Ornithological Report for Aksu Wind Farm Project, 72 MW, Yahyalı, Kayseri, Turkey. Spring and Autumn November 2012

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1 Ornithological Report for Aksu Wind Farm Project, 72 MW, Yahyalı, Kayseri, Turkey. Spring and Autumn 2012 November 2012 Prepared by: Kerem Ali Boyla, MSc Ecologist, Ornithologist +90 (533) Istanbul, Turkey Field Observations: Sercan Bilgin (spring) Dilek Şahin (spring) Ergün Bacak (autumn) Ömral Ünsal Özkoç (autumn) Prepared for: Aksu Temiz Enerji Üretim Sanayi ve Ticaret A. Ş. Attn: Hakan Demir Hülya Sokak No: G.O.P./Ankara İş Tel : / 306 Faks : /

2 Contents Özet - Summary in Turkish Introduction Background of the Project Description of the Project Project Site Protected Areas (Designated Areas for Conservation) Nature 2000 sites Bird Fauna Breeding Birds Non-breeding Birds Migratory Soaring Birds Scoping Field Survey Methodology Survey Area Duration of Survey Target Species Material Weather Conditions Results General Results Resident versus Migrant Birds Flight Altitude Flight Direction Contact Time Breeding Birds Egyptian Vulture White Stork Conclusion Number of Birds Flying over The Project Area Assessment of Collision Risk Impact Assessment and Recommendations References Appendices Turbine Coordinates The Expected Checklist of Birds Field Recording Sheet Breeding Birds Collision Risk Analysis for Migrant Birds Collision Risk Analysis for Resident Birds Field Data

3 List of Figures Figure 1. The location of 32 turbines of Aksu wind farm in relation to the roads, villages and Zamantı River... 6 Figure 2. Major flyways of migratory soaring birds around the Mediterranean and Black Sea (from: Newton 2010) Figure 3. The two flyways of migratory soaring birds through Turkey in relation to the project site Figure 4. The adult Egyptian Vulture chasing away a juvenile Golden Eagle, accompanied by an adult Golden Eagle near the nest location along river Zamantı. (Photograph: Mehmet Ünlü, Yahyalı) Figure 5. The nest location and the breeding territory of a single pair of Egyptian Vulture List of Tables Table 1. Technical specifications of the turbines used in Aksu Wind Farm... 6 Table 2. List of bird species in Annex 1 of the European Union Bird Directive that are expected to be present in the project area Table 3. Total number of birds observed during spring Table 4. Total number of bird sightings during autumn Note that the several sightings may be of the same individual bird Table 5. Sightings of bird and rotor contact Table 8. Calculation of the collision risk of resident birds with SNH methodology Abbreviations ESIA...Environmental and Social Impact Assessment IBA...Important Bird Area RES...Rüzgar Enerji Santrali (wind farm in Turkish) UTM... Universal Transverse Mercator (a commonly used Coordinate System) WGS World Geodetic System (a commonly used Coordinate System) 3

4 Özet - Summary in Turkish Aksu Rüzgar Enerji Santrali (RES) ornitoloji raporu, Kayseri ili ve Yahyalı ilçesindeki santral sahasında bulunan yabani kuşları inceleyen ve santralin inşaat ve işletmesi sırasında yabani kuşlara olan etkilerini ortaya koyan bir rapordur. Rüzgar Enerji Santralleri en çevreci ve yeşil enerji kaynağı olarak bilinseler de belirli durumlarda göçmen ve yerli kuşların nüfuslarını olumsuz yönde etkileyebilirler. Türkiye, kuşların kıtalar arası ana göç yolları üzerinde bulunmakta olup, rüzgâr enerjisine açılan birçok sahanın kuş göç yolları üzerinde olabileceği bilinmektedir. Bu nedenle yatırımcılar çevreye dair sorumluluklarını yerine getirmek amacıyla Çevre Etki Değerlendirmesi (ÇED) raporuna ek olarak bir ornitoloji raporu hazırlatmaktadır. Rapor iki farklı çalışmayı bir arada bulundurur. Masabaşı çalışmasında santralin konumu ve biyolojik özellikleri değerlendirilmiş, mevcut literatür ve veritabanlarına göre santral sahasında ve çevresinde yaşaması beklenen kuş türleri ortaya konmuştur. Buna göre alanda soyu tükenen türlerden küçük akbabanın (Neophron percnopterus) olabileceği tespit edilmiştir. Bunun dışında sahanın bilinen kuş göç rotalarından km uzakta olduğu ortaya konmuş ve alan üzerinden kayda değer bir göç hareketinin olmayacağı tahmin edilmiştir. Saha çalışması masabaşı çalışmasında elde edilen bilgiler ışığında planlanmıştır. Gerekli görülen çalışma sadece göç dönemi olup, hem ilkbaharda hem de sonbaharda asgari gözlem süresi ile planlanmıştır. Üreyen kuşlar için ek bir gözlemin gerekli olmadığı tespit edilmiş, ilkbahardaki gözlemlerde üreyen kuşlarla ilgili bilgi toplanması yeterli görülmüştür. Bu doğrultuda ilkbaharda 6-13 Nisan 2012, sonbaharda da Ağustos 2012 tarihlerinde alanda bütün türbinlerin görülebildiği tek hakim noktadan toplam 115 saatlik gözlem yapılmıştır. Bu gözlemler sırasında kayda değer bir göç hareketi gözlenmemiştir. Sahaya çok yakın bir noktada, küçük akbabanın (Neophron percnopterus) ürediği tespit edilmiştir. Küçük akbaba kırmızı listede soyu tükenen türler (IUCN 2012) arasında tehlikede (EN- Vulnerable) olarak yer alır. Bu çiftin yuvalama alanının en yakın türbine olan uzaklığı 2,01 km olarak tespit edilmiştir. Genel olarak türbinin yerli ve göçmen kuşlara kayda değer bir etkisinin olmadığına karar verilmiştir. Göçmen kuş sayısı çok minimal düzeyde kalmıştır. Alan içinde önemli bir yerli kuş popülasyonuna da rastlanmamıştır. Yuvanın türbinlerden uzaklığı 2 kilometreden fazla olsa da, üreyen küçük akbaba çiftinin iki yıl boyunca izlenmesi önerilir. 4

