o północy pani Guadiana wylewa ogromne łzy szczęścia. I tak nazwano rzekę Guadiana. 31

32 GREECE VERSION 32

33 ΘΡΥΛΟΣ ΓΙΑ ΤΟΝ ΛΕΧ, ΤΣΕΧ & ΤΟΝ ΡΟΥΣ(ΡΑΣ) ΠΟΛΩΝΙΑ Μια φορά κι έναν καιρό, όταν όλοι οι Σλάβοι ακόμη κατοικούσαν σε μοιρασμένη γη και μιλούσαν μία γλώσσα, ζούσαν τρεις αδελφοί: ο Λεχ, ο Τσεχ και ο Ρας. Ζούσαν αρμονικά αλλά εξαιτίας της αρετής της σοφίας κατευθύνθηκαν σε ατομικές οικογένειες. Αλλά έφτασε ο καιρός, όταν η γη δεν μπορούσε να κρατήσει (να θρέψει ) τους ανθρώπους της γιατί υπήρχε στα δάση έλλειψη κυνηγιού και στους ποταμούς, έλλειψη ψαριών. προς το τι επρόκειτο να κάνουν περαιτέρω. Τα τρία αδέλφια βρέθηκαν μαζί, κάθισαν στη σκιά μεγάλων δέντρων, και άρχισαν να ανταλλάσσουν σκέψεις ως Πρώτα, ο μεγαλύτερος σκεφτικός ο Ρας άρχισε να μιλάει: - Αδέλφια! Τα πράγματα δεν μπορούν να συνεχιστούν έτσι! Οι χώρες μας είναι τόσο πυκνοκατοικημένες, ώστε η πείνα θα φανεί στα μάτια μας. - Έχεις δίκιο, συμφώνησε ο δεύτερος αδερφός μαζί του, τι να κάνουμε; - Πρέπει να βρούμε καινούρια μέρη για τις φυλές μας, είπε ο νεότερος αδερφός ο Λεχ. Εντάξει. Θα ξεκινήσουμε να βρούμε καινούριες χώρες για τους λαούς μας, είπαν ο Τσεχ και ο Ρας. Έτσι και έκαναν. Κάλεσαν τους φύλαρχους για να τους ανακοινώσουν τις αποφάσεις τους. Πρόσφεραν θυσίες, πήραν αγαλματίδια των τοπικών θεοτήτων και ξεκίνησαν για το ταξίδι. Μπροστά προχωρούσαν φρουροί και ιχνηλάτες οπλισμένοι και πίσω τους ακολουθούσαν τα τρία αδέρφια και οι πρεσβύτεροι των φυλών. Στη μέση της πομπής πάνω σε κάρα προχωρούσαν οι γέροι, οι γυναίκες και τα παιδιά. Έπειτα ακολουθούσαν τα κοπάδια και τέλος οι πολεμιστές που φρόντιζαν για την ασφάλεια και την τάξη, έκλειναν την τεράστια πομπή. 33

