1 EURASIAN JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH E Ğ Ġ T Ġ M A R A ġ T I R M A L A R I A Quarterly Peer-Reviewed Journal, Year: 13 Issue: 51/ 2013 Üç Ayda Bir Yayımlanan Hakemli Dergi, Yıl: 13 Sayı: 51 / 2013 FOUNDING EDITOR / Kurucu Editör Veysel Sönmez, Hacettepe University, Ankara, TURKEY EDITOR / Editörler ġakir Çınkır, Ankara University, Ankara, TURKEY CO- EDITORS ġenel Poyrazlı, Penn State University, PA, USA Ramazan BaĢtürk, Pamukkale University, Denizli, TURKEY Ahmet Aypay, Eskişehir Osmangazi University, Eskişehir, TURKEY INTERNATIONAL EDITORIAL BOARD / Uluslararası Editörler Kurulu INTERNATIONAL EDITORIAL BOARD / Uluslararası Editörler Kurulu Anita Pipere, Daugavpils University, LATVIA Aslı Özgün Koca, Wayne State University, USA Beatrice Adera, West Chester University,USA Birgit Pepin, Sor-Trondelag Univ. College / NORWAY Cem Birol, Near East University, Nicosia, TRNC Danny Wyffels, KATHO University, Kortrijk, BELGIUM David Bridges, Cambridge University /UK Ekber Tomul, Mehmet Akif Ersoy University, Burdur TURKEY Erdinç Duru, Pamukkale University, Denizli, TURKEY Fatma Hazır Bıkmaz, Ankara University, TURKEY Hasan Hüseyin Aksoy, Ankara University, Ankara, TURKEY Iordanescu Eugen, Lucian Blaga University of Sibiu, ROMANIA Joe O'Hara, Dublin City University / IRELAND Sven Persson, Malmö University, Malmö, SWEDEN Theo Wubbels, Univeristiy of Utrecht/ NETHERLAND Úrsula Casanova, Arizona State University, USA Yusif Mammadov, Azerbaijan State Pedagogy University, Baku, AZERBIJAN SAHĠBĠ VE YAZI ĠġLERĠ MÜDÜRÜ / Publishing manager Özer DaĢcan EDITORIAL OFFICE / Yayın Yönetim Dilek Ertuğrul Anı Yayıncılık, Kızılırmak Sokak 10/A Bakanlıklar Ankara, TURKEY Tel: pbx Fax: Printing Date / Basım Tarihi: Printing Address / Matbaa Adresi: Sözkesen Mat. Ġ.O.S. Mat. Sit. 558 Sk. No:41 Yenimahalle-Ankara Yayın Türü: Yaygın Süreli Yayın Cover Design / Kapak Tasarımı: Anı Yayıncılık Typography / Dizgi: Kezban KILIÇOĞLU The ideas published in the journal belong to the authors. Dergide yayınlanan yazıların tüm sorumluluğu yazarlarına aittir Eurasian Journal of Educational Research (ISSN X) is a quarterely peer-reviewed journal published by Anı Yayıncılık Eğitim AraĢtırmaları (ISSN X) Anı Yayıncılık tarafından yılda dört kez yayımlanan hakemli bir dergidir ANI Publishing. All rights reserved ANI Yayıncılık. Her hakkı saklıdır. Eurasian Journal of Educational Research (EJER) is abstracted and indexed in; Social Science Citation Index (SSCI), Social Scisearch, Journal Citation Reports/ Social Sciences Editon, Higher Education Research Data Collection (HERDC), Educational Research Abstracts (ERA), SCOPUS database, EBSCO Host database, and ULAKBĠM national index.
3 CONTENTS İçindekiler Transformational Leadership in Educational Context: A Fantasy of Education Scholars Hasan Şimşek The Prediction of Separation-Individuation in Turkish Late Adolescents through Five Factor Personality Dimensions Sevda Aslan Saudi Arabian Science Teachers and Supervisors Views of Professional Development Needs Nasser Mansour, Saeed M. Alshamranı, Abdulwali H. Aldahmash,Basil M. Alqudah Educational Supervisors Locus of Control Necdet Konan Interpersonal Cognitive Distortions and Stress Coping Strategies of Late Adolescents Aysel Esen Çoban Comparison of Two Instructional Strategies for Students with Autism to Read Sight Words Nur Akçin The Role of Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL) in Promoting Learner Autonomy Arzu Mutlu, Betil Eröz-Tuğa Freedom of Religion - Conscience, Religious Education and the Right of Education in The Constitutions of The Republic of Turkey and Their Developmental Tendencies Turan Akman Erkılıç Irrational Beliefs and Abuse in University Students Romantic Relations Canani Kaygusuz The Predictive Value of Teachers Perception of Organizational Justice on Job Satisfaction Cevat Elma The Prediction Level of Teachers Organizational Citizenship Behaviors on the Successful Practice of Shared Leadership Aynur B. Bostancı The Effect of Role Ambiguity and Role Conflict on Performance of Vice Principals: The Mediating Role of Burnout Kazım Çelik Sample Size for Estimation of G and Phi Coefficients in Generalizability Theory Hakan ATILGAN Elaboration and Organization Strategies Used by Prospective Class Teachers While Studying Social Studies Education Textbooks Bayram Tay Effects of Decision-Making Styles of School Administrators on General Procrastination Behaviors Celal Teyyar Uğurlu REVIEWERS of the 51th. ISSUE 51. Sayı Hakemleri Reviewers of 51th.Issue: Adnan Erkuş Adnan Kan Ali Esgin Arif Altun Binnur Yeşilyaprak Cevriye Ergül Dursun Dilek Ekber Tomul Elife Doğan Gülşen Bağcı Kılıç Hakan Atılgan Hamza Akengin Hülya Şahin Hüsnü Enginarlar Kadir Beycioğlu Kürşad Yılmaz Mehmet Ünlü Melek Kalkan Murat Günel Nihan Demirkasımoğlu Ramazan Baştürk Rüya Özmen Sadegül Akbaba Altun Selahattin Turan Şenel Poyrazlı Trond Nordfjaern Yaşar Kondakçı Yasemin Karaman Kepenekçi Yücel Kabapınar Zeynep Hatipoğlu Sümer 8th Grade Students' Metaphors for the Concept of History Elvan Yalçınkaya