5 1 Introduction Aksu Temiz Enerji AŞ requested an Ornithological Report for the Aksu Wind Farm Project in the Kayseri province and Yahyalı district, independent from and as an addition to the Environmental and Social Impact Assessment Report (ESIA). The company has received the permit from the Energy Market Regulation Authority and the construction has been finished by April Turkey lies on the migratory routes of soaring birds that fly between Europe and Africa. The collision risk of the migratory soaring birds with the turbines has been one of the main concerns regarding the environmental impact of wind farms. However there are also a group of globally threatened species, locally breeding in Turkey, thus are subject for an impact assessment. Therefore the company has been seeking an ornithological report (desktop and field study) written with internationally accepted methodology and standards. Such reports are necessary for granting a certificate by international agencies dealing with carbon trade and financial support, in addition to the Environmental and Social Impact Assessment Reports. 5

6 2 Background of the Project 2.1 Description of the Project Aksu wind farm comprises 36 wind turbines each with a capacity of 2 MW. The wind turbines are spread over an area with a west-east extension of approximately 6 km and the maximum North-south extension is nearly 3 km. All the turbines form a single cluster. The turbine coordinates can be found in Appendix 1. Table 1. Technical specifications of the turbines used in Aksu Wind Farm. Brand Vestas Model V MW Class IEC IIIA Hub Height 80 m Cut-in Wind Speed 3.0 m/s Rated Wind Speed 12.5 m/s Cut-out Wind Speed 20 m/s Recut-in Wind Speed 18 m/s The energy generated by the Yahyalı Wind Farm is collected in the Project Substation which is located in the centre of the development and later transferred to the Çamlıca Hydroelectric Dam, which is located SW of the wind farm area and is connected to the Power Transmission Grid. The overhead transmission line (154 kv) is approximately 12 km between the Project substation to the Zamantı RES Substation and Çamlıca I Hydroelectric Dam extending W-E direction. The transmission line include 32 pylons and their height vary between 20 and 50 m ,5 Km Legend Locations of the Turbines Datum: WGS84 Projection: UTM Zone 37 Turbin Locations Buffer Area Villages Main Road Zamantı River Elevation SAZAK DİKME T1T2T3 T36 T4 KARAKÖY T5 T6 T7 T9 T26 T23 T15 T13 T29 T25 T22 T20 T17 T14 T12 T10 T21 T31T32 T33 T34 T30 T35 T19 T18 T8 Legend Locations of the Turbines Datum: WGS84 Projection: UTM Zone 37 Turbin Locations Buffer Area Villages Main Road Zamantı River Elevation AVLAĞI Figure 1. The location of 32 turbines of Aksu Wind Farm in relation to the roads, villages and Zamantı River. 6

7 2.2 Project Site Aksu Wind farm is located in the Kayseri province, Yahyalı district. The village Dikme is found within the wind farm area and the village Avlağı is located SW of the area. The main road from Yahyalı to Kozan goes through the wind farm area. The average elevation is between m a.s.l. making the site one of the highest locations for any wind farm development up to date. The area is a plateau bordered by the deep valley of Zamantı river surrounding the project area in the west and northwest. In the south it is surrounded by Taurus Mountains. 2.3 Protected Areas (Designated Areas for Conservation) Turkey has an extensive network of designated conservation areas with many different categories (Eken et al. 2006). 'Zamantı River' Wetland Protection Area (sulakalan) was declared with the aim of the protection of endemic subspecies of trout Salmo platycephalus (CR). According to Eken et al. (2008) two additional threatened species of fish Barbatula samantica (EN), Barbatula seyhanensis (EN) occur at the river. The part of the river adjacent to the wind farm is included in the designated area. Detailed boundary of the protected area is not yet available. The project site is located within the protected area Zamantı River. The main threat to Zamantı River is the diversion of water through Zamantı River Channel to Sultansazlığı. The conservation of the river requires minimal amount of water and minimal change of the river course, to keep enough riverine habitat and water for the survival of the population of the threatened fish species (Eken et al. 2008). The conservations status of the river requires strict regulations of any activity that may alter the chemical and physical properties of the river and its tributaries. The construction and operation of the windfarm is not expected to have any negative impact on Zamantı river. The project site has a safe distance from the river and its shores, does not alter the course of the river, does not alter the physical and chemical properties of the river ecosystem. All activities that may potentially affect the river during the construction are strictly regulated as the standard requirement of the EISA. 7