34 Ο δρόμος ήταν δύσκολος. Κατά τη διάρκεια της πορείας όλων των ειδών οι κίνδυνοι τους περίμεναν αλλά οι Σλάβοι πήγαιναν άφοβα μέσα από πυκνά δάση, περνούσαν ποτάμια και ορεινά μέρη. Μερικές φορές συναντούσαν ανθρώπινους οικισμούς. Έφτασε όμως η μέρα του Χωρισμού καθότι πρώτος ο Ρας αποχαιρέτησε τους αδερφούς του. Είχε διαλέξει τη χώρα των απέραντων στεπών και των εκτεταμένων γόνιμων πεδιάδων που τις διέσχιζαν πλατιά ποτάμια. «Αντίο αδέρφια και να με θυμάστε! Σας εύχομαι κάθε ευτυχία», είπε και συγκέντρωσε τους ανθρώπους του και πήγε μαζί τους προς το Βορρά. Οι υπόλοιποι προχώρησαν πιο πέρα. Σύντομα ο Τσεχ αποχωρίστηκε από τους υπόλοιπους. Προχώρησε με τη φυλή του προς το Νότο και εκεί κοντά στην κορυφή που ονομάζεται «Ρζιπ» στη γόνιμη και πλούσια γη, εγκατάστησε τη χώρα του. Ο Λεχ ο νεότερος, αποφασιστικά προχώρησε μπροστά. Ωστόσο η πορεία πλησίαζε στο τέλος της. Μια μέρα η πομπή σταμάτησε διότι οι άνθρωποι κουράστηκαν και θέλησαν να ξεκουραστούν. Καθώς οι άντρες κατασκήνωσαν και οι γυναίκες καταγίνονταν με την προετοιμασία του φαγητού, ο Λεχ παρατηρούσε τριγύρω. Τα γεμάτα κυνήγι δάση, τα άφθονα ψάρια των καθαρών ποταμών και οι διαφανείς λίμνες τον έπεισαν να εγκατασταθεί πέρα από τις όχθες τους. Ο Λεχ σκέφτηκε και αργά το απόγευμα κάλεσε τους πρεσβύτερους των φυλών και όταν οι άνδρες κάθισαν γύρω από τη φωτιά, άρχισε να τους λέει τα εξής: «Περιπλανηθήκαμε πού ψάχνοντας μέρος για να εγκατασταθούμε και σήμερα πιθανότατα τον βρήκαμε. Με προθυμία θα έμενα εδώ! Το περιβάλλον είναι όμορφο και η γόνιμη γη θα μας συντηρεί όλους. Όμως θα ήθελα να ακούσω τη συμβουλή σας. Ψίθυροι μόνο έσπασαν τη σιωπή. Μετά από ένα λεπτό οι πιο έμπειροι από τους πρεσβύτερους μίλησαν. -Η σοφία άρχισε να μιλά μέσα σου Λεχ. Οι αδερφοί σου ο Ρας και ο Τσεχ πριν από πολύ καιρό εγκαθίδρυσαν τις πολιτείες τους αλλά εμείς είμαστε ακόμη στο δρόμο. Άσε μας να μείνουμε εδώ και να χτίσουμε το κάστρο μας. - Μακάρι οι θεοί να θέλουν να μας δώσουν ένα σημάδι πού να χτίσουμε, αναστέναξε ο Λεχ. Έπειτα έπεσε ξανά σιωπή. Ξαφνικά κάποιος θόρυβος έσπασε τη σιωπή και μια έντονη σκιά κινήθηκε πάνω από το ξέφωτο του δάσους. Οι άνθρωποι σήκωσαν το 34

35 κεφάλι με ενδιαφέρον. Είδαν τον αετό ο οποίος αργά κάθισε στη φωλιά του στη μεγάλη βελανιδιά που σχημάτιζε μια κορόνα. Σε σχέση με τον κόκκινο ουρανό του δειλινού η σιλουέτα του πουλιού ξεχώριζε έντονα λευκή. -Είναι ένα σημάδι από τους θεούς, φώναξαν εν χορώ ( συγχρόνως ) όλοι. - Είναι καλός οιωνός, είπε ο Λεχ χαμογελώντας. Εδώ θα εγκατασταθούμε και αυτό το υπέροχο πουλί θα μας προστατεύει. Έτσι και έγινε. Σ ένα ξέφωτο, χτίστηκε ένα κάστρο και σε ανάμνηση της φωλιάς του αετού ονομάστηκε «Γκιέζνο». Ο λευκός αετός στο κατακόκκινο φόντο έγινε το έμβλημα της Πολωνίας κράτους του οποίου η αρχή του έγινε από το Λεχ. 35