4 Eurasian Journal of Educational Research, Issue 51, Spring 2013, 1-6 Editor's Choice: Selected Keynote Speech Transformational Leadership in Educational Context: A Fantasy of Education Scholars * Suggested Citation: Hasan ŞİMŞEK Simsek, H., S. (2013). Transformational leadership in educational context: a fantasy of education scholars. Egitim Arastirmalari - Eurasian Journal of Educational Research, 51, 1-6. Education is a global concern. The post-industrial society demand different skills and mind-set from their citizens. Transforming technologies bring new possibilities whereas education is still a highly low-tech sector. Current global economic crisis and political instabilities bring new problems to educational systems. These challenges also call for new solutions from educational systems. These deep transformations reassure the importance of leadership in educational organizations. Simply stated, those organizations that would renew themselves will survive and prosper whereas the ones which hold tightly on the traditional ways of thinking and of doing things will be the casualties of this deep transformation. As a number of emerging conditions force organizations to renew themselves, we also need to change our traditional ways of thinking about organizations. No doubt, leadership has an important role in creating and maintaining this transformation. Traditionally, we have tended to view leadership as if it is an entirely unique substance within itself. When the leadership concept is isolated from the context in which it functions, this legitimizes the types of approaches that deal with individual traits or behaviors that make an individual a leader. The implicit assumption behind this perspective is the one that sees leadership as a capacity. Some saw the origin of this built-in capacity as a set of inherited characteristics from the birth. Some others, on the other hand, approached the origin of this capacity from a behaviorist theme, and argued that through a careful study of individual and behavioral qualities of effective leaders, we could raise effective leaders through the processes of training and behavioral modification strategies. Keynote speech titled Leaders as Change Agents: Reforming Educational Systems in the Face of Ambiguity delivered at the 20 th Annual Meeting of European Network for Improving Research and Development in Educational Leadership and Management (ENIRDELM), Sptember, 2012, Antalya- Turkey. Correspondence: Prof. Dr. Hasan Simsek, Bahçeşehir University-Turkey; 1
5 2 Hasan Şimşek This line of inquiry in leadership studies has long been practiced under different labels such as leadership in relation to interaction patterns or role relationships with the followers, leadership in relation to the follower or the follower perceptions. With the advancement of more recent approaches to leadership such as transformation, culture and symbolic perspectives, we now tend to view leadership as a culture creation process or a process of symbolic interaction to create better functioning organizations. For example, such questions have never been carefully dealt within the leadership studies: How are change and leadership interconnected in organizations? Is transformational leadership an always effective style of leadership? When do the organizations most demand transformational leadership? What are the organizational conditions that may call for a transactional style? What are the fundamental differences between transformational and transactional leaders in terms of their cognitive style? Even more, how do we relate these questions to creating new educational systems and processes responding to the needs and demands of stakeholders of educational systems? Proposition 1: There is a strong association between the mode of institutional change and the style of leadership: Incremental and adaptive mode of change requires maintenance or transactional leadership skills, whereas dramatic and discontinuous organizational change demand transformational leadership skills. As widely proposed, organizational change involves two entirely different phases: evolutionary and revolutionary. The evolutionary phase is characterized by relative stability and adaptation. Usually there is a well established pattern of thought, perception and picture of reality as well as a set of tried and proved organizational strategies. All these reduce ambiguity and uncertainty. Under these circumstances, transactional or managerial skills of leaders fit well to the leadership demands of the organization, that is, the qualities of maintenance. However, excesses in a number of strategic behaviors, changes in the environment, and misfit between the organization and the environment create anomalies that force the dominant mind-set into crisis. The crisis period breaks down the established order in organizations. The boundaries between the organization and the environment become permissive and a great deal of information flows in and out. The organization as system stabilizes in a non-equilibrium state. The question at this point is whether or not educational systems in Turkey and elsewhere show the qualities of equilibrium or non-equilibrium state? School organization itself and educational systems in general show system characteristics; that is, school and educational systems take inputs from the external environment, they process these inputs through certain pre-established mechanisms and procedures, then they export the final product as output to the external environment. All this process is also used as feedback to the others. This is a symbiotic relationship. Both environment and system itself have capacity to change the other. However, the rate and the timing of this change capacity are highly contextual. In the shorter time line, the external environment (economic structure, culture, values, religion, ideology, etc.) shows high probability of change over school