8 2.3.1 Nature 2000 Sites Turkey is in the accession period to the European Union and the government has not declared the candidate list for Nature 2000 sites. Important Bird Areas identified with the standard methodology of BirdLife International are considered as a candidate Nature 2000 areas in most countries. The former and current national partners of BirdLife International, Doğal Hayatı Koruma Derneği (DHKD - The Society for the Protection of Nature) and Doğa Derneği (DD - Nature Society) have published Important Bird Area (IBA) inventories four times between 1989 and 2008 (Ertan et al. 1989, Magnin and Yarar 1997, Kılıç and Eken 2004 and Eken et al. 2008). The project site is located within the "Aladağlar" Important Bird Area (Eken 2008). The IBA boundary covers an area of over ha. In contrast the total surface area of the four four protected areas in the region, namely Aladağlar National Park, Aladağlar Wildlife Protection Area (YHGS), Demirkazık YHGS and Karanfildağ YHGS, only sum ha. and the project site lies outside of all four protected areas. The IBA inventory does not propose the extension of the protected land and there is no justication or explanation for establishing much broader boundaries. The boundaries of Aladağlar IBA can be regarded problematic, taking in account the existing four relatively large protected areas. The IBA with its current boundary cannot be regarded as a Natura 2000 candidate. 1 The shortest distance from the turbines to the nearest protected area is about 15 km. 1 The situation with the candidate Nature 2000 areas in Turkey is problematic. The official partner of BirdLife International in Turkey, Doğa Derneği (Nature Society) has published the inventory of sites of conservation concern called, the Key Biodiversity Areas (Eken et al. 2008). The book include sites important not only for birds, but also a range of other taxa, such as plants and mammals. However it also regarded as the most updated list of the Important Bird Areas, 256 of the 305 sites are defined as IBAs. The boundaries of many former IBAs have been extended to cover additional species of other taxa, such as plants and mammals. Many key IBAs have a much larger surface area than existing protected areas or the previously defined IBAs. Aladağlar National Park ha, together with the tree adjacent Wildlife Protection Areas (Karanfildağ, Demirkazık and Aladağlar YHGS) cover an area of ha. In contrest, "Aladağlar IBA" covers and area of ha, twice the size of four protected areas together. The extension of the site boundaries were defined without field visits and field verification (pers. comm.). Moreover the site account does not include a scientific justification for such extension of the boundary. Extremely large IBA's extend over many provinces and districts, as a result, are not realistic conservation proposals. Doğa Derneği has started the process of the identification of smaller conservation units within each extensively bordered IBA, has done the revision of the IBA "Eastern Black Sea Mountain", but did not continue with other IBAs (pers comm.). 8

9 2.4 Bird Fauna The habitat at the project site can be considered as high altitude grassland and much degraded montane oak shrubland with few remaining trees, or patches of vegetation. The project area is mostly covered with pastures; although some small patches of degraded oak degraded oak shrub is present, particularly in the N and W of the project area. The steep valley of Zamantı river is covered with oak shrub. There are no intact forests, woodlands or cliffs in the area. There are no wetlands within the project area, although there are some patches of wet meadows with some temporary pools after the snow melts. About 90 species has been reported within 10 km of the project site (Kuşbank 2012). However then checking digital distribution maps published in Kirwan et al 2008, a total of 130 species is expected to occur in the area and listed in Appendix 2. The real number of the bird species using the area at a regular interval is expected to be much less, considering that the variety of habitats at the project site is very limited. The two species that may occur in the area are globally threatened or near threatened. Egyptian Vulture (Neophron percnopterus) is considered as an vulnerable (EN) species (BirdLife International 2012) and is found commonly in Kayseri district. Red-footed Falcon (Falco vespertinus) is considered as a Near-threatened species and is a broad front migrant that may fly over the project site during migration passage Breeding Birds About 60 species can possibly breed in the area, the majority being widespread and common species of open landscapes. Of those 15 species listed in the Annex of the EU Bird Directive. Those species are common and widespread in Turkey but more local and less common in EU countries. Table 2. List of bird species in Annex 1 of the European Union Bird Directive that are expected to be present in the project area. Common Name Egyptian Vulture Short-toed Snake-eagle Long-legged Buzzard Golden Eagle Booted Eagle Rock Pigeon (Dove) Syrian Woodpecker Red-backed Shrike Lesser Grey Shrike Red-billed Chough Calandra Lark Bimaculated Lark Greater Short-toed Lark Wood Lark Ortolan Bunting Scientific Name Neophron percnopterus Circaetus gallicus Buteo rufinus Aquila chrysaetos Hieraaetus pennatus Columba livia Dendrocopos syriacus Lanius collurio Lanius minor Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax Melanocorypha calandra Melanocorypha bimaculata Calandrella brachydactyla Lullula arborea Emberiza hortulana 9

10 2.4.2 Non-breeding Birds In winter most of the area is covered by snow and therefore no significant bird activity is expected in winter Migratory Soaring Birds Turkey is a major Palaearctic migration crossroads of soaring birds with corridors and bottlenecks in the NW, NW and S parts of the country (Bijlsma 1987): Turkey lies on the East Mediterranean Flyway as illustrated well by Newton (2010). The Bosphorus in the province of Istanbul in the NW Turkey, Çoruh Valley in the province of Artvin in NE Turkey and Belen Pass in Antakya Region (Magnin and Yarar 1997). All those bottleneck areas, where birds get concentrated, have been identified as IBAs (Kılıç and Eken 2004). In addition to this, there are several minor bottleneck areas in other parts of the country (Zalles and Bildstein 2000). Figure 2. Major flyways of migratory soaring birds around the Mediterranean and Black Sea (from: Newton 2010) 10

11 Ground observations and information from satellite-tagged birds indicate two main migration corridors of soaring birds across Turkey. The first, the Bosphorus Flyway, follows the coastline of Israel, Lebanon and Syria, entering in Antakya in the south, then across Turkey from SE to NW direction towards the Sea of Marmara, particulatly the Bosporus (Shirihai et al. 2000). The other starts in Israel and goes on a straigh line towards Georgia, following from south to North, along the river Euphrates, Erzurum Plains and Çoruh Valley in the north. The project area is closer to the Bosphorus Flyway between Hatay and the Bosphorus. Bosphorus Flyway E Black Sea Flyway Project Site Significant Sighting of Migrating Birds Figure 3. The two flyways of migratory soaring birds through Turkey in relation to the project site. Many birds are known to enter from the Çukurova plains to Central Plateau through Pozantı Pass in the province of Adana. Pozantı pass seems to be the closest point of the migration corridor of soaring birds and lies approximately 80 km SE of the project site. Assuming that the migration route between Antakya and Istanbul is straight, the project site would be approximately 65 km away from the nearest location on that path. Consequently the project site is km away from the migration corridor. 11