36 ΟΔΥΣΣΕΙΑ O Oδυσσέας ήταν βασιλιάς της Ιθάκης και ύστερα από τον πόλεμο που έκαναν οι Έλληνες στην Τροία, ξεκινά να γυρίσει με δώδεκα πλοία στην πατρίδα του. Στο ταξίδι του νόστου έζησε πολλές περιπέτειες για δέκα χρόνια: Πολέμησε τους Kίκονες στη Θράκη, αλλά έχασε αρκετούς συντρόφους. Στη χώρα των Λωτοφάγων μερικοί σύντροφοι κινδύνεψαν να ξεχάσουν την πατρίδα, τους πήρε όμως μαζί του με τη βία. Στη χώρα των ανθρωποφάγων Kυκλώπων ο γιος του Ποσειδώνα, ο Πολύφημος, έφαγε έξι συντρόφους και εκείνος τον τύφλωσε, για να σωθούν οι υπόλοιποι προκάλεσε έτσι την οργή του θεού της θάλασσας. Στην Aιολία φιλοξενήθηκε έναν μήνα και έφυγε με δώρο έναν ασκό με τους ενάντιους ανέμους, όταν όμως οι σύντροφοι τον άνοιξαν, ξέσπασε τρικυμία και τους πήγε στη χώρα των ανθρωποφάγων Λαιστρυγόνων, που βύθισαν τα έντεκα πλοία του και έφαγαν τους ναυαγούς. Mε το ένα πλοίο τώρα και τους ναύτες του έφτασε στο νησί της Kίρκης, η οποία μεταμόρφωσε τους συντρόφους του σε ζώα, αλλά ο Οδυσσέας την υποχρέωσε να τους ξαναδώσει την ανθρώπινη μορφή. Κατέβηκε και στον Άδη, για να πάρει χρησμό από τον μάντη Τειρεσία. Άκουσε, δεμένος στο κατάρτι, το τραγούδι των Σειρήνων, πέρασε από τη Σκύλλα με οδυνηρές απώλειες και έφτασε στη Θρινακία, όπου έβοσκαν τα βόδια του Ήλιου. Εκεί, παρά τις συστάσεις του, οι σύντροφοί του έσφαξαν και έφαγαν μερικά βόδια του θεού γι αυτό, στο ναυάγιο που ακολούθησε, χάθηκαν όλοι, εκτός από τον ίδιο. Πέρασε μόνος του έπειτα από τη Χάρυβδη ο Οδυσσέας και βγήκε ναυαγός στην Ωγυγία, το νησί της Καλυψώς, όπου άθελά του έμεινε περισσότερο από 7 χρόνια νοσταλγώντας την Ιθάκη και τη γυναίκα του. Στην Ιθάκη, εν τω μεταξύ, οι μνηστήρες μπαινόβγαιναν στο παλάτι ως υποψήφιοι γαμπροί της γυναίκας του, της Πηνελόπης κατατρώγοντας την περιουσία του. Μια μέρα ωστόσο που ο Ποσειδώνας απουσίαζε από τον Όλυμπο, οι θεοί αποφάσισαν να βοηθήσουν τον Οδυσσέα να επιστρέψει στην πατρίδα του. Έτσι, η θεά Αθηνά κατέβηκε στην Ιθάκη, για να ενθαρρύνει τον γιο του, τον Τηλέμαχο, ώστε να αναζητήσει τον πατέρα του. 36