6 Eurasian Journal of Educational Research 3 and educational systems. The schools capacity of modifying social, cultural and ideological aspects of a society is rather a long term process. In this sense, school and educational systems play a conservative role in this relationship. So to say, school mirrors the society. For example, structural-functionalists who have a long legacy in the field of sociology define school and educational systems as a functional part of larger socioeconomic apparatus. Society as a larger system desires to protect itself through a slow change process by keeping the parts and internal processes intact. Radical change is not a desired mode of change since it involves surprises and ambiguity, no matter how small the change is. School and educational organizations in this system are expected to behave as an integral part of this slowly evolving system. Primary function of the school system is to protect the society! For the structural functionalists, schools do serve two primary functions in relation to the larger external environment: First, school is an agent of social and political socialization. Second, the primary function of school is to train manpower required to improve and sustain economic growth (Scimecca, 1980, s. 7-9). One of the greatest names in the field of sociology, Henry Levin, used the principle of correspondence in explaining this relationship:...schools, rather than changing the society, are always used to reproduce the existing society. This means, educational reforms cannot be used to change social, economic and political relationships. These reform initiatives have always lost as soon as they have started threatening the dominant ideology (Levin, 1974, s. 304). On the other hand, the second theoretical line of inquiry in the field of economy, education and sociology; the radical theory, also admits the protector role of school and education systems, of course, with quite different reasons. Being an extent of Marxist methodology, the Radical theorists accept school and educational systems as part of a superstructure, that corresponds to the dominating socio-economic class, which is the bourgeoisie class. The proponents of the Radical theory assert that, interestingly very similarly to Henry Levin s assertion, modern school and educational systems reproduce existing society with its unequal economic and social structure. A great Radical economist Samuel Bowles argues that schools and educational systems in general in the modern capitalist societies are the tools of teaching young generations the required economic and social skills to function in a capitalist economy as well as being the operative agents of political indoctrination. If these two opposing traditions in social sciences provide as a glimpse of truth, schools and education systems in modern societies play a secondary role with respect to change or a role of dependent variable in the complex relation of school and society. If important reforms to initiate from the school system in order to change the larger socio-economic structure, then what type of leadership potential we are supposed to expect from the educators. We must have all the reasons to look very suspiciously at any arguments of exercise or evidence of transformational leadership in the field of education! With this evidence at hand, we should always be careful to detect the signs of reform or radical transformations coming to the school or educational system from outside, not the vice versa!
7 4 Hasan Şimşek Proposition 2: Transformational leaders are both norm-breakers and normsetters, whereas the transactional leaders are good practitioners and developers within the already set norms. Transformational leaders focus on building and strengthening new organizational norms and attitudes. They mainly engage in the creation and the establishment of new common meaning systems. This type of leadership makes major changes in the mission, structure and human resources management of the organization. They suggest fundamental changes in the organization's political and cultural systems. It is mostly proposed that a transformational leader is highly normative in cognitive style. By this, they become the most important catalyst in the construction of a new man-made or enacted reality for the members of their organization. In this sense, transformational leaders are norm-setters. On the other hand, transformational leaders are norm-breakers, as well. Drastic institutional change or transformation becomes an opportunity for organizations to learn new things. By being a catalyst in the creation of a new enacted reality during this transformation, transformational leaders also teach their organizations to unlearn habitual, traditional and customary ways of doing and seeing things. By contrast, transactional leadership maintains the organization but is incapable of generating significant change. Under existing organizational culture, the concerns of transactional leaders are the things to be carried out and the goals to be attained. The question here is whether or not educational leaders are supposed to be norm-breakers and norm-setters, and what are the embedded norms in our educational systems that need to be transformed? As cultural artifacts, norms represent observable aspects of, first, beliefs; than values in organizations. Beliefs and values define how an organization as an entity sees the world. That is, what is the nature of men, good or evil? Where the truth comes from, an outside source; God, elderly, boss; or from inside by the contribution of humans involved? Why we act the way we act; is it because of our innate and unchangeable nature or because of the way we constructed it as involved humans with free will? Norms represent behavioral regularities that make organizations as well as life orderly. They are the unwritten rules, a code of conduct among us, no matter how much we know or how close to each other. They are distilled from embedded beliefs and values in a system. Modern school and educational systems are locked by two realities: On the one hand and as I explained under the previous heading, educational systems and schools are expected to be the agents of socialization that involves economic, social and political attitudes and skills. It is clear that even the modern school and educational systems are universally given the task of guardianing the society! On the other hand, school and educational systems are expected to educate creative, innovative individuals who can change their closer environment and society. When we consider the deep and historical imprints of social, economic and political socialization role of schools, we have good reasons to believe that innovative and creative individuals are expected to be important only in the economic domain.