12 3 Scoping The SNH (2010) Guidelines describe Scoping as following: "Scoping is a crucial preparatory stage to the preparation of an environmental statement. The aim of scoping is to identify those issues which are potentially of significant environmental impact, and which therefore warrant full assessment within the environmental statement, and if necessary consideration of mitigation measures". The project site is located on a mountain pass between Yahyalı and Kazan. Sultan Marshes Important Bird Area is roosting site for migrant birds, where thousands of White Stork (Ciconia ciconia) is known to occur (Magnin and Yarar 1997). Any bird moving between Sultan Marshes (Important Bird Area) in the north and Çukurova plains in the south may fly through the mountain pass and over the project site. The area needs to be surveyed during migration periods, spring and autumn, to make sure that the White Stork and other soaring migratory birds do not use the area for migration. There is a safe distance of over 50 km from major migration routes of soaring birds. Therefore a minimum amount of observation can be sufficient to reveal any risk the project site may have on wild bird populations. The location of the project site does not seem to host important species and habitats; as it is away from any major and minor wetland, ecologically rich forest habitat, or mountain pastures. For the breeding species, no additional survey is required. However, during the survey aiming migratory species, information on the resident species should be collected. The project site is located near Aladağlar National Park, which is an isolated massive of Taurus mountains and very important site for mountain birds. Species that are confined to mountains, such as, Lammergeier (Gypaetus barbatus), Griffon Vulture (Gyps fulvus), Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetus), and Egyptian Vulture (Neophron percnopterus) can potentially occur at the project site. (Eken at al 2008). Theoretically those large birds of prey may be regularly moving over the project site between Aladağlar NP and mountains along the Taurus Chain. The survey need to show that there is no regular movement of those large birds of prey along the Taurus mountain chain over the project site. 12

13 4 Field Survey The field survey will focus on soaring birds, such as storks and raptors, possibly flying over the project area during migration. Vantage Point (VP) described in (SNH 2005) methodology is the most appropriate for the site. The desktop study suggests that the minimum amount of effort is sufficient to cover the area. Both spring and autumn migration needs to be surveyed. A minimum of 36 hours of observations for each migration season is targeted from each vantage point. 4.1 Methodology The vantage point methodology includes observations from a fixed location from where the whole project area can be seen and all the birds flying through the rotors can be detected. For each season a minimum of 36 hours of observations are required. Two observers are needed to ensure that all the birds flying through the project site are detected. The observers scan the area each 15 minutes at a degree of 360 degrees. When a bird is detected, the species is identified, the number is noted, minimum and maximum height is estimated, the first and last time of the sighting is noted and its location is flight direction and corridor is noted. If a bird interacts with the turning blades of a turbine, the details are noted. For identification purposes Heinzel et al. [Boyla] 1995 was used as reference Survey Area The project site was defined as the surface area that includes all the buffer areas of 1.5 km around each turbine, as shown on the Figure 1. It is a total of 32,5 km 2. The survey was done from a single vantage point, located at the turbine T33 at the coordinates E and N (UTM/WGS84/36N) at 1530 m a.s.l. The distance from the furthest turbine was 3,5 km. Same observation station was used for spring and autumn Duration of Survey The spring survey was realised between 6 and 13 April 2012 between 9am and 6 pm. The autumn survey was realised between 15 and 22 September 2012 between 9am and 6 pm Target Species The target species include migrant species and resident raptors. The most common migrant soaring birds in the bottleneck areas include White Stork (Ciconia ciconia), Black Stork (Ciconia nigra), Honey Buzzard (Pernis apivorus), Common Buzzard (Buteo buteo), Lesser Spotted Eagle (Aquila pomarina), Short-toed Eagle (Circaetus gallicus) and Sparrowhawk (Accipiter nisus) (Shirihai et al 2000). The resident species are Short-toed Eagle, Common Buzzard and Common Kestrel (Falco tinnunculus) Material The observations were realized with 10x and 8x binoculars and 20 x telescopes. The Field Recording Sheet can be seen in Appendix 3. 13

14 4.1.5 Weather Conditions The area is very open to wind, as a character to its location. In spring the prevailing wind was from SE. The average wind speed was about 13 km/h, ranging between 2 and 47 km/h. The maximum value was recorded between 12pm and 3am on 8 April On 11 April the heavy rain and dust did not allow any observation in the afternoon. The wind has been observed through the migration period to see whether the wind pattern show a representative sample of the overall wind pattern recorded through the spring between 4 April and 18 May. During the period of the survey, the wind was at variable strength, and the wind direction was southerly. During the spring survey, the cloud cover changed dramatically during the survey period, with an average of 54%. There is no common patter about the change of cloud cover through the day hours, as typical for any location in high mountains. In autumn during August, the wind was constant from northern direction with a speed ranging between 7-12 km/h. The could cover was low, on most days clear, on some days up to %. Birds have been observed to fly in all kinds of wind condition and did not show any preference to stronger or weaker wind. 14

15 4.2 Results General Results During spring survey realised between 6 and 13 April, a total of 57 hours of observation was realised. During autumn survey between 15 and 22 August a total of 58 hours and 28 minutes of observations were realised. On average, the survey duration is 58% more than the minimum of 36 hours recommended by the vantage point methodology. During spring survey a minimum of 31 individuals were observed. During autumn survey a minimum of 13 individuals were observed. In total 10 species of migrant and resident birds of prey were recorded. It is difficult to estimate how many individuals of each species were present at the site as many birds seem to appear again and again on the site. The most common resident species were Long-legged Buzzard (Buteo rufinus), Short-toed Eagle (Circaetus gallicus) and Common Kestrel (Falco tinnunculus). Although Egyptian Vulture (Neophron percnopterus) - EN was not present during spring survey, it was present during autumn survey. Table 3. Total number of birds observed during spring Resident species are indicated by a star (*). Species 06 Apr 07 Apr 08 Apr 09 Apr 10 Apr 11 Apr 12 Apr 13 Apr Total Common Buzzard (Buteo buteo)* 1 1 Long-legged Buzzard (Buteo rufinus) * Buzzars spec.(buteo spec.) 6 6 Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos)* 2 3 Booted Eagle (Hiearraaetus pennatus) 1 1 Lesser Spotted Eagle (Aquila pomarina) Hen Harrier (Circus cyaneus) Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus) Common Kestrel (Falco tinnunculus) * unidentified Raptor (Accipitridae spec.) Common Raven (Corvus corax)* Total 31 Table 4. Total number of birds during autumn Resident species are indicated by a star (*). Species 15 Aug 16 Aug 17 Aug 18 Aug 19 Aug 20 Aug 21 Aug 22 Aug Total Common Kestrel (Falco tinnunculus)* Short-toed Eagle (Circaetus gallicus)* Booted Eagle (Hiearraaetus pennatus)* Egyptian Vulture (Neophron percnopterus)* Long-legged Buzzard (Buteo rufinus)* unidentified Raptor (Accipitridae spec.)* Total 3 15