37 Η Καλυψώ εν τω μεταξύ βοήθησε τον Οδυσσέα να φτιάξει μια σχεδία για το ταξίδι του νόστου.πάνω στη σχεδία αυτή ο Οδυσσέας ταξίδεψε άγρυπνος 17 μέρες, τη 18η όμως τον αντιλήφθηκε ο Ποσειδώνας και σήκωσε τρικυμία που διέλυσε τη σχεδία. Kαι ο ήρωας, παλεύοντας τρεις μέρες με τα κύματα, βγήκε ναυαγός στη χώρα των Φαιάκων, τη Σχερία, όπου συνάντησε τη βασιλοπούλα Ναυσικά, που τον οδήγησε στο παλάτι. Οι Φαίακες του πρόσφεραν πλούσια φιλοξενία, άκουσαν με συγκίνηση τις περιπέτειές του, τον τίμησαν με δώρα πολλά και με δικό τους καράβι τον έστειλαν στην Ιθάκη. Στην Ιθάκη ο Οδυσσέας βρήκε μπροστά του την Αθηνά που τον βοήθησε να αντιμετωπίσει με επιτυχία την κατάσταση του παλατιού: τον μεταμόρφωσε σε ζητιάνο και τον συμβούλεψε να πάει πρώτα στο καλύβι του χοιροβοσκού Εύμαιου. Φρόντισε έπειτα η θεά να φτάσει κι ο Τηλέμαχος από τη Σπάρτη στο καλύβι, όπου πατέρας και γιος κατέστρωσαν σχέδιο εξόντωσης των μνηστήρων. Κατέβηκαν έπειτα στα ανάκτορα, όπου ο «ζητιάνος» δεχόταν προσβολές από τους μνηστήρες, ενώ ο Τηλέμαχος τον προστάτευε. O Οδυσσέας, αγνώριστος ακόμη, συνομίλησε με την Πηνελόπη και του εκμυστηρεύτηκε ότι, σχεδιάζει να προκηρύξει αγώνα τοξοβολίας μεταξύ των μνηστήρων και να παντρευτεί, κατ ανάγκην τον νικητή. Έγινε λοιπόν ο αγώνας, στον οποίο πήρε μέρος και ο Οδυσσέας. Νίκησε τους μνηστήρες και στράφηκε έπειτα εναντίον τους σε συνεργασία δε με τον Τηλέμαχο και λίγους πιστούς υπηρέτες τούς εξόντωσε όλους και υποσχέθηκε να βασιλέψει με σωφροσύνη. Ο Οδυσσέας, είναι το σύμβολο της τόλμης, της εξυπνάδας, της υπομονής και της ανεξάντλητης αγάπης για την πατρίδα. Έχοντας να παλέψει με χίλιες δυο δυσκολίες, ούτε μια στιγμή δεν έβγαλε από το μυαλό του τη μοναδική του επιθυμία: να επιστρέψει στην πατρίδα του. 37

38 Ο ΘΡΥΛΟΣ ΤΟΥ ΜΕΓΑΛΟΥ ΣΤΕΦΑΝΟΥ ΚΑΙ ΤΗΣ ΒΡΑΝΣΙΟΑΪΑΣ Λένε ότι κάποτε, όταν ο Μεγάλος Στέφανος και ο Άγιος κυβερνούσαν την Μολδαβία, ενώ πολεμούσαν τους Τούρκους, υπήρχε μια εργατική γυναίκα που λεγόταν Τουντόρα Βρανσιοαΐα και είχε εφτά γιούς: τον Μπόντεα, τον Επιρέα, τον Νεγκρίλα, τον Μπαρσάν, τον Σπούλμπερ, τον Παβέλ, και τον Νίστορ. Και οι εφτά ήταν βοσκοί στα βουνά Βράνσεα, όπως οι περισσότεροι νέοι εκείνη την περιοχή. Συνέβη σε μια μάχη να νικηθεί ο Μέγας Στέφανος, επειδή δεν είχε αρκετό στρατό. Μόνος, πεινασμένος, κουρασμένος και λυπημένος, χτύπησε την πόρτα της Βρανσιοαΐας και ζήτησε καταφύγιο για την νύχτα. Αυτή, τον δέχτηκε μέσα, επειδή αυτός ήταν άγραφος νόμος φιλοξενίας για τους ξένους, και του πρόσφερε να φάει και να πιει. Σύντομα μετά το γεύμα, ο βασιλιάς αποκοιμήθηκε χωρίς να αποκαλύψει την πραγματική του ταυτότητα. Η Βρανσιοαΐα μάντεψε ποιος ήταν όταν είδε τα ρούχα και το πρόσωπό του. Είχε ακούσει ότι ο βασιλιάς είχε προβλήματα, έτσι κάλεσε τους γιούς της από την δουλειά και τους ζήτησε να συγκεντρώσουν ένα μικρό στρατό στα βουνά και να πάνε να πολεμήσουν. Οι νέοι έκαναν ό,τι τους είπε η μητέρα τους και το πρωί, όταν ο βασιλιάς ξύπνησε, ο στρατός τον περίμενε μπροστά στο σπίτι. Πήγε ευχαρίστως στη μάχη με τους γιους της Βρανσιοαΐας δίπλα του και κατατρόπωσε τους εχθρούς του αυτή τη φορά. Κανένας από τους εφτά αδερφούς δεν σκοτώθηκε στη μάχη και στο τέλος της μάχης, ο Στέφανος τους κάλεσε και τους αντάμειψε. Κάθε αδερφός έλαβε ένα από τα βουνά της Βράνσιας μαζί με ένα βασιλικό τίτλο γι αυτό. Κι έτσι οι εφτά αδερφοί, επέστρεψαν στις δουλειές τους, κι ο καθένας από αυτούς ίδρυσε ένα χωριό με το όνομά του. Και η μητέρα τους έμεινε ένας θρύλος για την σκληρή δουλειά και το κουράγιο της, για την γενναιόδωρη καρδιά και την αγάπη για την χώρα της. 38