8 Eurasian Journal of Educational Research 5 They may simply become political and social dissidents if their creative and innovative character exceeds the boundaries of economic utilitarianism. Of course, no educational system is designed to produce economic and social dissidents! Educational and school systems in the world are the most regularized ones. Since the time of Adam Smith, the best economic model is free market economy for economic liberals. The new liberalism which has revolutionized social, economic, political and cultural spheres of modern societies since the 1980s has had the weakest impact on education and school systems. In the eyes of many, education is a public good. Interestingly, public education is still the largest sector in many parts of the world. A public good must be common, accessible, conservative, normal, and pedagogically acceptable. As the institutional theory teaches us, educational systems in the world are getting similar to each other because of instant diffusion of theories, norms, techniques, rules, and methods. Is there a room for the possibility of a transformational or radical change in this picture? How relevant is it to expect the act of transformational leadership by public and private school principals and educational managers around the world? Could it be somewhat irrelevant to apply such management models, concepts, theories and applications to school and educational systems? Don t we need to revise or modify these management theories and models to make them meaningful in a specific context such as schools in specific and education system in general? Proposition 3: Transformational leaders deal with an ambiguous and uncertain world, whereas the tasks of transactional leaders are eased by the boundary set by the transformational leaders. As very well stated in the leadership literature, the fundamental task of the transformational leaders is future oriented. The desired future direction of history, what we call the "vision" thing, is essentially an ambiguous and uncertain initiative. It is taking risks, gambling with the extraordinary, the unusual, and the new. In this sense, transformational leaders function in an extremely chaotic environment. Transactional leaders, on the other hand, best function during the period of equilibrium or evolution where there are clear-cut and commonly agreed norms and rules to run the organization. Change is incremental and adaptive, and the level of ambiguity and uncertainty is low. This may explain why transactional leaders engage more in pragmatic adjustments. While transformational leaders initiate new organizational culture, transactional leaders accept it as it is. They maintain the organization by getting the daily routines done. They explain the role and task requirements for their employees and provide contingent reinforcement to influence their performance, to attain desired outcomes. Clearly, this is a less ambiguous and uncertain task compared to the task of transformational leader. The question here is whether or not transformational leadership is a viable alternative in initiating and securing change in education? To answer this, we need to clarify where the ambiguity is located in relation to education? Is it the ambiguity that resides in the educational system per se, or is it a reflection of an ambiguous situation or crisis of the larger system, that is, larger socio-economic and political order? We may address this question at two levels: The schools as single organizations that could be seen as micro level of the educational system, and the educational
9 6 Hasan Şimşek systems as macro level large structures. At the micro level, as I have discussed in the previous part, life in schools is highly regulated and structured. There are deeply embedded routines and traditions in every school s daily operations. Interestingly, these are carefully observed by all important stakeholders of schools such as parents and educational authorities who supervise the system. There are also normative pedagogic principles that run across all levels of educational fields as well as shaping the mindset of involved stakeholders. This is why, basic educational reforms come from outside. Moreover, radical transformations in the larger socio-political system have always been the primary source of radical paradigm shifts in schools and education systems. Social, economic and political revolutions throughout the history have always been the moments of reform and radical change in the structure and organization of education. I need to conclude this talk by underlining four things: First, pure managerial models may not serve our needs of understanding the deep structures and processes of change in education and schools. Second, dependent and independent structures need to be treated differently in relation to change and transformation: Dependent structures such as education and school system cannot transform itself; rather they are open to externally imposed change and transformation. Third, because of the nature of schools and education as I have tried to elaborate here as well as considering the organic culture of schools, transactional leadership may be the right terminology to be used in school settings. The reason is simple if we know what transactional leadership is about? As Bass and Burns explained; rules, procedures and standards are essential in transactional leadership. Followers are not encouraged to be creative or to find new solutions to problems. Research has found that transactional leadership tends to be most effective in situations where problems are simple and clearly-defined. Don t you think that all these very well describe our working conditions and culture in schools? Finally, any national and international evidence of educational and school-related reform and change that are presumed to be the result of transformational or visionary leadership initiatives of educational leaders need to be treated suspiciously. References Bass, B. M. (1985). Leadership and Performance, NY: Free Press Burns, J. M. (1978). Leadership, NY: Harper & Row Bowles, S. (1972). Planning Educational Systems for Economic Growth, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Levin, H. M. (1974). Educational Reform and Social Change, Journal of Applied Behavioral Sciences, Vol. 38 (3), s Scimecca, J.A. (1980). Education and Society, New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.
10 Eurasian Journal of Educational Research, Issue 51, Spring 2013, 7-28 The Prediction of Separation-Individuation in Turkish Late Adolescents through Five Factor Personality Dimensions Sevda ASLAN * Suggested Citation: Aslan, S. (2013). The prediction of separation-individuation in Turkish late adolescents through five factor personality dimensions. Egitim Arastirmalari - Eurasian Journal of Educational Research, 51, Abstract Problem Statement: Individual personality traits of adolescents become significant when they are in the process of separation-individuation from parents. While adolescents undergo their separation-individuation process, they also have to express their own consistent thoughts, feelings and actions as an individual. During this process an adolescent's stable personality tendencies may have a significant role in their separationindividuation process. Purpose of the Study: The purpose of the study is to explain the relationship between five factor personality dimensions and the separationindividuation process in terms of how five factor personality dimensions predict the separation-individuation of Turkish late adolescents aged This research was designed as a cross-sectional study. In this study, Convenience Sampling Method was used. Method: The study group consisted of a total of 233 first- to fourth-year students studying at Ankara University, Hacettepe University, and Kırıkkale University during the spring semester of the academic year. The points that were obtained from the three scales were analyzed through SPSS 11.5 and the total points of the scales were found in the data analyses. Findings and Results: Extraversion positively and significantly affects separation anxiety and peer enmeshment. Agreeableness negatively and significantly affects engulfment anxiety, denial of need, teacher enmeshment, rejection expectancy, and practicing-mirroring. Emotional instability/neuroticism negatively and significantly affects teacher * Dr., Kırıkkale University Faculty of Education, 7