16 4.2.2 Resident versus Migrant Birds Most of the birds observed during the survey were resident birds, which very likely bred in the surrounding area and used the site for hunting. Resident birds were minimums of one Common Kestrel (Falco tinnunculus), two Short-toed Eagle (Circaetus gallicus), three Longlegged Buzzard (Buteo rufinus) and one Raven (Corvus corax). In addition, a pair of Egyptian Vulture (Neophron percnopterus), two Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) and a Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus) can be considered as species that are resident to the surrounding mountains and visited the site on occasional intervals. During spring migration, a total 15 individuals of probably migrant birds were observed, which consisted of 2 Hen Harrier (Circus cyaneus), 7 Common Buzzard (Buteo buteo), 1 Booted Eagle (Hierraaetus pennatus) and 4 Lesser Spotted Eagle (Aquila pomarina) and 1 unidentified bird of prey. Only 1 migrant bird, a Hen Harrier had contact with a wind turbine (Table 4). All observed birds during autumn surveys can be related to resident bird. In other words, no single migrant bird has been observed. Egyptian Vulture was considered to be present at the region. However it was not detected during spring survey. As a summer migrant they had not arrive at the site on the dates of the spring survey in early April Flight Altitude The flight height of birds is particularly important for calculating the possible collision rate of birds with the turbines. The maximum height of the blade is 130 m, and the minimum 30m. During observations the height of birds were noted. Of the 92 observations, only 21 sightings (23%) were of birds flying lower than 150 m Flight Direction The flight corridor of each migrant bird has been noted. The corridors were defined as UTM 1x1 km squares from 1 in the W to 6 in the E, the observation point being on square 4. Most of the migrant birds during spring migration flew either over the observation point of E of the observation point. In contrast, most resident birds were close to the W corner of the project site, closer to Zamantı River Contact Time During the spring survey 57 hours of observation, bird sighting within the project site totaled to 54 minutes. Of those during 10 minutes of observations birds were close to the turbines and at the turbine height. This is less than 1% of the total time of observations. During autumn survey bird sightings totaled to 1 hour and 23 minutes. However no bird has been seen close to the turbines. 16

17 Table 5. Sightings of bird and rotor contact during the spring survey. Date Hour Species Number Start Finish Total Location 06.Apr 13:00 Hen Harrier (Circus cyaneus) 1 13:49 13:50 00:01 T Apr 14:00 Common Kestrel (Falco tinnunculus) 1 14:14 14:14 00:00 T Apr 15:00 Long-legged Buzzard (Buteo rufinus) 1 15:51 15:55 00:04 T-17/T Apr 10:00 Long-legged Buzzard (Buteo rufinus) 1 10:40 10:42 00:02 T Nis 12:00 Common Kestrel (Falco tinnunculus) 1 12:16 12:19 00:03 T Breeding Birds During the survey a short breeding survey was undertaken to see whether there are any significant populations of breeding songbirds in the project area that may be affected during the construction of the turbines as well as with the alteration of the original habitat. On 9, 12 and 13 April, short 10 minute point counts were done at turbines 17, 2-3 and 25 an- 26. Only four species of breeding birds were detected: Linnet (Carduelis cannabina), Skylark (Alauda arvensis), Calandra Lark (Melanocorypha calandra) and Isabelline Wheatear (Oenanthe isabellina). Certainly the site may host other species that were not present during early April. Still the site does not seem to have any significant population of resident birds (Appendix 6). Figure 4. The adult Egyptian Vulture chasing away a juvenile Golden Eagle (left below), accompanied by an adult Golden Eagle (right above) near the nest location along river Zamantı. (Photograph: Mehmet Ünlü, Yahyalı). 17

18 4.2.7 Egyptian Vulture Egyptian Vulture is a summer resident to many parts of Turkey and is an endangered (EN) species (IUCN 2012). The species' distribution range overlaps with the project site as in Appendix 1 and section 2.4. During spring survey no Egyptian Vulture was detected. However during autumn survey a pair and a juvenile has been observed on three occasions. A local birdwatchers from Yahyalı had reported a breeding pair of Egyptian Vulture along river Zamantı SW of the project site during and before The nest location and the breeding territory is marked on Figure 4. The nest as a distance of 2.01 km from the nearest turbine. SAZAK KARAKÖY T36 DİKMET1T2T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T9 T26 T23 T15 T13 T8 T20 T17 T14 T12 T10 T31T32 T21 T33 T34 T30 T35 T19 T18 T29 T25 T22 AVLAĞI Legend Locations of the Turbines Datum: WGS84 Projection: UTM Zone 37 Turbin Locations Villages Zamantı River Main Road Elevation Figure 5. The nest location and the breeding territory of a single pair of Egyptian Vulture White Stork The White Stork (Ciconia ciconia) is a very common migrant bird in Turkey with approximately birds, comprising the whole East European breeding populations flying over Turkey during migration. With its relatively slow flight, long body length and high numbers, it can create considerable collision risk with wind farms. No White Storks were seen flying over the project area during the survey. However a single White Stork has been observed on the land the turbines T1, T2 and T3 on 13 April White Stork is a breeding bird of lowland areas in agricultural areas close to wetlands and pastures. During migration some storks may stop in the project area for feeding in the meadows for short periods of time. Those storks may be non-breeding immature birds, feeding on seasonally available food resources. Although the survey clearly showed that there is no major or minor stork migration through the area, it is possible to see occasionally some flocks of storks in the project area. 18