39 Η ΙΔΡΥΣΗ ΤΗΣ ΡΩΜΗΣ Η Άλμπα Λόνγκα ήταν μια πόλη στην κεντρική Ιταλία. Τον όγδοο αιώνα π. Χ, ο βασιλιάς αυτής της πόλης ήταν ο Νουμιτόρε. Ήταν καλός, σοφός και αγαπητός από τον λαό του. Ο Νουμιτόρε είχε έναν αδερφό, τον Αμούλιο. Αυτός μισούσε τον Νουμιτόρε γιατί τον ζήλευε και ήθελε να γίνει βασιλιάς στη θέση του. Έτσι ο Αμούλιο συνωμότησε ενάντια στον Νουμιτόρε, τον οποίο φυλάκισαν σε μια χώρα μακριά από την Άλμπα Λόνγκα. Για να είναι σίγουρος ότι θα είναι ο μοναδικός βασιλιάς της Άλμπα Λόνγκα, ο Αμούλιο εξανάγκασε την κόρη του Νουμιτόρε τη Ρέα Σίλβια να γίνει Ιέρεια της θεάς Εστίας ώστε να μην μπορέσει να παντρευτεί και να κάνει παιδιά. Αλλά η συνομωσία του Αμούλιου απέτυχε, γιατί η Ρέα Σίλβια ήταν ερωτευμένη με τον Άρη, έναν από τους Λατίνους θεούς, κι έπειτα από σύντομο διάστημα γέννησε δύο δίδυμα. Όταν ο Αμούλιο το έμαθε, συνέλαβε τη Ρέα Σίλβια και την καταδίκασε σε θάνατο. Διέταξε έναν από τους υπηρέτες να πάρει τα δίδυμα και να τα πετάξει στον ποταμό Τίβερη αλλά χάρη στον Άρη τα δύο μωρά σώθηκαν από μια θηλυκή λύκαινα που τα τάιζε. Το επόμενο πρωί, ένας βοσκός που τον έλεγαν Φαυστήλος, βρήκε τα δίδυμα και τα έφερε στο σπίτι του. Ο Φαυστήλος και η γυναίκα του Άκα Λαρένζια, συμφώνησαν να τα αναθρέψουν σαν να ήταν δικοί τους γιοί, καθότι είχαν χάσει το μοναδικό τους παιδί. Ο χρόνος πέρασε και τα δίδυμα που ονομάστηκαν Ρωμύλος και Ρέμος, μεγάλωσαν. Όταν τους αποκάλυψαν όλη την αλήθεια, αποφάσισαν να εκδικηθούν. Συνέβη ο Ρέμος να κατηγορηθεί άδικα για κλοπή κοπαδιών και γι αυτό το λόγο τον πήγαν στον Αμούλιο, αλλά επειδή ήταν του Νουμιτόρε το κοπάδι, ο Αμούλιο διέταξε να τον πάνε στο Νουμιτόρε για να αποφασίσει τι να κάνει. Όταν ο Νουμιτόρε άκουσε την ιστορία του Ρέμου και 39

1. English? a. She is b. Is c. He d. Is she. 1. This is an office, and tables. a. those are b. that are c. these d. that is. 1. This is girlfriend.

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