11 8 Sevda Aslan enmeshment and practicing-mirroring. There is a positive relationship between separation individuation and peer enmeshment, practising mirroring, and the extraversion dimension; on the other hand, there is a negative relationship between rejection expectancy and the extraversion dimension. Conclusions and Recommendations: Counseling programs can be prepared and applied in order to increase extraversion, which is one of the dimensions of personality traits, to increase openness to experience and agreeableness, and to prevent separation-individuation problems that students encounter. In this way, the separation-individuation process of students will be supported by personality dimensions. Keywords: Separation-individuation, five factor, personality dimension, late adolescent Separation-Individuation is the adolescent's redefinition of the relationship between him/her and his/her caregivers, such as parents, by reducing adolescents dependence upon their parents, while moving towards autonomy and independence. It is expected that adolescents undergo the separation-individuation process in an ever increasing manner, with the help of their physical, cognitive and interpersonal developments. According to Blos (1989), the inner changes that accompany the separation-individuation process are indecisiveness, insufficiency, and alienation. With these changes, mental structuring is re-materialized by the ego of an adolescent, whose personality is in a process of embodiment. Thus, the nature of an adolescent is changeable during this process. Bowlby (1988) argues that the relationship between child and parents, especially the relationship between child and mother, is double-sided. Problems are observed in separation-individuation in all individuals who have human-human and humanobject relationships based on an unhealthy attachment style (Göka & Göka, 2009). During early childhood and adolescence, the disruptions in mirroring, internalization, and separation processes can lead to personality pathologies (Çuhadaroğlu Çetin, 2001). Openness to experience, which is one of the personality types based on the Five Factor Theory, is comprised of intellectual characteristics such as imagination, curiosity, originality, broad-mindedness, and artistic sensitivity. Agreeableness is also known as pleasantness, and its facets are related to kindness, flexibility, trust, good nature, cooperation, forgiveness, and empathy. Conscientiousness is also known as trustworthiness, prudence and compliance, and its facets reflect both trustworthiness (for example, attention, consideration, dutifulness, orderliness, competence, and planning) and willpower (for example, industriousness, achievement, centralism and determination). At the same time, emotional instability/neuroticism is also a reflection of extroversion regarding the temperament of an individual. Each dimension is considered as a continuum (Viswesvaran & Ones, 2003).
12 Eurasian Journal of Educational Research 9 The Five Factor Model is a hierarchical model covering the abovementioned personality dimensions. Personality traits are defined as the continuous stable dimensions of individual differences in order to demonstrate consistent patterns of thoughts, feelings and actions (McCrae & Costa, 1990). The Five Factor Model draws from studies that define natural language aptitude (cited in: Costa & Widiger, 2002). The Five Factor Model is based on endogenous basic tendencies, and biological and hereditary foundations. These basic tendencies cover characteristic adaptations, attitudes, habits, and personal endeavours as well as an individual's own identity. Characteristic adaptations occur as a result of the interaction between external influences and basic tendencies. According to this theory, the Five Factor Model s personality dimensions stabilize during adolescence and early adulthood, and after this period, although small changes are observed in middle and late adulthood, these personality dimensions remain relatively constant and stable (Roterts, Walton, & Viechtbauer, 2006, cited in: McCrae & Löckenhoff, 2010). Many studies were conducted leading up to Cattell and Norman s proposal of the Five Factor Model s personality dimensions based on personality traits, namely: emotional instability/neuroticism, extroversion, openness to experience, agreeableness and conscientiousness (Norman, 1963, cited in: De Raad, 2000; Howard & Howard, 1995). Several studies have investigated the separation-individuation process. For example, in his study on late adolescents, Hoffman (1984) found that while conflictual independence is in harmony with personal adaptation, it is not related to problems in romantic relationships. On the other hand, Hoffman determined that the increase in emotional independence is related to academic adaptation. In their study on separation-individuation in late adolescents, Quintana and Kerr (1993) found that participation in relationships bolsters separation, mirroring, and symbiosis. These authors found that for the healthy separation of both genders, there is a positive correlation between the scales of self-centralizing and symbiosis. McClanahan and Holmbeck (1992) found in a study on adolescents that there is a consistent correlation between separation anxiety, healthy separation, need denial and nurturance seeking subscales of the Separation-Individuation Test and the tools measuring family functions and positive-negative psychological adaptation. Ryan and Lynch (1989) found that there is negative correlation between emotional autonomy and family unity, accepting parents, support for autonomy and lovability of self-perception. Willemsen, Stansbury, Anderson, Boone and Grunden (1987) revealed that independence from one s mother predicts secure attachment. In Turkey, Göral (2002) found that the perception of parents' over-protective, over-disciplined, and democratic attitudes has a slight effect on separationindividuation and the experiences of young adults in romantic relationships. In his study, Yaman (2005) found that there are more negative outcomes, both in terms of the separation-individuation process and psychological adaptation, in high school students whose mothers experience dependency, disconnection, control, and dependability with their spouses. In their study, Aslan & Güven (2010) found that