19 4.3 Conclusion Number of Birds Flying over The Project Area During a short period of 7 days, a total of 15 migrant birds have been detected. Thinking of a migration period of 100 days, the total number of birds using the area should be about birds. During autumn survey, no single White Stork has been detected. Therefore we can conclude that the project site is not located on the regular migration route of White Storks. The White Stork seems to use the route W of Aladağlar massive over Çamardı and Demirkazık Assessment of Collision Risk Physical collision of the birds with the turbines is one of the possible impacts, together with habitat loss and displacement. The collision risk is a part of the bird survey and contributes partially on the assessment of the impact. Raptors (the birds of prey) are considered to be particularly vulnerable to collision risk, as they are species adopted for soaring. The collision risk analysis was conducted following the guidelines of Scottish Natural Heritage (SNH 2000). During spring the collision rate was found to be insignificant. During autumn the most conservative estimate was used, by using the maximum number of estimated total migrant birds. The avoidance rate was taken as 98% (SNH 2010). AvoidanceRate = no. of No. ofobservedcollision Pr edictedcollisionwithnoavoidance The collision risk analysis for migrant birds has shown that the estimated mortality rate is very low (0,06 birds per year) and can be ignored. A higher collision risk with breeding local raptors exists. A total of 6 individuals of local resident raptors have been observed, belonging to the following species (see Section 4.2. Results): Long-legged Buzzard (Buteo rufinus), 2 Short-toed Eagle (Circaetus gallicus) and 1 Common Kestrel (Falco tinnunculus). I used the SNH methodology for the calculations of collision risk analysis. (Appendix 7). The collision risk was calculated as 2,06 birds per year, using an avoidance factor of 98%. This figure should be interpreted that the expected number of birds is between 0-2 birds per year. The collision risk for resident raptors is acceptable however it should be monitored in long term. 19

20 5 Impact Assessment and Recommendations The presence of the Aksu wind farm may have displaced some species or it may act as a barrier to the migratory species. Those two possible impacts can be assessed with the observation data collected during field surveys. The collision risk can be calculated using SNH Collision Risk Guidelines (SNH 2008). Location, Configuration and Altitude: 1. Aksu Wind Farm is away from any known migration route of soaring birds. The project site does not support significant breeding population of soaring birds, such as storks, eagles etc.. The habitat within the project site does not seem to attract a significant bird activity. The project site is not located within a terrestrial conservation site. Number of birds flying over: 2. During spring 2013 a total of 15 migratory birds have been observed during 8 days survey. During autumn no migrant birds were recorded. The total number of birds flying through the wind farm during autumn was estimated to be between 50 and 100 birds per season and can be ignored. Number of resident birds in the area: 3. Resident species include single pairs of Common Buzzard (Buteo buteo), Kestrel (Falco tinnunculus), Long-legged Buzzard (Buteo rufinus) and Short-toed Eagle (Circaetus gallicus). All those species are common and widespread species in Turkey. 4. A pair of the globally threatened, endangered (EN) Egyptian Vulture (Neophron percnopterus) breeds at 2,01 km distance from the turbine T 33 along the river Zamantı. The breeding pair have been observed visiting the project site regularly. The close proximity of the nest is of conservation concern. Number of birds expected to be killed: 5. According to the standard methodology, less than 1 bird (0,06) is expected to be killed by collision with the wind turbines every year. These rates are insignificant and can be ignored. The mortality rate for resident birds is estimated to be about 2 birds per year. This rate is an acceptable rate, but should be monitored in long term. The wind farm is not expected to cause a negative impact on the populations of resident and migrant birds. (A separate analysis needs to be done for the Egyptian Vulture.) Recommendation: 6. The wind farm is not expected to have any significant resident and migrant birds on the birds. An additional study is required for the Egyptian Vulture.. (See Monitoring action on next page) Monitoring action: 7. The presence of the Egyptian Vulture merits a further study. An additional study is recommended for two breeding season 2013 and Observations should be done 20

21 from a single Vantage Point overlooking the active nest and the nearest turbines. The total time of observation should be a minimum of 36 hours, but ideally 72 hours, spread over the period between 15 April and 31 August. All the flight behaviour should be noted. The report should indicate whether any turbines may pose threat for the species, whether birds fly close to the transmission lines and solid recommendations that may include seasonal shut-down-order for certain turbines. 21