13 10 Sevda Aslan there is a mediation of separation-individuation in the relationship between secure attachment to parents and personal adaptation in late adolescents. Several studies have investigated the personality dimensions of the Five Factor Model process. In their study on an Australian study group aged 15-84, Lucas and Donnellan (2009) found that there is a positive correlation between age and agreeableness, and conscientiousness. However, there is a negative correlation between age and extraversion, emotional instability/neuroticism, and openness to experience. In their study on adolescents and adults aged 10-65, Soto, John, Gosling and Potter (2011) found that five factor personality dimensions vary according to age ranges. Hann, Prienzie and Dekovic (2009) found that agreeableness and extraversion of parents bear more relation with sincerity, and less with over-reaction. Raynor and Levine (2009) determined that conscientiousness and extraversion in college students accompany healthy behaviours. Garcia (2011) found in his study of high school students that there is a correlation between neuroticism, extraversion, conscientiousness and well-being. Germeijs and Verschueren (2011) found in their study of adolescents that there is a correlation between indecisiveness and emotional instability. Wittich and Antonakis (2011) determined that the Kirton Adaptation- Innovation Inventory predicts the personality dimensions of the Five Factor Model. Jackson, Dimmock, Gucciardi and Grove (2011) revealed that poor communication and attachment are the reasons for the differences between extraversion and the activity level of late adolescent athletes and trainers. Similarly, agreeableness, conscientiousness, extroversion, and attachment were observed in the relationships between late adolescent trainers and athletes. Zheng, Lippa and Zheng (2011) found that emotional instability/neuroticism varies according to gender and gender orientation. Several studies have investigated the five factor personality dimensions process. Schmitt et al. (2007) found that self-esteem, socio-sexuality (the manner in which humans express themselves to the outside world in terms of gender-related behavior) and national personality profiles of university students predict emotional instability/neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness dimensions. In their meta-analysis study, Fuller and Marler (2009) determined that the extraversion, openness to experience, conscientiousness, and emotional instability/neuroticism dimensions of the five factor model are prospective predictors of personality. Krüger (2009) indicated that the ability of school leaders varied from school to school according to five factor personality dimensions of conscientiousness, emotional instability, extraversion, agreeableness, and openness to experience. Robinson, Wright and Kendall (2011) determined that there is a high correlation between being less attached to parents and agreeableness, openness to experience and emotional instability. Jovanovic (2011) proved that emotional instability, anxiety and activity have a direct influence on subjective wellbeing. In their study on post-graduate students studying psychology, Flanagan and Malgady (2011) found that there is a meaningful correlation between conscientiousness and internship evaluation. Witt, Massman and Jackson (2011) found that five factor personality dimensions can predict the use of technologies such as video games, computers and communication technologies.
14 Eurasian Journal of Educational Research 11 Meanwhile, other studies can be found in the literature, about the correlation between five factor personality dimensions and healthy personality dimensions, sexual offences (Voller & Long, 2010), and other personality scales (Betz & Borgen, 2010), and Internet use and well-being (Aa, Overbeek et al., 2009). The scale s development is also discussed in various studies (Gosling, Rentfrow, & Swann Jr., 2003; Grice, Mignogna, & Badzinski 2011; Harvey, Murry, & Markham, 1995; Kottke, 2011; Paunonen, Zeidner, Engvik, Oosterveld, & Maliphant, 2000; Vassend & Skrondal, 2011; Veselka, Schermer, & Vernon, 2011; Viswesvaran & Ones, 1999; Viswesvaran & Ones, 2000). At the same time there are also studies regarding the correlation between the big five personality dimensions, and personality styles (Lindley & Borgen, 2000) and, self-esteem (Erdle & Rushton, 2011). The five-factor personality dimensions has emerged across various cultures (Triandis & Suh, 2002). Trzebinski, Forsterling, Paunonen and Jackson (1992) applied the model in Canada, Finland, Poland and Germany in order to evaluate the crosscultural personality structure. In this study, the five-factor structure was found to be very significant in all four cultures. In spite of the possible differences of interpretation related to the verbal expression of personality and due to well-known problems arising from a variety of cultural meanings and values, when the differences between the four groups were compared in terms of language, culture and nationalities, examples of very similar relationships were observed. In their study of 12 and 13 year old male students from different ethnic backgrounds, John, Caspi, Robins, Moffitt and Stouthamer-Loeber (1994) found different dimensions of the five factors: irritability and positive activity. Significant theoretical relationships have also been established between the dimensions of the five factors and the childhood psychopathology. In two different cultures in South Africa, consensus, responsibility and openness to experience emerged as distinct dimensions. Contrary to expectations, introversion and extraversion have emerged separately as distinct dimensions (Heaven and Pretorius, 1998). Using a coding system partly based on the coding system of the five factors, Zhang, Kohnstamn, Slotboom, Elphick and Cheung (2002) coded the free definitions by Chinese and Dutch parents regarding the personalities of their children between the ages of 3 and 14 years into 14 categories. As a result, the first five basic categories were classified similarly to the five-factor model of adult personality. The parents of the Chinese school-age children produced additional critical identifiers in the area of responsibility. In Turkey, studies have been conducted on scale studies based on the five factor model (Bacanlı, Ilhan, & Aslan, 2009; Tatar, 2005). In his study of an adult population, Somer (1998) identified 235 adjectives in the Turkish language as being representative of personality traits. The adjectives, selected by a first order analysis, were found through factor analysis to be represented within the dimension of the five factors. In a different study (Somer and Goldberg, 1999), another 179 adjectives were analyzed in the same scope as the first study (Somer, 1998), all associated with the structure of personality variables in the Turkish language. In this second study, in which the same adjective pairs were used in both Turkish and American samples, a clear five-factor structure was found. Somer, Korkmaz and Tatar (2000, 2001)