22 6 References Bijlsma RG 1987 Bottleneck Areas for Migratory Birds in the Mediterranean Region: An Assessment of the Problems and Recommendations for Action. ICPB(Study report) 18, Cambridge. Birdlife International (2004) Birds in Europe. Population estimates, trends and conservation status. Cambridge. Birleşik Krallık. BirdLife Conservation Series No:12. BirdLife International (2011) Important Bird Areas factsheet: Marmara Islands. Downloaded from on 13/01/2011 BirdLife International 2003 BirdLife's online World Bird Database: Search for Species. Version 2.0. Cambridge, UK: BirdLife International. Available: (accessed 14/1/2011) BirdLife International (2012) Species factsheet: Neophron percnopterus. Downloaded from on 24/05/2012. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2012) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 24/05/2012. BirdLife International, Birds and Habitats Directive Task Force Position Statement on Wind Farms and Birds. Position Paper. Available at farm_position.pdf Eken, G. Bozdoğan, M. İsfendiyaroğlu, S. Kılıç DT Lise, Y. (eds) Türkiye nin Önemli Doğa Alanları. Doğa Derneği, Ankara. Ertan, A., Kılıç, A. and Kasparek, M Türkiye nin Önemli Kuş Alanları. Doğal Hayatı Koruma Derneği, Istanbul. Heinzel, H., R. Fitter and J. Parslow [Kerem Ali Boyla] (1995) Türkiye ve Avrupa'nın Kuşları. Doğal Hayatı Koruma Derneği, İstanbul. Hötker, J., Thomsen, K.M, Köster, H Auswirkungen regenerativer Energiegewinnung auf die biologische Vielfalt am Beispiel der Vögel und der Fledermäuse Fakten, Wissenslücken, Anforderungen an die Forschung, ornithologische Kriterien zum Ausbau von regenerativen Energiegewinnungsformen. Michael-Otto-Institut im NABU. Unpublished report. Available as pdf at. IUCN IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version < Downloaded on 24 May Kılıç, D.T. and Eken G Türkiye nin Önemli Kuş Alanları 2004 Güncellemesi. Doğa Derneği, Ankara. Kirwan, G.M, K.A. Boyla, P. Castell, B. Demirci, M. Özen, H. Welch and T. Marlow.(2008). The birds of Turkey: a study of the distribution, taxonomy and breeding of Turkish birds. Christopher Helm. London. Kuşbank Kuşbank Internet Kuş Gözlem Veri Tabanı. Doğa Derneği, Erciyes Üniversites, RSBP. < Downloaded on 24 May

23 Magnin, G. and Yarar, M Important Bird Areas in Turkey. Doğal Hayatı Koruma Derneği, Istanbul. Newton Ian Bird Migration. Collins. UK. Scottish Natural Heritage (2000) WIND FARMS AND BIRDS: Calculating a theoretical collision risk assuming no avoiding action. Available at: Scottish Natural Heritage (2005) Guidance: Survey Methods for Use in Assessing the Impacts of Onshore Wind farms on Bird Communities. Available at: Scottish Natural Heritage (2010) SNH Avoidance Rate Information & Guidance Note. Available at: Avoidance Rate fo birds.pdf. Shirihai, H., Yosef, R., Alon, D., Kirwan, G. M. and Spaar, R Raptor Migration in Israel and the Middle East: A Summary of 30 Years of Field Research. International Birding and Research Center, Eilat. Zalles, J. I. and Bildstein, K. L Raptor Watch: A Global Directory of Raptor Migration Sites. BirdLife International, Cambridge, UK. 23

24 7 Appendices 7.1 Turbine Coordinates THe coorrdinates are given in m; with the projection UTM-ED50 and UTM zone 36S. Turbine No E N Turbine No E N T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T

25 7.2 The Expected Checklist of Birds This list is produced by digital distribution maps of the birds of Turkey and acts as a tentative list of species. It is used to help the desktop study and help in the scoping work of the survey. Common and scientific names follow BirdLife International (2012a), the IUCN Redlist follow BirdLife International (2012b), the Annex 1 Species on the EU Bird Directive are marked as EU BD A1. Turkish Name English Name Scientific Name Redlist Annex 1 Kınalı Keklik Chukar Alectoris chukar Bıldırcın Common Quail Coturnix coturnix Angıt Ruddy Shelduck Tadorna ferruginea x Küçük Batağan Little Grebe Tachybaptus ruficollis Kara Leylek Black Stork Ciconia nigra x Gri Balıkçıl Grey Heron Ardea cinerea Küçük Kerkenez Lesser Kestrel Falco naumanni x Kerkenez Common Kestrel Falco tinnunculus Aladoğan Red-footed Falcon Falco vespertinus NT x Delice Doğan Eurasian Hobby Falco subbuteo Gökdoğan Peregrine Falcon Falco peregrinus x Sakallı Akbaba Lammergeier Gypaetus barbatus x Küçük Akbaba Egyptian Vulture Neophron percnopterus EN x Yılan Kartalı Short-toed Snake-eagle Circaetus gallicus x Atmaca Eurasian Sparrowhawk Accipiter nisus Çakır Northern Goshawk Accipiter gentilis Kızıl Şahin Long-legged Buzzard Buteo rufinus x Şah Kartal Eastern Imperial Eagle Aquila heliaca VU x Kaya Kartalı Golden Eagle Aquila chrysaetos x Küçük Kartal Booted Eagle Hieraaetus pennatus x Turna Common Crane Grus grus x Halkalı Küçük Cılıbıt Little Ringed Plover Charadrius dubius Dere Düdükçünü Common Sandpiper Actitis hypoleucos Kaya Güvercini Rock Pigeon Columba livia x Üveyik European Turtle-dove Streptopelia turtur Kumru Eurasian Collared-dove Streptopelia decaocto Tepeli Guguk Great Spotted Cuckoo Clamator glandarius Guguk Common Cuckoo Cuculus canorus İshakkuşu Common Scops-owl Otus scops Puhu Eurasian Eagle-owl Bubo bubo x Alaca Baykuş Tawny Owl Strix aluco Kukumav Little Owl Athene noctua Kulaklı Orman Baykuşu Long-eared Owl Asio otus Çobanaldatan Eurasian Nightjar Caprimulgus europaeus x Ebabil Common Swift Apus apus Yalıçapkını Common Kingfisher Alcedo atthis x Arıkuşu European Bee-eater Merops apiaster İbibik Eurasian Hoopoe Upupa epops Küçük Ağaçkakan Lesser Spotted Woodpecker Dendrocopos minor Ortanca Ağaçkakan Middle Spotted Woodpecker Dendrocopos medius x Orman Ağaçkakanı Great Spotted Woodpecker Dendrocopos major Alaca Ağaçkakan Syrian Woodpecker Dendrocopos syriacus x Yeşil Ağaçkakan Eurasian Green Woodpecker Picus viridis Kızıl Sırtlı Örümcekkuşu Red-backed Shrike Lanius collurio x Kara Alınlı Örümcekkuşu Lesser Grey Shrike Lanius minor x Maskeli Örümcekkuşu Masked Shrike Lanius nubicus x Sarıasma Eurasian Golden Oriole Oriolus oriolus 25

26 Turkish Name English Name Scientific Name Redlist Annex 1 Alakarga Eurasian Jay Garrulus glandarius Saksağan Black-billed Magpie Pica pica Kırmızı Gagalı Dağ Kargası Red-billed Chough Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax x Sarı Gagalı Dağ Kargası Yellow-billed Chough Pyrrhocorax graculus Küçük Karga Eurasian Jackdaw Corvus monedula Leş Kargası Hooded Crow Corvus cornix Kuzgun Common Raven Corvus corax Ak Yanaklı Baştankara Sombre Tit Parus lugubris Çam Baştankarası Coal Tit Parus ater Büyük Baştankara Great Tit Parus major Mavi Baştankara Blue Tit Parus caeruleus Çulhakuşu Eurasian Penduline-tit Remiz pendulinus Kum Kırlangıcı Sand Martin Riparia riparia Kaya Kırlangıcı Eurasian Crag-martin Hirundo rupestris Kır Kırlangıcı Barn Swallow Hirundo rustica Kızıl Kırlangıç Red-rumped Swallow Hirundo daurica Ev Kırlangıcı Northern House-martin Delichon urbicum Uzun Kuyruklu Baştankara Long-tailed Tit Aegithalos caudatus Boğmaklı Toygar Calandra Lark Melanocorypha calandra x Küçük Boğmaklı Toygar Bimaculated Lark Melanocorypha bimaculata x Bozkır Toygarı Greater Short-toed Lark Calandrella brachydactyla x Tepeli Toygar Crested Lark Galerida cristata Orman Toygarı Wood Lark Lullula arborea x Tarlakuşu Eurasian Skylark Alauda arvensis Kulaklı Toygar Horned Lark Eremophila alpestris Kamışbülbülü Cetti's Warbler Cettia cetti Saz Kamışçını Eurasian Reed-warbler Acrocephalus scirpaceus Ak Mukallit Eastern Olivaceous Warbler Hippolais pallida Dağ Mukallidi Upcher's Warbler Hippolais languida Çıvgın Common Chiffchaff Phylloscopus collybita Kara Başlı Ötleğen Blackcap Sylvia atricapilla Akgerdan Common Whitethroat Sylvia communis Küçük Akgerdan Lesser Whitethroat Sylvia curruca Ak Gözlü Ötleğen Orphean Warbler Sylvia hortensis Çalıkuşu Goldcrest Regulus regulus Kaya Sıvacısı Western Rock-nuthatch Sitta neumayer Bahçe Tırmaşıkkuşu Short-toed Treecreeper Certhia brachydactyla Alasığırcık Rosy Starling Sturnus roseus Sığırcık Common Starling Sturnus vulgaris Boğmaklı Ardıç Ring Ouzel Turdus torquatus Karatavuk Eurasian Blackbird Turdus merula Tarla Ardıcı Fieldfare Turdus pilaris Öter Ardıç Song Thrush Turdus philomelos Ökse Ardıcı Mistle Thrush Turdus viscivorus Kızılgerdan European Robin Erithacus rubecula Benekli Bülbül Thrush Nightingale Luscinia luscinia Bülbül Common Nightingale Luscinia megarhynchos Taş Bülbülü White-throated Robin Irania gutturalis Kara Kızılkuyruk Black Redstart Phoenicurus ochruros Kızılkuyruk Common Redstart Phoenicurus phoenicurus Taşkuşu Common Stonechat Saxicola torquatus Kuyrukkakan Northern Wheatear Oenanthe oenanthe Ak Sırtlı Kuyrukkakan Finsch's Wheatear Oenanthe finschii Kara Kulaklı Kuyrukkakan Black-eared Wheatear Oenanthe hispanica Boz Kuyrukkakan Isabelline Wheatear Oenanthe isabellina Taşkızılı Rufous-tailed Rock-thrush Monticola saxatilis 26

27 Turkish Name English Name Scientific Name Redlist Annex 1 Gökardıç Blue Rock-thrush Monticola solitarius Derekuşu White-throated Dipper Cinclus cinclus Serçe House Sparrow Passer domesticus Söğüt Serçesi Spanish Sparrow Passer hispaniolensis Ağaç Serçesi Eurasian Tree Sparrow Passer montanus Kaya Serçesi Rock Sparrow Petronia petronia Kar Serçesi White-winged Snowfinch Montifringilla nivalis Sürmeli Dağbülbülü Radde's Accentor Prunella ocularis Ak Kuyruksallayan White Wagtail Motacilla alba Sarı Kuyruksallayan Yellow Wagtail Motacilla flava Dağ Kuyruksallayanı Grey Wagtail Motacilla cinerea Kır İncirkuşu Tawny Pipit Anthus campestris x Çayır İncirkuşu Meadow Pipit Anthus pratensis İspinoz Eurasian Chaffinch Fringilla coelebs Kara İskete Fire-fronted Serin Serinus pusillus Küçük İskete European Serin Serinus serinus Florya European Greenfinch Carduelis chloris Saka European Goldfinch Carduelis carduelis Ketenkuşu Eurasian Linnet Carduelis cannabina Alamecek Crimson-winged Finch Rhodopechys sanguineus Çaprazgaga Red Crossbill Loxia curvirostra Tarla Çintesi Corn Bunting Miliaria calandra Sarı Çinte Yellowhammer Emberiza citrinella Kaya Çintesi Rock Bunting Emberiza cia Kirazkuşu Ortolan Bunting Emberiza hortulana x Kızıl Kirazkuşu Cretzschmar's Bunting Emberiza caesia x Kara Başlı Çinte Black-headed Bunting Emberiza melanocephala 27

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