15 12 Sevda Aslan carried out a study for the development of the Five Factor Personality Inventory in Turkey. As a result, the 220-item scale was prepared with five main factors and 17 sub-dimensions. With the development of this scale, the appearance of the five factors in the Turkish culture could also be examined. In their study of university students aged 18-26, Basım, Çetin, & Tabak (2009) found that openness to development and compatibility predict all approaches to resolving conflicts. The analysis of the studies on separation-individuation reveals that in late adolescents, the participation in relationships supported the need for the separation, whereas parental attitudes did not affect the late adolescent separation-individuation process. On the other hand, the attachment of the early adolescents to their parents was found to be associated with emotional autonomy. At the same time, studies for scale development have been conducted on healthy behavior, well-being, indecision, self-esteem, national personality profiles, and conflict resolution, which all are associated with the five-factor personality dimensions. Individual personality traits of adolescents become significant when these adolescents are in the process of separation-individuation from parents and participation in society as a unique individual. While adolescents undergo their separation-individuation process, they also have to express their consistent forms of thoughts, feelings, and actions as an individual. The separation-individuation of adolescents, especially from their parents, is vital for their identity to emerge. During this process, an adolescents basic personality tendencies that they acquire as their permanent dimensions of their individual differences play a significant role in their separation-individuation process.therefore, in this study, in order to illustrate the concept of one s separationindividuation from his/her parents and to contribute to the literature, the relationship between separation-individuation and the five-factor personality dimensions was investigated by evaluating the separation-individuation of Turkish late adolescents. At the same time, the predictability of the demographic variables in the separation-individuation sub-dimension was evaluated. The hypotheses developed for the purpose of the research were as follows: Hypothesis 1: Demographic variables (gender, age, grade, the attitude of the mother and the father) positively and significantly affect the sub-dimensions of separation-individuation (separation anxiety, engulfment anxiety, nurturance seeking, peer enmeshment, teacher enmeshment, practising mirroring, need denial, rejection expectancy, and healthy separation). Hypothesis 2: The five-factor personality dimensions (extraversion, agreeableness, responsibility, emotional instability / neuroticism, openness to experience), positively and significantly affect the sub-dimensions of separationindividuation (separation anxiety, engulfment anxiety, nurturance seeking, peer enmeshment, teacher enmeshment, practising mirroring, need denial, rejection expectancy, healthy separation).
16 Eurasian Journal of Educational Research 13 Method In this study, a convenience sampling method (Wallen & Fraenkel, 2001; Cohen, Manion, & Morrison, 2007) was used by the researcher, who involved the participants who were available during the course of the study. This research was designed as a cross-sectional study. Participants The sampling group consisted of 233 first to fourth year students studying at Ankara University Faculty of Political Science, Hacettepe University Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences, and Kırıkkale University Faculty of Education during the spring semester of the academic year. There were 150 female students (64.4%, mean=20.30, SD=1.37) and 83 (35.6%, mean=20.80, SD=1.79) male students who participated in the study. Research Instruments The Scale of Adolescent Separation-Individuation (SITA), developed by Levine, Green and Millon (1986) and adapted by Aslan and Güven (2008) for Turkish university students, SITA is a five-point Likert-type scale consisting of 9 subscales and 103 items. The SITA subscales are as follows (Levine and Saintonge, 1993): separation anxiety, engulfment anxiety, nurturance seeking, peer enmeshment, teacher enmeshment, practising mirroring, need denial, rejection expectancy, and healthy separation. Regarding the scale, a study done in Turkey (Aslan & Güven, 2008) revealed that the factor loadings for the subscales of SITA are for separation anxiety, for engulfment anxiety, for rejection expectancy, for practising mirroring, for peer enmeshment, for need denial, for teacher enmeshment, for nurturance seeking and for healthy separation, respectively. Cronbach's alpha coefficients were.79 for engulfment anxiety,.75 for separation anxiety,.82 for rejection expectancy,.91 for practising mirroring,.71 for peer enmeshment,.72 for need denial,.63 for teacher enmeshment,.65 for nurturance seeking and.39 for healthy separation, respectively. Personality Test Based on Adjectives (ABPT), developed by Bacanlı, Ilhan and Aslan (2009) ABPT is a Likert type scale consisting of 40 pairs of adjectives which can be graded between 1-7. ABPT is composed of five dimensions extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, emotional instability/neuroticism, and openness to experience. The factor loadings of ABPT were as follows for different dimensions:.56 to.79 for extraversion,.60 to.77 for agreeableness,.66 to.86 for responsibility,.36 to.71 for emotional instability/neuroticism, and.49 to.79 for openness to experience. Cronbach's alpha coefficients were.73 for emotional instability/neuroticism,.89 for extraversion,.80 for openness to experience,.87 for agreeableness, and.88 for responsibility. Participants and design Before administration of the scales, appointments were arranged with the class instructors at the Faculty of Political Science and the Faculty of Educational Sciences at Ankara University, the Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences at
17 14 Sevda Aslan Hacettepe University, and the Faculty of Education at Kırıkkale University. The purpose of the study was explained to them, and their permission was sought to apply the instruments during their classes. After obtaining their approval, the researchers applied the instruments on the participants who had volunteered. Before administration, informed consent and permission to report the findings were obtained from the volunteer participants. During the administration, the participants were also informed about the purpose and completion of the study, and were assured about the anonymity and confidentiality of their responses. The duration of implementation was approximately 50 minutes. All of the participants completed the scales. Statistical Procedures In this study, the predictors of separation-individuation were assessed by thehierarchical regression analysis. In the first step of the two-step hierarchical regression analysis, the demographic variables such as gender, age, grade, theattitude of the mother and the attitude of the father were entered. In the second step, the five-factor personality dimensions such as extraversion, agreeableness, responsibility, openness to experience, and emotional instability/neuroticism were entered. In addition, the research also included descriptive statistics for variables. Results The findings and the correlations of variations among themselves were analyzed in the frame of hierarchical regression analysis. In Table 1, the correlations between the five dimensions of the Personality Test Based on Adjectives (ABPT), extraversion, agreeableness, responsibility, emotional instability/neuroticism, and openness to experience; and the dimensions of the separation-individuation scale, which are separation anxiety, engulfment anxiety, nurturance seeking, peer enmeshment, teacher enmeshment, practising mirroring, need denial, rejection expectancy, and healthy separation, are given.
18 Eurasian Journal of Educational Research, Issue 51, Spring 2013, 7-28 Table 1 Pearson Correlations of Dependent and Independent Variables in the Study Correlation between Adolescent Separation-Individuation Scale and Personality Test Based on Adjectives (ABPT) Emotional instability/neuroticism Separation Anxiety (SA) Engulfment Anxiety (EA) Nurturance Seeking (NS) Peer Enmeshment (PE) 15 Teacher Enmeshment (TE) Practising- Mirroring (PM) Need Denial (ND) Rejection Expectancy (RE).25** * ** Healthy Separation Extraversion -.16** -.13* **.08.27** -.14* -.32** -.08 Openness -.14* **.01.21** -.13* -.24** -.00 Agreebleness **.13*.23** -.13* ** -.31** -.01 Conscientiousness **.06.12* **.01 N As seen in Table 1, significant positive correlations have been observed between emotional instability/neuroticism dimension of the Personality Test Based on Adjectives (ABPT) and separation anxiety (r =0.25, p<0.01); and practising mirroring (r =0.13, p<0.05) and rejection expectancy (r=0.21, p<0.01). There are also significant correlations between extraversion dimension and separation anxiety (r=-0.16, p<0.01); peer enmeshment (r=0.27, p<0.01); practising mirroring (r=0.27, p<0.01); need denial (r=-0.14, p<0.05); and rejection expectancy (r=-0.32, p<0.01). Significant correlations are observed between agreeableness dimension and engulfment anxiety (r=-0.18, p<0.01); nurturance seeking (r=0.13, p<0.05); peer enmeshment (r=0.22, p<0.01); practising mirroring (r=0.21, p<0.01); need denial (r=- 0.13, p<0.05); and rejection expectancy (r=-0.24, p<0.01). There are also significant correlations between responsibility dimension and peer enmeshment (r=0.23, p<0.01); practising mirroring (r=0.12, p<0.05); and rejection expectancy (r=- 0.22, p<0.05). (HS) -.01
19 Eurasian Journal of Educational Research, Issue 51, Spring 2013, 7-28 Table 2 Results of Hierarchial Regression Analysis on the Demographic Variables Dimension R 2 F β t Separation Anxiety Gender Age Class Level Mother Attitude Father Attitude Engulfment Anxiety * Gender Age Class Level Mother Attitude Father Attitude Nurturance Seeking ** Gender Age Class Level Mother Attitude Father Attitude Peer Enmeshment Gender Age Class Level Mother Attitude Father Attitude Teacher Enmeshment Gender Age Class Level Mother Attitude Father Attitude Practising-Mirroring * Gender Age Class Level Mother Attitude Father Attitude Need Denial Gender Age Class Level Mother Attitude Father Attitude Rejection Expectancy ** Gender Age Class Level Mother Attitude Father Attitude Healthy Separation Gender Age Class Level Mother Attitude Father Attitude ** * * * 2.11* 3.32* * p<.05, **p<.01 16
20 Eurasian Journal of Educational Research 17 In Table 2, in the first step of the hierarchical regression analysis, demographic variables such as gender, age, grade level, maternal and paternal attitude were evaluated. In the model, which was established to evaluate whether these dimensions predicted the nine subscales of the Separation-Individuation Scale, the first step was found to contribute to the engulfment anxiety. (R=0.24, R 2 =0.06, F (5, 227): 2.97, p<0.05). Of the demographic variables entered in the first step, gender (β=0.00, p> 0.05), age (β=-0.07, P> 0.05), grade level (β=0.03, p> 0.05), maternal attitude (β=0.06, p> 0.05), and paternal attitude (β=0.21, p> 0.05) were not found to affect engulfment anxiety. Of the demographic variables, maternal attitude (β=- 0.25, p<0.01) had a negative and significant effect on seeking nurturance (R=0.32, R 2 = 0.10, F (5, 227): 5.46, p<0.01). Gender (β=-0.13, p<0.05) had a negative and significant effect on peer enmeshment (R=0.20, R 2 =0.04, F (5, 227): 1.89, p>0.05). Grade level (β=0.17, p<0.05) had a positive and significant effect on practising mirroring (R=0.22, R 2 =0.04, F (5, 227): 2.36, p<0.05). Class level (β=0.21, p<0.05), maternal attitude (β=0.14, p<0.05), and parental attitude (β=0.21, p <0.05) affect the rejection expectancy positively and significantly. Of the demographic variables, gender, age, grade level, maternal attitude and paternal attitude are not predictors of separation anxiety, teacher enmeshment, need denial and healthy separation. The first hypothesis was partly supported. Table 3 Results of Hierarchical Regression Analysis on the Five Factor Personality Dimensions Dimension R 2 F β t SA ** Neuroticism Extraversion Openness Agreebleness Conscientiousness EA * Neuroticism Extraversion Openness Agreebleness Conscientiousness NS * Neuroticism Extraversion Openness Agreebleness Conscientiousness PE ** Neuroticism Extraversion Openness Agreebleness Conscientiousness ** * * * 2.63* *
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